ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK

TROUBLE SHOOTING

1

CABLE-SIZE & CB CURRENT RATING
For lighting points use 1.5mm2 PVC Cable.

• • • • • • • • • •

Up to 15A

-

2.5 mm2

• • • • • • • • • • •

Up to 175A -

95 mm2

Up to 20A -

4 mm2

Up to 200A -

120 mm2

Up to 30A -

6 mm2

Up to 225A -

120 mm2

Up to 40A -

10 mm2

Up to 250A -

150 mm2

Up to 50A -

16 mm2

Up to 300A -

185 mm2

Up to 60A -

25 mm2

Up to 350A -

185 mm2

Up to 75A -

35 mm2

Up to 400A -

240 mm2

Up to 100A -

50 mm2

Up to 500A -

300 mm2

Up to 120A -

70 mm2

Up to 630A -

400 mm2

Up to 150A -

95 mm2

Up to 750A -

500 mm2

Up to 1000A -

630 mm2

• • • • • • • •

300 A and above should be EF/OC that means earth fault and overcurrent type relay to use. 200 A and under should be ZCT and ELR Zero sequence Current Transformer and Earth Leakage Relay to use. Main DB Cable Type are as follows: For inside the building PVC/PVC or XLPE/PVC type. For Under Ground PVC/SWA/PVC type. Sub-Main DB cable type should be PVC only. From 3.3KV up to 22KV should use PVC/SWA/PVC or XLPE/DSTA/PVC type. ECC and N choice. 1.5 mm2 to 16 mm2 Phase cables should use N-full size and E-half size 25 mm2 and above should use N-half size and E-half size. Maximum Earth Cable size is 70 mm2 CB rating and maximum interrupt current capacity are as follows CB Rating for Normal 800A - 1250A 175A - 630A 0 - 150A 0 - 100A Maximum Interrupt Current Cap. 50KA 35KA 25KA 10KA

• • •

Page No.

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ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
0 - 100A 2500A 400A 150A 60A, 63A MCB 20A MCB 22KA 31MVA for 3 Sec 36KA 25KA 10KA 5KA

2

MAXIMUM DEMAND CALCULATION
AS 3000-1991 AUSTRALIA STANDARD SAA WIRING RULES ACCORDING TO SAA WIRING RULES AS 3000

1 Load Group

Table 2.3 MAXIMUM DEMAND-SINGLE AND MULTIPLE DOMESTIC INSTALLATION 2 3 4 5 Block of living unit Single domestic 2 to 5 living 6 to 20 21 or more installation or unit per living units living units individual living unit phase per phase per phase per phase 3A for 1 to 20 points + 2A for each additional 20 points or part thereof 75% connected load 10A for 1 to 20 points + 5A for each additional 20 points or part thereof 6A 5A+0.25A 0.5A per per living living unit unit No assessment for the purpose of maximum demand. 10A+5A per 15A+3.75A 50A+1.9A living unit per living per living unit unit

A

Lighting (i) Except as in (ii) and load group H below (ii) Outdoor lighting exceeding a total of 1000W (i) GPOs and socket-outlets not exceeding 10A. Permanently connected equipment not exceeding 10A and not included in other load groups. (ii) Where the installation includes one or more 15A socket-outlets other than socket outlets provided to supply equipment set out in groups C,D,E,F,G and L (iii) Where the installation includes one more 20A socket-outlets provided to supply equipment set out in groups C,D,E,F,G and L Ranges, cooking, appliances, laundry equipment or socketoutlets rated at more than 10A for the connection thereof Fixed spaced heating or air conditioning equipment, saunas or socket-outlets rated at more than 10A for the connection thereof Instantaneous water heaters Storage water heaters (i) controlled load (ii) other types

B

10A

10A

10A

10A

15A

15A

15A

15A

C

50% connected load

15A

2.8A per living unit

2.8A per living unit

D

75% connected load

75% connected load 6A per living unit

75% connected load 6A per living unit

75% connected load

E F

33.3% connected load

G

Spa and swimming pool heaters

100A+0.8A per living unit Where the full load current is less than the figure obtained under the other appropriate load groups, no assessment for the purpose of maximum demand. see footnotes Full-load current 6A per 6A per 100A+0.8A living unit living unit per living unit 75% of the largest spa, plus 75% of the largest swimming pool, plus 25% of remainder.

LOADING NOT ASSOCIATED WITH INDIVIDUAL UNITS-CONNECTED TO EACH PHASE (PUBLIC LIGHTING, COMMUNITY LAUNDRY LOADINGS, LIFTS, MOTORS, ETC.) H Communal lighting Not applicable Full connected Full connected Full connected load load load I GPOs and socket-outlets not Not applicable 2A per point 2A per point 1A per point included in-groups J and M below.

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ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
Permanently connected equipment not exceeding 10A Appliances rated at more than 10A and socket-outlets for the connection thereof(i) Clothes dryers, water heaters, self heating washing machines, wash boilers (ii) Fixed spaces heating , air conditioning equipment, saunas (iii) Spa and swimming pool heaters Lifts Motors

3

J

Not applicable

50%connected load

50%connected load

50%connected load

Not applicable Not applicable In accordance with Clause 2.6.3 Table 2.4 In accordance with Clause 2.6.3 Table 2.4 column 2 Connected Load 5A or less: No assessment for purpose of maximum demand. Over 5A by local authority permission

75%connected load

75%connected load

75%connected load

K L

75% of the largest spa plus 75% of the largest swimming pool, plus 25% of the remainder No assessment for purpose of calculation of maximum demand. In accordance with Clause 2.6.3, Table 2.4, determination of size of submains. In accordance with Clause 2.6.3, Table 2.4, column 2

M

Appliances, including socket-outlets other than those set out in group A to L above. e.g. pottery kin, welding machines, radio transmitters, X-ray equipment and the like

Connected load 10A or less. No assessment for purpose of maximum demand.

Connected load over 10A. by assessment of the inspecting Authority

Footnotes to table 2.3 a.For multiphase connections, divide the number of living units by the number of supply phases, e.g. 16units on a three phase supply, 16/3 = 6 units on the heaviest loaded phase (Column 4) b.Where only a portion of the number of units in a multiple installation is equipped with permanently connected or fixed appliances, such as electric cooking ranges or space heating equipment, the number of appliances in each category is divided over the number of phases, and the maximum demand determined as shown in Example 3 of Appendix G. c.Lighting track systems shall be regarded as 2 points per meter of track. d.This load group is not applicable to socket-outlets installed in Communal area but not connected for the individual living units. Su /ch socket outlets should be included in load group B. e.For purpose of determining maximum demand, multiple combination socket-outlets shall be regarded as the same number of points as the number of integral socket-outlets in combination. f.Where an installation contains 15A or 20A socket outlets covered by load group B(ii) or B(iii), the base loading of load group B is increased by 10A or 15A respectively; if both 15A and 20A socket-outlets are installed. The increased is 15A. g.Where and installation includes an air-conditioning system for use in hot weather and a heating system for use in cool weather, only that system which has the greater load shall be taken into account. h.Flood lighting, swimming pool lighting and tennis court lighting and like i.Instananeous water heaters including 'quick recovery' heaters having element ratings greater than 100W/L j.Storage type water heaters, including 'quick recovery' heaters not referred to in footnotes. k.Controlled loading is taken to include only loading to which supply is controlled by the supply Authority so that it is available only for limited period of time. Where the full load current of the controlled load exceeds the maximum demand calculated using all appropriate items of this Table, the full load current of the controlled load together with group A(ii) and group H shall be taken as the maximum demand for the installation. l.In the calculation of the connected load, the following rating shall be assigned to lighting. (i) Incandescent lamps 60W or the actual wattage of the lamp to be installed, whichever is greater, except that if the design of the lumanrie associated with the lampholder permits only lamps of less than 60W to be inserted in any lampholder, the connected load of that lampholder shall be the wattage of the highest rated lamp which may be accommodated. For multi-lamp luminaries, the load for each lampholder shall be assessed on the above basis. (ii) Fluorescent and Full connected load, i.e. the actual current consumed by the lighting other discharge arrangement having regard to auxiliary equipment such as ballast and lamp capacitors. (iii) Lighting Tracks m. 0.5A/m per phase of track or the actual connected load, whichever is greater.

n.

A socket outlet installed more than 2.3 m above a floor for the connection an appliance rated at not more than 100W or a lumanrie may be included as a lighting point in load group A(i). An appliance having not exceeding 100W, which is permanently connected or connected by means of a socket outlet installed more than 2.3m above a floor, may be considered as a lighting point. Each item of permanently connected equipment not exceeding 10A may be included in load group B(i) as an additional point.

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ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
1 Load group 2 Residential Institutions, hotels, boarding houses, hospital, accommodation houses, motels 75% connected load 1000W for first socket outlet plus 400W for each additional outlet. 1000W for first socket outlet plus 100W for each additional outlet. Full current rating of highest rated socket outlets plus 50% of full current rating of remainder

4 3 Factories, shops, stores, offices, business premises Full connected load 1000W for first socket outlet plus 750W for each additional outlet 1000W for first socket outlet plus 100W for each additional outlet.

A. B. (i) (ii)

Lighting other than in load group F GPOs and socket outlets not exceeding 10A other than those in B(ii) GPOs and socket outlets not exceeding 10A in building or potions of buildings provided with permanently installed heating or cooling equipment or both. Socket outlets exceeding 10A

(iii)

C.

D.

Appliances for cooking, heating and cooling, including instantaneous water heaters, but not appliances included in group D & J. Motor other than in E and F below

E.

Lifts

F.

Fuel dispensing units

G.

Swimming pools, spas, saunas, thermal storage heaters including water heaters, space heaters, and similar arrangements

H. J. K. a.

Welding machines X-ray equipment

b.

c. d.

e.

Other equipment not covered by load group above In the calculation of connected load, the following ratings shall be assigned to lighting: (i) Incandescent lamp - 60W or the actual wattage of the lamp to be installed, whichever is the greater, except that if the design of the luminaries associated with the lampholder permits only lamps of less than 60W to be inserted in any lamp holder, the connected load of lamp holder shall be the wattage of the highest rated lamp which may be accommodated. For multi - lamp luminaries, the load for each lampholder shall be assessed on the above basis. (ii) Fluorescent lamp - Full connected load, i.e. the actual current consumed by the lighting arrangement having regard to auxiliary equipment such as ballast and capacitors. Load group B(ii) applies to building or portion of building incorporating permanently installed heating and/or cooling equipment specifically provided to render unnessary to the use of generalpurpose outlets for portable electric space heating or cooling appliances. Whether heating or cooling or both is deemed necessary to avoid the use of portable heating or cooling equipment will depend on the location and climate involved. Controlled loading is taken to include only loading to which supply is available for a limited Period of time. A socket outlet installed more than 2.3m above a floor for the connection of an appliance rated at not more than 100W or a luminary may be included as a lighting point in load group A. An appliance having a rating not exceeding 100W, which is permanently connected, connected by means of a socket outlet installed more than 2.3 m above a floor may be considered as a lighting point. See clause 2.5 9(ii) , Clause 2.8.2 and clause 2.9.3 for where the maximum demand for consumers main and submains, and final subcircuits respectively may be determined by limitation.

Full current rating of highest rated socket outlets plus 75% of full load of remainder Full current rating of highest Full current rating of rated appliance plus 50% of highest rated appliance full current rating of remainder plus 75% of full current rating of remainder Full load of highest rated motor Full load of highest rated plus 50% of full load of motor plus 75% of remainder second highest rated motor plus 50% of full load of remainder (i) Largest lift motor - 125% full load (ii) Next largest lift motor - 75% full load (iii) Remaining motors - 50% full load For the purpose of this load group, the full load current of a lift motor shall mean the current taken from the supply when lifting maximum rated load at maximum rated speed. (i) Motors : First motor - full load Second motor - 50% full load Additional motor - 25% of full load (ii) Lighting - full connected load (i) Continuous elements - full load in all cases (ii) Controlled elements (including controlled element which may be connected to the supply at other than controlled times by means of a change over switch or load controlled systems): 66% of full load where the demand of the rest of the installation as calculated is not less than that of the controlled element. Full load in all other cases In accordance with clause 2.6.4, takings into account power factor correction. 50% of the full load of the largest X-ray unit, additional units being ignored. By assessment of the inspecting Authority

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4

ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING

5

TRANSFORMER TROUBLE SHOOTING
s no. 1 Parts Insulation oil • Trouble Overheat • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Possible Lower than oil level. Block oily dirt in cooling lines. Overload. Water moisture, vapor, dirt include in oil flowing, because breathing equipment can't clean them. Bad in Gaskets as wears and tears. Overheating. Oil viscosity not corrects. Something damages or not corrects in chemical. Overload Lower in oil level. So many oily dirt in bottom of oil tank. Oily dirt blocks in cooling pipelines. Losing in clamps or Bolts & nuts Water includes in oil or acid includes in oil. Touch in air. Not enclosed with air. Core insulation damage. Loosing in bolts and nuts. Overheating Very long in life or life in finish. Acid in oil

Weak in di-electric strength

• 2 3 Breather Windings • •

Acid and oily dirt come out Not absorb water moisture Overheating

• •

Noisy Weak in insulation resistance Overheating Noisy Hard & easy to crack Rust

4 5 6 7

Core Insulation Enclosure (Air part) Thermometer

• • • • •

Not correct • Not correct in Connection. indication • Some problem in Bulb or Tube. Remark: There are 75-degree centigrades to 80-degree centigrade in oil temperature. It must be filled in oil level that is pre-mark. It must not be leakage in oil tube, drain cock, gasket. If there are water in oil, the color will be mud color. But should not assume as always. Crack test: The method which is the best way to know whether oil mix with water or not. method: (1) close one end of capillary tube, size in 1-inch diameter. (2) heat until red-brown color. (3) poured into sample oil which you want to know, and listen by the other end. no water inside-sh!! water inside-explode!! Silica Gel: It is a type of chemical which absorbs moisture or vapor. It will slowly change the violent color to pill pink color as ratio which absorbed moisture or vapor. It must be change new silica gel where the old is totally pink color. heat treatment: When 300 degree F to 400 degree F heating to old silica gel, the color get it back original violent that is to get it out moisture or vapor. It should be inspected in every 6-month or 1-year regularly. TRANSFORMER MAINTAINANCE 1. External seeing inspection. 2. Using instruments inspection 1.External seeing inspection (1) Insulation oil leakage or little than marking.: Put red color float into oil indicator glass & see. If it is lower than marking, it is known as not enough oil. (2) Blue color crystal change in color or not: Breather crystal which is blue color change to pink color means saturated in moisture or vapor, must be change or put under sun or heat supply. (3) Porcelain & ceramic isolator crack or not 2. Using Instrument inspection (1) Winding insulation testing. : LT winding testing - short circuit to HT winding line 3 terminals. • also short circuit to LT winding lines 3 terminals. • take off Earth wire • Megger testing: Line to LT short terminal & • Earth to Transformer body. : HT winding testing - similarly as LT winding testing. : Test Result: not lower than 1000 ohms/v is good

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5

ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
: for 230V is good in 230K-ohms or 0.23M-ohms : for 400V is good in 0.4M-ohms : for 11KV is good in 11M-ohms Insulation oil condition testing.: Get the sample oil which can get transformer bottom oil drain hole • • • • • • • • • Testing by Insulation oil tester Wash to Sphere in instrument by oil. After no more bubble in oil, line switch on. Put until 11KV & slowly increase. Wait a moment when every 5KV increase. Nothing happen until 40KV - it is good. If oil is not pure spark between two sphere & automatic trip. It must be stand 1min in 40KV. When testing 5 times- 4 times were in good, oil is good.

6

• Some type of oil can stand 45KV to 50KV. (Reference by U Pe Thein ) Earth testing or Ground testing.

Transformer Troubleshooting
Sr.no. 1 Symptom Temperature of oil cooled transformer rise until serious level. Trouble 1a. Overload Cause 1a. Poor powerfactor and overload 1b. Leak in oil tank or not enough filling 1c. Cannot transfer heat, it is so hot until windings burn and insulation damage 2a. Poor powerfactor and overload 2b. Air circulating or air blowing very weak or block in air pipe 3a. Poor powerfactor and overload 3b. Something like oil dirt block in pipe Remedy 1a. Decrease load and powerfactor correction 1b. Repair it, or oil fill until transformer core is under oil level 1c. If it was insulation damage, drain off old oil and clean it. new oil replaces it. 2a. Decrease load and powerfactor correction 2b. Increase air circulating rate. or clean air pipe 3a. Decrease load and powerfactor correction 3b. Water force applied, cleaning by soap clean to oil and oil dirt, coils are under oil level. 3c. If oil dirt on pipes cannot remove, disassemble the cooling coils and the coolest pipes to clean by scratch method. Test to transformer oil if cannot get standard level, check again and refill it.

1b. Not enough oil in oil tank 1c. Oil viscosity grade so high.

2

Temperature of aircooled transformer rises until serious level.

2a. Over load

2b. Not enough air volume 3. Temperature of water-cooled transformer rises until serious level. 3a. Over load

3b. Not enough water flow in pipe

3c. Oil dirt is stuck on the cooling pipes surface.

3c. Transformer working in so less temperature. Transformer temp must not less than 10deg C. Cooling coil surface of air cooled or oil cooled transformer are in small holes or leakage moisture go inside, so transformer temperature drop under 10deg.C Insulation drops or damage. Switch on/off when full load condition. End part connection

4.

Explode sound in transformer tank.

Neighbor wire layers of HV winding are in short circuit.

Short circuit between HV winding and LV winding.

Replace to damage coil. Change to damage

Page No.

6

ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
of wire insulation trouble Actually that part insulation is 5 times better than inner parts. Core construction not so nice. Transformer coils are placed in not correct position. No lightning protection, so when lightning times the effect of lightning surge make it. coils and end parts' insulation should be replaced by thicker size. Sends back to manufacturer and repair it. It will become short circuit, so repair and re fitting. Repair to damage coils, replace new coils. Every transformer has lightning protection, the lightning protection are series with choke coil, reactor etc. Replace damages coil and put thicker insulation to end parts of wire. Replace damages coil and put thicker insulation to end parts of wire. Send back to manufacturer and repair it Repair to terminal board and repaint by varnish. It should separate oil and moisture by filter. Replace to bushing. It must be same characteristic transformer to parallel operation, otherwise put in reactance between two transformers. Open to ground and then repair to LV winding. Ground connection to LV and HV neutral. Open to ground and then repair to LV winding. Ground connection to LV and HV neutral Open immediately to line otherwise short harzard in transformer, and then find out the location that ground coil and insulation put in or add in. Same manner as above.

7

LV winding ground to core.

When storm coming, short circuit in line to line and short to transformer. By lightning strike, hit line to line and insulation weakness.

Short circuit on terminal board

Oil mixed with moisture.

Short circuit in HV or LV bushing. Not equal load sharing

Damage in bushing. Parallel operation to different characteristic two transformers.

Damage LV winding

HV side in ground, when there are no ground neutral. HV side in ground and LV neutral connect to ground.

5.

Different temperature in transformer which has star neutral ground

Ground in a phase

Insulation drop or a line to ground in transformer.

6.

7.

Different temperature in transformer which has primary star secondary delta. Different phase voltage in a 3 phase transformer.

Ground somewhere to a primary phase.

Same symptom likes above cause.

Ground in a phase of star-delta transformer. the other two phases are 1.732 times bigger

Insulation damage in line, ground somewhere in line, transformer insulation drop.

Take off or cut out where trouble found, and then repair to ground trouble, replace with new insulators, bushings. If trouble found in winding, repair as re-

Page No.

7

ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
A transformer bucking or counter acts to other transformers. 8. 9. Very less voltage Very high voltage Wrong ratio calculated Wrong ratio calculated Its polarity opposite among other, if it is not repaired one or more transformers will be burned out. It is not correctly connected to correct ratio tapping. Same symptom as above Parallel connected to transformers which were in different ratio winding. To check polarity to get correct and then change polarity of transformer which is trouble. Raise up tapping numbers to get until necessary voltage. Drop down tapping numbers to get until necessary voltage Change transformers until same ratios to get, if cannot adjust, replace and use to same ratio new transformers

8

AUTO STEP-UP TRANSFORMER DESIGN(for Domestic use in Myanmar)
@Relationship in power Vs voltage and current P=V x I Where P = Power required in Watt. V = Terminal supplied voltage (Volt) I = Current (Ampere) @Relationship in iron core cross sectional area Vs width and breadth A=X x Y Where A = Iron Core Cross Sectional Area in sq.-inch X = Width of the Iron Core Cross Section in inch. Y = Breadth of the Iron Core Cross Section in inch. @Relationship between iron core c.s.a vs power output A = SQRT(W)/5.58 OR A = 0.17 x SQRT(W) Where A = Iron Core Cross Sectional Area in sq.-inch W = Power Out put in Watt @Relationship for core iron quality vs turns per volt. • For good quality N = 8/A Where N = turns/volt, A = CSA in sq-in • For fair quality N = 10/A • For bad quality N = 12/A @General Formulae for EMF E = 4.44 BNFA x 10-8 Volt Where E = EMF in volt @Table for Current vs Wire SWG Gauge Selection SWG Current Turns/inch Turns/sq-in 1 141.4 3.1 2 119.6 3.6 3 99.8 4.0 -4 84.6 4.3 5 70.6 4.7 6 58.0 5.2 7 48.6 5.6 8 40.2 6.0 9 32.6 6.7 44.89 10 25.8 7.6 57.76 11 21.2 8.5 72.25 12 17.0 9.2 84.64 13 13.2 13.8 116.64 14 10.0 12.1 146.41 15 8.140 13.7 176.00 16 6.440 14.8 219.00 17 4.920 16.9 285.61 18 3.620 19.7 388.00 19 2.520 23.5 550.00 20 2.040 26.0 676.00 21 1.608 29.2 852.00 22 1.240 33.0 1089.00 23 0.904 38.3 1513.00

SWG 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

Current 0.760 0.628 0.510 0.422 0.344 0.290 0.242 0.212 0.184 0.156 0.132 0.110 0.090 0.072 0.056 0.042 0.036 0.030 0.024 0.020 0.016 0.0122 0.0090

Turns/inch 42.4 46.5 51.5 56.5 62.5 67.6 74.6 79.4 85.7 91.7 100 109 120 135 151 175 180 2 227 256 285 322 377

Turns/sq-in 1789 2070 2650 3190 3900 4550 5550 6300 7300 8400 10000 12000 14500 18200 22900 30600 35600 43000 51000 65000 81000 104000 142000

Designing Procedure for Auto Step-up Transformer in Residential use.
• • • Find the Total load in Power (Watt) Calculate to I in Ampere by Power formulae P = V x I Where V is standard terminal supply voltage. From I value in above table , find out the wire gauge size in SWG.

Page No.

8

ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
• • • • • • •

9

What is your iron core size in your hand or thinking the core size by rule of thumb. Calculate iron core CSA from formulae A = X" x Y" Depends on the iron core CSA, find out the turns per volt form N=8/A, 10/A or 12/A For 220V stable standard system, 80V should be at least point of input voltage in supply (primary side in autotransformer). So decide the turns of required voltage tapping. Also find out the turns/layer. Draw the terminal schematic drawing for auto-step-up transformer. Decide that manual, semi-auto, fully auto control system to use in control.

DRAWING SIZE & ARRANGEMENT
( Referred to AutoCAD 12 for Windows, AutoCAD 13 for Windows & AutoCAD 14 )

Display Area on the Paper
Paper Size Display Area in mm Scale in inch A0 1140 x 800 A1 795 x 560 A2 554 x 388 A3 380 x 265 A4 210 x 297 11.2 Scale Printing 1. Set in control panel setting range as 210 x 297mm A4 size 2. Unprinting area 160 top/ bottom / left / right 3. Set in print set up in ACAD 4. Scale to fit 1/4 ===> 1"~4' ====> 11.2 ===> 760.1466 (or) 63' 4-19/125" 1/8 ===> 1"~8' ====> 11.2 ===> 1520.2932 3/32"==> 3"~32'====> 11.2 ===> 2027.1104 (or) 168' 11-7/64" Scale Multiply factor Arrow Ext. Ext. Dimensi Text Size Line Line on line height Origin spacing al Offset 1/4" 4x1.414x11.2x12 4" 6" 6" 3/8" 6" 3/32" 32/3x1.414x11.2x12 1'-6" 1' 1' 6" 1' 1/32" 32x1.414x11.2x12 2' 2' 2' 3/8" 2' 3/16" 16/3x1.414x11.2x12 9" 1' 1' 49/128" 1'

Text Gap

Toleranc e Height

3/32" 3/32" 4" 3/32"

1" 1" 1" 1"

ANALYZING MOTOR TROUBLE
Procedure for Analyzing Motor Trouble 1. Inspect the motor to detect mechanical trouble as broken or cracked end plates, badly bent shaft, and broken or burned leads. 2. Test the motor for bearing trouble move up and down , turn the rotor by hand, fuse burn out. 3. Whether or not the internal wires are touching the iron cores of the rotor or stator ground test using by test lamp or megger. 4. Running test to the motor - switch closed few seconds. • • • • Fuse blow The winding may smoke The motor may rotate slowly or noisily. It may not turn all. Winding data 1. Name plate data, 2. The number of poles 3. The pitch of the coil ( the number of slots that each coil spans ) 4. The number of turn in each coil. 5. The size of the wire of each winding 6. The kind of connection ( series or parallel ) 7. The position of each winding in relation to other windings. 8. The type of winding (whether hand, form of skein ) 9. Slot insulation, both size and kind. 10. Number of slots. Name plate data 1. Manufacturer's type and frame designation. 2. Horse power out put. 3. Time rating. 4. Temperature. 5. RPM at full load. 6. Frequency, cycles per second (Hertz) 7. Number of phases. 8. Voltage 9. Full load amperes 10. Code 11. Design letter for integral HP motors

Repair to damage winding procedure.
Remove end plate and test to winding carefully. 1. Taking data. 2. Stripping the winding. 3. Insulating the slots. 4. Rewinding. 5. Connecting the winding. 6. Testing. 7. Baking and and varnishing. 1. Taking data.

Page No.

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ELECTRICAL HAND BOOK
TROUBLE SHOOTING
12. For motor equipped with thermal protection and for motor rated more than 1 h.p. a type number. 13. Service factor. 2. Stripping the winding • • • Remove the wedges. Varnish melting. Turn and wire size record.

10

3. Insulation the slots • • Magnet wire type and insulation classes. Slot insulation (paper).

4. Rewinding • • • Hand winding method. Form winding method. Skein winding method.

5. Winding Connection • • Series connection or parallel connection. Splicing and taping.

6. Testing the winding • • • • Short Grounds Open circuit Incorrect connections.

7. Baking and Varnishing • • • • Baking Oven at 250 Deg. F 1 hour. Dipping the varnish. Soak in the varnish 1/2-hour. Air drying varnish - fractional h.p. motor / Class A type thermal / • Heated by 1/2 voltage to winding. • Exposy resin or polyester varnish poured. • Winding heated by sending current about 5 min. • All time ½ hour.

Page No.

10

ALTERNATOR
Alternator Stationary Field & Rotating Armature Small Capacity Salient Pole Large Diameter Short Axial length Long axial length Low Speed Stationary Armature & Rotating Field Large Capacity Cylindrical Pole Small Diameter High Speed

ALTERNATOR TROUBLE SHOOTING & REPAIR
sr.no 1. Fault Absolute temperature so high Possible Case Overload Dirt or foreign particles block to air inlet & outlet or filter in force cooling air system. Unbalance load in 3-phase alternator. Overload Over excitation when very low power factor. Repair Method Release the mechanical power load in motor, supplied by alternator. Take off the no important feeder. Cleaning to filters. Re-share phase-current to get in balance. Release the mechanical power load in motor, supplied by alternator. Take off the no important feeder. Power factor correction 1. Capacitor fixing 2. Using synchronous motor : it is better method because it can get mechanical power and good power factor. Find out & repair that what happen to slow speed in revolution of machine.

2.

Overheat in rotating winding

3

Vibration & Overheat in rotating filed winding { Carefully check in log that means check in excitation ammeter reading, if it is in suddenly abnormal means suddenly short circuit in winding}

4

Spark in Slip-ring Overheat in Brushes and Slip-ring

Something happens (fault) in prime mover therefore slow in speed & gives it over excitation. Not enough filed winding Over winding in AC-winding , so over in DC volt. There are short circuit turns in field winding, although it is so much rotor current , higher in lagging power factor because it's ampere-turn is less. As in experience - End windings' short circuit are happened as following factors:Big Alternators' cylindrical rotors are many times in start/stop overheat and overcool depends upon weather in surrounding or other factors centrifugal force There are unbalance current sharing in brushes. 1. Unequal in brush pressure 2. Slip ring contain in different type brushes or un-meshing brushes use together. 3. Air-film under some brushes

Test run in no load to make sure that it is fault happen in machine as vibration. Vibration is happened that it is not fair in magnetism. When in standstill condition nothing happen, but it is short circuit in running condition. see note(1) Field winding should be not damage to take care as following cautions:Overheat Overload So many times in start/stop

1.

Equal pressure in every brush and increase if necessary. 2. Use correct brushes as manufacturer's advice. If in case use brasso to smooth brushes surface for equal current intensity. Making small slot as length on brush's

5

Over temperature in negative Unstable load current

6

7

No electricity in alternator

and overcurrent flow in other un-necessary brushes. Over contact voltage on brushes surfaces because so many dirt on it. As current flowing direction for bronze, brass material more ware and tear effect in negative brushes than positive brushes. 6.1. Something failure in driving motor's rotor. Over slip in belt Problem in primemover's governor 6.2. Sometime short circuit in rotating field Sometime open circuit in exciter. Damage connection in regulator rotating field. 6.3. Unbalance load like Furnace or Welding set. Exciter fault 7.1. Problem in exciter /ac winding 7.2. Problem in exciter /dc winding 7.3. Problem in diode, voltage regulator . 7a. Open circuit in field winding terminals or field regulator. 7b. Loosing in terminals or joint of regulator therefore shunt field circuit resistance so much. 7c. More parts of filed winding become outside so those short circuit in field coil or terminals. Other way short circuit among external winding and field winding. 7d. Residual magnetism loses. 7e. Reverse in field winding

surface for blow out dirt and get it in good contact, also can get good cooling To omit this effect, making slot pattern like spiral grove. To omit this effect, must be change in polarity as in time. Nothing failure in steel ring. 6.1. To find out in external failure.

6.2. To find out in trouble and repair it. Field AC/DC regulator fault happen

6.3. Should not supply by single alternator as in main.

7a. Find out in location and repair it. 7b. Find out in location and repair it 7c. Inspection, checking and repair it for damage windings or terminals.

7f. Field coils or a field coil reverse connection 7g. Slow excitation because wrong in field regulator terminals connection. 7h. Commutator & contact resistance so mush (i) Dirty in commutator or dirty in rinse. (ii) Not enough in brush pressure 7i. After maintenance,

7d. Take off the connection and supply by battery in few or more minutes then reconnect back as origin. 7e. Re-connect backs field winding and run as over speed limit, if it require short circuit to the armature to increase excitation. 7f. Checking and re -connect back as corrects in pole and polarity. 7g. Checking and re -connect back as corrects in regulator connection terminals.

(i) Cleaning to commutator surface (ii) Raise up to brush spring tension. 7i. Reposition in correct brush position.

something wrong in brush positions. 7j. Failure in rotating field circuit wrong in connection open circuit in winding not enough contact area on slip-ring 7k. After maintenance, wrong connection terminals in field circuit. 7l. Not include in more parts of excitation winding because there are short or earth fault in field system. 7m. Open circuit in stator winding 8 Very low voltage produce Excitation defects 8a. Very high resistance in executor circuit. 8b. Reverse connection to field coils or coils 8c. Wrong brush position 8d. After maintained, field coils were wrongly connected as series that means originally parallel connection. 8e. Short circuit in coils or a coil 8f. It is so big air gap , after maintenance that means wrongly fixed 8g. Remark - Not enough field excitation otherwise it is AC excitation winding so it's taking voltage is as transformer reaction. Therefore it cannot take so much voltage. Eacless-->i less -->φ less->Ephless 8h. Very less in rpm. 8i. Short circuit in revolving field winding connection reverse in connection. So much vibration. 8h. Most of the windings are shorted circuit so field winding is not included

7j. Find out failure and repair it.

7k. Inspection and correctly re-connect back or re-assemble to get correct poles. 7l. Inspection to part of winding which is failure and repairs it. 7m. Using necessary testing methods to know that where is it failure? and repair it. 8a. Take off extra resistance by regulator or wrong connection and poor contact to repair it. 8b. Reconnect coils' terminals correctly. 8c. Reposition it 8d. Reconnect it.

8e. Repair to damage coils or coil. 8f. Reposition and refit back as correctly to get it correctly. 8g. I=Power/Eph >> I so much >>winding burn

8h. Increase in rpm up to correct speed by major source to repair that means governor. 8i. Find out the trouble and repair it. Reconnect back to get correct pole sequence 8h. Find out the trouble coil and repair it. 1. Measured resistance by Ohmmeter 2. Supply fair reduce voltage to stator ,so rotor winding got induced emf and hot in defective coil 3. Also find out short circuit come out only in motor running time. 8i. Checks in voltage as phase by phase and find out wrongly connected coils

8i. When it is repaired to winding, reversibly and

9

Current suddenly exceed and unstable in phase

wrongly connected to some stator windings Suddenly increase in load on alternator, so the exciter unstable then its' polarity in reverse and decrease in flux as very short time

and reconnect back as correctly. Position to brush ahead then it gets enough increase field current and it gets enough voltage and then stable in exciter condition. Otherwise series resistance adds to field winding to get the stable in exciter condition. see. Remark 2. Series field winding protect to be polarity reverse, So it should use AVR and pilot exciter, supply to main exciter and can get stability and correct polarity. 11a. It should not supply to many capacitive loads by an alternator. 11b.It can be voltage stability by necessary voltage regulator. Some alternator's rotor excitation must be increased in very short period because of its armature reactance natures. It should change be excitation so watt less load changed. Adjust prime mover output and it can get useful output power. 13a.Discuss with prime mover manufacturer because of it is very poor synchronism and hunting. It is only prime mover manufacturer responsibility. 13a.Same as above

10

Exciter polarity reverse

11

Unstable in alternator voltage.

12

Unequal load sharing in parallel operation of alternators. Hunting in parallel operation.

Short circuit on the system so reclose shunt field switch in very short time(in second), therefore rotor induced emf is reversed with exciter shunt field. 11a. So much capacitive load, effect to increase voltage and unstable in self excitation and alternator. 11b.Induction motor loads are suddenly increase and then decrease, so filed decrease and voltage decrease by armature reaction There are different characteristic in alternators and exciters 13a.One or more alternator/s prime mover in defects.

13

14

Circulating current in parallel operating alternators Poor regulation in parallel operation

13b.Unstable steam pressure or poor governor, so it is mechanical impulse in prime mover. Combined two star points which are not same in characteristic. Unmatching regulator was wrongly installed . e.g. Current coils terminals of compound regulator were reversibly connected so that over excitation and more reactive component KVAR One phase is out of sequence in 3 phase system

15

Decrease fair current by reactor fixing. Earthing in parallel operated governors, so it happens that circulating current by harmonic frequency. AVRs connection should be as followed 1. Current coil in one phase. 2. Voltage coil in other two phases It can get voltage and powerfactor in same with one to another. JK contactor of field exciters are series connection so it share with same field excitation therefore take off a generator a while from synchronism. But if it correct one ,system is OK, otherwise black out.

16

Suddenly voltage drop when parallel operation in two generators

Note 1. Short circuit by centrifugal force can be tested by DC resistance measurement. Measurement should be start from standstill to various rpm .If it is suddenly change in resistance to know as it is in short circuit. Also same way measure in pole by pole to know which is defective. Note 2. It should be fix necessary stability plate in exciter's field magnet. That means an iron sheet, smaller csa than pole csa, is put between pole and yoke as magnetic circuit. Thickness and area of iron sheet is rule of thumb. Exciter's field switch must be close otherwise residual flux will be loss. Note 3. Stability test : Measure short circuit full load stator current excitation. Also measure open circuit normal voltage excitation. Summation of above two is full load, zero lagging power factor load excitation for required voltage.

Note 4. Governors should be same characteristic so it can get useful load sharing. Alternators should have same voltage regulation .Main mechanical force supply to filed regulators can get same voltage curves of exciter. It should be same voltage regulation. It should be same steps in voltage regulator.

Parallel Operation Alternators
The reasons for parallel operation 1. It is the best efficiency in 75% to 100% load, so it can get the cost per unit amount for generation and good in load factor. 2. Small machines can be matained easily that means some are running , some standby and some overhauling. If it has good rotation program for maintenance can avoid the major damage and continuously supply. 3. It is easy to upgrade the generation station to supply higher demand. Parallel operation procedure 1. Correct phase sequence connection that mean correct in RYB or 123. 2. Same or equal frequencies of the alternators. 3. Busbar voltage and Generator paralleled voltage must be equal. It can get adjust to field excitation at pre mark speed of rotation. 4. It must know that exact time at synchronizing It can be known by synchroscope, dark lamp method, bright lamp method, one dark two bright lamp method.

DC MOTOR TROUBLE SHOOTING & REPAIR
Sr.No. 1. Fault Motor not running Possible Case 1.1 Voltage loss at motor terminals Reminds 1.1.1.Check main switch, if fuse burn out, replace new one. 1.1.2. If it is not fuse blown, check starter starting resistors. It may be opened at resistance section. 1.2.1. Run motor in no load that means take off belt from motor pulley, if it is gear motor take it out and run no load. If motor run in smoothly ,change to bigger h.p. motor 1.3.1. Check and see whether good contact in brush and commutator or not. 1.3.2. If it is in good contact check armature coils. 1.4.1 Check field circuit and field coils as one by one. 1.4.2 Off load and turn pulley by hand if it is not running, it may be bearing frozen, not correct position. 1.4.3 Check air gap between armature and pole. 2.1.1. Check open circuit in field coil, it may be field coils terminals open or lose connection. 2.1.2. Check no volt release coil working or not 2.2.1. Check supply voltage ( rated or less 2.2.2. Decrease load and run to motor, it may be not correct size (small) hp. 3.1.1 Check main switch. 3.1.2 Check starter protection devices. 3.2.1 Check mechanical part, it may be suddenly increased load 4.1.1. Check it is straight motor pulley and mechanical driven (load) part. 4.2.1 Check it is balance weight on armature 4.2.2 Check loose bearing 4.3.1 Check every coils, every slots, every wedges 4.3.2 Check binding strings which tie to coils are broken or not. 5.1.1 Dismantle the brushes from their holder and adjust the placing. 5.2.1 Check spring pressure to every brushes and make any adjustment 6.1.1 Decrease load 6.1.2 Change to bigger capacity motor 6.2.1 Check ground in armature by instruments. ( Megger, growler tester ) 6.2.2 Check short circuit in armature by instruments.( Megger, growler tester ) • Disconnect field coils' connection • Measure each coils resistance. It must be the same value. • Low value coil's resistance means turn short. • If a little turn short must be painted insulation or varnish

1.2 Overload

1.3 Armature shortcircuit or open circuit. 1.4 Field circuit open or short.

2.

Motor run, but starter off many short times

2.1. No magnetic force in holding coil or very weak magnetism. 2.2. Not enough torque for overload.

3.

Suddenly stop when motor was running. Very noisy

3.1 Electricity failure 3.2 Overload

4

4.1 Loose in shaft sleeve bearing 4.2 Over vibrating or Excessive vibration 4.3 Armature winding's wedges are loose

5.

Over heat in commutator Armature overheat

6.

5.1 Brushes are not correct position 5.2 Over pressure in brushes springs. 6.1 Motor overload 6.2 Something blocks in armature core ventilation.

7.

Overheat in field coils

7.1 Turn short in field coils

• 8. Motor runs very slowly 8.1 Short circuit in armature or commutator. Carbon particle stuck on commutator. 8.2 Pole shoe and armature touched when it is running. 8.3 Over press brushes and commutator.

9.

Sparking in brushes

9.1 Out of position in commutators

9.2 Brushes are out of M.N.A or without M.N.A 9.3 Overload 10. Overheat in bearing 10.1 Grease frozen in bearing housing 10.2 Not enough lubrication in bearing. 10.3 Over tension in belt or chain.

If very harzard damage in coil to rewinding. 8.1.1 Check short circuit in which coil of armature. 8.1.2 Also check short circuit in which commutator segment. Can test by means of megger or external glower. 8.2.1 Take out shin iron strips which are under the poles and adjust to get correct clearance between pole shoe and armature. 8.3.1 Check it is become rough surface on commutator's face. 8.3.2 Check loose in brush holder. 8.3.3. Check spring pressure correct or not. 9.1.1 Check spring pressure 9.1.2 Check it is smooth surface on commutator face. 9.1.3 Check brushes and brushes holders position correct or not. 9.2.1 Find out Neutral point and reposition brushes. 9.3.1 Decrease load 9.3.2 Replace bigger capacity motor. 10.1 Read instruction of manufacturer and follow it. 10.2.1 Read instruction of manufacturer and follow it. 10.2.2 Check it is correct lubricating oil or not and put in. 10.3 Decrease tension.

CONTACTOR THEORY
Contactor Theory 1. Normal Using : Surface of the contactor roughness depends upon the ratio of interruption and closing number of times that means closing at 5 times of rated current , interruption at 2million times of rated current and so many time interruption and closing contactors. It is very little chance to compare that deformation in edge of the contactor by wear and tear. Until color of contactor change to dark blue color, it is no problem so can use continuously. 2. Closing/Interruption at Overcurrent : Surface of roughness and deformation of contactor can be come out when 2 times of rated current. Edges of the contactor spread out . It can see that silver spot on the dark blue contactor surface, but it is no need to do any maintenance. 3. Suddenly and So many times open and closing at Inrush Current: When it is motor inching time that means speed up and little time running, is 5 times bigger than rated current, contactor are closed and/or open can cause following defects or symptoms 3.1 wear and tear 3.2 dis-uniforming 3.3 Silver alloy melts and spread out 3.4 Silver melted liquid drop down in fixed contact 3.5 many wear tear at the top of the moving contact 3.6 it can see melted silver uniformly spread on the base plate of moving contact 3.7 Also it can see blue color silver sulfate, well known that silver brightness parts 3.8 crack lines on the contactor when it is open/close time so much. Find out the basic trouble and maintain as so many times to get correctly.

4. Close/Open at Over rush current : Contactors are open/close at 10 times of rated current can get following defects or symptoms. 4.1 it is rising that surface roughness. 4.2 All surface become brightly silver color. 4.3 It can see arcing amount. It may be interrupted at harzard severe time like short circuit. Find out the basic trouble/reason and remove it furthermore normal maintaining. 5. Un-completely Closing : There are following three reason of the contactors' nature. 5.1 Less voltage and incompletely closing 5.2 Under voltage supply and incompletely closing contact symptom 5.3 Wear and tear for contactor vibrating. 5.1 Less voltage and incompletely closing: It can get enough magnetic attractive force that 85% of rated voltage. But supply side drops severely causes very low magnetic attractive force and happen that incompletely closing of contactor. Also motor vibrating can get that loss voltage and contactor vibrated. So that contactor closes and opens so fast and contact burnt by arcing heat. Although supply voltage enough or complete , wire so long and/or under size(very small, very high resistance) can also be incompletely closing. It is bigger than 5 times of rated current when 3 phase induction motor direct starting time. If it is used very small size wire in circuit, terminal voltage of magnetic coil may be lower than 85% of rated supply voltage. So it's voltage loss cause can not close completely and can see contacts vibration. Normally motor start to run slowly and smoothly, very short time current flow like that and then starting time finish and current drop until normal rated current. In this way voltage becomes normal rated voltage and electro magnetic contactors are in enough voltage and continue. Sometime it may be combine effect that supply voltage drop and wire size so small. 5.2 Under voltage supply and incompletely closing contact symptom : Wear and tear at contact top part that means it is can not move to top part until contactor are suppressed. Wear and tear the whole surface. Especially center area roughness is higher. It can see specially un-uniforming. Edge of the contacts becomes like flowers. Sometime base plate of the contact burn by heat flow by contact. Sometime it is change in color. 5.3 Wear and tear for contactor vibrating: A electro magnetic contactor performs together with auxiliary relay, plugging relay, and thermostat. So if their vibrations effect to contactor vibration by voltage unstable. Until good condition of contactor is unstable close and vibrate in very short period and then completely close. It is bigger arcing in starting than stopping. 6. Contact Changing or Replacing: Normally it is assume that contact changing time by daily using times and number of days. But it should not decide that normal performing facts. It should decide contact changing time by wiping drop and amount of wear and tear. Normally top part of contact wear and tear is small so that it must decide by wipe condition. If something special using also consider that top part wearing. 7. Wipe : Moving of contact base starts to end. Until contact moving finished, base continuously moves therefore spring pressure increase until base stop. The moving force can get from electro magnet. When contact wear , wipe less and pressure drop. Rated lowest level of wipe value is 0.3mm or 1mm or 1.5mm to 2mm etc. Note: Arc shield should change new one when contact changing otherwise short circuit in normal condition. If it rust on contact of electromagnet surface, clean by dry clothes . Don't scratch surface, otherwise it can be humming. Normal rusting also does normal performance. If it wants to stop long time, it is to coat little by low viscosity transformer oil to prevent rusting. It is not stick dirt on electromagnet axis by blower. Otherwise it is humming by dirt on surface.

CONTACTORS TROUBLE SHOOTING
Sr.No 1. Problem Contact not close Relation Coil very hot Possible Case 1.1. Supply voltage so low 1.2. Unstable supply voltage 1.3. Volt variation so much in circuit. 1.4. Damage (mold etc.) 1.5. Loose connection 1.6 Loose contact 1.7 Contact vibrate 1.8 Relay operated 1.4. Repair it or change new one. 1.5. Reconnect back tightly. 1.6 Repair it or change new one. 1.7 Repair it or change new one. 1.8 Find troubles and maintain it. 1.9 Correction to right circuit. 1.10 Re arrange that to get correct circuit connection Discuss Electricity Supply Department. To Operate Discuss with Electrical supply department. • •

Remark Voltage drop so high by not only loa but also current. Power line very long or very small s of wire.

If it tight nicely, it cannot loose anymore

2

Contact vibrate

• •

Melting and mis positioning Informally wear and tear.

1.9 Line opens or ground to operate circuit. 1.10 Wrong connection in circuit 2.1 Supply voltage very low. 2.2 Unstable supply voltage. 2.3 Unstable circuit voltage 2.4 Loose connection 2.5 Contact vibrate

Lousy float switch, plugging switch can made vibration and misunderstanding to electro magnetic starter. Supervisor never experience trouble is in misunderstanding assumes that overload relay operates, and can not switch on. Press reset buttons and starts again. It is not so easy to find out the trouble, s that misunderstand the basic reason.

Over volt drop by load current + starting current.

Connect firmly. Repair it or change to new good one. 3.1 Use correctly. 3.2 Repair it or change new good one. 3.3 If possible assemble in dirt free area or use dirt proof type 4.1 Discuss with Electricity supplier 4.2 Use correctly. 4.3 Repair it or change new good one. 5.1 Discuss with company agent.

Power line very long or very small wire causes volt drop in starting time. If it is firmly tighten, it can't loose wash and spring anymore. Starter may misunderstand that effects o lousy float switch, plugging relay etc.

3.

Over attractive force.

3.1 Over voltage and frequency. 3.2 Open line or short circuit in coil. 3.3 Dirt in contactor unit

It may be explode when dirt so many ins Also problem in moisture and dirt mixin environment.

4.

Noisy in operation.

4.1 Supply voltage very low. 4.2 Over voltage or frequency. 4.3 Line open or short circuit in coil. Circuit not open 5.1 So many contacts operating

5.

Contact melting and mis-

5.1 It may be possible for plugging and inching operation nature.

positioning

times 5.2 Short circuit at load side.(fuse not include) 6.1 Operated voltage or frequency not corrects. 6.2 Phase out, run reverse a bit and over rated current running. 6.3 So much times open and close. 6.4 Oil dirt stuck on the contact surface. 6.5 Short circuit at load side (fuse not include in short ckt)

6.

Informally wear and tear.

5.2 Find out basic problem and repair it, also use good enough protective fuses. 6.1 Use correctly.

6.2 Discuss with sale agent or technical agent. 6.2 Discuss with sale agent or technical agent.

6.2 To select that first class of interrupt in plugging and inching.

6.3 Over plugging and inching effect to contactors.

6.4 Take care about wiring for oil usin machine. 6.5 Find out the primary problem and repair it and use enough fuse size. 7.1 Repair it or change new good one.

6.5 Thimble overload relays can not pro to short circuit. Also wire fuses are weak blow out so it can not interrupt the circu that means it is assumption that no fuse include in circuit 7.2 Mechanical life time finished

7.

Circuit or contact not open

• •

operate very easy Heater burn out (mold)

7.1 Damage mold etc. 7.2 Iron core clearance so small 7.3 Dirt inside contactor unit. 7.4 Contactor's iron surface oil dirt stuck 8.1 Very little core clearance 8.2 Contactor's iron surface oil dirt stuck 9.1 Dirt inside in contactor unit 9.2 Over closing time in contactor 9.3 Mold damage 9.4 Other operating circuit trouble 10.1 Over closing time in contactor 10.2 Very long time taking in starting time 10.3 Over calibration to relay.

8.

Contact open time very long

• •

Very easy to perform Heater burns out that means very hot mold unit.

7.3.1 Fixing in dirt frees area or use dirt proof type. 7.4.1 Fixing in dirt free area or use dirt proof type 8.1 Repair it or change good new one 8.2 Fixing in dirt frees area or use dirt proof type. 9.1 Fixing in dirt free area or use dirt proof type 9.2 Discuss with manufacturer's agent 9.3 Repair it or change new good one. 9.4 Discuss with manufacturer's agent 10.1 Discuss with manufacturer's agent 10.2 Discuss with manufacturer's agent 10.3 Re do it correctly.

7.3.1 If textile factory area, dirt inside contactor can be exploded also the facto that moisture filled dirt can get the prob 7.4.1 Machine that oil using should tak care about wiring connection, and wirin 8.1 Mechanical life time finished

9.

Short circuit in phase contact

9.1 If textile factory area, dirt inside contactor can be exploded also the facto that moisture filled dirt can get the prob 9.2 Plugging and inching operations ca damage to contactor.

10.

Thermal OL very easy to work

9.4 It is very complex in control equipm so not very easy to find the problem therefore it can miss the main reason. 10.1 Plugging and inching operations ca damage to contactor. 10.2 Like fan, pump or car

10.3 Calibrate as load limit, special sca calibrating should be mark as proportion

11.

Thermal overload no working

10.4 Contactor fix at Very vibrate place 10.5 Overload for contactor 11.1 Over calibrating 11.2 Other operating circuit trouble 12.1 Over work for contactors.

10.4 To fix at low vibrating or no vibrating places. 10.5 Find out the trouble and repair it. 11.1 Re do it correctly. 11.2 Discuss with manufacturer's agent 12.1 Discuss with manufacturer's agent

10.4 It is no problem for 1mm/1.200mi vibrating place. 10.5 Press reset for contactor crazy.

11.1 Calibrate as load limit, special scal calibrating should be mark as proportion

12.

Heater burn out that means mold very hot. It is thermal OL relay problem

11.2 It is very complex in control equipm so not very easy to find the problem therefore it can miss the main reason 12.1 Plugging and inching operations ca damage to contactor.

• •

12.2 Short circuit 12.2. Find out the at load side that main reason and use means not include reliable fuse type and fuse. size It should be change contactor that 2/3 of the contactor's silver coated wearied. It is sure damage with stuck that it only left Cu contacts.

12.2 Thermal OL relay can not protect short circuit. Wire fuse is low explosive that it can not blow out, therefore it is no include fuse in circuit.

MAGNETIC DISC BRAKE TOUBLESHOOTING
Sr.No. 1. Trouble Not attract to armature or a little attract it. Cause 1.1 No terminal voltage or not enough very low in terminal voltage. 1.2 Coil broke 1.3 Foreign materials are place in armature and core surface 1.4 Very big airgap 2.1 Electricity cannot stop 2.2 It is not smoothly turn armature or lining holder. 2.3 Foreign material inside. 2.4 Internal burning 3. Magnetic coil burns out. 2.5 Over voltage. 3.1 Short circuit in coil 3.2 Counter voltage come out 3.3 Slip and overheat. Remedy 1.1 Check out the electric circuit and repair it. 1.2 Troubleshooting and repair it. 1.3 Clean it 1.4 2.1 Measure and re-calibrate back Check out the electricity and repair it.

2.

Armature cannot pick off.

2.2 Dismantle it and release the parts which are over tightened. 2.3 Dismantle and clean it.

2.4 Dismantle and check it out, if it very difficult to repair replace good new one. 2.5 Check out the circuit and correct it. 3.1 Change new brake or new coil.

3.4 Over heat in idling torque. 3.5 Very low brake torque

3.2.1 Check reverse voltage protecting resistor and repair i damage. 3.2.2 Change brake. Check the brake and find out the trouble as follows. 3.3.1 Armature attraction. 3.3.2 Low brake torque or very less brake torque. 3.3.3 Other type load using or not. 3.3.4 Many time performing need it or not. 3.3.5 Overlap motor and brake torque. 3.3.6 Lining burns out. 3.4. Recalibrate back to surface clearance. Check it out as follows 3.5.1 Very big gap 3.5.2 Very weak in spring pressure. 3.5.3 It is not proper fitting. 3.5.4 Wrong selection brake size 3.5.5 Lining wet by oil.

4.

Over slip or it cannot perform fast.

4.1 Vary in load condition

5.

Very hot brake housing.

6.

It is too heavy to turn to friction disc

Check it out as follows 4.1.1 Load increase by 6D2 4.1.2 Increase speed rpm 4.1.3 Increase in repulsion force 4.2 Lining burn out 4.2 Find out the basic reason and change the lining. 4.3 Overlap with motor and 4.3 Check the basic reason and if it needs time different bake torque between motor and brake. 4.5 Slip and overheat 4.5 Check out similar manner 4.6 Short circuit in coil. 4.6 Change new brake or coil. 5.1 Very high terminal 5.1 Check it out the electric circuit and repair it. voltage 5.2 Overheat at normal no 5.2 Check out surface clearance and adjust it. load 5.3 Wear and tear in brake 5.3 If it is possible repair it otherwise change new good on housing thread and friction disc. 6.1 Catch by brake 6.2 Release it 6.2 Spread out the thread 6.2 Cool it and turn it.

CAPACITOR MOTOR
Analyzing Motor Trouble 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inspect the motor for mechanical defects. Test the motor for bearing troubles. Test for ground, shorts. Running test for noise, speed etc. Capacitor must be tested

Rewinding 1. Taking data. 2. Stripping the winding 3. Insulating the slots. 4. Rewinding 5. Connects the winding. 6. Testing. 7. Braking and varnishing. Common Reason for Capacitor Failure 1. Stuck or fused contacts on the switch on relay. Result : Continuous application of voltage to the capacitor. 2. Worn or frozen bearings on the motor. 3. Excessive load on the motor. Result : this prevents the motor from starting or from reaching full speed. 4. Incorrect capacitor rating. Reason: Too large or too small a capacitor will produce a decrease in the starting torque. 5. Incorrect voltage rating of the capacitor. notice: the voltage rating of the capacitor is much higher than the voltage rating of the motor, higher voltage capacitors can be used to replace units with lower voltage ratings. 6. Lower line voltage. Reason : low line voltage into the motor may cause the motor to continue running on the starting winding capacitor in the circuit longer than permitted by its maximum duty cycle. 7. Shorted capacitor case. Testing the capacitor 1. Fuse burn out test for shorted capacitor. 10A fuse across 115V, 60Hz power line .

2. Shorted by screwdriver. 3. Capacity test : Using ac voltmeter (||) & ac ammeter (series). Capacity in uF = 159300 x Amperes / (Frequency x Volts) 4. Test for open : Using ammeter. 5. Test for shorts : Fuse burn out Using test lamp in series 6. Test for Ground : Using test lamp. 7. Test for winding : * Grounds test • • • Shorts test Opens test Reverse test.

Sr.no.
1.

Trouble
The Capacitor start motor fails to start

Possible Case
1. Defective Capacitor. 2. Burn out fuse 3. Opens windings 4. Centrifugal switch 5. Shorted winding 6. Worn bearing 7. Overload 1. Defective capacitor short. 2. Defects capacitor opens 3. Loss of capacity

Cause
Same as the split phase motor. -----||----------||----------||----------||----------||----------||-----starting winding circuit will be in operative and motor not starting 1.Test the capacitor.

Remedy

2.

The motor hums and then blows a fuse shortly after current is applied.

2. To find cause. 3. Test for open using test lamp. 4. Exchange. 5. Short test 6. Exchange 7. Search * Test Capacitor * Replace capacitor

Permanent split capacitor motor expects the centrifugal switch will not be encountered.

Two-value Capacitor Motor
Sr.no.
*

Trouble
Electrolytic capacitor defective.

Possible Case
Prevent the starting or Not run perfectly

Cause

Remedy
Starting capacitor should be replaced.

Running capacitor failure with slightly lowered efficiency.

Two-value Capacitor -transformer Motor
Sr.no.
1.

Symptom
Fail to run

Possible Cause
Defective capacitor transformer unit.

Cause
Capacitor or transformer both or one may break down. Difficult to determine.

Remedy
To remove the transformer & replace it with an electrolytic capacitor.

2.

Efficiency slightly less and not run as quietly.

Lower the capacity.

* New capacitor change and see carefully * Measure by ammeter if torque is the highest, t lowest current in flow.

General trouble and Symptom for Capacitor Motor
Sr.no. 1. Symptom/Trouble Poor Starting Torque or Possible Case (a) Defective Capacitor

starts with difficulty 2. The Fuse Burn out when current is applied to the motor

3.

The motor hums but doesn't run.

4.

Smoke from a motor while running

5.

Higher temperature than normal temperature Higher than normal speed Starting torque less Slower than normal speed

6. 7 8.

(b) Worn Bearing (c) Shorted winding (d) Wrong connections (a) Shorted winding (b) Started capacitor (c) Open winding (d) Grounded winding (e) Overloaded (f) Badly worn bearings (g) Defective centrifugal switch (h) Wrong in pole connection (a) Defective capacitor (b) Open/Short starting or running winding Overload (d) Miss alignment in rotor (Rotor apmif;ae^cif;) (e) Miss alignment in shaft (Shaft aumufae^cif;) (f) Bearing so tight. (Bearing }uyfae^cif;) (g) End plate miss position (End plate txdkifrus^cif;) (a) Shorted windings Failure of centrifugal switch to open starting winding circuit. (e) Bearing trouble. (f) Overload (g) Defective auto transformer. (a) Winding turn wrong (less winding turns) (b) Winding wire size so small (Checking as table 3.) Tight with rotor and stator (e) So less in grease in bearing (a) Wrong in pole connection or shorted (b) Over supply voltage (a) Check starting capacitor value (b) Starting winding turn short Overload (a) Starting winding include running time by centrifugal switch. (b) Wrong pole connection or Shorted. Bearing clearance. see table 1.

SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
Motor Testing Grounds : 1. 2. 3. Bolt of the end plate tight to winding and winding damage.

Windings and slot edge tight, when windings were placed. Centrifugal switch ground to end plate , test by test lamp.

Open Circuit : 1. Loose connection or dirty connection. 2. 3. Short Circuit : Wire broken. Centrifugal switch open, tests by test lamp.

1. Windings are very hardly pressed inside the slots and very hardly tightened until cover enamel damage. 2. Excessive heat by overload symptom : Smoke from windings and overcurrent in noload. Motor run in short time and find out that which winding is the hottest. Use internal growler. V drops test. Measure field strength by iron strip. Use ammeter

Testing Procedure : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Reverse or Rotation :

1. The compass method. 2. The nail method. Possible Case 1.1 Open running coil 1.2 Open starting coil Test Method/Reason Testing the winding with test lamp. 1.2.1 To connect the motor to power line. An open circuit starting winding will cause to the motor to hum 1.2.2 Turn the rotor by manual and switch turn on, if motor continue to run the trouble is starting winding open 1.2.3 To use the test lamp c.w switch open or starting winding open. First : Centrifugal switch test. Second : Starting winding test. 1.3.1 Fuse blow when 2 or more ground or smoke 1.3.2 Test lamp method 1.4 Burned or shorted winding 1.3.3 Use internal glower. 1.4.1 Fuse blown 1.4.2 The winding will smoke. 1.4.3 Smell out and its burned appearance 1.5.1 Overload 1.5.2 Too much current flow through winding 1.5.3 The contacts are examined for dirty, defective or burned points. 1.6 By connecting an ammeter in the ckt <snap around volt, ammeter, ohmmeter can be used > A short winding cause large reading. 1.7.1 To move the shaft up and down by hand. 1.7.2 A small amount of plays the bearing low rotor touch stator. 1.7.3 Sludge may prevent an up and down motion of • In many case only stating winding will be burned and need to rewind Remedy Repair by rewinding if necessary.

Sr.no. 1.

Trouble Motor fail to start

• May be repaired by splicing if it • readily accessibly Rewinding is necessary if the coil is burned or severely dam • . To test the running winding for any defects before replacing the starting winding o

1.3 Grounded winding

• •

Exchange the winding. Insulation adding for small case.

• The running winding should be tested before install the new starting. winding • If the contact points are in bad condition should be replaced with new ones.

1.5 Open circuit OLs devices (which connect series with motor)

1.6 Excessive over load

Cut out the overload and search for the ov source & repair it.

1.7 Worn or tight bearing.

• • • •

New bearings are required. Sleeve bearing is removed by means of ar some other press/new sleeve bearing repla Motor is disassembled so that the rotor is in one end plate. It may be reconditioned to its original rou and smoothness by turning it in lathe (metallization method used by forcing mo

shaft. 1.7.4 The shaft of rotor is worn. 1.7.5 Frozen bearing (little grease in bearing so molten by bearing heat) 1.8.1 The bearing is out of alignment. 1.8.2 The rotor turned by hand difficulty or not at all. 1.8.3 Using mallet hammer or lead hammer and listen The sound solid. 1.9.1 Rotor doesn't turn easily by hand. 2.1.1 To run at a lower speed. 2.1.2 Humming or growling noise 2.1.3 The pole contains the short will usually become excessive hot and smokes. 2.1.4 To locate the shorted pole by an internal glower is used. 2.1.5 Pole may be located by merely feeling for the hot coil. 2.2.1. Same symptom for shorted running winding. 2.2.2. Take off starting winding and run it, if cw s/w ok and run properly means starting winding not properly working. 2.2.3. Contact points were welded or stuck. 2.2.4. Fiber washer is not proper position on the shaft. 2.3.1 Incorrect polarity. 2.3.2 Growling noise. 2.3.3 Each pole tested by compass or nail test. 2.4.1 Induced current to flow in the pole coils overheated, smoke and burn out. 2.5.1 Noisy in operation. 2.5.2 Sluggish in rotation. 2.5.3 Rotor rubs against the stator while running. 2.5.4 Motor shaft moved up and down test. • •

metal on it )

Loose to shaft by blow touch and then rep bearing.

1.8. End plate improperly mounted.

If end plate does not fit, all screwed shoul loosened and each one tightened a little a and drawing the plate evenly and securely stator. In assembling first screw on, adjac on not tightly first and step by step tight.

2

Motor run slower than normal speed

1.9 Bent rotor shaft. 2.1 Short circuit in running winding.

• • • •

Rotor is removed from stator and placed i (see in page 45.) To find the short and after it is found. Insulate it if possible. If it cannot be insulated, rewind the coil o entire winding.

2.2 Starting winding remains in the circuit.

• •

Replace new c.w switch. Place fiber washer as correct position.

2.3. Reversed running winding poles. 2.4. Other incorrect stator connections. 2.5 Worn in bearing

When the improper polarity is located, th wire of the pole are disconnected, reverse reconnected.

To connect all poles exactly as required by

Same as upper worn bearing case.

2.6 Loose rotor bars

3

Motor runs hot

3.1 Shorted winding

3.2 Grounded winding

3.3 Short circuit between running and starting winding.

2.6.1 The motor runs with reduced power. 2.6.2 Growling noise. 2.6.3 Visual inspection. 2.6.4 Using armature glower (or external glower) flicker of the series lamp indicates open bar. 3.1.1 Shorted pole will become excessive hot. 3.1.2 Growling noise. 3.1.3 Testing shorts for locate and short circuit exists. 3.2.1 Two or more ground is equal to short. 3.2.2 To run very hot. 3.2.3 Severe damage. 3.2.4 Use test lamp. 3.3.1 Will be burn out the starting winding . 3.3.2 Use test lamp to starting winding terminal and running winding leads.

• • •

Solder or welded to the end rings. Rotor with a die cast aluminum squirrel Cage does not have this defect.

• •

Can be repaired and insulated the pole. The entire winding must be rewound.

• • •

Re-insulating if possible. If impossible the grounded pole must be r If one point ground immediately repair is essential.

3.4 Worn bearing.

3.5 Overload

4.

Motor runs noisily that means unusual amount of noise.

4.1 Shored winding. 4.2 Poles are connected improperly 4.3 Loose rotor bar 4.4 Worn bearing 4.5 Worn centrifugal switch

4.6 Too much end play.. 4.7. Foreign material in rotor.

3.4.1 Rotor touches to stator. 3.4.2 Over heat when it is just run. 3.4.3 Move rotor shaft up and down. 3.5.1 Draw more than rated current . 3.5.2 Procedure excessive heat. 3.5.3 Ammeter test. | | | Produce magnetic hum | | Allow the rotor to rub against the stator. 4.5.1 Some parts of centrifugal switch are not separate in high speed, so it is touch to rotor and noise. 4.5.2 Loose member of rotating part hit or rubs to one part of motor. Something plays more than 1/64" become noise. It may be pieces of wire or insulation touch to rotor and it makes noise.

• The starting winding is moved away from running winding • Winding and various places in the stator . shorted point is moved, the lamp will flic out. • Use short point method to find the locatio cannot use other method as take off startin winding and find out. • A strip of varnish cambric or Armo paper between two windings. • Polish surface on it. • If rubbing against the stator, replacing the bearing.

• •

The load should be reduced. Motor replaced with large one.

Follow above methods. Follow above methods • • •

Disassemble rotor and check centrifugal s which you suspected. Repair the damage part. If cannot repair replace by new one..

Put Fiber washer in require place of rotor shaf

Disassemble motor and remove by pliers or sc driver carefully that its don't damage the wind

POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
#Testing
*Grounds Test * Disconnect the star point for each winding.

• • • •

Disconnected the jumpers between group of the coil windings. Opening the coil splices Search ground. Reinsulated the slot or new coil in the stator.

*Open Circuit Test Break in the coil. • • • Loose connection at the splices or jumpers. Use test lamp and determine phase open. Reconnected and soldered and tape.

*Shorted Circuit Test * Use internal growler. • Operate the motor for a few minutes. Search for the hottest coil group. • By means of ammeter (clip on type motor) in each phase (balance test) • Higher reading phase is shorted. *Reverse Test • • Sr.no. 1. * Reverse coil - Compass needle method.

Reverse coil group - Compass needle method. Reverse phases - Compass needle method. Symptom/Trouble Fails to Start Possible Case 1.1.Burn out Fuse 1.2.Worn bearings. 1.3.Over load 1.4.Open phase. 1.5.Shorted coil or group 1.6.Loose rotor bars. 1.7.Wrong internal connection. 1.8.Frozen bearing. 1.9.Defective controller. 1.10.Grounded windings . 2.1. Burn out Fuse. 2.2. Worn bearings. 2.3. Shorted coils 2.4. Reversed phase. 2.5. Open phase 2.6. Open parallel connection. 2.7. Grounded windings. 2.8. Loose rotor bars. 2.9. Incorrect voltage or frequency. 3.1. Shorted coils or groups. 3.2. Reversed coils or group. 3.3. Worn bearing. 3.4. Overload. 3.5. Wrong connection (reversed phase). 3.6. Loose rotor bars. 4.1.Overload.

2.

Not run properly

3.

Runs slowly.

4.

Excessively hot.

4.2.Worn bearing 4.3.Tight bearing. 4.4.Shorted coil or group. 4.5.Motor running on single phase. 4.6.Loose rotor bars. #Remark Burn Out Fuse: * Remove fuse. • Test with test lamp ( light means good, no light means bad ) • Don't remove fuse. • Switch closes and test with test lamp. ( light means bad, no light means good ) • Winding become very hot and noisy and not pulls the load. @ Remedy : Locate and replace the defective fuses. Worn Bearings: @ Cause :* Rotor will ride on the stator and cause noisy operation. • If bearing are so worn rotor rest firmly on the stator and impossible to run.

@ Check: * Try moving the shaft up and down. • • Remove and inspects for the rotor for smooth, worn spots. @ Remedy: * The only remedy is to replace the bearings. A large motor is made with feeler gauge. The air space between the rotor and the stator must be the same at all points for not replaces bearing.

Overload: @ Check: * Remove the load or belt. • • • Turn on the shaft by hand usually a broken past or dirty mechanism will prevent the shaft from moving freely. To connect the ammeter in series with each live wire ( snap-around-voltmeter and ohmmeter to test ). The current in the nameplate is same as the reading. Excessive reading is one phase short. To test voltage, resistance and current.

Open Phase @ Cause: * Motor will continue to run but have less power. • Broken wire in-group of coil or a loose connection.

@ Remedy : * Locate the open coil. • • Rewinding the open coil or if it is possible, connect the open point. The motor will continue to run if phase open, but will not start if at standstill, conditions are similar to those of a blown fuse.

Shorted coil or Group @ Cause : * Noisy operation. • • Smoke. When insulating enamel on the wire fails, individual turn become shorted and coil extremely hot and burn out. @ Check: •
* Locating defective coils by means of the eye or balance test.

By means of the growler. @ Remedy: * Cut the entire coil at one point at the back and twist the turn on both sides. Be certain the turns are free of insulation before wire twist. • If an entire group is burn out the motor should be rewound.

Loose Rotor Bars @Cause: * Produce noisy operation. • Spark may be seen between the bars and end rings while the motor is running. • The motor may not rotate. @Check: * Glower and hacksaw use to test. @Remedy: * Resoldering or welding. @Notice: * Not use above procedures for a die cast aluminum winding. Wrong Internal Connections @Check: * Remove motor. • Place large ball bearing in the stator. • Switch is closed to supply current to the winding. • If connection wrong, the ball bearing will remain stationary. @Remedy: * For medium and large sized motors should be used reduced voltage or a fuse may blow. • Reconnect the connection as data of coil.

Frozen Bearing @Cause: * Oil or Lubrication oil is not supplied or not sufficient. • Expansion the bearing by heat and may weld to the shaft. • Impossible to rotate. @Remedy: * The shaft has to be turned down on a lathe to the new size and new bearing made. • If ball bearing are used replace with new ones.

Defective Controller @Cause: * The contacts on the controller do not make good contact. • The motor will fail to start.

Grounded Windings @Cause: * When motor is touched, it will produce shock. • Grounds are more than one place, it is equal to short circuit and fuse will blow. @Check: * Use by test lamp. @Remedy: * Repair by rewinding. • Replacing the defective coil. Reverse Phase @Cause: * To run more slowly than rated speed. • Produce an electrical hum indicative of wrong connection. @Remedy: * Check the connections and reconnect them according to plan. Open Parallel Connection @Cause: * A noisy hum. • It will prevent the motor from pulling to full load. @Remedy: * Check for complete parallel circuit.

AC MOTOR CONTROLLER
Sr.No. 1. Trouble Motor doesn't start when the main contact close. Possible Cause 1.1.Open OL heater coil or poor connection. 1.2.Main contacts not making. 1.2.1. One or contacts wear sufficiently.

2.

If the contact does not closed when the start button is pressed.

1.2.2. Dirty. 1.2.3. Gritty. 1.2.4. Burned. 1.3. Broken, Loose or dirty terminals connection. 1.4. Dirty or broken pigtail connection. 1.5. Open resistance unit or open autotransformer. 1.6. Obstruction on the magnet core, preventing the contacts from closing. 1.7. Mechanical trouble, mechanical interlocks, gummy pivots, poor spring tension s on. 2.1. Open holding coil ( Test by test lamp ) 2.2. Dirty start button contacts or poor contact 2.3. Open or dirty stop button contacts ( More than one station, check each station. For forward-reverse station, interlocked, check all contacts ) 2.4. Loose or open terminal connection. 2.5. Open OL relay contacts. 2.6. Low voltage. 2.7. Shorted coil. 2.8. Mechanical trouble. 3.1. Maintaining contacts that don't close completely or are dirty, pitted, or loosed. 3.2. Wrong connection of station to the controller. 4.1. Grounded contacts. 4.2. Shorted coil. 4.3. Shorted contact. 5.1. Broken shaded pole causing chattering. 5.2. Dirty core face. 6.1. Overvoltage. 6.2. Excessive current due to a large magnetic gap caused by dirt, grit or mechanical trouble. 6.3. Too frequent operation.

3. 4. 5. 6.

The contacts open when start button is released. Fuse blow when start button is pressed. The magnet coil is noisy in operation. Magnet coil is burned or shorted.

Testing • • • • • • • • Opens Shorts Grounds Continuity Shorted coils Open coils Grounded coils Open resistance • • • • • • • •

Shorted resistance Low voltage High voltage Excessive amperes. Broken connection Dirty connection Loose connection Many other mal-functioning component may be tested with comparativ case

Lightning Calculation
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. There are 2 types in lightning cable, Cu and Aluminum. When roof is metal sheet , It should use Aluminum cable . Lightning tape standard size is 25mm width x 3mm thickness. Earthing should be normal earthing system, then standard amount of resistance is Re < 10Ω

BI (Junction) Earth Spike or Earth Plate Cu. 6. Standard Lightning final is a 300mm or 600mm long Cu final etc.

Allowable Cable Bending

R < 6D

Where R is Bending Radius D is Diameter of the cable( outer )

Conduit Size Calculation.
Space factor : - The ratio of the total CSA of cables to the CSA of the conduit housing; it is expressed as a percentage . The stated maximum value for conduits is 40%. Space factor = CSA Cables CSA Conduit e.g. What size of conduit is required for 4x2.5mm2 & 4x6mm2 PVC cables. mm2 40 = 100/40(4x0.7854 x3.52 + 4x0.7854x4.92) 0.7854 Conduit Diameter = 10 x 0.7854 ( 3.52 + 4.92 ) Conduit Diameter = √362.6 = 19.1 ≈ 20mm IEE Table B.5M Nominal Number & Diameter Conductor of wire (No/mm) Size (mm2) 1.0 1/1.13 1.5 1/1.38 2.5 1/1.78 2.5 7/0.67 4 7/0.85 6 7/1.04 Nominal Overall Diameter (mm) 2.9 3.1 3.5 3.8 4.3 4.9 CSA Conduit = 100 x CSA cables

Power Distribution
IEE Definition Range of voltage 1. Extra Low Voltage (ELV) 0-50 VAC or 0-120VDC between conductor to earth. 2. Low Voltage (LV) above ELV to 1KV AC(1500Vdc) between conductors or 600V AC (900Vdc) between conductors & earth. 3. Extra high pressure : above 3KV 4. Variation : ± 6% for voltage. ± 1% for frequency. Think Effect for design the substation 1. Electrical Single Line Diagram. 2. Floor Area ( standard BS area is 20m2for every one transformer) 3. Height (lift enough height is 2.75m) 4. Roof 5. Doors ( normally it is heavy aluminum louver door or heavy duty aluminum door) 6. Ventilation ( artificial heating & moisture during winter ) 7. Natural light ( desire ) & some form of light ( secondary ) 8. Fire Risk 8.1 Ignition oil in transformer and CB 8.2 Transformer short circuit in winding. 8.3 Oil vaporize and lose connection => expansion. 8.4 CO2 fire extinguisher use. 9. Package substation ( dry type transformer and ACB up to 1600A to avoid oil explosion ) 10. To lay cable trench 0.76m depth & 0.76m wide, covered with heavy duty MS plate or Steel plate ).

Busbar Size
Busbar Size 1/8 x 1 (inch) Ampere 125 Busbar Size 1/4 x3/4 (inch) Ampere 187

3.2 x 25.4 (mm) 1/8 x 1-1/2 (inch) 3.2 x 38 (mm) 1/8 x 2 (inch) 3.2 x 51 (mm) 3/16 x 1 (inch) 4.8 x 25.4 (mm) 3/16 x 1-1/2 (inch) 4.8 x 38 (mm) 3/16 x 2 (inch) 4.8 x 57 (mm) 1/8 x 5/8 (inch) 3.2 x 16 (mm) 1/8 x 3/4 (inch) 3.2 x 20 (mm) 3/8 x 1 (inch) 9.5 x 25.4 (mm) 3/8 x 1-1/4 (inch) 9.5 x 32 (mm) 3/8 x 1-1/2 (inch) 9.5 x 38 (mm) 3/8 x 1-3/4 (inch) 9.5 x 45 (mm) 3/8 x 2 (inch) 9.5 x 51 (mm) 3/8 x 2-1/4 (inch) 9.5 x 57 (mm) 3/8 x 2-1/2 (inch) 9.5 x 63.5 (mm) 3/8 x 3 (inch) 9.5 x 76 (mm) 3/8 x 4 (inch) 9.5 x 102 (mm) 2 x 9.525 x 101.6 Note: Conversion ratio

187 250

6.4 x 19 (mm) 1/4 x 1 (inch) 6.4 x 25.4 (mm) 1/4 x 1-1/4 (inch) 6.4 x 32 (mm) 1/4 x 1-1/2 (inch) 6.4 x 38 (mm) 1/4 x 1-3/4 (inch) 6.4 x 45 (mm) 1/4 x 2 (inch) 6.4 x 51 (mm) 1/4 x 2-1/4 (inch) 6.4 x 57 (mm) 1/4 x 2-1/2 (inch) 6.4 x 63.5 (mm) 1/4 x 3 (inch) 6.4 x 76 (mm) 1/4 x 4 (inch) 6.4 x 102 (mm) 1/2 x 1 (inch) 12.5 x 25.4 (mm) 1/2 x 1-1/4 (inch) 12.5 x 32 (mm) 1/2 x 1-1/2 (inch) 12.5 x 38 (mm) 1/2 x 1-3/4 (inch) 12.5 x 45 (mm) 1/2 x 2 (inch) 12.5 x 51 (mm) 1/2 x 2-1/2 (inch) 12.5 x 63.5 (mm) 1/2 x 3 (inch) 12.5 x 76 (mm) 1/2 x 4 (inch) 12.5 x 102 (mm)

250 315

187 281 374 78 100 375 470 560 655 750 840 935 1120 1500 3000 1/8 = 15.625 1mm2 = 1.55

375 437 500 562 625 750 1000 500 625 750 875 1000 1250 1500 1995

Battery (Vehicle)
Symptoms 1. Battery does not hold charge 2. Specific gravity constantly low 3. Light dim Faults 1.1 Excessive demands on battery. 1.2 Current leaking away externally. 2.1. Battery discharging back by generator. 2.2. Local action in cells 3.1. Internal short circuit in one or more cells 3.2. Insufficient charging 4. Voltage 1.8 or less per cell on headlight discharge 5. Two adjacent cells "dead" or reversed polarity. 6. Low electrolyte level in one cell 7. Frequent topping up necessary. 8. Bulged container cell covers lifted 9. Very hot & smelly 4.1. Defective cell 4.2. Electrolyte lost 5.1. Short between adjacent cells. 6.1. Electrolyte leaking 7.1. Battery being overcharge 8.1. Buckled plates 8.2. Fractured plate grids 9.1. Acid weakness Causes 1.1 Overloading of electrical system 1.2 Stop light staying on wiring faults 2.1. Generator cut out opening. 2.2. Impurities in electrolyte. 3.1. Worn out separators buckled plates, Sediment shorting bottom of plates 3.2. Generator or regulator faulty abnormal running conditions 4.1. Internal short between plates 4.2. Cracked casing 5.1. Cracked cell partition. 6.1. Cracked container.

7.1. Regulator faulty voltage setting too high. 8.1. Neglected maintenance 8.2. Worn-out battery prolonged under charging. 9.1. Check battery acid level & intensity 9.2. Fill up acid in every 1-1/2 month or granted time.

Light Source (a) Sun & Reflection from sunshine (b) Friction with materials (c ) Nuclear fusion (d) Coal, wood, gasoline etc. burning

Illumination & Lighting

Illumination Theory Luminious Flux φ : Total emission of light within 1sec. unit : 1 lumen = 1/60 watt .or. 0.00147 watt Luminious Intensity I : I = φ/w where w= 4π radian unit : candela (cd) .or. candle power ( cp) Standard Candle : make by pure wax (ysm;za,mif;ppfppf) 7/8 in diameter 120 grains .or. 7.776 gm burning within 1 hr. time Illumination ( E ) .or. ( P ) E = φ/A where φ = Flux in lumen on surface area. A = Working surface unit : lumen /ft2 => F.C .or. lumen/m2 => Lx (Lux) where 1 lux=0.093 F.C Inverse Square Law Light Source E ∝ I / r2 r Working Surface Lambert Cosine Law E = I Cos3 θ / d2 Utilization Factor .or. Utilization (Coefficient of Utilization ) It is ratio of flux(φ0) which is flux emission by light source, and flux φw direct down on the working plane. η = φw / φ0 Utilization is very important factor in Illumination & Lighting design. It needs to find out in table that color of room, maintenance factor, and light typical distribution .or. effective light percentage Lighting .or. Illumination System It can use indoor .or. outdoor 1. Direct System. 2. Semi Direct System 3. Semi - Indirect System. 4. Indirect System. Table 39-3 from Gray & Wallace Classification Approximate distribution of light output of luminaries percent Upward Downward Direct 0 - 10 100 - 90 Semi Direct 10 - 40 90 - 60 Direct- Indirect ( General diffuse ) 40 - 60 60 - 40 Semi-indirect 60 - 90 40 - 10 Indirect 90 - 100 10 - 0 In G.T.I Course as British Standard 1. Direct - 90% downward 2. Semidirect  45% downward, 30% upward & the rest drop on wall. 3. General Diffuse  40% downward, 40% upward & the rest drop on wall. 4. Semi Indirect  10% downward, 75% upward the rest drop on wall. 5. Indirect  80% , 90% upward & the rest distribute on floor & wall. In R.I.T Course as SI unit 1. Direct  75% downward

2. 3. 4. 5.

Semi direct  45% downward Direct & Indirect (General diffuse)  30% downward Semi Indirect  25% downward Indirect  20% downward

Maintenance Factor Maintenance factor depends upon cleaning condition of lighting fixture. This clearance depends upon amount of soiling(dust). I. Slight soiling .or. soiling rate low  shops, office & schools. II. Normal soiling  all other factories. III. Heavy soiling .or. soiling rate high  blast, furnace factories, smith, mine & some department of textile factories. A. Cleaning of lamps & fitting every year (end of year) B. Cleaning of lamps & fitting every 2 years C. Cleaning of lamps & fitting every 3 years It is point number .or. rational number only. Maintenance factor inverse to D.F ( Depreciation Factor ) Depreciation factor is full number.

Illumination Designing Steps ( Referred to R.I.T. 4th Year Course )
Step.1.. Step.2.. Step.3.. Step.4.. Step.5.. Find out the Room index k = (2l + 8w ) / 10h Ceiling Reflection factor rc & walls reflection factor rw fixed and then find out η from table. Find (lux) of TL rom table for φlamp & φfit & Find required illumination which effect to working plane by table ( E in lux ) Find out numbers of fitting by E x S x d.f ExS Nfit = -------------- = -------------------φfit x η φfit x η x m.f d.f - depreciation factor from cleaning type & soiling rate. 1 m.f = --------- = maintenance factor d.f.

where

Step.6.. Counter check - Find out φ0 & φ0 = Nfit x φlamp x Nos of lamp / fit φ0 Ew = ------------Where S = Area in meter2 S x d.f. φ0 =Normal Luminaries flux Compare Ew & E of selected from table, if it is almost same Nfit can be accepted. Step.7.. Arrange lamp fitting in Room # # # # # 1 lumen = 1/680 watts or 0.0147 watt I - luminous intensity in c.d. ( candela ) I = φ / w where w is solid angle Lambert Cosine law - E = I/d2 x Cos θ Slight soiling - shops, office, school, etc. Normal soiling - All others factories Heavy soiling - Blast, furnace for dairies, smith, mines & textile Factories. Reflection factor ( absorption factor rc & rw ) a. White or very light color 70% b. Light color 50% c. Medium shades 30% d. Dark color 10% Twice of distance apart from wall & nearest fitting is equal to distance between fitting by fitting. 1 lux = 0.093 F.C. ( foot-candle ) Working plane & E (F.C) ( 1-lux) Drawing office - 50~100(75) F.C or 537.6~1075.3(806.4) lux General office(Precision) - 50(30) F.C or 537.6 (322.58) lux General office( Normal ) - 50 F.C or 537.6 lux Book keeping/ Accountant / Typist - 50~100(75) F.C or 537.6~ 1075.3(806.4) lux Desk / Reading / Writing - 50 F.C or 537.6 lux

# # # 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Corridor & Stair - 2~10 F.C or 21.5~107.5 lux Hotel / Hospital & Stair - 5~10 F.C or 53.76~107.5 lux Classroom - 30~50 F.C or 322.5~537.6 lux Sewing (light color) - 50 F.Cor 537.6 lux Sewing (Deep color ) - 200 F.C or 2150.5 lux Manufacturing Factory(Base) - 30 F.Cor 322.6 lux Manufacturing Factory(Normal)-50 F.Cor 537.6 lux Manufacturing Factory(Precision) - 100~200 (150) F.C or 1075~ 2150 (1612.9)lux Hospital Operation table - 300 F.C or 3225.8 lux Ward & private room Waiting & receiving room Operating table Operating room Laboratories 3 F.C 7 F.C 300 F.C 30 F.Cor 20 F.Cor or 32.26 lux or 75.27 lux or 3225.8 lux 322.58 lux 215.05 lux

# Hospital

# Industries
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Assembling shop ( Rough work ) Assembling shop ( Ordinary work ) Assembling shop ( Medium work ) Assembling shop ( Small m/cs ) Assembling shop ( very small works)

-

7 F.C 10 F.C 20 F.C 50 F.C 100 F.C

or or or or or

75.27 lux 107.5 lux 215 lux 537.6 lux 1075.2 lux

# Glass work
Mix & Furnace room 5 F.C or 53.7 lux Glass Blowing m/c, Grinding, cutting / Glass to size, Silvering, Pressing Fine, Grinding, Beveling, Inspection, Etching & decorating Glass cutting, Fine inspection - 50 F.C or 537.6 lux - 10 F.C or 107.53 lux - 20 F.C or 215 lux

# Hotel
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2.

Lounge & Dining Room Writing Room General Tables / Kitchen Bedroom General office works Private Office Typing & Bookkeeping Filing

-

7 F.C 7 F.C 7 F.C 7 F.C 5 F.C 20 F.C 15 F.C 20 F.C 20 F.C

or or or or or or or or or

75.27 75.27 75.27 75.27 53.76

lux lux lux lux lux

# Office & Bank
215 lux 161.3 lux 215 lux 215 lux

# Chemical works
Hard Furnace, Boiling Tanks, Stationary dries, Stationary or Gravity Crystallizing, Mechanical Furnace, Generators & Still, Mech. Dryers, Evaporator, Filtration, Mech. Crystallizing, Bleaching- 7 F.C or 75.27 lux Tanks for cooking, Extractors, Percolators, Nitrators, Electrolytic Cells - 10 F.C or 107.52 lux Day Classroom Drawing & Art Gymnasiums Laboratories Lecture / Theatre Manual Training Sewing 15 F.C or 161.29 lux 20 F.C or 215 lux 10 F.C or 107.52 lux 15 F.C or 161.29 lux 10 F.C or 107.52 lux xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 20 F.C or 215 lux

# School

# Machine Shop & Fitting Shop
Ordinary bench & m/c work 10 F.C or 107.52 lux Rough bench & m/c work 10 F.C or 107.52 lux 3. Medium bench & m/c work, ordinary automatic m/c, rough grinding m/c, Fine Buffing & Polishing 4. Very Fine Bench & m/c works, Grinding (fine) 100 F.C or 1075.2 lux - 20 F.C or 215 lux

FLUORESCENT LAMPS ( S.E.E.) Lamp Type

Watt

Nominal luminous flux after 100 hrs of burning in Lux White 33

Standard Fluorescent Lamp in Market

Warmwhite 29

Daylight Warmwhite White 55 deluxe 32 deluxe 34

"TL"

"TL" D "TL" E "TL" EM "TL" F "TL" M "TL" MF "TL" S

4W 6W 8W 13W 20W 25W 40W 65W 15W 30W 22W 32W 40W 40W 65W 40W 65W 125W 40W 65W 20W 40W

100 230 370 710 1080 1650 2800 4400

1080 1650 2800 4400

820 1250 2120 3300

750 1130 1880 3000 550 1350 1220 1660 1780 3000

1600 2250 2460 4000 2650 4400 7300 2460 4000 900 2300

1700 2380 2650 4400

750 1130 2000 3200 580 1300 750 1300 1800 1900 3100

900 2300

620

Table of Color comparison between hot cathode florescent tubes
Kelvin approx. 2800 2900 3000 3200 3500 3800 4150 4200 4300 6500 American / Japanese (e.g. Sylvania) Warm white Warm white deluxe Natural deluxe White Natural white Cool white Daylight English (e.g. Thorn-Atlas) Warm white Warm white deluxe Natural deluxe White Natural Daylight Tropical daylight Australian (e.g. Phillips, Osram, Mazda, Crompton) Warm white Warm white deluxe White 3500K White deluxe Kolor-rite White Daylight

Comparison of light sources ( Following figures are an approximate general guide only) Source
Incandescent Tubular fluorescent Mercury vapor (clear) Mercury vapor color-corrected Efficacy (l/W) 14 65 45 50 Approx. life hrs 1000 7500 8000 8000 Lamp source 60W Coiled coil 40W White 250W 250W Relative cost Low Medium Medium Medium

MV Metal halide LP sodium HP sodium Tungsten halogen

75 130 95 28

8000 6000 8000 2000

400W 100W 400W 1000W

High High High Low

TROUBLESHOOTING FOR COMMON FAULTS IN LUMINAIRES ( Adapted from table supplied by GTE Australia )
Problem
Lamp fail to light

System
All Pre - heat All All

Possible Case
Blown fuse or open circuit breaker Reset type starter not reset. Wrong lamps Poor contact between lamp and lampholder

Corrective maintenance

Replace or reset as necessary. Look for possibles short-circuit in wiring or

Quick start . Rapid start.

Lack of proper cathode heat.

All

Normal end of life of lamps.

Pre-heat

Pre-heat

Welded starter contacts or shorted starter capacitor Starter at end of life

Reset manual type. If automatic type, extinguish circuit or remove starter approximately one minute, then re-energize circuit. If starter cuts out agai further. ( See other possible case in this section. ) Check ballast label, replace with correct lamp. Whenever practical, it is ad the power off before making a replacement. • Adjust lamp to seat it properly. Some two-pin lamps have two pits or , which are aligned at right angle s to a line between the pins. • A checks of the position of the pips will indicate whether or not the la rotated into the socket correctly. In the conventional tombstone type o or mark should line up with the center of the socket opening. • Gently twist lamps with recessed double contactor bases to assure pro • Thoroughly clean dirty sockets. • If sockets are loose, adjust or replace them. • Replace sockets which are corroded, broken, or show evidence of arci • Check spacing and alignment of lampholder. If they are too far apart, poor contact. • Adjust them or replace the fixture. In a rapid start or quick start system, a lamp which has one or two blacke be receiving adequate cathode heating. This may be caused by poor conta problems within the ballast, by use of ballast which do not deliver minim requirements, by improper wiring or low-line voltage . Each of these is d following pages. Various devices are available to test cathode heater voltage. Among these mounted in lamp bases. These are go/no-go types of indicators which show presence or absences of cathode heat, but which give no indication of qua reason , they will not necessarily reveal insufficient heat. It is better to use voltmeter with a lamp base attachment containing a resistor for a " dumm the proper cathode current. With this type of indicator. cathode, heater vo obtained from lamp manufacturers. They are also indicated on most tester The insertion of a tester into a dirty or corroded socket often scrapes the c enough to obtain a proper reading. Make sure that the contacts are in goo that the lamp was sealed as well as the tester. If the tester shows improper investigate further. Cathode coating is exhausted . This is characterized by dense end blackening, extending from the end of the lamp wall for 5-8 cm . Lamps may flash for a short period of time or a shimmer. Instant start lamps may swirl. The ends of pre-heat lamp may flash on and off. If an arc strikes, it may b by a shimmering effect during the short time it exists. In some two-lamp circuits, particularly series sequence instant start and ra circuits, a good lamp may burn at reduced brightness, in a glow state, pos the cathodes. Also both lamps may be out when only one has failed. Chec individually. Replace failed lamps promptly to avoid ballast damage cause and overheating. If a good lamp is known to have burn at low brightness f show indications of being near the end of life, it should also be replaced, s have been significantly reduced because of cathode damage. With any typ simplest procedure is usually to test lamps in an adjacent fixture which is operating properly and then replace as necessary. This is usually indicated bay a lamp glowing at the ends, but not attempti starter in an adjacent fixture known to be operating properly and replace i ends of the lamp have been glowing and it starts immediately upon remov replace the starter. Check the starter in an adjacent fixture known to be operating properly, o with one of the following: A new starter, a starter from a fixture operating dummy starter can be made from an old starter simply by shorting the pin

Lamp fail to light

All

Ballast not delivering minimum lamp requirements

Instant start Trigger start Rapid start All

High humidity or accumulation of dirt on lamps Extreme ambient temperatures (either hot or cold) Voltage at fixture too low Inadequate starting aid Improper wiring

inserted into the starter socket and removed when the lamp ends begin to should be repeated three or four times if necessary. If the lamp has not be does start on any one of these attempts, the troubles is in the previous star A manual starter can be made by connecting a hand switch with 300mm o series with the two posts in a starter base . It is used in the same manner starter except that the switch is opened rather than the base being remove All ballasts must satisfactorily limit the flow of current in the lamp to a va within reasonable limits of the lamp rating. In addition, pre-heat ballasts sufficient pre-heat current and starting voltage; instant start ballast must p starting voltage and starting current; quick start and rapid start ballast m sufficient voltage between lamp terminals, from lamp terminal to starting currents for cathode heat. These values may be obtained from lamp suppl To check, use suitable ammeters and voltmeters as directed in AS specific ballast manufacturer's publications. Some simple tests can be made with following the ballast manufacturer's recommendations. Replace ballast. It is highly recommended that approved ballasts be used possible. Remove , clean and replace the lamps, Use a mild soap solution rather tha which can remove the lamp's silicone coating. If it is advertently removed be wiped with a silicone cloth. It is advisable to let lamps air dry since wi cloth may create static electricity which will attract dust. If humid and dusty conditions prevail, it is advisable to enclose the lamps Correct ambient, if particle. Otherwise, change to a ballast rated for exist In conditions of extreme cold, although the lamps do light, their output m they appear to be unlighted.

All Quick start . Rapid start All

Measure with a suitable voltmeter. Correct, or change to a ballast rated fo

All Pre-heat, Quick start Rapid start

Leak in lamp Open circuit in lamp electrodes

Rapid start and quick start systems require metal starting aids in close pro lamp and running the length of the lamp. This metal must be at earth pot the fixture reflector serves as the starting aid. Provide suitable starting aid. Requirement can be obtained from the lamp Examine the wiring to see that it is in accordance with the diagrams on th Ensure that active, neutral and earthing conductors are correctly connecte connections to see they are secure. Occasionally, fixtures using the newer are found with loose leads - leads which were not properly pushed into the which are used for wire connections instead of lugs and screws. Leads wit insulation removed has also been found. In some cases, one slot is used fo although there are two spring clips inside the socket, both wires go under result in a loose connection for one of them. Check the socket arrangement. In some sockets wires from adjacent holes be connected to opposite pins while in others they are connected in paralle Make sure there are no short circuit such caused by leads contacting the fi There should be nearly full line voltage between the active lead and the m Measure voltage across the lamp from the lamp holder on one end to the l other ( where only one connection at each end is live being sure to measur ones). Use a voltmeter which has an input impedance of 100 ohms per vo there is no voltage or extremely low voltage, measure at succeeding point power line to determine the location of the problem. In some installations, particularly those using instant starts lamps which r circuit voltages, an interlocking type of socket is used for safety . With th the primary ballast circuit is not completed unless a lamp is inserted in th obtain readings of ballast output it is necessary to complete this circuit. In a pre-heat system, with dummy starter installed, both ends of one lamp not, or if in three or four attempts there is no effort to start when the dumm there could be an open circuit. If one end of each lamp glows, the wiring is crossed. In each case, check the wiring and correct it in accordance with ballast la Indicated by absence of fluorescent glow when lamp is exposed to a spark lamp. Improper earthing, improper wiring, broken lampholder, or insufficient b which can cause excessively high voltage to be impressed across the catho this. Other causes are transportation damage, poor weld, broken coils and leaks.

All

Short circuit within ballast Ballast end of life

All

Slow of erratic starting

All All Quick start Rapid start Pre-heat

Wrong lamp Poor contact between lamp and lampholder Lack of proper cathode heat Sluggish starter, causing prolonged flashing at each start Ballast not delivering minimum lamp requirements High humidity or accumulation of dirt on lamp Extreme ambient temperatures (either hot or cold) Voltage at luminaries low or fluctuating Inadequate starting aid Improper wiring Wrong lamps

Test with continuity tester or by connecting adjacent lamp contacts in seri resistance such as a 25-watt incandescent lamp on a 240V line . Another method of inspecting the cathode is to use a simple shadowgraph readily constructed by making a small hole in a square of cardboard or oth material that is held in front of shielded filament lamp. The lamp to be ex against the pinhole and a shadow of the cathode will be projected on the s opposite the cardboard. By tuning the lamp slowly, the cathode, leads, etc examined and any breaks, distortions, or missing cathodes will be easy to lamp. If one lamp is out and the other is operating at full brightness in a rapid s sequence circuit, there is probably a shorted starting capacitor. This can b checking continuity between the leads to the lamp that is out. If any tow l ends show continuity, there is a short circuit. Replace the ballast. when the insulation on the ballast windings fails, the ballast will no longe requirements and has , therefore , reached the end of its life. Time and te the life of the insulation. If the ballast is subject to high operating temper temperatures over 90 deg C, its life will be substantially reduced. Genera that each increase of 10 deg C above 90 deg C rating will halve ballast lif Leaking compound , expect for a small amount at the lead holes, which is or brittle insulation; and discoloration on the metal case are all indication approaching or having reached end of life. The simple fact that a ballast s a true indication that the ballast is functioning properly. Often many succ appear t have short life in a given fixture before it is realized that the balla the end of useful life. Check with appropriate continuity testers, ammeters and voltmeters as de manufacturers' publications. Replace the ballast. See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" Test starter in adjacent fixture known to be operating properly. Replace st

All

See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

All All

See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

All Quick start Rapid start All All

Measure with suitable voltmeter. If fluctuating voltage is suspected, a reco will be helpful. Correct supply. See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

New lamps fail within the first few days of operation

All

Wrong ballast

Pre-heat

reset-type starter

Verify that proper ballast is used for the fixture and for existing electrical environmental conditions. Ballast must be a.c. or d.c., depending on supp and must be of correct line voltage and frequency rating . If low temperatu exist, a low temperature ballast should be used. Replace with appropriate See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

All All

Pre-heat Quick start Rapid start All

not reset Improper wiring Leak in lamp: may develop so slowly that lamp will operate satisfactory for a short period of time Open circuit in lamp electrodes Short circuit within ballast

See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

Short lamp life

All

Wrong lamps

All

Normal failures

All

Short burning cycle

All Quick start Rapid start All

All

Poor contact between lamp and lampholder Lack of proper cathode heat Ballast not delivering minimum lamp requirements Voltage at fixture too high to too low

See appropriate section in " Lamps fail to light" short circuit can occur wh to operate at excessive current. To check , follow ballast manufacturers' s procedures. As a general rule, the following can be done: however, there are some exc Place an ammeter in series with the lamp and if the meter reads more tha rated lamp current, replace the ballast. For pre-heat and instant start syste ammeter in series with the lamp, preferably between the lamp and the bal lead which is at earth potential. For quick start and rapid start systems do however, after the lamp is ignited remove the adjacent secondary lead to a cathode heating current in the reading. Although some lamps may operate for a period of time on the wrong type will nearly always be serious disadvantages to such operation. For examp milliampere (high-output) lamps will operate on 1500 milliampere ballast substantial sacrifice in lamp and ballast life, lamp maintenance and efficie Operating 1500 milliamperes(VHO) lamps on 800 milliampere ballast ca effects reducing ballasts and possibly lamp life and efficiency. Although rated life is usually many thousand hours, it is by definition the which 50 percent of the lamps in a statistically large sample have failed. A lamp will fail before this time and some after . One must expect a small p comparatively early failures. Rated life of fluorescent lamps is based on an average burning period of th start. If the burning period per start is lengthened, the life of the lamp wil the other hand, if the average burning periods decreased, lamp life will be the operating schedule and the local economics. It is often found that turn for the short period of time, to reduce the electrical consumption, actually increase in installation operating costs because of the adverse effects on la See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

If the voltage delivered to a pre-heat to rapid start fluorescent luminaries normal , light output will increase, but the lamp will frequently instant sta without proper cathode preconditioning, causing rapid deterioration of the resulting in reduced lamp life. Occasionally with preheat circuits, this ins be recognized. The lamps will start without preheating or will sometimes then start normally, that is preheating the cathode and then striking the ar its effects on the lamps, a high line voltage can cause the ballast to run at high currents, thereby reducing its life. The high current will also decrea maintained light output. If the voltage at the luminary is low, light output will be reduced, lamp o unstable, and starting can become slower, more strained or prolonged, w to the cathodes and decreases lamp life. In either case check line voltage at the luminaries with a standard voltme voltmeter if fluctuating is suspected. Correctly supply as necessary or us designed for the specific voltage being supplied. Consult ballast manufac recommended practical limits.

All Pre-heat Pre-heat Pre-heat

Wrong ballast Wrong starter Sluggish starter Premature starting Lamp operating in the glow state

Series sequence

All All All Snaking blinking or flickering All

Improper wiring Open circuit in lamp electrodes Short circuit within ballast Impurities

See appropriate section in "New lamps fail to light within the first few da Consult starter manufacturers' publication or package and replace with co manual or automatic reset type is advisable for installations where a failed replaced within one hour. See appropriate section in "Slow or erratic starting" The lead lamp in a two-lamp circuit is often prone to start before its catho preheated. Since this characteristic cannot often be visually recognized, w lamps have shorter life than the lag, it is advisable to use a starter designe effect. When one lamp in a two -lamp series sequence circuit has failed, the othe reduced brightness, in a glow state. This may damage the cathode of the reduce its life. Replace failed lamps promptly. If a lamp that has burned exhibits signs of being near the end of life (see "Normal end of life of lam idea to replace it at the same time the failed lamp is being replaced. See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

All

All All All All Pre-heat Pre-heat Pre-heat

Normal stroboscopic effect due to alternating current Poor contact between lamp and lampholder Normal end of life of lamps Low lamp wall temperature Wrong ballast Wrong starter Sluggish starter Starter not cycling correctly to proper preheats electrodes. Ballast not delivering minimum load requirements Voltage at luminaries too high or too low Improper wiring Open circuit in lamp electrode

At the arc in a fluorescent lamp may swirl and twist within the lamp. Thi in a new lamp and will disappear when the lamp has been operated a few and off a few times one half hour or more apart. Occasionally, this "sneak in a lamp during normal operation. Turning the lamp off and on usually not, replace the lamp. If other lamps in the same luminaries also swirl, in Although this is not often a problem with the holding properties of today's can be reduced by using the warm colors, which have the slowest rate of d operating on lead-lag circuit or by operating on three-phase power supplie See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

Low lamp wall temperature caused by draughts from outside air, air-cond cause flickering or blinking. Protect or enclose the lamp. If the ballast frequency rating is not the same as the line frequency, flicker Replace with ballast of proper rating. Remove the starter while the lamp is lighted. If the flashing stops, the sta size, or is defective. Replace it. See appropriate section in "Slow or erratic starting" Characterized by rapid blinking of lamp ends. Test starter in adjacent circ

All

See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

All All All

Measure with suitable voltmeter and correct. See appropriate section in "L light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light" See appropriate section in "Lamps fail to light"

PLC MAINTENANCE, TROUBLESHOOTING
CONSIDERATION OF THE OPERATING ENVIRONMENT • The PLC installed in an enclosure, NEMA type metal enclosure. NEMA type enclosure must be planned to allow adequate room for incoming control wires & power wiring and easy access to all parts and wires for installation, future alterations, and troubleshooting. • Temperature of operating limit ( upper & lower ), normally 0 degC (32degF) and 60 degC ( 140 degF )

Moisture, Dust, and Corrosive Atmosphere:

Vibration

- It may operate in High Humidity. - Level of moisture - Dust - Corrosive Atmosphere (Chemical plant, refineries) where oxidizing fumes may be present, electrical connection can fail to buildup of oxides on the wires and terminals. - excessive vibration ( transmitted from nearby vibrating equipment ) can effect to PLC malfunction . It can be reduced by shock-prevention mountings.

RECEIVING CHECK, TESTING AND ASSEMBLY • Receiving - When receive the PLC system from manufacturer, inspect the packing boxes for any Obvious damage. Checking - If it is damage, take a picture of them before opening - In case the parts inside the packages may also be damage. - Check out the inventory that is it same the parts and manual received against the packing list provided. - Review, record & sort out the purchase order and listing of parts which you received - Many electronic parts and assemblies are easily to damage by small charge of static electricity, therefore manufacturers normally provide anti-static bags for normal shipment. - Before remove that bags, check it out that it's damage and record, return them to supplier for replacement or recheck. So when it is removed, it may need special handling like static free environment. - If the modules are installed into the system, the same precaution is necessary. - Portable grounding kits are available from some manufacturers to prevent static damage of parts during handling. • Testing - After complete assembled, PLC is ready for testing. - First PLC tested "as is," without attaching any wiring to the I/O modules. - Electrical jumpers moved around from input to input to check for correct operation. * Output program energized indicating light is correct not. * FORCE mode (use keyboard) may convenient to check for correct input operation than moving jumpers around as input simulation method. The disadvantage is that it cannot check to input module operation. * MONITOR mode can observe the ladder program operation on the PLC screen, which gives a better view of the PLC internal operation. - Second, tested with simulator. (Discrete simulator, Analog simulator) * A switch is attached for each input, and indicating lights attached for each output - Third, tested after it is hooked up to the system to operate. * Direct connects to the PLC with the factory operation system it is to control. • Disadvantage :If the PLC is malfunction, the equipment being used for testing can be damaged. The operator or programmer error can cause sequence problem or even damage to equipment. Personnel injured during PLC malfunction. - Above all testing method use in FROCE mode for proper operation by keyboard (input, output ), this override the system's normal operation through the input module. FORCE mode could be dangerous to equipment or personnel. - Testing to peripheral (printers, disk drives and tape drives) also takes special testing procedure. e.g. a printer can print five different type of information, all five modes of operation should be tested. - A complete test of the PLC system and CPU involves checking every function; each input and output should be checked, for every function (TIMER, COUNTER, MASTER CONTROL RELAY etc.). Even if it is not to be used initially, check every function for recovery to warranty period. INSTALLATION, ELECTRICAL CONNECTION, GROUNDING, AND SUPPRESSION • Initial facts & Battery - Practically all PLCs have backup battery systems. Some system use a common 1.5V or 9V long life battery or various type of batteries with special voltage ratings or rechargeable battery that is trickle-charged by a small power supply in the CPU. - Separately shipped batteries are installed according to manufacturer's

instructions. - Special precaution during installation might include removal of some modules of wires to prevent static damage or electrical surges to some parts of CPU. - In all cases, battery voltage should be checked for compliance to voltage specifications listed in the PLC manual before installation. - All PLC systems have at least one fuse; many have a number of different fuses. These may be in place when the PLC is shipped. If not, the fuses must be installed according to startup instruction in the manual. CPU - Plug in the line cord to CPU & all parts. - Check the CPU for proper operation as turn the key-switch or master switch from position to position and check to see that all operating pilot lights come on at the proper time. If it not, internal visual checks are in order (the faceplate or an appropriate panel may be removed). Then check for any loose connection. Input & Output Modules - Assembly of input and output modules are larger units in the racks which are not only mechanical supports but also have interconnecting electrical wires and connections so take care that modules are put precisely in place. - Modules are next connected to the CPU with the proper cables, care must be taken that the connecting ribbon cables are not too twisted or pull during installation. - Next, the wires from the external devices and switches are attached to the I/O terminals. The standard practice of "hand tight" is normally followed. - Peripheral devices such as printers, disk drives, and tape drives may now be interconnected to the system by means of their cables. - Remote station and buses to the other PLCs and computers should not be connected until the individual PLC checkout is complete. Grounding - Proper grounding of wiring of the equipment and cabinet is essential for personnel safety and assure proper equipment operation. - Ungrounded or improperly grounded wire or part could become shorted electrically to metal cabinet or rack, presenting to electrical harzard to users. - PLC is computer based and computers need a proper and solid grounding system for consistently trouble-free operation. Suppression - Electrical disturbance from devices outside the PLC system can cause program operation malfunction. - Electrically inductive nature (Solenoids, starter coils, motors & other devices) cause an electrical pulse to be back fed and PLC in mistake and PLC sequence flow in malfunction.- Standard copper outer sheath around shield cable prevent above disturbance. - Suppressors can absorb above false pulse which passed through external prevention technique and it get no disturbance signal send to PLC. - Master control relay system can be provided to override the whole PLC operation to shut down for safety precaution.

Circuit Protection & Wiring • Protection

Some major considerations in choosing fuse are 1. Rated current for melting or blow 2. Rated current of PLC 3. Interrupt capability. ( A 20A fuse will not stop 20,000 amps. The current will arc over.) 4. Temperature of the environment in which the fuse will operate. (Higher temperature means faster action and blowing below rated value.) 5. Type of mounting 6. Replaceable link or one-time operation 7. Time delay or regular-do not use time delay fuses for PLCs; use regular fuses. 8. Other special requirements 9. Consult with fuse specialist 10. Circuit Breaker can reset quickly and do not need to be replaced, but fuse blown faster can give more protection to PLC 11. Overload protection is accomplished by internal, specially calibrated overload relays in PLC itself ( so it need to reset only)

12. Wire size must be large enough to prevent line loss, drawn by PLC, it cause voltage drop due to feeder wire's resistance and PLC can cause erratic PLC operation. 13. It is best to connect PLC and other electronic equipment to separate power feeder lines (to avoid disturbance). 14. Electronic equipment & PLC can be affected by power wave form distortion, which caused by following:14.1. Surge form lightning hitting power lines 14.2. Disturbances from adjacent building or factories 14.3. Surges from switching action by the power company or in your plant. 14.4. Internal factory power waveform disturbances. 15. Above distortion can correct by line purifier unit, it can not only waveform purify but also maintain proper stabilization in line voltage. Also it can perform as battery standby unit as UPS.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Troubleshooting PLC Malfunction
Take care safety precaution ( process, power turn on/off, wear glass, insulated handtools, work deliberately, consider the consequences of each step ) Must understanding that what is malfunction? document problem in detail including the date, time, severity and circumstances of malfunction. Check for replace any blown fuses. Visual inspection. Is power to all control ckt? Are there broken wires? Are switches set in proper position? Have any undocumented alteration to parts been made? Review of terminal wiring diagrams may reveal that an unrecorded change is causing the trouble. Establish that the system malfunction is not caused by an external part or system then check the PLC itself for proper operation in each applicable mode. Larger PLCs have an available screen readout for CPU status, call up status and refer to operating manual to state it. Any portion not meeting the normal shows an operational area, in some cases just clearing the CPU memory and reprogramming to eliminate PLC malfunction. If it has another CPU available, replace the one in service with it, and reprogram the old CPU was using. If problem is corrected, old CPU could be culprit. If it is same problem that it is no problem in CPU and analyzes subparts by substitution in similar manner. Use MONITOR mode is helpful troubleshooting, by observing the program ladder operation on the screen. FORCE mode is useful in simulating operating conditions. Caution that it is not during actual operation condition. Many PLCs have available a fault indication register display on screen, it may internal fault condition or external fault condition. Therefore follow up fault register to get correction the problem. PLC malfunctions correct by replace printed circuit board or single electronic component. After replacing finished, it still has problem. Following may happens 18.1. Replacement parts also faulty. 18.2. Another part or parts in the PLC are faulty. Further analysis need. 18.3. Overload cause in the system affect. or severely damage in other portion of system, so it need to quick pre-check before expansive parts to replace. ( supply voltage must correct ) Written log of failures correction for each PLC should be kept. If failure in second time, reviewing the log will enable the troubleshooter to benefit. The log should include a description of failure and corrective action taken, as well as the date and shift of occurrence. More spare parts for a particular failure mode may have to keep on hand.

19. 20.

PLC Maintenance
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Periodically check the tightness of I/O module terminal screws. They can become loose over a period of time. Periodically check the corrosion of connecting terminals. Moisture and corrosive atmospheres can cause poor electrical connections. Internally end connectors of PCB also may become corroded. Make sure that components are free of dust. Properly cooling the PLC through a layer of dust is impossible. Stock commonly needed spare parts. Input and output modules are the PLC components that fail most often. Stocking is especially essential there is no convenient manufacturer's service station and part depot. Maintaining proper levels of spare parts inventory is a trade-off between costly inventory and prolonged downtime without parts. Keep a duplicate record of operating programs being used. These records should be kept the plant location away from the PLC operational area. Copies of long expensive programs should be kept off the premises to prevent their loss in case of fire and theft. Replace the PLC backup batteries more often than their usable life would indicate. The lithium batteries used for backup in case of lost electrical service are usable for 3-5 years. However, many companies replace them on the yearly on a written maintenance procedure. The cost of the batteries small price to pay to prevent the loss of lengthily PLC program.

7. 8.

Have a written checklist control sheet for each PLC. The sheet should have the dates on which the work is performed and the dates for the next preventative maintenance due. The next due dates should be entered on a future worksheet listing to make sure it is done on the date due. Keep a log sheet on maintenance for each PLC in addition to the check-sheet. Records of what, who, and when should be kept. This log is often combined with the troubleshooting log discussed in the previous section. The combined log sheet gives a valuable history record and is a guide to buying future PLCs based on performance or nonperformance.

This is typical drawing for Forward Reverse motor control unit in United Cement Project (Singapore). There are 2-type control, first direct electrical power control by local control selector switch and second automatic PLC computerize control by Siemen (Germany) technology.

Typical Control Circuit Diagram
Above typical Drawing is Star Delta starter and automatic PLC computerizes control. unit in United Cement Project (Singapore).There are 2-type control, first direct electrical power control by local control selector switch and second automatic PLC computerize control by Simen(Germany) technology.

Above circuit is typical AutoTransformer starter circuit which is useful to control motor starting current by voltage transition, and which is in two-type first open transition and second close transition.

ILLUMINATION DESIGN TABLE Room Incandescent Index Lamps
Type of fitting Direct v% k 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 rc rw 0.5 0.27 0.32 0.38 0.46 0.51 0.55 0.61 0.64 0.67 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.21 0.26 0.32 0.4 0.46 0.5 0.56 0.6 0.63 0.67

Utilization Factor New Conditions 0.5 0.3 0.21 0.25 0.32 0.4 0.46 0.5 0.56 0.6 0.63 0.67 0.69 0.23 0.29 0.36 0.47 0.2 0.24 0.3 0.37 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.56 0.3 0.3 0.21 0.25 0.31 0.39 0.45 0.46 0.55 0.6 0.62 0.66 0.69 0.23 0.28 0.36 0.47 0.19 0.23 0.28 0.35 0.4 0.44 0.49 0.53

0 | 80 | 80

0.1 0.17 0.21 0.27 0.36 0.42 0.46 0.53 0.57 0.61 0.65 0.68 0.19 0.25 0.33 0.44 0.17 0.21 0.27 0.35 0.41 0.45 0.52 0.56

0.5 0.26 0.31 0.37 0.45 0.5 0.54 0.6 0.63 0.66 0.69 0.71 0.28 0.34 0.41 0.51 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.43 0.47 0.51 0.56 0.6

0.1 0.17 0.21 0.27 0.36 0.42 0.46 0.53 0.57 0.6 0.65 0.67 0.19 0.25 0.33 0.44 0.16 0.2 0.26 0.33 0.39 0.43 0.49 0.53

0.5 0.26 0.3 0.36 0.44 0.49 0.53 0.59 0.62 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.28 0.33 0.41 0.5 0.23 0.27 0.33 0.39 0.44 0.47 0.52 0.56

10 0.72 0.7 Fitting at center of room 1 0.29 0.23 1.2 0.35 0.29 1.5 0.42 0.37 2 0.52 0.47 SEMI DIRECT 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 20 | 88 3 4 5 0.27 0.32 0.38 0.46 0.51 0.55 0.6 0.64 0.21 0.26 0.32 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.56 0.6

Mainte nance Factor Clean Clean Clean 0.1 Once once once 0.17 Yearly every every 0.21 2 Years 3 Years 0.27 0.36 0.42 Soiling rate low 0.46 0.53 Soiling rate normal 0.57 1.35 1.55 0.6 0.65 Soiling rate high 0.67 1.65 2.15 0.19 0.25 0.33 0.44 0.15 0.19 0.24 0.32 0.36 Soiling rate for low 0.4 1.25 0.46 0.5 Soiling rate normal

1.4

| 68

6 8

0.66 0.7

0.63 0.67 0.69 0.23 0.28 0.36 0.46 0.21 0.25 0.31 0.39 0.44 0.48 0.54 0.58 0.61 0.64 0.67 0.22 0.27 0.34 0.43

0.59 0.64 0.67 0.19 0.24 0.31 0.42 0.17 0.21 0.27 0.35 0.4 0.44 0.5 0.55 0.58 0.62 0.65 0.19 0.23 0.3 0.39

0.62 0.66 0.68 0.27 0.32 0.39 0.48 0.23 0.27 0.32 0.39 0.43 0.47 0.51 0.54 0.56 0.59 0.61 0.25 0.29 0.35 0.42

0.59 0.63 0.65 0.22 0.27 0.34 0.43 0.19 0.22 0.27 0.34 0.39 0.43 0.48 0.51 0.54 0.57 0.59 0.2 0.24 0.3 0.39

0.56 0.61 0.63 0.18 0.23 0.3 0.4 0.15 0.19 0.24 0.31 0.36 0.39 0.45 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.58 0.17 0.21 0.27 0.35

0.58 0.61 0.64 0.25 0.3 0.36 0.45 0.2 0.23 0.8 0.33 0.32 0.4 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.52 0.53 0.21 0.25 0.3 0.37

0.56 0.59 0.62 0.2 0.25 0.32 0.41 0.16 0.19 0.24 0.3 0.34 0.37 0.42 0.45 0.47 0.5 0.52 0.18 0.22 0.27 0.34

10 0.72 Fitting at Room Center 1 0.29 1.2 0.34 1.5 0.41 2 0.51 DIRECT INDIRECT 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 41 | 90 | 49 3 4 5 6 8 10 1 1.2 1.5 2 Fluorescent Lamps Type of fitting Fluorescent lamp on mounting rail 0.27 0.31 0.37 0.44 0.49 0.53 0.58 0.62 0.64 0.67 0.69 0.28 0.33 0.39 0.48

0.53 1.45 0.57 Soiling rate high 0.6 0.17 0.22 0.28 0.38 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.27 0.31 Soiling rate low 0.35 1.25 0.39 0.43 Soiling rate normal 0.45 1.45 0.49 Soiling rate high 0.51 0.15 0.19 0.24 0.32

1.8

1.4

1.8

Utilization Factor New Conditions v% k 1 1.2 1.5 2 rc rw 0.5 0.27 0.31 0.37 0.45 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.25 0.31 0.39 0.1 0.16 0.2 0.26 0.34 0.5 0.24 0.28 0.33 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.18 0.22 0.28 0.35 0.1 0.15 0.18 0.12 0.31 0.5 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.35 0.3 0.3 0.16 0.2 0.25 0.31 0.1 0.13 0.16 0.21 0.28 Clean Once Yearly

Maintenance Factor Clean once every 2 Years Clean once every 3 Years

2.5 33 | 93 | 60 3 4 5 6

0.5 0.54 0.6 0.63 0.66

0.44 0.48 0.55 0.59 0.62 0.66 0.69 0.22 0.27 0.34 0.43 0.24 0.29 0.36 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.61 0.65 0.67 0.71 0.73 0.26 0.33 0.41 0.53 0.2 0.24 0.3 0.37 0.42 0.46

0.39 0.44 0.5 0.55 0.59 0.63 0.66 0.17 0.22 0.29 0.38 0.2 0.25 0.31 0.41 0.47 0.51 0.58 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.71 0.22 0.29 0.38 0.5 0.17 0.21 0.26 0.33 0.38 0.42

0.45 0.48 0.54 0.57 0.6 0.63 0.65 0.25 0.29 0.36 0.44 0.29 0.34 0.41 0.49 0.54 0.58 0.64 0.67 0.69 0.72 0.74 0.31 0.37 0.46 0.57 0.22 0.26 0.3 0.36 0.4 0.43

0.4 0.44 0.5 0.53 0.56 0.6 0.63 0.2 0.24 0.3 0.39 0.23 0.28 0.35 0.44 0.5 0.54 0.6 0.64 0.67 0.71 0.73 0.26 0.32 0.41 0.53 0.18 0.21 0.26 0.33 0.37 0.4

0.36 0.4 0.46 0.5 0.53 0.58 0.61 0.16 0.2 0.27 0.35 0.2 0.25 0.31 0.41 0.46 0.51 0.56 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.71 0.22 0.29 0.38 0.5 0.15 0.18 0.23 0.29 0.34 0.37

0.4 0.43 0.48 0.51 0.53 0.57 0.59 0.22 0.26 0.32 0.39 0.28 0.33 0.4 0.48 0.53 0.58 0.65 0.66 0.69 0.7 0.74 0.3 0.37 0.45 0.56 0.19 0.22 0.26 0.31 0.34 0.37

0.36 0.39 0.44 0.48 0.51 0.54 0.57 0.18 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.23 0.28 0.35 0.44 0.5 0.54 0.6 0.64 0.67 0.7 0.72 0.26 0.32 0.41 0.53 0.15 0.18 0.23 0.28 0.32 0.34

8 0.7 10 0.72 Fitting at Room Center 1 0.28 1.2 0.33 1.5 0.4 2 0.49 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 0.29 0.35 0.41 0.5 0.55 0.59 0.65 0.68 0.7 0.73

0.32 Soiling rate low 0.36 1.25 0.41 Soiling rate normal 0.45 1.45 0.48 Soiling rate high 0.52 0.55 0.14 0.18 0.24 0.32 0.2 0.24 0.31 0.41 0.46 Soiling rate low 0.51 X 0.57 0.62 Soiling rate normal 0.65 1.4 0.69 Soiling rate high 0.71 1.85 0.22 0.29 0.38 0.5 0.13 0.13 0.2 0.26 0.29 Soiling rate low 0.32 1.35

1.4 1.8

1.55 2.05

DIRECT Through fitting with fluorescent lamps 0 | 82 | 82

3 4 5 6 8

X

X

1.7 2.55

1.9 3.1

10 0.75 Fitting at Room Center 1 0.32 1.2 0.38 1.5 0.46 2 0.57 DIRECT INIRECT with louver 43 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 3 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.42 0.47 0.5

1.55

1.75

| 85 | 42

4 5 6

0.55 0.58 0.6

0.51 0.54 0.57 0.6 0.68 0.22 0.26 0.33 0.41 0.19 0.23 0.28 0.35 0.39 0.43 0.48 0.51 0.54 0.57 0.59 0.2 0.24 0.3 0.37 0.1 0.11 0.13 0.17 0.2 0.21 0.23

0.48 0.51 0.54 0.58 0.6 0.18 0.23 0.29 0.37 0.15 0.19 0.24 0.31 0.35 0.39 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.55 0.57 0.16 0.2 0.26 0.34 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.21

0.47 0.5 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.23 0.27 0.33 0.4 0.2 0.23 0.28 0.33 0.37 0.4 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.51 0.52 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.35 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.17

0.44 0.47 0.5 0.53 0.54 0.19 0.23 0.29 0.38 0.16 0.19 0.23 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.41 0.44 0.46 0.49 0.51 0.17 0.21 0.25 0.32 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.15

0.42 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.53 0.16 0.2 0.26 0.34 0.13 0.16 0.2 0.26 0.3 0.33 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.14 0.18 0.23 0.29 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.12 0.14

0.4 0.43 0.44 0.47 0.48 0.2 0.24 0.28 0.34 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.27 0.3 0.32 0.36 0.38 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.17 0.2 0.24 0.29 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09

0.38 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.17 0.2 0.25 0.32 0.13 0.16 0.19 0.24 0.27 0.3 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.27 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

0.36 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.46 0.14 0.18 0.23 0.3 0.11 0.13 0.17 0.22 0.25 0.8 0.31 0.34 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.12 0.15 0.19 0.25 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08

8 0.62 10 0.64 Fitting at Room Center 1 0.27 1.2 0.31 1.5 0.38 2 0.45 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 0.24 0.28 0.33 0.4 0.44 0.47 0.52 0.55 0.57

Soiling rate normal 1.65 Soiling rate high X

2.15 X X

2.5

SEMIINDIRECT with louver

51 | 85 | 34

3 4 5 6

8 0.6 10 0.62 Fitting at Room Center 1 0.25 1.2 0.29 1.5 0.35 2 0.42 1 1.2 1.5 2 2.5 0.12 0.14 0.17 0.2 0.21 0.23 0.25

Soiling rate low 1.4 Soiling rate normal 1.7 Soiling rate high X

1.65 2.25 X

1.85 2.65 X

INDIRECT Recess with Fluorescent lamps

70 |

3 4

Soiling rate low 1.25 Soiling rate normal

1.45

X

70 | 0

5 6 8 10

0.27 0.28 0.29 0.31

0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28

0.23 0.24 0.25 0.27

0.18 0.18 0.19 0.2

0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19

0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18

0.1 0.1 0.11 0.11

0.09 0.1 0.1 0.11

0.09 0.09 0.1 0.1

X Soiling rate normal X

X

X

X

X

SELECTION OF MOTOR STARTER & FUSE FREE BREAKER
DIRECT ON LINE STARTER ( DOL starter ) 1. The method of motor starting is direct on line under AC3 operating conditions according to IEC 158-1. 2. The motor is Hitachi standard type squirrel cage 4 pole induction motor. 3. The heater range for the thermal overload relays are selected from the motor's full load current. 4. The selection of FFB is on the basis of 600% current for 10 sec. DOL Starter in rated 220V 3 Phase 50Hz Rating Rating Full_ Type_of_Magnet_Starter _HP _KW Load 0.13 0.27 0.33 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 5.5 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 0.1 0.2 0.25 0.4 0.55 0.75 1.1 1.5 2.2 3 3.7 4 5.5 7.5 11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 0.78 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1.3 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1.2 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1.7 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 2.3 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 2.9 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 4.2 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 5.8 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 7.8 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 10.5 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP 3 13 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP 3 14 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP 3 20 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP 3 25 K20BNEP3 36 K25BNEP3 50 K30BNEP3 62 K50N-EP3 72 K60N-EP3 100 K100N-EP3 120 K120N-EP3 145 K150N-EP3 180 K200N-EP3 240 K250N-EP3 Thermal_OL TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR20E-1 _with_CT100N TR20E-1 _with_CT100N Heater_ Range(A) 0.6-1.0 0.8-1.6 0.8-1.6 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 2.5-5.0 2.5-5.0 4.5-9.0 6-12 6-12 12-18 12-18 16-24 22-34 32-48 45-65 45-65 55-80 90-120 110-150 110-150 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 NH_ Type_S Fuse _Series (A) 4 S-305 6 S-305 6 S-305 10 S-305 10 S-305 10 S-305 10 S-305 16 S-305 20 S-305 25 S-305 35 35 50 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 250 400 S-305 S-305 S-50 S-50 S-100S S-100S S-100S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-400S Type_F_Series F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-100G F-100G F-100G F-225F_or_F-225KB F-225F_or_F-225KB F-225F_or_F-225KB F-225F_or_F-225KB F-400F F-600F Rated_ Wire_Size Current (sq-mm) (A) 3 1 3 1 3 1 5 1 5 1 8 1 8 1 15 1 20 1.5 20 1.5 30 30 50 50 75 100 100 150 200 225 225 350 500 1.5 1.5 4 4 10 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120

500 S-600S

125 150 180 220 270 340

90 110 132 160 200 250

290 350 410 520

K300N-EP3 K400N-EP3 K600N-EP3 K600N-EP3 N.A N.A

TR20E-1 _with_CT100N TR20E-1 _with_CT100N TR20E-1 _with_CT100N TR20E-1 _with_CT100N N.A N.A

2.5-5 2.5-5 2.5-5 4.5-9 N.A N.A

800 S-600S 800 S-800S 800 S-800S 800 N.A N.A N.A

F-600F F-800K F-800K U-800 N.A N.A

600 700 800 800

185 240 240 240

DOL Starter in rated 380V 3 Phase 50Hz Rating Rating Full_ Type_of_Magnet_Starter _HP _KW Load 0.13 0.27 0.33 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 5.5 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 0.1 0.2 0.25 0.4 0.55 0.75 1.1 1.5 2.2 3 3.7 4 5.5 7.5 11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 0.42 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 0.64 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 0.7 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1.3 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1.7 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 2.4 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 3.3 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 4.5 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 6.2 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 7.5 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 8.5 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP3 11.5 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP3 14.5 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP3 21 K20BNEP3 29 K25BNEP3 36 K30BN-EP3 42 K30BN-EP3 55 K50N-EP3 68 K60N-EP3 85 K100N-EP3

Thermal_OL

Heater_ NH_ Type_S_ Range(A) Fuse Series (A) 0.35-0.65 0.6-1.0 0.6-1.0 0.8-1.6 0.8-1.6 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 2.5-5.0 2.5-5.0 4.5-9.0 4.5-9.0 6-12 6-12 12-18 16-24 22-34 32-48 32-48 45-65 55-80 65-95 4 4 4 6 6 6 8 10 10 16 20 20 35 35 50 63 80 80 100 160 160 S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-50S S-50S S-100S S-100S S-100S S-225S S-225S

TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR40-1E TR20-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E

Type_F_Series Rated _Cur rent (A) F-50K_or_F-50F 3 F-50K_or_F-50F 3 F-50K_or_F-50F 3 F-50K_or_F-50F 3 F-50K_or_F-50F 3 F-50K_or_F-50F 3 F-50K_or_F-50F 5 F-50K_or_F-50F 5 F-50K_or_F-50F 8 F-50K_or_F-50F 15 F-50K_or_F-50F 20 F-50K_or_F-50F 20 F-50K_or_F-50F 30 F-50K_or_F-50F 30 F-50K_or_F-50F 50 F-50K_or_F-50F 50 F-100G 75 F-100G 75 F-100G 100 F-225F_or_F150 225KB F-225F_or_F150

Wire_ Size (sq-mm 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 4 6 10 10 16 25 25

75 100 125 150 180 220 270 340

55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250

105 140 165 200 230 300 370 475

K120N-EP3 K150N-EP3 K200N-EP3 K250N-EP3 K300N-EP3 K400N-EP3 K400N-EP3 TR20E-1_with_CT100N K600N-EP3 TR20E-1_with_CT100N

TR100-1E TR100-1E TR20E1_with_CT100 N TR20E1_with_CT100 N TR20E1_with_CT100 N TR20E1_with_CT100 N 2.5-5 2.5-5

90-120 110-150 1.0-1.8 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 2.5-5 800 800

200 250 315 400 500 800

S-225S S-225S S-225S S-400S S-600S S-600S

225KB F-225F_or_F225KG F-225F_or_F225KG F-225F_or_F225KG F-400F F-600F F-600F 700

175 225 225 350 500 500 240 800

35 50 70 95 120 185

S- F-800K 800S S- F-800K 800S NH_ Fuse (A) 4 4 4 6 6 6 8 10 10 16 20 20 35 35 50 63

240

DOL Starter in rated 415V 3 Phase 50Hz Rating_ Rating_ Full_Load Type_of_Magnet_Starter Thermal_OL Heater_ HP KW Range(A) 0.13 0.27 0.33 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 5.5 7.5 10 15 20 0.1 0.2 0.25 0.4 0.55 0.75 1.1 1.5 2.2 3 3.7 4 5.5 7.5 11 15 0.34 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 0.63 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 0.7 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1.3 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 1.7 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 2.5 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 3.4 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 4.5 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 5.8 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 7.2 K10NEP2_or_K11NEP2 8.5 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP3 11.5 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP3 14 K15CNEP3_or_K15BNEP3 21 K20BNEP3 28 K25BNEP3 TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR11-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR40-1E 0.2-0.4 0.6-1.0 0.6-1.0 0.8-1.6 0.8-1.6 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 2.5-5.0 2.5-5.0 4.5-9.0 4.5-9.0 6-12 6-12 12-18 16-24 22-34

Type_S _Series S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-30SZ S-50S S-50S

Type_F_Series F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F F-50K_or_F-50F

Rated_ Wire_ Current Size (A) (sq-mm 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 5 1 5 1 8 1 15 1 20 1.5 20 1.5 30 1.5 30 1.5 50 4 50 6

25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 180 220 270 340

18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250

35 40 52 62 80 95 130 160 195 230 275 345 428

K30BN-EP3 K30BN-EP3 K50N-EP3 K60N-EP3 K100N-EP3 K120N-EP3 K150N-EP3 K200N-EP3 K250N-EP3 K300N-EP3 K400N-EP3 K400N-EP3 TR201E_with_CT100N K600N-EP3 TR201E_with_CT100N

TR40-1E TR40-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR100-1E TR201E_with_CT1 00N TR201E_with_CT1 00N TR201E_with_CT1 00N TR201E_with_CT1 00N 2.5-5 2.5-5

32-48 32-48 45-65 55-80 65-95 90-120 110-150 1.0-1.8 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 2.5-5 800 800

80 80 100 160 160

S-100S S-100S S-100S S-225S S-225S

200 S-225S 250 S-225S 315 S-225S 400 S-400S 500 S-600S 800 S-600S S-800S F-800K S-800S F-800K

F-100G F-100G F-100G F-100G F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-400F F-600F F-600F 700

75 75 100 100 150 175 225 225 350 500 500 185 800

10 10 16 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150

240

STAR-DELTA STARTER
1. 2. 3. 4. The Star-Delta starter employ 3-contactor system. The motor is a Hitachi standard type squirrel cage 4-pole induction motor. The heater range for thermal overload relay are selected from 1/√3 = 0.58 of the motor full load current. The said wire size indicates IV wire which is able to be connected to the MS & MCd terminals. As for source lone, refer to direct on line stating. Thermal OL TR11-1E TR11-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E Heater Range (A) 6-12 6-12 9-13 12-18 Type of Star MCs K11N-EP K11N-EP K15-BN-EP K15-BN-EP Type of Delta MCs K11N-EP K11N-EP K15-BN-EP K20-BN-EP NH Fuse (A) 35 35 35 50 S-Series S-30S S-30S S-50 S-50 Rated Current (A) F-50F_or_F30 50K F-50F_or_F30 50K S-50 50 S-50 50 F-Series Wire Size (sqmm) 2 2 2 4

Star Delta Starter in rated 220V 3 Phase 50Hz Rating Rating Full Type Magnet HP KW Load Starter 5 5.5 7.7 10 3.7 4 5.5 7.5 13 14 20 25 K10N-EP2_or_ K11N-EP2 K10N-EP2_or_ K11N-EP2 K15B-N-EP3 K20B-N-EP3

15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 180 220 270

11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200

36 50 62 72 100 120 145 180 240 290 350 410 520 710

K25BN-EP3 K30BN-EP3 K30BN-EP3 K50N-EP3 K60N-EP3 K100N-EP3 K120N-EP3 K150N-EP3 K200N-EP3 K250N-EP3 K300N-EP3 K400N-EP3 K400N-EP3 K600N-EP3

TR40-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR100-1E TR201E_with_ CT100N TR201E_with_ CT100N TR201E_with_ CT100N TR201E_with_ CT100N TR201E_with_ CT100N TR201E_with_ CT100N TR201E_with_C T100N

16-24 22-34 32-48 32-48 45-65 55-80 65-95 90-120 90-120 1.0-1.8 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 2.5-5.0 2.5-5

K15BN-EP K20BN-EP K25BN-EP K25BN-EP K30BN-EP K50N-EP K50N-EP K60N-EP K120N-EP K150N-EP K200N-EP K250N-EP K300N-EP K300N-EP

K20BN-EP K30BN-EP K30BN-EP K50BN-EP K60BN-EP K100N-EP K120N-EP K150N-EP K200N-EP K250N-EP K300N-EP K400N-EP K400N-EP K600N-EP

63 80 100 100 125 160 200 200 0 400 400 500 630 800

S-100S S-100S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-400S S-400S S-600S S-800S S-800S N/A N/A N/A

F-100G F-100G F-225F F-225F F-225F F-225F F-400F F-400F F-600F F-800F F-800F U-800 U-1200 U-1200

75 100 125 150 200 225 350 400 0 700 800 800 1000 1200

6 10 10 10 16 25 35 35 0 70 120 150 185 325

340

250

823

K600N-EP3

2.5-5.0

K400N-EP

K600N-EP

800

N/A

U-1200

1200

325

Star Delta Starter in rated 380V 3 Phase 50Hz Rating Rating Full Type Magnet Starter Thermal OL Heater HP KW Load Range (A) 5 3.7 7.5 K10N-EP2_or_ K11NTR11-1E 2.5-5.0 EP2 5.5 4 8.5 K10N-EP2_or_ K11NTR11-1E 4.5-9.0 EP2 7.7 5.5 11.5 K15B-N-EP3 TR11-1E 4.5-9.0

Type of Star Type of MCs Delta MCs K11N-EP K11N-EP K15-BN-EP K11N-EP K11N-EP K11N-EP

NH Fuse (A) 16 16 20

S-Series S-30S S-30S S-30S

F-Series F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K

Rated Wire Current Size (A) (sqmm) 20 1 20 30 1 1

10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 180 220 270 340

7.5 11 15 18.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250

14.5 21 29 36 42 55 68 85 105 140 165 200 150 300 370 475

K15B-N-EP3 K15B-N-EP3 K20BN-EP3 K25BN-EP3 K30BN-EP3 K30BN-EP3 K50BN-EP3 K50BN-EP3 K60N-EP3 K100N-EP3 K120N-EP3 K150N-EP3 K200N-EP3 K250N-EP3 K300N-EP3 K400N-EP3

TR20-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR201E_with_CT1 000 TR201E_with_CT1 000 TR201E_with_CT1 000 TR201E_with_CT1 000

6-12 12-18 12-18 16-24 22-34 22-34 32-48 45-65 55-80 65-95 90-120 110-150 1.0-1.8 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2

K15-BN-EP K15BN-EP K15BN-EP K20BN-EP K25BN-EP K25BN-EP K30N-EP K50N-EP K50N-EP K60N-EP K100N-EP K120N-EP K200N-EP K200N-EP K200N-EP K300N-EP

K11N-EP K11N-EP K20BN-EP K25BN-EP K30BN-EP K30BN-EP K50N-EP K50N-EP K60N-EP K100N-EP K120N-EP K150N-EP K150N-EP K250N-EP K300N-EP K400N-EP

35 35 50 50 63 63 100 100 125 160 200 250 250 315 400 630

S-30S S-100S S-100S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-400S S-400S S-600S S-600S S-800S N/A

F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K F-100G F-100G F-100G F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-400F F-400F F-600F F-600F F-800K U-800

30 50 50 75 100 100 125 150 175 225 350 400 500 600 800 800

1.5 1.5 2.5 4 6 6 10 10 16 25 35 50 50 95 120 150

Star Delta Starter in rated 415V 3 Phase 50Hz Rating Rating Full Type Magnet Starter Thermal OL Heater HP KW Load Range (A) 5 3.7 7.2 K10N-EP2_or_ K11NTR11-1E 2.5-5.0 EP2 5.5 4 8.5 K10N-EP2_or_ K11NTR11-1E 4.5-9.0 EP2 7.7 5.5 11.5 K15B-N-EP3 TR20-1E 4.5-9.0

Type of Star Type of NH MCs Delta MCs Fuse (A) K11N-EP K11N-EP 16 K11N-EP K15-BN-EP K11N-EP K15-BNEP 16 20

S-Series S-30SZ S-30S S-30S

F-Series F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K

Rated Wire Current Size (A) (sqmm) 20 1 20 30 1 1

10 15 20 25 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 180 220 270 340 30

7.5 11 15 18.5 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 22

14 21 28 35 52 62 80 95 130 160 195 230 275 345 428 40

K15B-N-EP3 K15B-N-EP3 K20BN-EP3 K25BN-EP3 K30BN-EP3 K50BN-EP3 K50BN-EP3 K60BN-EP3 K100N-EP3 K120N-EP3 K150N-EP3 K200N-EP3 K250N-EP3 K300N-EP3 K400N-EP3 K30BN-EP3

TR20-1E TR20-1E TR20-1E TR40-1E TR40-1E TR100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR-100-1E TR20_with_ CT100N TR201E_with_CT1 000 TR201E_with_CT1 000 TR201E_with_CT1 000 TR40-1E

6-12 12-18 12-18 16-24 22-34 32-48 45-65 45-65 65-95 65-95 90-120 1.0-1.8 1.0-1.8 1.6-3.2 1.6-3.2 22-34

K15-BN-EP K15BN-EP K15BN-EP K20BN-EP K25BN-EP K30BN-EP K50N-EP K50N-EP K60N-EP K100N-EP K120N-EP K200N-EP K200N-EP K200N-EP K300N-EP K25BN-EP

K15-BNEP K11N-EP K20BN-EP K25BN-EP K30BN-EP K50N-EP K50N-EP K60N-EP K100N-EP K120N-EP K150N-EP K200N-EP K250N-EP K300N-EP K400N-EP K30BN-EP

35 35 50 50 63 100 100 125 160 200 250 250 315 400 630 63

S-30S S-30SZ S-30SZ S-100S S-100S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-225S S-400S S-400S S-600S S-600S S-800S S-800S S-100S

F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K F-50F_or_F50K F-100G F-100G F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-225F_or_F225KB F-400F F-400F F-600F F-600F F-800K U-800 F-100G

30 50 50 75 100 125 150 175 225 350 400 500 600 800 800 100

1.5 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 10 16 25 35 50 50 70 95 150 4

Maximum Demand Rule of Thumb Samples Table
Approx. 48.3 94.39 65.87 Incoming Actual % Amp 5000 48.3 3200 94.39 2500 43.8 2500 66.22 2500 62.9 2500 90.58 Max.Load Actual % 2500 1000 1250 600 600 500 46.73 92 28.09 59.84 56.29 88.5 Type Submains Main DB Main DBs Industry type Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) United Cement Silo Erection Project ( Mostly Motors Load Industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry )

51.95

1600 1600

51.44 52.46 63.66 43.07 52.6 55.5 43.86 50.41 38.74 57.43 43.29 42 39.6 45.45 28.28 79.87 45

800 800 300 400

34.63 35.5 56.78 33.53

Main MVSB

53.11

1200 1200 1200 1000 1000 630 630

E.S.B (emergency) MSB MVSB

Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) Citi Bank ( Bank ) SCS (Software Co.) Citi Bank ( Bank ) United Cement Silo Erection Project ( Mostly Motors Load Industry ) United Cement Silo Erection Project ( Mostly Motors Load Industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) ST Computer System & Services Ltd. SCS (Software Co.) Citi Bank ( Bank ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) ST Computer System & Services Ltd. Ssangyong Cement Gul Technologies ( PCB industry )

49.68 44.57

315 80 225 300 63 100 160 100 150

33.69 33.57 45.45 27.62 35.9 35.7 12.43 70.84 21.43

Silo Feed MCC1 Discharge MCC2 Submains Submains Power Cee Form unit DB

50.36 40.8 45.45 54.075 45

600 600 400 400 300 250 250 225

Motor Load

Approx. 59.53

Incoming Actual % Amp 200 40.65 200 68.96 200 125 100 68.98 69.44 33.33

Max.Load Actual % 63 60 60 60 60 27.84 60.87 60.87 50 16.67

Type MVSB Main DB Isolator

Industry type ST Computer System & Services Ltd. Yimeido Cosmetic P.L ( Chemical Industry ) Europe Kitchen ( Restaurant ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry )

69.44 49.8

49.8

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 75 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63

70.42 83.33 24 25.64 66.67 55.5 69.93 54.64 54.64 53.47 47.84 47.8 41.67 40 25.97 51.8 34 67.74 62.89 61.16 55.7 50 47.37 46.67 45.98 45 43.15 43.15 43.15 42.85 38.65 35.79 30.14 78.78

60 30 58 60 60 60 63 63 63 63 63 63 30 63 63 63 20 32 30 30 32 32

48.78 78 11.73 12.12 44.4 DB-1 83.3 Packing DB-2 46.25 30.83 30.8 40.21 25.34 25.34 33.3 17.87 12.25 28.46 Submain 27.5 SSQ 53.5 33.33 32.03 31.06 30.77

34 50.67

Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) United Cement Silo Erection Project ( Mostly Motors Load Industry ) United Cement Silo Erection Project ( Mostly Motors Load Industry ) ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. Metal Component ( Metal Work ) Gul Technologies ( PCB industry ) ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. Yimeido Cosmetic P.L ( Chemical Industry )

32 30 32

27.82 26.82 22.2 Lighting DB

50.67

63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 60 60 32 32 32 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20

78.75 60.57 26.25 25 52.5 23.3 52.5 81.8 78.75 50 66.67 36.78 40 40 35.29 46.87 50 33.33 37.5 50 66.67 42.86 37.5 62.5

20 30

66.67 44.59

30

15

32 30

31.8 50

Isolator,A.C, Power M.D.F Room SSO,DB Light & Power DB Light DB Power DB Light DB Light/Power/A C/Iso DB Power DB Aircon Aircon

H.S Precision Woodland Telecomm SGH ( Hospital ) SGH ( Hospital ) SGH ( Hospital ) SGH ( Hospital ) SGH ( Hospital ) SGH ( Hospital ) Metal Component ( Metal Work ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) ST Computer System & Services Ltd. ST Computer System & Services Ltd. Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry ) ST Computer System & Services Ltd. SGH ( Hospital ) Citi Bank ( Bank ) Europe Kitchen ( Restaurant ) Metal Component ( Metal Work ) Insulpak Styrotek ( Chemical & Easy Burning Industry )

38.9 44.4

20 30 15 20 15 15 16

15.38

62.5

50 20 16.7 33.33 Light & Power DB 33.3 Submains Lighting DB Lighting DB 5 Lighting

Submains Lighting & Power Aircon