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Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. The solute is the smaller portion, and solvent

is the larger portion. The concentrations for solutions can be measured in several

different ways. These problems are calculating the concentration using molarity. e

careful. The denominator is liters of solution !not solvent".

Molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solution.

M = moles of solute

liters of solution

!#emember$ % & ' %dm

(

and % m& ' % cm

(

"

%. Calculate molarity when given moles of solute and liters of solution.

)ivide moles of solute by liters of solution.

*x. +hat is the molarity of a solution containing ( moles of ,a-H in . & of

solution/

0. Calculate a molarity when given grams of solute..

1ind the moles of the solute.

1ind the liters of the solution.

)ivide the moles by the liters.

*x. +hat is the molarity of a solution containing (2 grams of ,a-H in 322 liters of

water/

M is read 4molarity5 or 4molar4 when

there is a number in front. 1or

example, 6M is read 46 molar5 and

means 6 moles of solute per % liter of

solution. +hen given a molarity in a

problem, you can substitue mole7liter

for the units to solve for the un8nown.

(. Calculate the volume of a solution. Molarity ' moles

&iters

9nsert 8nown molarity and moles !:ou may need to change grams to moles.".

Ma8e liters ;, and solve for ;. !:ou will need to multiply by ; to get it 4on top5.

*x. How many liters will be needed to ma8e a 0.2 M solution from <2 grams of

,aCl/

3. Calculate the moles of solute in a solution. Molarity ' moles

&iters

9nsert 8nown molarity and liters. Ma8e moles ; and solve for ;.

*x. How many moles of HCl are in =62 ml of 2.62 M HCl solution/

6. Calculate how many grams of a solute are in a solution.

>se the same method as in ?(. 1ind moles first, and then change moles to grams.

*x. How many grams of ,aCl are in 622 ml of 0.2 M solution/

.. )etermine how to prepare a solution.

9dentify how many grams of solute are needed by calculating the moles of solute

and then convert to grams. Measure out that mass and add water to desired

volume.

*x. How would you prepare 622 m& of a 2.%2 M @Cl solution/

=. Calculate the molarity of a new solution formed by diluting another solution.

M

1

V

1

=M

2

V

2

*x. 9f you performed a dilution by adding 022 m& of water to 622 m& of a %.2 M

solution of HCl, what would be the molarity !M" of the new solution/

molarity of the %

st

solution ; the volume of the %

st

solution ' molarity of the 0

nd

solution ; the volume of the 0

nd

soltuion

A Molarity of 9ons

9ons in a compound dissociate in water.

+rite a balanced eBuation to determine the moles of each ion.

>se mole ratios to identify the molarities for the ions based on the given molarity for

the reactant.

)etermine the molarity for each ion based on concentration of the given compound.

Sample problem with wor8$

Calculate the molarities for the ions in the solution if given a (M CaCl

0

aBueous solution.

1irst write a balance eBuation for the separating of the ions.

CaCl

0

Ca

0C

C 2Cl

D

Then use mole ratios to calculate the molarities of the ions based on

(M CaCl

0

..

% mol Ca

0C

(M CaCl

0

; % mol CaCl

0

' (M Ca

0C

0 mol Cl

D

(M CaCl

0

; % mol CaCl

0

' .M Cl

D

This is simple math and can probably be done in your head.

,ow you try it.

Calculate the molarities for the ions in a 0M ,aCl aBueous solution.

Calcualte the molarities for the ions in a %.6 M ,a

(

P-

3

aBueous solution.

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