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Nine monkeys have fallen out of their tree.

They are not all the same shape and size.


Pick out the monkeys that are not the same shape and size as the rest.
Are there any other differences?
Transformation and similarity
A B C
D E F
G H I
CHAPTER 15
In this chapter you will learn how to:
carry out simple reflections, rotations and enlargements
use combinations of these transformations
find missing lengths in 2-D problems using similarity
find areas and volumes of similar shapes.
You will also be challenged to:
investigate geometrical definitions.
Starter: Monkey business
259
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15.1 Reflections
Many objects in mathematics possess mirror symmetry, or reflection
symmetry. 2-D objects will have a mirror line, and this will divide the object
into two matching halves, one being a mirror image of the other. The matching
halves are congruent, i.e. exactly the same shape and size.
3-D objects will have a plane of symmetry instead. Again, the object divides
into two congruent halves.
You can make a symmetric 2-D shape by reflecting a given shape in a mirror
line. This is usually done using a squared coordinate grid. The mirror line may
then be described by a simple linear equation. The mirror line might be
horizontal (e.g. y 3), vertical (e.g. x 2) or at a 45 angle (e.g. y x).
EXAMPLE
Reflect the given shape in the line x 5
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
260
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
x 5
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SOLUTION
Questions with a diagonal mirror line can be more difficult to visualise.
It helps if you rotate your book so that the mirror line is vertical.
EXAMPLE
The diagram shows a triangle P. The triangle has been reflected in a mirror line
to form an image Q.
a) Draw the mirror line on the diagram.
b) Write down the equation of the mirror line.
SOLUTION
a)
b) The mirror line has equation y x 1
15.1 Reflections
261
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
x 5
2 2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
P
Q
8
y
x
2 2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
P
Q
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EXERCISE 15.1
1 Diagram a) shows a 2-D shape. Draw a line of symmetry on this diagram.
Diagram b) shows a sketch of a 3-D object. Indicate a plane of symmetry on
this sketch.
In questions 2 to 5, draw the reflection of the given shape in the mirror line
indicated. Label the mirror line with its equation in each case.
2
3
2
O
2
4
6
2
4
2 4 6
y
x
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
262
a) b)
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4
5
6 The diagram shows a triangle S and its mirror image T.
a) Draw the mirror line that has been used for the reflection.
b) Write down the equation of the mirror line.
6 4 2
O
2
4
6
2
4
6
2 4 6
y
x
2 4 6 8
O
2
2
4
6
8
2 4
y
x
15.1 Reflections
263
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
T
S
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Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
264
7 The diagram shows a triangle S and its mirror image T.
a) Draw the mirror line that has been used for the reflection.
b) Write down the equation of the mirror line.
8 The diagram shows a letter L shape, labelled X.
The shape is to be reflected in a mirror line.
Part of the reflection has been drawn on the diagram.
a) Complete the drawing to shown the image. Label it Y.
b) Mark the mirror line, and give its equation.
6 4 2
O
2
4
2
4
6
2 4
y
x
T
S
2 2 4 6 8 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
X
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9 The diagram shows six triangles A, B, C, D, E and F. The six triangles are all congruent to each other.
a) Explain the meaning of the word congruent.
b) Triangle A can be reflected to triangle F.
State the equation of the mirror line that achieves this.
c) Triangle C is reflected to another triangle using a mirror line x 2.
Which one?
d) Triangle D can be reflected to triangle B using a mirror line.
Give the equation of this line.
e) Triangle D can be reflected to triangle E using a mirror line.
Give the equation of this line.
10 A triangle T is reflected in a mirror line, to form an image, triangle U.
Then triangle U is reflected in the same mirror line, to form an image, triangle V.
What can you deduce about triangle T and triangle V?
15.1 Reflections
265
6 8 4 2
O
2
4
6
8
2
4
6
8
2 4 6 8
y
x
A
F
B
E
C
D
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15.2 Rotations
A mathematical object may be turned to face in a different direction, while
remaining the same shape and size: this is known as rotation. An imaginary
point acts as a pivot for the rotation: this is the centre of rotation. You must
remember to specify the size of the turn, or angle of rotation, and whether it is
clockwise or anticlockwise as well as specifying the centre of rotation.
If you find rotations difficult to visualise, ask your teacher for some tracing
paper. (This is also permitted in the IGCSE examination.)
EXAMPLE
The diagram shows a rectangle labelled S.
a) Rotate shape S through 90 clockwise,
about the origin O.
Label the resulting shape T.
b) Now rotate the shape T through 180 about O.
Label the resulting shape U.
c) Describe a single rotation that would take
S directly to U.
SOLUTION
a)
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
266
6 4 2
O
2
4
6
2
4
6
2 4 6
y
x
S
6 4 2
O
2
4
6
2
4
6
2 4 6
y
x
S
T
Imagine a ray from the centre (O) to a corner of the shape S.
Rotate this ray to find the new position for the corner.
Repeat as necessary.
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b)
c) U can be obtained directly from S by a 90 rotation anticlockwise about O.
Rotations are often performed with the point (0, 0), called the origin O, as the
centre of rotation, but they can be done about other centres.
EXAMPLE
The diagram shows a triangle M drawn on a grid.
Rotate the triangle M through 90 anticlockwise about the point P (1, 0).
Label this new triangle N.
15.2 Rotations
267
6 4 2
O
2
4
6
2
4
6
2 4 6
y
x
S
T
U
The direction of this
second rotation was
not specified in the
question because
180 clockwise and
180 anticlockwise
are exactly the same.
6 8 4 2
O
2
2
4
6
8
2 4 6 8
y
x
M
P
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SOLUTION
EXERCISE 15.2
Each of these questions requires a coordinate grid in which x and y can range
from 8 to 8.
1 Rotate the trapezium shape 90 clockwise, about O.
2 Rotate the shape 180, about O.
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
268
6 8 4 2
O
2
2
4
6
8
2 4 6 8
y
x
M
N
P
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
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3 a) Rotate the triangle T1 90 anticlockwise about O. Label the result T2.
b) Rotate T2 180 about O. Label the result T3.
c) Describe the single rotation that takes T1 directly to T3.
4 a) Rotate shape A 90 anticlockwise about (1, 0). Label the result B.
b) Rotate shape B 180 about (0, 0). Label the result C.
c) Describe carefully the single rotation that takes shape C to shape A.
5 a) Rotate shape U 90 anticlockwise about point P (0, 1).
b) Rotate shape V 90 clockwise about point Q (1, 1).
15.2 Rotations
269
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
T1
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
A
6 8 4 2
O
2
4
2
4
2 4 6 8
y
x
U
V
Q
P
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6 a) Rotate the triangle 90 clockwise about (1, 1).
b) Now rotate both the new triangle and the original one 180 about (1, 1).
7 The diagram shows an object A and its image B after a rotation.
a) Write down the size and direction of the angle of rotation.
b) Write down the coordinates of the centre of rotation.
8
Who is right, and who is wrong?
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
270
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
2 2 4 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
y
x
B
A
Anita Bella Cat
If you rotate
a shape and then rotate it
again, the result is
equivalent to a single
rotation.
I m afraid only
one of you is
right.
If you reflect
a shape and then reflect it again,
the result is equivalent to
a single reflection.
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15.3 Combining transformations
There are three important geometric transformations that preserve congruence,
meaning that they do not change the shape or size of an object. These
transformations are reflection, rotation and translation.
A translation consists simply of sliding an object left/right and/or up/down. You
specify a translation by stating how far the object is to be moved in each of the x
and y directions, and it can be written as two numbers in a column vector. For
example,

indicates a translation of 5 units to the right and two units up.
In the IGCSE examination you may be required to combine two
transformations. Transformations are said to map one shape to another, that is,
turn one shape into the other.
EXAMPLE
a) Reflect the given triangle T1 in the line x 4, and label the result T2.
b) Reflect T2 in the line x 1, and label the result T3.
c) What single transformation maps T1 directly to T3?
SOLUTION
a)
2 2 4 6 8 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
T1 T2
x 4
5
2
15.3 Combining transformations
271
2 2 4 6 8 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
T1
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b)
c) T3 is 10 units to the right of T1, so the transformation that maps T1 to T3 is
a translation of

.
EXERCISE 15.3
Each of questions 1 to 6 requires a coordinate grid in which x and y can range from 8 to 8.
1
a) Reflect triangle S in the line x 1. Label the new triangle T.
b) Reflect triangle T in the x axis. Label the new triangle U.
c) Describe the single transformation that maps S to U.
2 The diagram shows a triangle, T.
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
S
10
0
2 2 4 6 8 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
T1 T2 T3
x 4 x 1
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
272
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
T
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a) Translate triangle T by

. Label its image triangle U.
b) Rotate triangle U by 180 about O. Label the result triangle V.
c) Describe the single transformation that maps T to V.
3 The diagram shows a triangle, S.
a) Reflect triangle S in the y axis. Label this image triangle T.
b) Reflect triangle S in the line y 1. Label this image triangle U.
c) Describe the single transformation that maps T directly to U.
4 The diagram shows a set of points that make a letter F shape. The shape is labelled F1.
a) Reflect the shape F1 in the x axis. Label the result F2.
b) Reflect F2 in the line y x. Label the result F3.
c) Describe the single transformation that would take shape F3 to shape F1.
6
0
15.3 Combining transformations
273
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
S
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
F1
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5 The diagram shows a quadrilateral F.
a) Rotate quadrilateral F through 90 anticlockwise about O. Label the result G.
b) Rotate quadrilateral G through 90 clockwise about (4, 4). Label the result H.
c) Describe a single transformation that would take F to H.
6 The diagram shows a triangle A.
a) Rotate triangle A 90 anticlockwise about (0, 3). Label this image B.
b) Rotate triangle A 180 about the origin O. Label this image C.
c) Describe the single transformation that transforms triangle B to
triangle C.
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
274
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
F
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
A
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15.4 Enlargements
You should already be familiar with the idea of enlarging shapes on grids.
This should be done in a specific way, using a centre of enlargement and a
scale factor. Rays may be drawn from the centre of enlargement, to show how
the transformation is operating.
There are three different scenarios, depending on the value of the scale factor:
Scale factor greater than 1: simple enlargement the object gets bigger
Scale factor between 0 and 1: the enlargement is a reduction the object
gets smaller
Negative scale factor: the object is enlarged/reduced and inverted.
EXAMPLE
The diagram shows a letter F shape and two points, P and Q.
a) Enlarge the letter F by scale factor 2, using P as the centre of enlargement.
b) Enlarge the letter F by scale factor

1
2

, using Q as the centre of enlargement.


15.4 Enlargements
275
Scale factor 1
Centre of
enlargement
0 Scale factor 1
Centre of
enlargement
Scale factor 0
Centre of
enlargement
P
Q
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SOLUTION
a)
b)
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
276
P
Q
Again, draw rays, from Q to each corner of the original F shape.
Then proceed, only half way along the rays (factor is

1
2

), to
locate the corners of the enlarged shape (which is actually
smaller than the original).
P
Q
Draw rays from P to each corner of the original F shape.
Then extend these rays so they are twice their original
length (factor is 2).
The rays will locate the corners of the enlarged shape.
The final F is not the same size
as the original, so the two shapes
are not congruent, but they are
the same shape. The two shapes
are said to be mathematically
similar.
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15.4 Enlargements
277
EXERCISE 15.4
1 The diagram shows a shape A.
a) Make a copy of this diagram on squared paper, in which x can run from
0 to 20 and y from 0 to 15.
b) Enlarge shape A by scale factor 2, centre P. Label the new shape B.
c) Enlarge shape A by scale factor 3, centre P. Label the new shape C.
d) Are shapes B and C congruent? Are they similar?
2 The diagram shows a triangle, and a centre of enlargement, P.
a) Make a copy of this diagram on squared paper, in which x can run from
5 to 15 and y from 10 to 10.
b) Enlarge the shape by scale factor 2

1
2

, centre P.
3 The diagram shows a shape, A, and
two centres P and Q marked with
crosses.
a) Make a copy of this diagram on
squared paper, in which x can run
from 5 to 10 and y from 0 to 10.
b) Enlarge shape A, with scale factor 2,
centre P. Label the result B.
c) Enlarge shape B, with scale factor

1
2

,
centre Q. Label the result C.
d) Are shapes A and B congruent?
Are they similar?
e) Are shapes A and C congruent?
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
A
P
Q
2 4 6 8
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
P
2 4 6
O
2
4
6
y
x
A
P
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4 The diagram shows an object, A, and its image B after an enlargement.
a) State the scale factor for the enlargement.
b) Obtain the coordinates of the centre of enlargement.
5 The diagram shows a triangle, and a centre of enlargement, P.
Enlarge the triangle by scale factor 2, centre P.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
O
2
4
6
8
y
x
P
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
O
2
4
6
8
10
12
y
x
B A
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
278
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15.5 Similar shapes and solids
If two objects are similar, then they are exactly the same shape, but one of them
is an enlargement of the other. If the enlargement factor is n, then:
corresponding lengths are in the ratio 1 : n
corresponding areas are in the ratio 1 : n
2
corresponding volumes are in the ratio 1 : n
3
.
EXAMPLE
In the diagram, AB and CD are parallel.
AB 6 cm, CD10 cm, AE 3.6 cm and CE 7 cm.
a) Explain carefully why triangles AEB and DEC are similar.
b) Calculate the length BE.
c) Work out the length DE.
SOLUTION
a) Angles ABE and DCE are equal (alternate angles).
Angles BAE and CDE are equal (alternate angles).
Angles AEB and DEC are equal (vertically opposite).
Thus both triangles contain exactly the same angles, so
they must be similar.
b) Redrawing the similar triangles so that they are the same way up:
Then, by comparing corresponding sides:

B
7
E

1
6
0

Thus, cross-multiplying:
10 BE 6 7
10 BE 42
BE
4
1
2
0

BE 4.2 cm
15.5 Similar shapes and solids
279
C 10 cm D
E
A 6 cm
3.6 cm
7 cm
B
E
C 10 cm D
E
B 6 cm
3.6 cm
7 cm
A
c) Likewise:

D
3.
E
6

1
6
0

Thus, cross-multiplying:
6 DE 10 3.6
6 DE 36
DE
3
6
6

DE 6 cm
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EXAMPLE
The diagram shows two solid cones. They are mathematically similar.
The smaller cone has a curved surface area of 64 cm
2
.
a) Work out the curved surface area of the larger cone.
The two cones are made of the same material. The larger cone has a mass of
1080 grams.
b) Work out the mass of the smaller cone.
SOLUTION
The enlargement factor is 9 6 1.5
a) Area of larger cone 64 (1.5
2
)
144 cm
2
b) Mass of smaller cone 1080 (1.5
3
)
320 grams
EXERCISE 15.5
1 The diagram shows two rectangles. They are mathematically similar.
a) Work out the length of the larger rectangle.
b) Work out the ratio of the perimeters of the rectangles, in the form 1 : n.
c) Find the ratio of the areas of the rectangles.
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
280
6 cm
9 cm
8 cm
11 cm
5 cm
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2 The diagram shows two similar triangles. The smaller triangle has an area of 24 cm
2
.
Work out the area of the larger triangle.
3 The diagram shows two solid cylinders. They are similar. Both cylinders are made of the same material.
The larger cylinder has a mass of 40 kg. Work out the mass of the smaller cylinder.
4 The diagram shows five points, P, Q, R, S, T. The line segments PQ and RS are parallel.
a) Work out the length RT. Hence find the length RQ.
b) Calculate the length PQ.
5 HMS Cumberland is a Type 22 frigate.
This ship has a length of 148 metres and a mass of 5300 tonnes.
A marine architect is thinking of designing a larger version of HMS Cumberland.
The new ship would be mathematically similar to the original one, but 25% larger in all dimensions.
a) Calculate the length of the new ship design.
The new ship is to be built using the same materials as the original one.
b) Calculate the mass of the new ship.
15.5 Similar shapes and solids
281
8 cm 12 cm
20 cm
12 cm
R 13 cm S
T
Q
8 cm 9 cm
10 cm
P
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6 The diagram shows five points, J, K, L, M and N. The line segments JK and MN are parallel.
Calculate the lengths x and y.
7 A garden centre sells two similar statues.
The smaller one is 30 cm tall and weighs 5.5 kg.
The larger one is 40 cm tall. Work out its weight.
8 The diagram shows five points, P, Q, R, S and T. The line segments PQ and ST are parallel.
PR8 cm, PS 4 cm, QR 10 cm, ST 18 cm.
a) Explain fully why triangles RPQ and RST are similar.
b) Work out the length PQ.
c) Work out the length RT.
9 A model aircraft is

1
4

of full size.
a) The real aircraft is 6.56 metres long. How long is the model?
b) The model has a wing area of 0.925 m
2
. Find the wing area of the real aircraft.
10 Two chocolate bars are mathematically similar. They weigh 250 grams and 500 grams respectively.
The 250 gram bar is 12 cm long. Calculate the length of the 500 gram bar.
Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
282
M 20 cm
15 cm
N
L
K
x
y
9 cm
16 cm
J
18 cm
4 cm
8 cm
10 cm
S T
Q P
R
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REVIEW EXERCISE 15
1 Cylinder A and cylinder B are mathematically similar.
The length of cylinder A is 4 cm and the length of cylinder B is 6 cm.
The volume of cylinder A is 80 cm
3
.
Calculate the volume of cylinder B. [Edexcel]
2
a) On a copy of the grid, rotate triangle A 180 about O. Label your new triangle B.
b) On the grid, enlarge triangle A by scale factor

1
2

, centre O. Label your new triangle C. [Edexcel]


3 Shape A is enlarged by scale factor 2 to obtain shape B. Shape B is then enlarged by scale factor 3 to
obtain shape C. State the single enlargement factor that would transform shape A to shape C.
4 Two cuboids are mathematically similar. The smaller one has a shortest edge of 5 cm,
and its surface area is 400 cm
2
. The larger one has a shortest edge of 8 cm.
Find the surface area of the larger cuboid.
5 4 3 2 1
O
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
2 3 4 5
y
x
A
Review exercise 15
283
4 cm
6 cm
A
Diagram not
accurately drawn
B
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Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
284
5 Enlarge the shaded triangle by a scale factor 1

1
2

, centre P.
[Edexcel]
6
Shape A is rotated 90 anticlockwise, centre (0, 1), to shape B.
Shape B is rotated 90 anticlockwise, centre (0, 1), to shape C.
Shape C is rotated 90 anticlockwise, centre (0, 1), to shape D.
a) Mark the position of shape D.
b) Describe the single transformation that takes shape C to shape A. [Edexcel]
7 Triangle B is a reflection of triangle A.
a) (i) On a copy of the grid, draw the mirror line for this reflection.
(ii) Write down the equation of the mirror line.
b) Describe fully the single transformation that maps triangle A onto triangle C. [Edexcel]
5 4 3 2 1
O
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
2 3 4 5
y
x
A
C
B
4 3 2 1
O
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
2 3 4 5
y
x
P
5 4 3 2 1
O
1
1
1
2
3
4
2
3
4
2 3 4 5
y
x
B A
C
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8
a) Describe fully the single transformation which takes shape A onto shape B.
b) Describe fully the single transformation which takes shape A onto shape C. [Edexcel]
9
AB is parallel to CD.
The lines AD and BC intersect at point O.
AB 11 cm, AO8 cm, OD6 cm.
Calculate the length of CD. [Edexcel]
A B 11 cm
6 cm
8 cm
O
D C
Diagram not
accurately drawn
4 3 2 1
O
1
1
1
2
3
4
2
3
4
2 3 4
y
x
A B
C
Review exercise 15
285
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10
Shape A is shown on the grid. Shape A is enlarged, centre (0, 0), to obtain shape B.
One side of shape B has been drawn for you.
a) Write down the scale factor of the enlargement.
b) On a copy of the grid, complete shape B.
The shape A is enlarged by scale factor

1
2

, centre (5, 16) to give the shape C.


c) On the grid, draw shape C. [Edexcel]
11
In the triangle ADE, BC is parallel to DE.
AB 8 cm, AC 5 cm, BD4 cm, BC 9 cm.
a) Work out the length of DE.
b) Work out the length of CE. [Edexcel]
D
B C
E
A
9 cm
8 cm 5 cm
4 cm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
O
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
y
x
A
B
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286
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12
Triangle B is a reflection of triangle A.
a) (i) Draw the line of reflection.
(ii) Write down the equation of the line of reflection.
b) Describe fully the single transformation that maps triangle A onto triangle C.
c) On a copy of the grid, enlarge triangle C by scale factor 1

1
2

from the centre (1, 2).


Label the enlargement D. [Edexcel]
13 A sheet of drawing paper is mathematically similar to a sheet of A5 paper. A sheet of A5 paper is a
rectangle 210 mm long and 148 mm wide. The sheet of drawing paper is 450 mm long.
Calculate the width of the sheet of drawing paper. Give your answer correct to 3 significant figures.
[Edexcel]
14
BE is parallel to CD. ABC and AED are straight lines.
AB 4 cm, BC 6 cm, BE 5 cm, AE 4.8 cm.
a) Calculate the length of CD.
b) Calculate the length of ED. [Edexcel]
15 Martin and Nina have made sandcastles on the beach. Martins is exactly the same shape as Ninas,
but is larger in each dimension. Ninas sandcastle is 24 cm high. It took 12 buckets of sand to make.
Martins sandcastle is 30 cm high.
Work out the number of buckets of sand that Martin needed to make his sandcastle.
5 cm
4.8 cm 4 cm
A
E B
D C
Diagram not
accurately drawn
6 cm
C B
A
5 6 7 4 3 2 1
O
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
6
7
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
y
x
Review exercise 15
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Chapter 15: Transformation and similarity
288
Key points
1 A reflection is specified by a mirror line.
2 A rotation is specified by a centre of rotation, an angle of rotation, and a direction
(clockwise or anticlockwise.)
3 A translation can be expressed in vector form, e.g.

means 2 to the right and 3 up.
4 Two shapes are congruent if they are exactly the same shape and size. Reflections,
rotations and translations all preserve congruence.
5 An enlargement is specified by a centre of enlargement and a scale factor.
Scale factors larger than 1 actually make the image larger, while scale factors
between 0 and 1 cause the image to be reduced so it is smaller in size than
the original.
6 Enlargements do not normally preserve congruence. The object and its image will,
however, be mathematically similar, i.e. the same shape.
7 When solid objects are enlarged by a scale factor, their perimeters increase by the
same ratio. Areas increase according to the square of the scale factor, and volumes by
its cube.
2
3
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Internet Challenge 15
289
Internet Challenge 15
Geometrical definitions
Mathematicians like to attach precise meanings to certain words these are definitions. In the sentences
below the letters of the key words have been replaced with symbols. Find the missing word in each case.
(You will know some of these already, but you may need to look up some of the less well-known ones on
the internet.)
1 An is a mathematical solid with 20 faces.
2 A is the name for a circular prism.
3 If two objects are the same shape and size they are said to be .
4 If two shapes are alike in shape but one is larger than the other, they are said to be mathematically
.
5 Z-angles are, more properly, called angles.
6 lines never touch; they remain at a constant distance apart.
7 A is a solid object in the form of a perforated ring (like a ring doughnut).
8 The interior angles of an add up to 1080.
9 A is exactly half of a sphere.
10 The highest point of a pyramid is known as its .
11 A pyramid with a triangular base is called a .
12 is the correct mathematical name for a diamond with four equal sides.
13 An angle of one-sixtieth of a degree is called a of .
14 An angle of 57.296 is called one .
15 The diagram below shows a cone. This is also a .
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