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ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

(An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution)

Siruganoor, Tiruchirappalli 621 105.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

ME 1201 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS

UNIT I

1. What is heat?

2. Prove that cp-c v=R.

3. State zeroth law of thermodynamics. What is its application?

4. What is the relationship between a system and its environment when the system is

(a) Adiabatic (b) Isolated?

5. What is meant by enthalpy'?

6. State the Clausius statement of Second Law of Thermodynamics.

7. State few examples of irreversible process.

8. What is the convention for positive and negative work?

9. What are the corollaries to the first law of Thermodynamics?

10. What is the convention for positive and negative work?

11. What is meant by internal energy?

12. A rigid tank is insulated around both its sides and ends. It is separated initially into two

equal volumes by a partition. When one side contains 1 kg of gas at 100 kPa and 345C, the

other side remains evacuated. If the partition is removed, find final pressure and

temperature.

13. What do you understand by a reversible process?

14. What do you understand by flow work? Is it different from displacement work?

15. Which property of a system increases when heat is transferred:

(a) At constant volume (b) At constant pressure?

16. What is the difference between the classical and the statistical approaches to

thermodynamics?

17. What is meant by Continuum? Identify its importance.

18. What is the requirement for the thermal equilibrium? Which law governs it?

19. Give the criteria of reversibility, irreversibility and impossibility of a

thermodynamic cycle.

20. Define a thermodynamic system. Classify the following systems as

open/closed/isolated

21. Define heat and thermodynamic definition of work. ,

22. Define 'process' and 'cycle' with one example each.

23. Distinguish between heat and temperature.

24. What is a PMM1? Why is it impossible?

25. Is it correct to say 'total heat' or 'heat content' of a closed system?

26. What is meant by enthalpy'?

Part - B

1. i) Prove that internal energy is a property. (4)

ii) 1 kg of gas at 1.1 bar, 27C is compressed to 6.6 bar as per the law pv

1.3

= const. Calculate work and

heat transfer, if (1)When the gas is ethane (C2H6) with molar mass of 30 kg/ k mol and c

p

of 2.1 KJ/kg k.

(2)When the gas is Argon(Ar) with molar mass of 40 kg/ k mol and c

p

of 0.52 KJ/kg k. (12)

2. (i)Derive the general energy equation for a steady flow system and apply the equation to a nozzle and

derive an equation for velocity at exit. (8)

(ii) In an air compressor, air flows steadily at the rate of 0.5 kg/sec. At entry to the compressor,

air has a pressure of 105 kPa and specific volume of 0.86 m

3

/kg and at exit of the compressor

those corresponding values are 705 kPa and 0.16 m

3

/kg. Neglect Kinetic and Potential energy

change. The Internal energy of air leaking the compressor is 95 kJ/kg greater than that of air

entering. The cooling water in the compressor absorbs 60 kJ/sec. of heat from the air . Find

power required to derive the compressor. (8)

3. (a) In an isentropic flow through nozzle, air flows at the rate of 600 kg/hr. At inletto the nozzle,

pressure is 2 MPa and temperature is 127C. The exit pressure is 0.5 MPa. Initial air velocity is 300

m/s .Determines (i) Exit velocity of air (ii) Inlet and exit area of nozzle. (8)

(b) A centrifugal pump delivers 2750 kg of water per minute from initial pressure of 0.8 bar absolute to

a final pressure of 2.8 bar absolute. The suction is 2 m below and the delivery is 5 m above the centre

of pump. If the suction and delivery pipes are of 15 cm and 10 cm diameter respectively, make

calculation for power required to run the pump. (8)

4. (a)(i) Deduce the expression for the displacement work in an isothermal process.(4)

(ii) Three grams of nitrogen gas at 6 atm and 160C is expanded adiabatically to double its initial volume,

then compressed at constant pressure to its initial volume and then compressed again at constant

volume to its initial state. Calculate the net work done on the gas. Draw the p-V diagram for the process.

Specific heat ratio of nitrogen is 1.4. (10 + 2)

5. (i) Describe steady flow energy equation and deduce suitable expression for the expansion of gas in a

gas turbine with suitable assumptions. (8)

(ii) Air expands by isentropic process through a nozzle from 784 kPa and 220C to an exit pressure of 98

kPa. Determine the exit velocity and the mass flow rate, if the exit area is 0.0006 m

2

. (8)

6. (i) The properties of a system, during a reversible constant pressure non-flow process at P = 1.6 bar

changed from v1=0.3m3/kg,T1 =20C to v2 = 0.55m3/kg, T2 =260C. The specific heat of the fluid is given

by Cp = [1.5+(75/T+45)] kJ/kgC where T is in C. Determine, the heat added, work done, change in

internal energy and change in enthalpy per kg of fluid. (8)

(ii) A nozzle is a device for increasing the velocity of a steadily flowing stream. At the inlet to a certain

nozzle, the enthalpy of the fluid passing is 3000 kJ/kg and the velocity is 60 m/s. At the discharge end,

the enthalpy is 2762 kJ/kg. The nozzle is horizontal and there is negligible heat loss from it.

(1) Find the velocity at exit from the nozzle.

(2) If the inlet area is 0.1 m

2

and the specific volume at the inlet is 0.187 m

3

/kg, find the

mass flow rate.

(3) If the specific volume at the nozzle exit is 0.498 m

3

/kg, find the exit area of the nozzle. (8)

7. (a) A reciprocating air compressor takes in 2 m

3

/min air at 0.11 MPa, 293 K which it delivers at

1.5 MPa, 384 K to an after cooler where the air is cooled at constant pressure to 298 K. The power

absorbed by the compressor is 4.15 kW. Determine the heat transfer in (i)the compressor (ii) the cooler.

State your assumptions (16)

8. In a turbo machine handling an incompressible fluid .with a density of 1000 kg/m3 the conditions of

the fluid at the rotor entry and exit are as given below :

Inlet Exit

Pressure 1.15 MPa 0.05 M pa

Velocity 30 m/sec 15.5 m/sec

Height above datum 10 m 2 m

If the volume flow rate of the fluid is 40m

3

/s, estimate the net energy transfer from the fluid as

work.(16)

9. (a) (i) Apply steady flow energy equation for a nozzle. State the

assumptions made. (6)

(ii) A gas occupies 0.3 m

3

at 2 bar. It executes a cycle consisting of processes : (1) 1-2; constant pressure

with work interaction of 15 kJ. (2) 2-3; compression process which follows the law PV = Constant, and

U3 = U2 (3) 3-1; constant volume process, and change in internal energy is 40 kJ. Neglect change in KE

and PE. Draw PV diagram for the process and determine network transfer for the cycle. Also . show that

first law is obeyed by the cycle. (10)

10. Air flows steadily at the rate of 0.5 kg/s through an air compressor entering at 7 m/s velocity, 100

kPa pressure, and 0.95 m

3

/kg specific volume, and leaving at 5 m/s, 700 kPa, and 0.19 m

3

/kg. The

internal energy of air leaving is 90 kJ/kg greater than that of the air entering. Cooling water in the

compressor jackets absorb heat at the rate of 58 kW. Calculate the rate of shaft work input to the

compressor. (16)

11. (a) (i) Distinguish between the reversible process and the cyclic process. (4)

(ii) Air contained in the cylinder and piston arrangement comprises the system. A cycle is completed by

four process 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 and 4-1. The energy transfers are listed below. Complete the table and

determine the network in kJ. Also check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics.

(8 + 2 + 2)

Process Q (kJ) W (kJ) U (kJ)

1-2 40 ? 25

2-3 20 -10 ?

3-4 -20 ? ?

4-1 0 +8 ?

12. (i) Derive the suitable expression for the ideal compressor from the steady flow energy

equation and specify the assumptions under which such equation is applicable.(4)

(ii) Calculate the power developed and diameter of the inlet pipe, if a gas enters into the gas turbine at 5

kg/s, 50 m/s with an enthalpy of 0.9 MJ/kg and leaves at 150 m/s with an enthalpy of 0.4 MJ/kg. The

heat loss to the surrounding is 0.025 MJ/kg. Assume 100 kPa and 300 K at the inlet.(8+4)

13. A gas of mass 1.5 kg undergoes a quasi-static expansion which follows a relationship p =a + bV,

where a and b are constants. The initial and final pressures are 1000 kPa and 200 kPa respectively and

the corresponding volumes are 0.20 m

3

and 1.20 m

3

. The specific internal energy of the gas is given by

the relation: u = 1.5 pv 85 kJ/kg, where p is in kPa and v is in m

3

/kg. Calculate the net heat transfer

and the maximum internal energy of the gas attained during expansion. (16)

14. A nozzle velocity is a device for increasing the velocity of a steadily flowing stream. At the inlet to a

certain nozzle, the enthalpy of the fluid passing is 3000 kJ/kg and the velocity is 60 m/s. At the discharge

end, the enthalpy is 2762 kJ/kg. The nozzle is horizontal and there is negligible heat loss from it. (i) Find

the velocity at exit from the nozzle. (ii) If the inlet area is 0.1m

2

and the specific volume at inlet is 0.187

m

3

/kg, find the mass flow rate, (iii) If the specific volume at the nozzle exit is 0.498 m

3

/kg, find the exit

area of the nozzle. (16)

15. (i) Define internal energy and prove that it is a point function. (3 + 4)

(ii) Establish the relationship between the specific heat at constant pressure and specific heat at

constant volume. (3)

(iii) In a Gas turbine installation, the gases enter the turbine at the rate of 5 kg/sec with a velocity of 50

m/sec and enthalpy of 900 kJ/kg and leave the turbine with 150 m/sec. and enthalpy of 400 kJ/kg. The

loss of heat from the gases to the surroundings is 25 kJ/kg. Assume R = 0.285 kJ/kg K, C

p

=1.004 kJ/kg K

and inlet conditions to be at 100 kPa and 27C. Determine the diameter of the inlet pipe.(6)

16. (i) A blower handles 1 kg/sec of air at 293 K and consumes a power of 15 kW. The inlet and

outlet velocities of air are 100 m/sec and 150 m/sec respectively. Find the exit air temperature,

assuming adiabatic conditions. Take C

p

of air as 1.005 kJ/kg-K. (9)

(ii) A room for four persons has two fans, each consuming 0.18 kW power and three 100 W lamps.

Ventilation air at the rate of 0.0222 kg/sec enters with an enthalpy of 84 kJ/kg and leaves with an

enthalpy of 59 kJ/kg. If each person puts out heat at the rate of 0.175 kJ/sec, determine the rate at

which heat is to be removed by a room cooler, so that a steady state is maintained in the room.(7)

17. (i) One litre of hydrogen at 273 K is adiabatically compressed to one-half of its initial volume. Find

the change in temperature of the gas, if the ratio of two specific heats for hydrogen is 1.4. (4)

(ii) The velocity and enthalpy of fluid at the inlet of a certain nozzle are 50 m/sec and 2800 kJ/kg

respectively. The enthalpy at the exit of nozzle is 2600 kJ/kg. The nozzle is horizontal and insulated so

that no heat transfer takes place from it. Find i. Velocity of the fluid at exit of the nozzle ii. Mass flow

rate, if the area at inlet of nozzle is 0.09 m

2

iii. Exit area of the nozzle, if the specific volume at the exit of

the nozzle is 0.495 m

3

/kg. (12)

18. (i)Derive the general energy equation for a steady flow system and apply the equation to a nozzle

and derive an equation for velocity at exit. (8)

(ii) In an air compressor, air flows steadily at the rate of 0.5 kg/sec. At entry to the compressor,

air has a pressure of 105 kPa and specific volume of 0.86 m

3

/kg and at exit of the compressor those

corresponding values are 705 kPa and 0.16 m

3

/kg. Neglect Kinetic and Potential energy change. The

Internal energy of air leaking the compressor is 95 kJ/kg greater than that of air entering. The

cooling water in the compressor absorbs 60 kJ/sec. of heat from the air. Find power required to derive

the compressor. (8)

UNIT II

1. Deduce the relation between the COP of heat pump and refrigerator.

2. What is meant by thermodynamic temperature scale? How do you device such scale?

3. What is a process involved in a Carnot cycle, sketch the same in P-V and T-S diagram

4. What are the two major conclusions deduced from the Carnot principles?

5. What do you understand by dissipative effects? When work is said, to be dissipated?

6. Isentropic process need not be necessarily an adiabatic process - Justify.

7. What is the Kelvin-Planck expression of the second law of thermodynamics?

8. Classify the following as point or path function: Heat, Enthalpy, Displacement work, Entropy.

9. Why is the COP of an heat pump is higher than that of a refrigerator, if they both operate

between the same temperature limits?

10. What is meant by availability?

11. Give Clausius statement of Second Law of Thermodynamics.

12. What is the principle of increase of Entropy?

13. What do you understand by the concept of entropy?

14. What is loss of availability? How is it related to entropy of universe?

15. Why the second law of thermodynamics is called a directional law of nature?

16. The coefficient of Performance (COP) of a heat pump is 5. Find the COP of a refrigerator if

both are reversible devices interacting between same source temperature and sink

temperature.

17. What are the two major conclusions deduced from the Carnot principles?

18. What is a process involved in a Carnot cycle, sketch the same in P-V and T-S diagram.

19. Deduce the relation between the COP of heat pump and refrigerator.

20. What is meant by thermodynamic temperature scale? How do you device such scale?

21. Define the Carnot cycle with P-V and T-S diagram.

Part - B

1. A heat engine operating between two reservoirs at 100 K and 300 K is used to drive heat pump

which extracts heat from the reservoir at 300 K at a rate twice that at which engine rejects heat to it. If

the efficiency of the engine is 40% of the maximum possible and the co-efficient of performance of

the heat pump is 50% of the maximum possible, make calculations for the temperature of the

reservoir to which the heat pump rejects heat. Also work out the rate of heat rejection from the

heat pump if the rate of supply of heat to the engine is 50 kW. (16)

2. One kg of air is contained in a piston cylinder assembly at 10 bar pressure and 500 K temperature.

The piston moves outwards and the air expands to 2 bar pressure and 350 K temperature. Determine

the maximum work obtainable. Assume the environmental conditions to be 1 bar and 290 K. Also make

calculations for the availability in the initial and final states. (16)

3. (i) What are the conditions for reversibility? Explain. (4)

(ii) An heat exchanger circulates 5000 kg/hr of water to cool oil from 150C to 50C. The rate of flow of

oil is 2500 kg/hr. The average specific heat of oil is 2.5 kJ/kgK. The water enters the heat exchanger at

21C. Determine the net change in the entropy due to heat exchange process, and the amount of work

obtained if cooling of oil is done by using the heat to run a Carnot engine with sink temperature of 21C.

(8 + 4)

4. (i) Deduce Clausius inequality and interpret it. (4 + 2)

(ii) An ideal gas of 0.12 m

3

is allowed to expand isentropically from 300 kPa and 120C to 100 kPa. 5 kJ of

heat is then transferred to the gas at constant pressure. Calculate the change in entropy for each

process. Assume = 1.4 and C

p

=1.0035 kJ/kg-K. If these two processes are replaced by a reversible

polytropic expansion, find the index of expansion between original and final states. What will be the

total changes in entropy? (4 + 4 + 2)

5. (a) (i) Show that the efficiency of a reversible engine operating between two given constant

temperatures is the maximum. (8)

(ii) A heat pump working on the Carnot cycle takes in heat from a reservoir at 5C and delivers heat

to a reservoir at 60C. The heat pump is driven by u reversible heat engine which takes heat from

reservoir at 840C and rejects heat to a reservoir at 60C. The reversible heat engine also drives a

machine that absorbs 30 kW. If the heat pump extracts 17 kJ/s from the reservoir at 5C, determine

(1) The rate of heat supply from 840C source, and

(2) The rate of heat rejection to 60C sink. (8)

6. (i) Determine the maximum work obtainable by using one finite body at temperature T and a thermal

energy reservoir at temperature To, T>T0. (8)

(ii) An aluminium block (c

p

=400J/kgK) with a mass of 5 kg is initially at 40C in room air at

20C. It is cooled reversibly by transferring heat to a completely reversible cyclic heat engine until the

block reaches 20C. The 20C room air serves as a constant temperature sink for the engine. Compute

(1) The change in entropy for the block,

(2) The change in entropy for the room air,

(3) The work done by the engine. (8)

7. The interior lighting of refrigerators is provided by incandescent lamps whose switches are

actuated by the opening of the refrigerator door. Consider a refrigerator whose 40W.light bulb remains

on continuously as a result of a malfunction the switch. If the refrigerator has a coefficient of

performance of 1.3 and the cost of electricity is Rs. 8 per kWh, determine the increase in the energy

consumption of the refrigerator and its cost per year if the switch is not fixed. (16)

8. (i) A Carnot heat engine receives 650 kJ of heat from a source of unknown temperature and

rejects 250 kJ of it to a sink at 297 K. Determine the temperature of the source and the thermal

efficiency of the heat engine. (6)

(ii) A Carnot heat engine receives heat from a reservoir at 1173 K at a rate of 800 kJ/min and

rejects the waste heat to the ambient air at 300 K. The entire work output of the heat engine is used to

drive a refrigerator that removes heat from the refrigerated space at 268 K and transfers it to the same

ambient air at 300 K. Determine the maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the

total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air (10)

9. (i) Prove that the Kelvin-Planck statement and Clausius statement of second law of

thermodynamics are equivalent. (8)

(ii) A closed system consists of 1 kg of air which is initially at 1.5 bar and 67C The volume doubles as

the system undergoes a process according to the law PV

1.2

= C. Find the work done, heat transfer and

change in entropy. (8)

10. (i) Deduce the efficiency of Carnot cycle in terms of temperature from its p-V diagram. (4)

(ii) Five kg of water at 303 K is mixed with one kg of ice at 0C. The system is open to atmosphere. Find

the temperature of the mixture and the change of entropy for both ice and water. Assume C

p

of water

as 4.18 kJ/kg-K and Latent heat of ice as 334.5 kJ/kg. Comment on the result based on the principle of

increase in entropy (4 + 4 + 4)

11. (i) What are the causes of irreversibility of a process? (4)

(ii) A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures of 600C and 40C. The

engine drives a reversible refrigerator which operates between reservoirs at temperatures of 40Cand

- 20C. The heat transfer to the engine is 2000 kJ and the net work output of the combined engine

refrigerator plant is 360 kJ. (1) Evaluate the heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net heat transfer to

the reservoir at 40C. (2) Reconsider (1) given that the efficiency of the heat engine and the COP of the

refrigerator are each 40% of their maximum possible values. (12)

12. (i) Ten grams of water at 20C is converted into ice at -10C at constant atmospheric pressure.

Assuming the specific heat of liquid water to remain constant at 4.2 J/gK and that of ice to be half of this

value, and taking the latent heat of fusion of ice at 0C to be 335 J/g, Calculate the total entropy change

of the system. (14)

(ii) Why is entropy transfer associated with heat transfer and not with work transfer? (2)

13. (i) Derive Clausius inequality and mention the criteria for reversibility of a cycle.(6)

(ii) A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at 820C and 27C. Engine drives a

reversible refrigerator which operates between reservoirs at temperatures of 27C and -15C. The heat

transfer to the engine is 2000 kJ and network available for the combined cycle is 300 kJ. (1) How much

heat is transferred to the refrigerant and also determine the total heat rejected to the reservoir at 27 C.

(2) If the efficiency of the heat engine and COP of the refrigerator are each 40% of their maximum

values, determine heat transfer to the refrigerator and also heat rejected to the reservoir at 27C. (10)

14. (i) Show that there is a decrease in available energy when heat is transferred through a finite

temperature difference. (6)

(ii) In a closed system air is at a pressure of 1 bar, temperature of 300 K and volume of 0.025 m

3

.The

system executes the following processes during the completion of thermodynamic cycle : 1-2;constant

volume heat addition till pressure reaches 3.8 bar, 2-3; constant pressure cooling of air; 3-1; isothermal

heating to initial state. Determine the change in entropy in each process. Take C

v

= 0.718 kJ/kgK. R = 287

J/kgK. (10)

15. (i) State Carnot theorem (3)

(ii) An inventor claims to have developed an engine which receives 1000 kJ at a temperature of 160C. It

rejects heat at a temperature of 5C and delivers 0.12 kWh of mechanical work. Is this a valid claim?

Justify your answer through Classius inequality. (3 + 2)

(iii) A refrigerator operating between two identical bodies cools one of the bodies to a temperatureT2.

Initially both the bodies are at temperature T1. Deduce the expression for the minimum specific work

input, taking their specific heat as c. (8)

16. (i) Deduce the expression for the Entropy change in terms of pressure and temperature.(6)

(ii) One kg of ice at -10C is allowed to melt in atmosphere at 30C. The ice melts and the water so

formed rises in temperature to that of atmosphere. Determine the entropy change of ice, the entropy

change of surrounding, the entropy change of universe and write your comment based on principle of

increase in entropy. The specific heat of ice is 2 kJ/kg-K and its latent heat is 335 kJ/kg.(3 + 3 + 3 + 1)

17 (i) Give the Clausius statement of second law (3)

(ii) A house hold refrigerator is maintained at a temperature of 275 K. Every time the door is opened,

warm material is placed inside, introducing an average of 420 kJ, but making only a small change in the

temperature of the refrigerator. The door is opened 20 times a day, and the refrigerator operates at

15% of the ideal COP. The cost of work is Rs 2.50 per kWhr. What is the bill for the month of April for

this refrigerator? The atmosphere is at 303 K. (13)

18. (i) What is a thermal energy reservoir (3)

(ii) Establish the inequality of Clausius (13)

19. (a) (i) What are the conditions for reversibility? Explain. (4)

(ii) An heat exchanger circulates 5000 kg/hr of water to cool oil from 150C to 50C. The rate of flow of

oil is 2500 kg/hr. The average specific heat of oil is 2.5 kJ/kgK. The water enters the heat exchanger at

21C. Determine the net change in the entropy due to heat exchange process, and the amount of work

obtained if cooling of oil is done by using the heat to run a Carnot engine with sink temperature of 21C.

(8 + 4)

20. (i) Deduce Clausius inequality and interpret it. (4 + 2)

(ii) An ideal gas of 0.12 m

3

is allowed to expand is entropically from 300 kPa and 120C to 100 kPa. 5 kJ

of heat is then transferred to the gas at constant pressure. Calculate the change in entropy for each

process. Assume = 1.4 and C

p

=1.0035 kJ/kg-K. If these two processes are replaced by a

reversible polytropic expansion, find the index of expansion between original and final states. What will

be the total changes in entropy? (4 + 4 + 2)

21. Two kg of air at 500 kPa, 80C expands adiabatically in a closed system until its volume is doubled

and its temperature becomes equal to that of the surroundings which is at 100 kPa, 5C for this process,

determine i. The maximum work ii. The change in availability and iii. The irreversibility. For air taken,

C

v

= 0.718 kJ/kg K, u = Cv T Where C

v

is constant and PV = mRT where P is pressure in kPa, V volume in

m

3

, m mass in kg, R a constant equal to 0.287 kJ/kg K and T temperature in K. (16)

22. i) Two reversible adiabatic lines cannot intersect. Is this statement true or false? Justify the

answer. (4)

ii) A reversible engine operates between a source at 972 C and two sinks, one at 127 C and another at

27 C . The energy rejected is same at both the sinks. What is the ratio of heat supplied to the heat

rejected? Also calculate the efficiency. (12)

23. i) What are the conditions for reversibility? (2)

ii) Differentiate between heat pump and refrigerator. (2)

iii) 50kg of water is at 313K and enough ice -5 C is mixed with water in an adiabatic vessel such that at

the end of the process all the ice melts and water at 0 C is obtained. Find the mass of ice required and

the entropy change of water and the ice. Given C

p

of water = 4.2KJ/kg k, c

p

of ice = 2.1 K J/kg k and latent

heat of ice= 335 KJ/kg . (12)

UNIT III

1. What do you understand by pure substance? Give some typical e.g.

2. What is critical point? What are the properties of water at critical point?

3. How evaporation differs from boiling?

4. Define critical pressure and temperature for water.

5. Sketch the Rankine cycle on a P-V plane and name the various process.

6. Define triple point and identify the triple point of water.

7. Steam in a pipeline with a pressure of 1000 kPa flows through a throttling calorimeter

where pressure is 100 kPa and temperature is 120C. What is the initial quality of steam

if enthalpy remains constant during throttling?

8. Define saturation state of a system.

9. Why Carnot cycle is not practicable for a steam power plant?

10. If water is at 65C at 1 atm, what is the state of water? What is its specific enthalpy?

11. Plot the standard Rankine cycle on T-s diagram and label all the processes assuming the

steam to be dry and saturated at the end of expansion.

12. Define quality of steam. What are the methods of determining quality of steam?

13. Give the flow and T-s diagrams of the regenerative Rankine cycle with single open feed

water heater.

14. What is the triple point of water? Give the values of properties at that point.

15. What is meant by latent heat of vaporization?

16. Sketch the adiabatic saturation process on T-s diagram.

17. Sketch the evaporative cooling process on a skeleton psychrometric chart.

18. Why is excessive moisture in steam undesirable in steam turbines?

19. Why is the Carnot cycle not a realistic model for steam power plants?

20. Define specific humidity. How does it differ from relative humidity?

21. What is evaporative cooling? Will it work in humid climates?

22. What is.critical state? Define the term critical pressure, critical temperature and critical

volume of water.

23. What is specific humidity and how do you calculate it?

24. What is meant by adiabatic saturation temperature?

25. What is compressibility factor? What does it signify? What is its value for van der Waals

gas at critical point?

Part - B

1. i) Draw the p-T diagram of a pure substance and label all the phases and phase changes.(4)

ii) What do you understand by dryness fraction? What is its importance? (2)

iii) A rigid tank of .003 m

3

capacity contains wet vapour at 80 k pa. If the wet vapour mass is 12kg,

calculate the heat added and the quality of the mixture when the pressure inside the tank reaches

7 M pa. (10)

2. i) What are the major problems of Carnot vapour cycle? (2)

ii) What are the methods for improving the performances of Rankine cycle? (2)

iii) Steam enters the turbine at 3 Mpa and 400 C and is condensed at 10 k pa. Some quantity of steam

leaves the turbine at 0.6 Mpa and enters open feed water heater. Compute the fraction of the

steam extracted per kg of steam and cycle thermal efficiency. (12)

3. In a single heater regenerative cycle the steam enters the turbine at 30 bar , 400C and the exhaust

pressure is 0.10 bar . The feed water heater is a direct contact type, which operates at 5 bar . Find (i)

the efficiency and the steam rate of the cycle, and (ii) the increase in mean temperature of heat

addition, efficiency and steam rate as compared to the Rankine cycle (wi th out regeneration)

Neglect pump work. (16)

4. One kg of steam is contained in an elastic balloon of spherical shape which supports an internal

pressure proportional to its diameter . The initial condition of steam is saturated vapour at 10C.

Heat is transferred to steam until pressure reaches 200 kPa. Determine: (i) Final temperature (ii)

Heat transferred. Take C

ps

= 2.25 kJ/kg K (16)

5. 1 kg of steam initially dry saturated at 1.1 MPa expands in a cylinder following the law PV

1.13

= C.

The pressure at the end of expansion is 0.1 MPa. Determine (i) The final volume (ii) Final dryness

fraction (iii) Work done (iv) The change in internal energy (v) The heat transferred. (16)

6. Steam at a pressure of 2.5 MPa and 500C is expanded in a steam turbine to a condenser

pressure of 0.05 MPa. Determine for Rankine cycle :(i) The thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle (ii)

Specific steam consumption. If the steam pressure is reduced to 1 MPa and the temperature is kept

same 500C. Determine the thermal efficiency and the specific steam consumption. Neglect feed pump

work. (16)

7. (i) Draw p-T diagram and label various phases and Transitions. Explain the process of

isobaric heating above triple point pressure with the help of p-T diagram. (4 + 4)

(ii) 2 kg of water at 200C are contained in a 20 m

3

vessel. Determine the pressure, enthalpy, mass and

volume of vapour within the vessel. (8)

8. (i) Draw Rankine cycle with one open type feed water heater. Assume the condition of the steam

before entering the turbine to be superheated. Sketch the cycle on T-s diagram. (6)

(ii) In an ideal reheat cycle, the steam enters the turbine at 30 bar and 500C. Mter expansion to 5 bar,

the steam is reheated to 500C and then expanded to the condenser pressure of 0.1 bar. Determine the

cycle thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam. Take power output as 100 MW.(6+4)

9. (i) Steam flows through a small turbine at the rate of 5000 kg/h entering at 15 bar 300C and leaving

at 0.1 bar with 4% moisture. The steam enters at 80 m/s at a point 2 m above the discharge and leaves

at 40 m/s. Compute the shaft power assuming that the device is adiabatic but considering kinetic and

potential energy changes. Calculate the diameter of the inlet and discharge tubes (8)

(ii) Steam expands isentropically in a nozzle from 1 MPa, 250C to 10 kPa.The steam flow rate is 1 kg/s.

Find the velocity of steam at the exit from the nozzle, and the exit area of the nozzle-. Neglect the

velocity of steam at inlet to the nozzle. The exhaust steam from the nozzle flows into a condenser and

flows out as saturated water. The cooling water enters the condenser at 25C and leaves at 35C.

Determine the mass flow rate. (8)

10. (i) With a neat diagram explain the regenerative Rankine cycle with open feedwater heater (8).

(ii) In a thermal plant operating on a Rankine cycle, superheated steam at 50 bar and

500C enters a turbine, the isentropic efficiency of which is 0.8. The condenser pressure is 0.05

bar and it delivers saturated liquid to a feed pump, the isentropic efficiency of which is 0.7. Determine

the thermal efficiency of the power plant and the mass flow rate of steam required for 50 MW net

power generation. (8)

11. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 3

MPa and 623 K and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa. Determine (i) the thermal

efficiency of this power plant, (ii) the thermal efficiency if steam is superheated to 873 K instead of 623

K, and (iii) the thermal efficiency if the boiler pressure is raised to 15 MPa while the turbine inlet

temperature js maintained at 873 K. (16)

12. Consider a steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat Rankine cycle. Steam enters the high-

pressure turbine at 15 MPa and 873K and is condensed in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa If the

moisture content of the steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10.4 percent,

determine (i) the pressure at which the steam should be reheated and (ii) the thermal efficiency of the

cycle. Assume the steam is reheated to the inlet temperature of the high-pressure turbine.(16)

13. In a steam generator compressed liquid water at 10 MPa, 30C enters a 30 mm diameter tube at

the rate of 3 litres/sec. Steam at 9 MPa, 400C exits the tube. Find the rate of heat transfer to the water.

(16)

14. (i) What is dryness fraction and degree of superheat (4)

(ii) Wet steam of 0.5 MPa and 95 % dry occupies 500 litres of volume. What is its internal energy? If this

steam is heated in a closed rigid vessel till the pressure becomes 1 MPa, find the heat added. Plot the

process on the Mollier chart. (5 + 5 + 2)

15. A regenerative cycle with three open feed water heaters works between 3 MPa, 450C and 4 kPa.

Assuming that the bleed temperatures are chosen at equal temperature ranges, plot the process on h-s

diagram and determine the efficiency of the cycle. (16)

16. (i) Why do the isobars on Mollier diagram diverge from one another? (4)

(ii) A large insulated vessel is divided into two chambers, one containing 5 kg of dry saturated steam at

0.2 MPa and the other 10 kg of steam, 0.8 quality at 0.5 MPa. If the partition between the chambers is

removed and the steam is mixed thoroughly and allowed to settle, find the final pressure, steam quality

and entropy change in the process (12)

17. In a reheat cycle, the initial steam pressure and the maximum temperature are 150 bar and 550C

respectively. If the condenser pressure is 0.1 bar and the moisture at the condenser inlet is 5%, and

assuming ideal processes, determine (i) the reheat pressure, (ii) the cycle efficiency, and (iii) the steam

rate. (16)

18. (i) Draw and explain phase equilibrium diagram for a pure substance on P-T coordinate. Also

indicate different regions on the diagram. (8)

(ii) Steam at a pressure of 15 bar and 250C expands according to the law PV

1.25

= C to a pressure of 1.5

bar. Evaluate the final conditions, work done, heat transfer and change in entropy. The mass of the

system is 0.8 kg. (8)

19. (i) Why is Carnot cycle not practicable for a steam power plant? (4)

(ii) In a steam power plant the condition of steam at inlet to the steam turbine is 20 bar and 300C and

the condenser pressure is 0.1 bar. Two feed water heaters operate at optimum temperatures.

Determine: (1) The quality of steam at turbine exhaust; (2) network per kg of steam, (3) cycle efficiency,

and (4) the steam rate. Neglect pump work (12)

20. (i) Draw p-V-T surface for any substance that contracts on freezing and get p-T plot out of

them. (4 + 2)

(ii) 3 kg of steam at 18 bar occupy a volume of 0.2550 m

3

. During a constant volume process, the heat

rejected is 1320 kJ. Determine final internal energy. Find dryness fraction and pressure, change in

entropy and work done. (10)

21. (i) Briefly explain the process of super-heated steam formation with the help of T-sdiagram.(6)

(ii) A steam power plant runs on a single regenerative heating process. The steam enters the turbine at

30 bar and 400C and steam fraction is withdrawn at 5 bar. The remaining steam exhausts at 0.10 bar to

the condenser. Calculate the efficiency, steam fraction and steam rate of the power plant.Neglect pump

work. (6 + 2 + 2)

22. A cyclic steam power plant is to be designed for a steam temperature at turbine inlet of 633 K and

an exhaust pressure of 8 kPa. After isentropic expansion of steam in the turbine, the moisture content at

the turbine exhaust is not to exceed 15%. Determine the greatest allowable steam pressure at the

turbine inlet, and calculate the Rankine cycle efficiency for these steam conditions. Estimate also the

mean temperature of heat addition (16)

23. In a reheat steam cycle, the maximum steam temperature is limited to 773 K. The condenser

pressure is 10 kPa and the quality at turbine exhaust is 0.8778. Had there been no reheat, the exhaust

quality would have been 0.7592. Assuming ideal processes, determine (i) reheat pressure (ii) the boiler

pressure (iii) the cycle efficiency (iv) the steam rate (16)

24. (i) Draw p-T diagram and label various phases and Transitions. Explain the process of

isobaric heating above triple point pressure with the help of p-T diagram.(4+4)

(ii) 2 kg of water at 200C are contained in a 20 m

3

vessel. Determine the pressure, enthalpy, mass and

volume of vapour within the vessel (8)

25. (i) Draw Rankine cycle with one open type feed water heater. Assume the condition of the steam

before entering the turbine to be superheated. Sketch the cycle on T-s diagram.(6)

(ii) In an ideal reheat cycle, the steam enters the turbine at 30 bar and 500C. After expansion to 5 bar,

the steam is reheated to 500C and then expanded to the condenser pressure of 0.1 bar. Determine the

cycle thermal efficiency, mass flow rate of steam. Take power output as 100 MW. (6 + 4)

UNIT IV

1. What are the unique features of Vander Waals equation of state?

2. What is compressibility factor? What does it signify? What is its value for van der Waals

gas at critical point?

3. State Daltons law of partial pressures. On what assumption this law is based?

4. What is an equation of state?

5. State the Avagodro's law and state its significance.

6. Write the Maxwell's questions and its significance.

7. What is equation of state? Write the same for an ideal gas.

8. What is the significance of compressibility factor?

9. What do you mean by equation of state?

10. State the Dalton's law of partial pressure.

11. Have you ever encountered any ideal gas? If so, where?

12. What is coefficient of expansion?

13. Explain the following terms: (a) Mole fraction, (b) Mass fraction.

14. Write the Maxwell's equations and also give the basic relations from which these are

derived.

15. What is "Compressibility Factor"?

16. State Dalton's law of partial pressures.

17. Draw the phase equilibrium diagram for a pure substance on T-S plot with relevant constant

property line.

18. What is the effect of regeneration of a steam power plant?

19. Is water vapour an ideal gas? Why?

20. If atmospheric air (at 101325 Pa) contains 21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen (vol. %), what

is the partial pressure of oxygen?

21. What is the use of generalized compressibility chart?

22. State any two applications of Clausius-Clapeyron equation. -

23. One kg ice melts at constant atmospheric pressure and at 0C to form liquid water. If the

Latent heat of fusion of ice is 333.3 kJ/kg, calculate the entropy change during this process

24. What does the Joule Thomson coefficient represent?

25. In a gas mixture, which component will have the higher partial pressure-the one with the

higher mole number or the one with the larger molar mass?

26. Write down the Vender Waals equation of state. How does it differ from the ideal gas

equation of state?

27. Define Joule - Kelvin effect. What is inversion temperature?

Part - B

1. i) Write down the Daltons law of partial pressure and explain its importance. (6)

ii) 0.45kg of CO and 1kg of air is contained in a vessel of volume 0.4 m

3

at 15 C . Air has 23.3% of

O

2

and 76.7% of N by mass. Calculate the partial pressure in vessel. Molar masses of CO

2

, O

2

and N

2

are 28,32 and 28 kg/kmol. (10)

2. (i) What is the use of clapeyron equation? And write it down for liquid- Vapour region.(6)

(ii) Explain the flow process of a real gas through a throttle valve. Derive the expression for the

joule Thomson coefficient and deduce its value for an ideal gas.(10)

3. Entropy is a function of any two properties like P and V, P and T etc., for a pure substance with the

help of Maxwell's Equation. Prove (i) Tds =Cy.dT + T*/k+.dv (ii) Tds = Cp.dT-V. dp.T

(iii) Tds = *KCy /+ .dp+ *Cp/v+ .dv. (16)

4. Determine change of Internal Energy and change of entropy when the gas obeys Vander vaal's

equation. (16)

5. (a) Derive Tds Equation when

(i) T and V independent (ii) T and P independent (iii) P and V independent.

6. Explain and derive the (i) Jules Thompson co-efficient (ii) Clausius Clapeyron equation.

7. (i) Deduce Maxwell's relations. (6)

(ii) Explain the Joule Thomson effect with the help of T-p diagram and derive the expression for Joule

Thomson coefficient. Show that the value of this coefficient for an ideal gas is zero. (4 + 4 + 2)

8. (i) What are the differences between real and ideal gases? (4)

(ii) Write down the van der Waal's equation of state for real gases and how is it obtained from ideal gas

equation by incorporating real gas corrections? (2 + 4)

(iii) A tank contains 0.2 m

3

of gas mixture composed of 4 kg of nitrogen, 1 kg of oxygen and 0.5 kg of

carbon-di-oxide. If the temperature is 20C, determine the total pressure, gas constant and molar mass

of the mixture. (6)

9. (i) Explain how real gases deviate from an ideal gas behaviour? (4)

(ii) Why does isothermal compression need minimum work and adiabatic compression

need maximum work? (4)

(iii) A certain quantity of air initially at a pressure of 8bar and 280C has a volume of 0.035 m

3

. It

undergoes a cycle consisting of the following processes: (a) Expands at constant pressure to 0.1 m

3

.

(b) Follows polytropic process with n = 1.4 (c) A constant temperature process which completes the

cycle. Evaluate the heat received and rejected in the cycle and cycle efficiency. (8)

10. (i) Derive the Clapeyron equation. (8)

(ii) Over a certain range of pressures and temperatures the equation of a certain substance is

given by, the relation V = (RT/p) - (C/T3) where C is constant. Derive an expression for:

(1) The change of enthalpy.

(2) The change of entropy of this substance in an isothermal Process

11. (i) Using the Clapeyron equation, estimate the value of the enthalpy of vaporization of refrigerant

R 134a at 293 K, and compare it with the tabulated value. (10)

ii) Show that C

p

- C

v

= R for an ideal gas. (8)

12. (i) Show that the Joule-Thomson coefficient of an ideal gas is zero. (6)

(ii) Using the cyclic relation , and the first Maxwell relation, derive the other three Maxwell

relations (10)

13. (i) Deduce the Maxwell's relations (8)

(ii) From the third relation of Maxwell deduce the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. (8)

14. A mixture of 2 kg oxygen and 2 kg Argon is in an insulated piston cylinder arrangement at 100 kPa,

300 K. The piston compresses the mixture to half its initial volume. Find the final pressure, temperature

and piston work. Molecular weight of oxygen is 32 and argon is 40. Ratio of specific heats for oxygen is

1.39 and for Argon, is 1.667. (16)

15. (i) State the equation of state for van der wall's gas and explain the importance of each term;

Also bring out the limitations of the equation (3 + 3 + 2)

(ii) A gas mixture consists of 12 kg of methane, 5 kg of nitrogen and 3 kg of oxygen. Determine the

molecular mass and gas constant of the mixture. If the total pressure is 100 kPa, calculate their partial

pressures. (3 + 3 + 2)

16. (i) What is compressibility factor? Explain its significance. (2 + 2)

(ii) Deduce the expression for the Joule Thomson coefficient and hence plot the variation of

temperature with pressure for various enthalpies, marking all zones and boundaries. (8 + 4)

17. Two vessel, A and B, both containing nitrogen, are connected by a valve which is opened to allow

the contents to mix and achieve an equilibrium, temperature of 27C. Before mixing the following

information is known about the gases in two vessels.

Vessel-A Vessel -B

p = 1.5 MPa p = 0.6 MPa

t = 50C t = 20C

Contents = 0.5 kg mol Contents = 2.5 kg mol

Calculate the final equilibrium process, and the amount of heat transferred to the surroundings. If the

vessel had been perfectly insulated, calculate the final temperature and pressure which would have

been reached. Take = 1.4. (16)

18. Derive the Maxwell's equations. (16)

19. (i) Write a short note on Generalized Compressibility chart. (6)

(ii) A mixture of Ideal gases consists of 2.5 kg of N

2

and 4.5 kg of CO

2

at a pressure of 4 bar and a

temperature of 25C. Determine : (1) Mole fraction of each constituent, (2) Equivalent molecular

weight of the mixture, (3) Equivalent gas constant of the mixture, (4) The partial pressure and

partial volumes, (5) The volume and density of the mixture. (10)

20. (i) Derive van der Waal's equation in terms of reduce parameters. (8)

(ii) Derive TdS equations taking Temperature, volume and temperature, pressure as independent

properties (8)

21. (i) Prove that the total pressure is a sum of partial pressures. (4)

(ii) A closed vessel has a capacity of 0.5 m

3

. It contains 20% nitrogen and 20% oxygen 60% carbon

dioxide by volume at 20C and 1 MPa. Calculate the molecular mass, gas constant, mass percentages

and the mass of mixture (12)

22. (i) Derive Tds relations in terms of temperature & pressure changes and temperature &

volume changes. (10)

(ii) Describe Joule Kelvin effect with the help of T-p diagram. (6)

23. (i) A certain gas has C

P

= 0.913 and C

v

= 0.653 kJ/kg K. Find the molecular weight and the

specific gas constant R of the gas. (4)

(ii) Derive the Clausius- Clapreyon equation. (12)

24. (i) Derive Maxwell's equations (11)

(ii) Prove Tds =CvdT +T (p/T)v dV . (5)

Unit - V

1. What is dew point temperature? How is it related to dry bulb and wet bulb temperature at

the saturation condition?

2. What is specific humidity? When does it become maximum?

3. Explain the terms (a) Specific humidity (b) Dew point temperature.

4. What is adiabatic mixing and write the equation for that?

5. What is specific humidity and how do you calculate it?

6. What is meant by adiabatic saturation temperature?

7. Define dew point temperature

8. What is sensible heating?

9. If the relative humidity of air is 60% at 30C, what is the partial pressure of water vapour?

10. What is thermodynamic wet bulb temperature?

11. What do you understand by dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures?

12. Draw a psychometric chart and show the following processes on it :

(a) Sensible cooling, (b) latent heating, (c) heating and dehumidification and (d) cooling

and humidification.

13. What is adiabatic saturation process?

14. If the vapour pressure in the open atmosphere is 2.38 kPa atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa,

calculate the specific humidity.

15. How do relative humidity, specific humidity, dew point temperature and wet bulb

temperature change during sensible cooling?

16. What is the difference between dry air and atmospheric air?

17. When is the dry bulb and dew bulb temperature identical?

18. What is dew point temperature? How is it related to dry bulb and wet bulb temperature at

the saturation condition?

Part - B

1. (i) Differentiate between Dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature.(4)

(ii) Wet bulb depression and dew point expression.(4)

(iii) Air a 16 C and 25% relative humidity passes through a heater and then through a humidifier

to reach and final dry bulb temperature of 30 C and 50% relative humidity. Calculate the heat and

moisture added to the air. What is the sensible heat factor?. (8)

2. i) In an adiabatic missing of two streams, drive the relationship among the ratio of masses of

streams, ratio of enthalpy change and ratio of specific humidity change.(8)

ii) Saturated air at 20 C at a rate of 1.167 m

3

/sec is mixed adiabatically with the outside air at

35 C and 50% relative humidity at a rate 0.5 m

3

/sec. Assuming adiabatic mixing condition at 1

atm, determine specific humidity, relative humidity, and dry bulb temperature and volume flow rate of

the mixture. (8)

3. The atmospheric air at 30C DBT and 75% RH enters a cooling coil at the rate of 200 m

3

/rpm. The coil

dew point temperature is 14C and the by pass factor is 0.1 determine a. The temperature of air leaving

the coil b. Capacity of the cooling coil in TR c. The amount of water vapour removed d. Sensible heat

factor for the process. (16)

4. The volume flow rate of air is 800 m

3

/min of re-circulated at 22C DBT and 10C dew point

temperature is to be mixed with 300 m

3

/min of fresh air at 30C DBT and 50% RH. Determine

the enthalpy, Specific volume, Humidity ratio and dew point temperature of the mixture. (16)

5. A room 7mx4mx4m is occupied by an air water vapour mixture at 38C. The atmospheric pressure

is 1 bar and the relative humidity is 70%. Determine humidity ratio, dew point temperature mass of dry

air and mass of water vapour. If the mixture of air-water vapour is further cooled at constant pressure

until the temperature is 10C. Find the amount of water vapour condensed. (16)

6. Air at 20C, 40% RH is mixed adiabatically with air at 40C 40% RH in the ratio of 1 kg of the former

with 2 kg of later. Find the final condition of air. Draw the process in chart also as diagram.

7. (i)Draw the psychometric chart and show any two psychometric processes on it.(6)

(ii) A sample of moist air at 1 atm and 25C has a moisture content of 0.01% by volume. Determine the

humidity ratio, the partial pressure of water vapour, the degree of saturation, the relative humidity and

the dew point temperature. (10)

8. (i) Describe the process of adiabatic mixing of two streams and deduce the ratio of masses of two

streams in terms of humidity and enthalpy. (10)

(ii) The temperature of the windows in a house on a day in winter is 5C. When the temperature in the

room is 23C, and the barometric pressure is 74.88 cm Hg, what would be the maximum relative

humidity that could be maintained in the room without condensation on the window panes? Under

these conditions, find the partial pressure of the water vapour and air, the specific humidity and the

density of the mixture. (6)

9. (i) Explain the process of cooling and dehumidification. (8)

(ii) Explain with an example evaporative cooling. (8)

10. (i) Two streams of air 25C, 50% RH and 25C, 60% RH are mixed adiabatically to obtain 0.3 kg/s

of dry air at 30C. Calculate the amounts of air drawn from both the streams, and humidity ratio of the

mixed air. (6)

(ii) An air-conditioned room requires 30 m3/min of air at 1.013 bar, 20C, 52.5% RH. The steady flow

conditioner takes in air at 1.013 bar, 77%RH, which it cools to adjust the moisture content and reheats

to room temperature. Find the temperature to which the air is cooled and thermal loading on both the

cooler and heater. Assume that a fan before the cooler absorbs 0.5 kW, and that the , condensate is

discharged at the temperature to which the air is cooled. (10)

11. (i) What is the lowest Temperature that air can attain in an Evaporative cooler if it

enters at 1 atm, 302 K, and 40 percent relative humidity? (4)

(ii) Consider a room that contains air at 1 atm, 308 K and 40 percent relative humidity. Using the

psychrometric chart, determine: the specific humidity, the enthalpy, the wet-bulb temperature, the

dew-point temperature and the specific volume of the air. (12)

12. An air-conditioning system is to take in outdoor air at 283 K and 30 percent relative humidity

at a steady rate of 45 m

3

/min and to condition it to 298 K and 60 percent relative humidity. The outdoor

air is first heated to 295 K in the heating section and then humidified by the injection of hot steam in the

humidifying section. Assuming the entire process takes place at a pressure of 100 kPa, determine (i) the

rate of heat supply in the heating section and (ii) the mass flow rate of the steam required in the

humidifying section. (16)

13. Air at 40C DBT and 27C WBT is to be cooled and dehumidified by passing it over a refrigerant coil

to give a final condition of 15C and 90% RH. Find the amounts of heat and moisture removed per kg of

dry air. (16)

14. (i) Explain the process of cooling and dehumidification. (4)

(ii) Air at 20C, 40% RH is mixed adiabatically with air at 40C, 40% RH in the ratio of 1 kg of the former

with 2 kg of the latter (on dry basis). Find the final condition of air (12)

15. For a hall to be air-conditioned, the following conditions are given:

Outdoor condition - 40C dbt, 20C wbt

Required comfort conditions - 20C dbt, 60% RH

Seating capacity of hall - 1500

Amount of outdoor air supply - 0.3 m3/min/person

If the required condition is achieved first by adiabatic humidification and then by cooling, estimate (i)

the capacity of the cooling coil in tonnes, and (ii) the capacity of the humidifier in kg/h. (16)

16. Atmospheric air at 1.0132 bar has a DBT of 32C and a WBT of 26C. Compute (i) the partial pressure

of water vapor, (ii) the specific humidity, (iii) the dew point temperature (iv) the relative humidity, (v)

the degree of saturation, (vi) the density of air in the mixture, (vii) the density of vapour in the mixture

and (viii) the enthalpy of the mixture. Use thermodynamic table only. (16)

17. (i) Explain the process of cooling and dehumidification of air. (8).

(ii) 30 m

3

/min of moist air at 15C DBT and 13C WBT are mixed with 12 m

3

/min of moist air at 25C DBT

and 18C WBT. Determine DBT and WBT of the mixture assuming the barometric pressure is one

atmospheric. (8)

18. (i) Describe the adiabatic cooling process and deduce the expression for its enthalpy.(4+4)

(ii) Air at 20C, 40% relative humidity is missed adiabatically with air at 40C, 40% RH in the ratio of 1 kg

of former with 2 kg of latter (on dry basis). Find the final condition (humidity and enthalpy) of air(8)

19. (i) Draw the cooling and dehumidification process and explain Sensible Heat Factor, Bypass Factor

and effectiveness of coil with respect to it. (6)

(ii) A steam of air at 101.32 kPa. 18C, and a relative humidity of 30% is flowing at the rate of 14.15

m

3

/min. A second stream at 101.32 kPa. 38C and a relative humidity of 50% is flowing at the rate of 8.5

m

3

/min. The two streams are mixed adiabatically to form a third stream at 101.32 kPa. Determine the

specific humidity, the relative humidity and the temperature of the third stream. (4 + 3 + 3)

20. In a laboratory test, a sling psychrometer recorded dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures as 303 K

and 298 K respectively. Calculate (i) vapour pressure (ii) relative humidity (iii) specific humidity (iv)

degree of saturation (v) dew point temperature (vi) enthalpy of the mixture. (16)

21. (i) 1 kg of air at 313 K dry bulb temperature and 50% relative humidity is mixed with 2 kg of air at

293 K dry bulb temperature and 293 K dew point temperature. Calculate the temperature and specific

humidity of the mixture. (10)

(ii) Show the following processes on a skeleton psychrometric chart

a. dehumidification and cooling b. Heating and humidification (6)

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