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Reinforced concrete is concrete reinforced with steel bars or fabrics to provide much greater
resistance to tensile stresses. It is necessary to distinguish between in situ concrete, where the
concrete is poured in its final position on the site, and precast concrete where the components
are prefabricated and subsequently placed in position in the structure. Another type is pre-
stressed concrete, where a stress is artificially introduced in the concrete by means of tendons
tensioned before working loads are applied.
Measurement of Reinforced Concrete
The concrete work in the BOQ should start with a general description of the work, where it is
not evident from the location drawings.
The normal procedure in measuring a reinforced concrete structure is to work on a floor by
floor basis, proceeding from the lowest floor upwards, and making the necessary adjustments
on walls, columns, and floor roof slabs for formwork to beams.
Reinforced concrete work consists of three component parts concrete, reinforcement and
The bulk of in situ concrete work is measured by volume, stating the thickness range for
beds, slabs and walls.
Isolated columns are classified as columns or walls, according to the ratio of length to
thickness; to be measured as an isolated column, the length on plan is four times the
thickness (SMM E10.M4).
In situ Concrete All concrete must be adequately described by kind and quality of
materials and mix or strength (SMM E10.S1). Reinforced work shall be so described and,
where the volume of reinforcement >5 per cent of that of the concrete, this shall be stated
because of the difficulties of placing and compacting concrete in heavily reinforced members.
(The Code of Procedure emphasizes that this high reinforcement content will only apply in
exceptional cases, as it will have to exceed 0.41 t/m
of the measured member).
Unless concrete in foundation, ground beams and the like is poured on or against earth or
unblended hardcore and so described, formwork must be support the concrete.
An extensive list of concrete categories is incorporated in SMM.E10.1 14, where a
considerable number of groupings occur. For example, concrete to foundations is deemed to
include attached column bases and pile caps (SMM.E10.D1). Slabs and their supporting

beams are measured in m
, stating the thickness of the slab in
the appropriate thickness range as SMM.E10.5.1 3. The
thickness range is not varied for the attached beams and
beam casing which are included in with the volume of the
slab, provided their depth is three times their width (depth
measured below the slab). Similar approaches are applied to
beds, blinding beds, plinths, and their thickenings (SMM.E10.D3), and walls with attached
columns and piers (SMM.E10.D6).
When measuring treating the surface on concrete, each type such as power floating and
trowelling is kept separate, distinguishing between
finishing sloping, to falls, cross falls and soffits and
measured in m
(SMM.E41.1 7.0.0). (Leaving the top
surface of concrete foundations to receive brickwork does
not fall in to this category).
Reinforcement The two main types of reinforcement are measured differently. Bars are
measured by length at taking off stage and subsequently billed in tones to two places of
decimals (SMM.E30.1 and General Rules 3.3). Fabric reinforcement is measured in m
Strips in wall foundations and tension strips to floors and roofs are separately described
stating the width of strip (SMM.E30.
Each diameter (nominal size) of bar is given separately, as also are straight, bent and curved
bars (SMM.E30.1.1.1 3), and the billed item is deemed to include hooks and tying wire, and
spacers and chairs which are at the discretion of the contractor, without the need for specific
mention (SMM.E30.C1).
Reinforcement is not classified as to location. The description of the bars shall state the kind
and quality of materials (SMM.E30.S1). Since it is difficult to handle and fix long bars,
horizontal bars and bars sloping 30
from the horizontal, 12.00 m long and over are so
described, stating the length in further stages of 3.00 m, while with vertical bars and those
sloping >30
from the horizontal, the separate 3.00 m stages start with lengths of 6.00 m and
over. Bent bars cover those which are specifically bent to curves to suit the shape of the
member in which they are to be placed (Code of Procedure E10.1.1.3).
The length, number and shape of each bar type is generally given in reinforcement or bar
bending schedule, from which the details are extracted at the taking off stage.

It will be necessary to make adjustments for concrete cover to the reinforcement to prevent
rusting usually taken at about 40 mm and additions for hooked ends (often calculated at
twelve times the diameter of the bar) and turned ends (usually around 75 mm).
Length of each of the bars are then systematically entered in the dimension column, taking
care to ensure that each type of bar is listed and that the correct timesing figures are inserted.
The description of fabric reinforcement includes the kind and quality of steel (SMM.E30.S1).
it is measured in m
as the area covered with no allowance for laps and no deductions for
voids 1.00 m
(SMM.E30.M4 and 5). The description of the fabric shall state the mesh
reference, weight per m
and minimum laps (SMM.E30. and E30.S6). (The estimator
has to allow for the laps when calculating his fabric rate / m
). Fabric reinforcement is
deemed to include laps, tying wire, all cutting and bending and spacers and chairs which are
at the discretion of the contractor (SMM.E30.C2).
Form Work Formwork is grouped in one of the categories listed in SMM.E20.1 26. No
deductions are made for voids in formwork to soffits of slabs or wall 5.00 m
, irrespective
of location (SMM.E20.M4 and 8). Certain categories of formwork are kept separate and
suitably described left in, permanent, and to curved surfaces stating the radii
(SMM.E20.M2). Formwork to soffits of slabs and landings is classified according to the
thickness of the concrete and the soffit height as 1.50 m high and thereafter in 1.50 m
stages. Formwork to walls at a height >3.00 m above floor level is kept separate and so
described and that to vertical and battered surfaces is separately classified.
Formwork to sides of foundations and ground beams, edges of beds and slabs and associated
items is measured in m
where >1.00 high. It is measured as linear items where 1.00 m
high, in three categories - 250 mm, 250 500 mm and 500 mm 1.00 m high, and
described as plain vertical or giving a dimensioned description (SMM.E20.1 7.1 2.1 4.1
Formed finishes to concrete are measured in m
as extra over basic finish, being the finish
formed from the principal formwork (SMM.E20.20.1 5.0.0 and E20.D11 and Code of
Formwork is deemed to include all cutting, splayed edges and the like, and adaptation to
accommodate projecting pipes, reinforcing bars and the like (SMM.E20.C1 and 2).
Formwork to soffits of slabs and landings 200 mm thick are given separately, and thereafter
in 100 mm stages, stating the number of soffits to landings, and whether horizontal, sloping
, or >15
, height to soffit 1.50 m and thereafter in 1.50 m stages and whether left in or

permanent (SMM.E20.8 9.1 2.1 3.1 4). Formwork also measured to top surfaces
sloping >15
(SMM.E20.11 and E20.M7).
Formwork to beams, beam casings, columns and column casings are classified as either
attached to slabs, attached to walls or isolated, and measured in m
when of regular shape,
stating the shape. When of irregular shape, it is measured in meters, supported by a
dimensioned diagram. In both cases it is necessary to state the number of members in each
item. Regular shaped members include rectangular, circular, hexagonal or other definable
regular shapes (SMM.E20.D10). The same height to soffit classifications apply as previously
described (SMM.E20.13 16.1 3.1 2.1 2). Descriptions of formwork to edge beams
shall include the attached edge of slab (SMM.E20.M12), while formwork to recesses, nibs
and rebates is measured in meters, stating the number and giving a dimensioned description,
and described as extra over the formwork in which they occur on superficial items of
formwork (SMM.E20.17 19.1.0 and E20.M14).
Formwork to wall kickers is measured in
meters along the center line of the wall and is
deemed to include both sides
(SMM.E20. and E20.M15). suspended
wall kickers (SMM.E20.22) constitute a
separate item and occur where a concrete wall
rises off a concrete slab, the kicker being cast integrally with the slab and hence, at the time
the kicker formwork is erected, there is nothing to support its bottom edge (Code of
Procedure: SMM.E20.21 22).
Sequence of measurement of reinforced concrete floors and roofs
1. In situ concrete to slabs, beams and beam casings in m
(SMM.E10.5, 9 & 10).
2. In situ concrete to upstands, deep beams and deep beam casings, if any, in m
separately classified (SMM.E10.9 - 10.2 3.0.1 and E10.
3. Formwork to soffit of slabs and landings in m
giving the appropriate slab thickness
range and plane (SMM.E20.8 9.1 2.1.1 2).
4. Formwork to beams and beam casings in m
where of regular shape, stating the
number of members (SMM.E20.13 14.1 3.1.1 2).
5. Formwork to sides of upstands in meters where 1.00 m high and classified as plain
vertical or giving a dimensioned description (SMM.E20.4.1 2.2 4.0).
6. Adjust formwork in slabs where beam occur if not adjusted previously.

7. Formwork to edges of suspended in meters, if 1.00 m high, in prescribed height
categories, classified as for sides of upstands (SMM.E20.3.1 2.2 4.0).
8. Reinforcement in slabs and beams (bars in kg subsequently reduced to tones, keeping
each diameter (nominal size) separate, and fabric in m
9. Adjustment if required on supporting brickworks for concrete slabs and beams.
Measurement of reinforced concrete staircase
The in situ concrete in the steps, waist, string beams and base blocks are all grouped together
in reinforced in situ concrete, stating the mix or strength, in staircase (SMM.E10.13). This is
followed by the formwork measured in meters to the
stairflights, stating the number and widths of
stairflights and describing the waists, risers and giving
the width of strings (SMM.E20.
Alternatively, dimensioned diagrams may be used.
Formwork to stairflights is deemed to include soffits, risers and strings
(SMM.E20.C5). Formwork items are however required to spandril ends
and the base block, and dimensioned diagrams have been incorporated to
help the estimator. Formwork to soffits of landings is dealt with in the same
way as soffits of slabs (SMM.E20.9.1 2.1 3.1 - 2).
The concrete and formwork items are followed by the steel reinforcement
measured linearly in the first instance, to be subsequently
converted to weight. Straight, bent and curved bars are
distinguished from those in links, which include stirrups
and binders, and each diameter (nominal size) of bar is
kept separate (SMM.E30.1.1.1 4.0).
The remaining items in the staircase are then taken, including the surface treatment of
concrete, where appropriate, granolithic paving to treads and risers and associated work. The
metal balustrading is measured under an appropriate headings in meters with a dimensioned
or component drawing (SMM.L31.2), followed by extra over enumerated items for
ornamental ends and the like to handrails.