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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 1 -













GIAO TRNH
AUTO CAD 2007



















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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 2 -
Mc lc
I. M u Gii thiu chung
1. AutoCAD trong h thng cc phn mm ho v vn phng
2. Nhng kh nng chnh ca AutoCad
3. Lm quen s b vi AutoCad
4. Chc nng mt s phm c bit
5. Cc quy c

II. Cc lnh v File
1. To File bn v mi
2. Lu File bn v
3. M bn v c sn
4. ng bn v
5. Thot khi AutoCad

III. H to v cc phng thc truy bt im
1. H to s dng trong AutoCad
2. Cc phng php nhp to
3. Cc phng thc truy bt im i tng (Objects Snap )
4. Lnh Osnap (OS) gn ch chuy bt im thng tr
5. Lnh v ng thng Line ( vi cc phng php nhp to )
6. Lnh v ng trn Circle ( vi cc phng php nhp to )

IV. Cc thit lp bn v c bn
1. Gii hn khng gian v - Lnh LIMITS
2. Thu khng gian c gii hn vo trong mn hnh - Lnh ZOOM
3. Lnh y bn v Pan
4. n v o bn v
5. Lnh Snap, lnh Grid, lnh Ortho
6. Lnh Mvsetup to khung bn v

V. Cc Lnh v c bn
1. Lnh v ng thng Line (L) ( hc trn )
2. Lnh v ng trn Circle (C) ( hc trn )
3. Lnh v cung trn Arc (A )
4. Lnh v ng a tuyn Pline (PL) : ng c b rng nt
5. Lnh v a gic u Polygon (POL)
6. Lnh v hnh ch nht Rectang (REC)
7. Lnh v Elip Ellipse (EL)
8. Lnh v ng Spline (SPL) lnh v cc ng cong
9. Lnh Mline v ng // v MlStyle v MLedit
10. Lnh v im Point (PO)
11. Lnh nh kiu im Ddptype
12. Lnh chia i tng thnh nhiu on bng nhau Divide (DIV)
13. Lnh chia i tng ra cc on c chiu di bng nhau Measure (ME)

VI. Cc lnh hiu chnh cn bn
1. Lnh xa i tng Erase (E)
2. Lnh phc hi i tng b xo Oops
3. Lnh hu b lnh va thc hin Undo (U)
4. Lnh phc hi i tng va Undo l Redo
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 3 -
5. Lnh ti to mn hnh hay v li mn hnh Redraw (R)
6. Lnh ti to i tng trn mn hinh Regen (RE)

VII. Cc lnh hiu chnh to hnh
1. Lnh to cc i tng song song vi cc i tng cho trc Offset (O)
2. Lnh ct i tng gia hai i tng giao Trim (TR)
3.Lnh ct m rng Extrim
4. Lnh xn mt phn i tng gia hai im chn Break (BR)
5. Lnh ko di i tng n i tng chn Extend (EX)
6. Lnh thay i chiu di i tng Lengthen (LEN)
7. Lnh vt mp cc cnh Chamfer (CHA)
8. Lnh vut gc hai i tng vi bn knh cho trc Fillet (F)
9. Lnh hiu chnh a tuyn Pedit
10. Lnh v mt ng thng hoc mt chm ng thng giao nhau. XLINE (Construction line)
11.Lnh v mt na ng thng (RAY)
12. Lnh v hnh vnh khn (DONUT )
13.Lnh v cc on thng c dy (TRACE )
14.Lnh v min c t c (SOLID )
15. Lnh to mt min t cc hnh ghp (REGION)
16.Lnh Cng cc vng Region (UNION )
17.Lnh Tr cc vng Region ( SUBTRACT )
18.Lnh Ly giao ca cc vng Region (INTERSECT )
19.Lnh to nn mt i tng Pline (hoc Region) c dng mt ng bao kn (BOUNDARY)

VIII. Cc Lnh bin i v sao chp hnh
1. Lnh di di i tng Move (M)
2. Lnh sao chp i tng Copy (Co)
3. Lnh quay i tng xung quanh mt im Rotate (RO)
4. Lnh thu phng i tng theo t l Scale (SC)
5. Lnh i xng qua trc Mirror (MI).
6. Lnh di v ko gin i tng Stretch (S).
7. Lnh sao chp dy Array (AR)

IX. Qun l bn v theo lp, ng nt v mu
1. To lp mi Lnh Layer (L)
2. Nhp cc dng ng vo trong bn v Linetype hoc Format \ Linetype
3. nh t l cho dng ng Ltscale
4. Bin CELTSCALE

X. Hnh ct mt ct v v k hiu vt liu
1. Trnh t v mt ct
2. V mt ct bng lnh Hatch (H) hoc BHatch
3. Lnh hiu chnh mt ct HatchEdit

XI. Nhp v hiu chnh vn bn
1. Trnh t nhp v hiu chnh vn bn
2. To kiu ch lnh Style (ST)hoc vo menu Format \ TextStyle
3. Lnh nhp dng ch vo bn v Text
4. Lnh TextFill t en ch hoc khng t en.
5. Lnh nhp on vn bn Mtext (MT)
6. Lnh hiu chnh vn bn DDedit (ED)

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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 4 -
7. Lnh QTEXT hin th dng k t theo dng rt gn

XII. Ghi v hiu chnh kch thc
1. Cc thnh phn kch thc
2. To cc kiu kch thc DimStyle (D) hoc Ddim hoc Dimension \ Style
3. Cc lnh ghi kch thc thng
4. Cc lnh ghi kch thc hng tm
5. Cc lnh ghi kch thc khc.
6. Lnh hiu chnh kch thc


XIII. To khi v ghi khi.
1. Lnh to khi Block
2. Lnh chn Block vo bn v Insert
3. Lnh lu Block thnh File dng nhiu ln (lnh Wblock)
4. Lnh ph v Block l Explode hoc Xplode

XIV. BANG PHM TAT MOT SO LENH TRONG AUTOCAD

XV. BAI TAP


























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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 5 -
I. M u Gii thiu chung

AutoCAD l phn mm mnh tr gip thit k, sng tc trn my tnh ca hng AUTODESK
(M) sn xut.

1. AutoCAD trong h thng cc phn mm ho v vn phng

Phn mm AutoCAD l phn mm thit k thng dng cho cc chuyn ngnh c kh chnh xc v
xy dng. Bt u t th h th 10 tr i phm mm AutoCAD c ci tin mnh m theo hng
3 chiu v tng cng thm cc tin ch thn thin vi ngi dng.

T th h AutoCAD 10 phn mm lun c 2 phin bn song hnh. Mt phin bn chy trn
DOS v mt phin bn chy trn WINDOWS, xong phi n th h AutoCAD 14 phn mm mi
tng thch ton din vi h iu hnh WINDOWS v khng c phin bn chy trn DOS no na.

AutoCAD c mi quan h rt thn thin vi cc phn mm khc nhau p ng c cc
nhu cu s dng a dng nh : Th hin, m phng tnh, m phng ng, bo co, lp h s bn v...

i vi cc phn mm ho v m phng, AutoCAD to lp cc khi m hnh ba chiu vi
cc ch d bn v hp l, lm c s to cc bc nh mu v hot cnh cng trnh . AutoCAD cng
nhp c cc bc nh vo bn v lm nn cho cc bn v k thut mang tnh chnh xc.

i vi cc phn mm vn phng ( MicroSoft Office ), AutoCAD xut bn v sang hoc chy
trc tip trong cc phn mm dng nhng (OLE). Cng tc ny rt thun tin cho vic lp cc
h s thit k c km theo thuyt minh, hay trnh by bo v trc mt hi ng.

i vi cc phn mm thit k khc. AutoCAD to lp bn nn c th pht trin tip v
b xung cc thuc tnh phi a l, nh trong h thng thng tin a l (GIS)
Ngoi ra AutoCAD cng c c nhiu tin ch mnh, gip thit k t ng cc thnh phn cng
trnh trong kin trc v xy dng lm cho AutoCAD ngy cng p ng tt hn nhu cu thit k hin
nay.

2. Nhng kh nng chnh ca AutoCad

C th ni, kh nng v v v chnh xc l u th chnh ca AutoCad. Phn mm c th th hin tt
c nhng tng thit k trong khng gian ca nhng cng trnh k thut. S tnh ton ca cc i
tng v da trn c s cc to cc im v cc phng trnh khi phc tp, ph hp vi thc tin
thi cng cc cng trnh xy dng.

AutoCad sa cha v bin i c tt c cc i tng v ra. Kh nng cng ngy cng
mnh v thun tin cc th h sau. Cng vi kh nng b cc mi cc i tng, AutoCad to iu
kin t hp nhiu hnh khi t s t cc i tng ban u, rt ph hp vi tng sng tc trong
ngnh xy dng.

AutoCad c cc cng c to phi cnh v h tr v trong khng gian ba chiu mnh, gip c
cc gc nhn chnh xc ca cc cng trnh nh trong thc t.

AutoCad cung cp cc ch v thun tin, v cng c qun l bn v mnh, lm cho bn v
c t chc c khoa hc, my tnh x l nhanh, khng mc li, v nhiu ngi c th tham gian
trong qu trnh thit k.

Cui cng, AutoCad cho php in bn v theo ng t l, v xut bn v ra cc lai tp khc
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 6 -
nhau tng thch vi nhiu th loi phn mm khc nhau.

3. Lm quen s b vi AutoCad

Khi ng AutoCad
-Bt my, bt mn hnh
- Nhp p phm tri ca chut vo biu tng AutoCad 2007.
-Hoc dng chut vo Start/Programs/Autodesk/AutoCad 2007.

Cc cch vo lnh trong AutoCad
Vo lnh t bn phm c th hin dng "Command". Cc lnh c dch ra nhng ngn
t thng dng ca ting Anh, nh line, pline, arc v thng c lnh vit tt. Khi ang thc hin
mt lnh, mun g lnh mi, cn nhp phm ESC trn bn phm.
Vo lnh t thc n th c thc hin thng qua chut. Cng c th vo lnh t thc n mn
hnh bn phi
Vo lnh t nhng thanh cng c. Nhng thanh cng c ny c thit k theo nhm lnh. Mi
k hiu thc hin mt lnh.
Cc cch vo lnh u c gi tr ngang nhau. Tu theo thi quen v tin nghi ca mi ngi s
dng m p dng. Thng th ta kt hp gia g lnh vo bn phm v dng thanh cng c hay thc
n s xung.

4. Chc nng mt s phm c bit
-F1 : Tr gip Help
-F2 : Chuyn t mn hnh ho sang mn hnh vn bn v ngc li.
-F3 : (Ctrl + F) Tt m ch truy bt im thng tr (OSNAP)
- F5 : (Ctrl + E) Chuyn t mt chiu ca trc o ny sang mt chiu trc o khc.
- F6 : (Ctrl + D) Hin th ng to ca con chut khi thay i v tr trn mn hnh
- F7 : (Ctrl + G) M hay tt mng li im (GRID)
-F8 : (Ctrl + L) Gii hn chuyn ng ca chut theo phng thng ng hoc nm ngang
(ORTHO)
- F9 : (Ctrl + B) Bt tt bc nhy (SNAP)
-F10 : Tt m dng trng thi Polar
Phm ENTER : Kt thc vic a mt cu lnh v nhp cc d liu vo my x l.
Phm BACKSPACE ( <-- ): Xo cc k t nm bn tri con tr.
Phm CONTROL : Nhp phm ny ng thi vi mt phm khc s gy ra cc hiu qu khc
nhau tu thuc nh ngha ca chng trnh (V d : CTRL + S l ghi bn v ra
a)
Phm SHIFT : Nhp phm ny ng thi vi mt phm khc s to ra mt k hiu hoc kiu
ch in.
Phm ARROW (cc phm mi tn ): Di chuyn con tr trn mn hnh.
Phm CAPSLOCK : Chuyn gia kiu ch thng sang kiu ch in.
Phm ESC : Hu lnh ang thc hin.
R (Redraw) : Ty sch mt cch nhanh chng cc du "+" ( BLIPMODE )
DEL : thc hin lnh Erase
Ctrl + P : Thc hin lnh in Plot/Print
Ctrl + Q : Thc hin lnh thot khi bn v
Ctrl + Z : Thc hin lnh Undo
Ctrl + Y : Thc hin lnh Redo
Ctrl + S : Thc hin lnh Save , QSave
Ctrl + N : Thc hin lnh To mi bn v New
Ctrl + O : Thc hin lnh m bn v c sn Open

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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 7 -
Chc nng ca cc phm chut:

- Phm tri dng chn i tng v chn cc v tr trn mn hnh.
- Phm phi, tng ng vi phm ENTER trn bn phm, khng nh cu lnh.
- Phm gia (thng l phm con ln) dng kch hot tr gip bt im, hoc khi xoay th s thu
phng mn hnh tng ng.

5. Cc quy c

H to : Mi im trong khng gian c xc nh bng 1 h to x, y, z vi 3 mt phng
c bn xy, xz, yz.
n v o: Thc t thit k trong ngnh xy dng cho thy, n v thng dng v l mm.
Do vy nhn chung, ta c th quy c rng:

Mot n v tren mang hnh tng ng 1mm tren thc te.

Gc xoay:

- Trong mat phang hai chieu, xoay theo chieu kim ong ho la goc am( - ) , ngc chiu kim
ng h l gc dng (+).






























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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 8 -

II. Cc lnh v File

1. To File bn v mi

Menu bar Nhp lnh Toolbar
File\New... New hoc Ctrl + N

Xut hin hp thoi : select template
. Chn biu tng acad
-Cui cng nhn nt OK hoc nhn phm ENTER .

2. Lu File bn v.

Menu bar Nhp lnh Toolbar
File\Save... Save hoc Ctrl + S

+ Trng hp bn v cha c ghi thnh File th sau khi thc hin lnh Save xut hin hp thoi
Save Drawing As ta thc hin cc bc sau.
-Chn th mc, a mc: Save In
- t tn File vo : File Name
-Chn Files of type chn ghi File vi cc phin bn Cad trc ( Nu cn)
-Cui cng nhn nt SAVE hoc nhn phm ENTER

Ch : Nu thot khi CAD2007 m cha ghi bn v th AutoCad c hi c ghi bn v khng nu ta
chn YES th ta cng thc hin cc thao tc trn

+ Trng hp bn v c ghi thnh File th ta ch cn nhp chut tri vo biu tng ghi trn
thanh cng c hoc nhn phm Ctrl + S lc ny Cad t ng cp nht nhng thay i vo file c
ghi sn .

3. M bn v c sn.

Xut hin hp thoi : Select File

Menu bar Nhp lnh Toolbar
File\Open... Save hoc Ctrl + O

-Chn th mc v a cha File cn m : Look in
- Chn kiu File cn m (Nu Cn ) : File of type
-Chn File cn m trong khung.
-Cui cng nhn nt OPEN hoc nhn phm ENTER
-Nu nhn v Cancel hu b lnh Open

4. ng bn v

Menu bar Nhp lnh Toolbar
File\Close Close
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 9 -
Nu bn v c sa i th xut hin hp thoi nhc nh ta c ghi thay i khng
. Chn YES c ghi thay i (Xem tip mc Lu bn v)
. Chn NO nu khng mun ghi thay i
-Nu nhn v Cancel hu b lnh Close.

5. Thot khi AutoCad

Menu bar Nhp lnh Toolbar
File\Exit Exit, Quit, Ctrl + Q

Hoc ta c th chn nt du nhn gc trn bn phi ca mn hinh
Hoc nhn t hp phm Alt + F4
Nu bn v cha c ghi th xut hin hp thoi nhc nh ta c ghi file bn v khng
Chn YES c ghi thay i (Xem tip mc Lu bn v)
Chn NO nu khng mun ghi thay i
Nu nhn v Cancel hu b lnh Close.



































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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 10 -
III. H to v cc phng thc truy bt im

1. H to s dng trong AutoCad
a. H to cc.

xc nh v tr im ng, mt phng v cc i tng hnh hc khc th v tr ca chng
phi c tham chiu n mt v tr bit. im ny gi l im tham chiu hoc im gc ta .
H to cc c s dng ph bin trong ton hc v ho v dng xc nh v tr ca cc
hnh hc trong mt phng v trong khng gian ba chiu.

H to hai chiu (2D) c thit lp bi mt im gc to l giao im gia hai trc
vung gc: Trc honh nm ngang v trc tung thng ng. Trong bn v AutoCad mt im trong
bn v hai chiu c xc nh bng honh X v tung Y cch nhau bi du phy (X,Y). im
gc to l (0,0) . X v Y c th mang du m hoc du dng tu thuc v tr ca im so vi trc
to . Trong bn v ba chiu (3D) ta phi nhp thm cao Z

* To tuyt i
Da theo gc to (0,0) ca bn v xc nh im. Gi tr to tuyt i da theo gc
to (0,0) ni m trc X v trc Y giao nhau. S dng to tuyt i khi m bn bit chnh xc
gi tr to X v Y ca im.

V d to 30,50 nh hnh v ch nh im c 30 n v dc theo trc X v 50 n v dc
theo trc Y. Trn hnh v 1 v ng thng bt u
t im (-50,-50) n (30,-50) ta thc hin nh sau:

Command: Line
Specify first point: -50,-50
Specify next point or [Undo]: 30,-50

* To tng i
Da trn im nhp cui cng nht trn bn
v. S dng to tng i khi bn bit v tr ca
im tng i vi im trc . ch nh to
tng i ta nhp vo trc to du @ (at sign).

V d to @30,50 ch nh 1 im 30 n
v theo trc X v 50 n v theo trc Y t im ch
nh cui cng nht trn bn v.

V d ta s dng to tng i v ng thng P2P3 t im P2 (30,-50) c
khong cch theo hng X l 0 n v v theo hng Y l 100 n v nh hnh v

Command: Line
Specify first point: 30,-50
Specify next point or [Undo]: @0,100

b. H to cc.

To cc c s dng nh v tr 1 im trong mt phng XY. To cc ch nh
khong cch v gc so vi gc to (0,0). im P1 trn hnh v 2 c to cc l 50<60. ng
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 11 -
chun o gc theo chiu dng trc X ca h to cc. Gc dng l gc ngc chiu kim
ng h hnh v

nhp to cc ta nhp khong cch v gc c cch nhau bi du mc nhn (<).
V d ch nh im c khong cch 1 n v t im trc v gc 45
o
ta nhp nh sau:
@1<45. Theo mc nh gc tng theo ngc chiu kim ng h v gim theo chiu kim ng h.
thay i chiu kim ng h ta nhp gi tr m cho gc.

V d nhp 1<315 tng ng vi 1<-45. Bn c th thay i thit lp hng v ng
chun o gc bng lnh Units.

To cc c th l tuyt i (o theo gc to ) hoc tng i (o theo im trc ).
ch nh to cc tng i ta nhp thm du @ (a mc, a cng hoc at sign)








Trong v d sau y ta v cc on thng l cc cnh ca lc gic u (hnh v ) theo to
cc vi cc gc khc nhau s dng hng gc mc nh (chiu dng trc X l gc 0)

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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 12 -
Hnh 1: Dng lnh v Line Command: Line
Specify first point : (To im P1 bt k)
Specify next point or [Undo] : @60<0 (P2)
Specify next point or [Undo/Close]: @60<60 (P3)
Specify next point or [Undo/Close]: @60<120 (P4)
Specify next point or [Undo/Close]: @60<180 (P5)
Specify next point or [Undo/Close]: @60<-120 (P6)
Specify next point or [Undo/Close]: C (ng im
u vi im cui P6 vi P1)
Hnh 2: Dng lnh v Line Command: Line
Specify first point : (To im P1 bt k)
Specify next point or [Undo] : @100<0 (P2)
Specify next point or [Undo] : @100<120 (P3)
Specify next point or [Undo/Close]: @100<-120
(P6) hoc g C ng im u vi im cui.

2. Cc phng php nhp to

Cc lnh v nhc chng ta phi nhp to cc dim vo trong bn v. Trong bn v 2 chiu
(2D) ta ch cn nhp honh (X) v tung (Y), cn trong bn v 3 chiu (3D) th ta phi nhp
thm cao (Z).

C 6 phng php nhp to mt im trong bn v.

a. Dng phm tri chut chn (PICK) : Kt hp vi cc phng thc truy bt im

b. To tuyt i: Nhp to tuyt i X,Y ca im theo gc to (0,0) Chiu trc quy nh
nh hnh v.

c. To cc : Nhp to cc ca im (D<) theo khong cch D gia im vi gc to (0,0)
v gc nghing so vi ng chun.

d. To tng i: Nhp to ca im theo im cui cng nht xc nh trn bn v. Ti dng
nhc ta nhp @X,Y Du @ c ngha l ( Last Point) im cui cng nht m ta xc nh trn bn v.

e. To cc tng i: Ti dng nhc ta nhp @D< trong
D: Khong cch gia im ta cn xc nh vi im cui cng nht trn bn v.
Gc l gc gia ng chun v on thng ni 2 im.
ng chun l ng thng xut pht t gc to tng i v nm theo chiu dng
trc X.
Gc dng l gc ngc chiu kim ng h. Gc m l gc cng chiu kim ng h.

f. Nhp khong cch trc tip : Nhp khong cch tng i so vi im cui cng nht,
nh hng bng Cursor v nhn Enter.

3. Cc phng thc truy bt im i tng (Objects Snap)

Trong khi thc hin cc lnh v AutoCAD c kh nng gi l Object Snap (OSNAP) dng
truy bt cc im thuc i tng, v d: im cui ca Line, im gia ca Arc, tm ca Circle,
giao im gia Line v Arc... Khi s dng cc phng thc truy bt im, ti giao im hai si tc
xut hin mt vung c tn gi l Aperture hoc l vung truy bt v ti im cn truy bt xut
hin Marker (khung hnh k hiu phng thc truy bt). Khi ta chn cc i tng ang trng thi
truy bt v gn im cn tm.

Bt u thc hin mt lnh no i hi phi ch nh im (Specify a point), v d: Arc,
Circle, Line... Khi ti dng nhc lnh yu cu ch nh im (Specify a point) th ta chn phng
thc bt im bng 1 trong cc phng php sau:
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 13 -

- Nhp gi phm SHIFT v phm phi ca chut khi con tr ang trn vng ho s xut hin
Shortcut menu Object snap. Sau chn phng thc bt im t Shortcut menu ny.
- Nhp tn tt (ba ch ci u tin, v d END, CEN...) vo dng nhc lnh
- Di chuyn vung truy bt ngang qua v tr cn truy bt, khi s c mt khung hnh k hiu
phng thc (Marker) hin ln ti im cn truy bt v nhp phm chn (khi cn nhp phm TAB
chn im truy bt)
-Trong AutoCAD 2007, ta c tt c 15 phng thc truy bt im ca i tng (gi tt l truy bt
im). Ta c th s dng cc phng thc truy bt im thng tr hoc tm tr. Trong mc ny gii
thiu truy bt im tm tr.
Cc phng thc truy bt i tng (theo th t )

1. CENter
S dng bt im tm ca ng trn, cung trn, elip. Khi truy bt, ta
cn chn i tng cn truy bt tm.
2. ENDpoint
S dng bt im cui ca ng thng (Line), Spline, Cung trn, Phn
on ca pline, mline. Chn v tr gn im cui cn truy bt. V ng
thng v cung trn c hai im cui, do AutoCAD s bt im cui no
gn giao im 2 si tc nht.
3. INSert
Dng bt im chn ca dng ch v block (khi). Chn mt im bt
k ca dng ch hay block v nhp chn.
4. INTersection
Dng bt giao im ca hai i tng. Mun truy bt th giao im
phi nm trong vung truy bt hoc c hai i tng u chm vi
vung truy bt. Ngoi ra ta c th chn ln lt
5. MIDpoint
Dng truy bt im gia ca mt ng thng cung trn hoc Spline.
Chn mt im bt k thuc i tng.
6. NEArest
Dng truy bt mt im thuc i tng gn giao im vi 2 si tc
nht. Cho vung truy bt n chm vi i tng gn im cn truy bt
v nhp phm chut tri
7. NODe
Dng truy bt mt im (Point). Cho vung truy bt n chm vi
im v nhp ph chut.
8. PERpendicular
Dng truy bt im vung gc vi i tng c chn. Cho vung
truy bt n chm vi i tng v nhp phm chut. ng thng vung
gc vi ng trn s i qua tm
9. QUAdrant Dng truy bt cc im 1/4 ( Circle, Elipp, Arc, ...)
10. TANgent Dng truy bt im tip xc vi Line, Arc, Elipp, Circle,)
11. FROm
Phng thc truy bt mt im bng cch nhp to tng i hoc cc
tng i l mt im chun m ta c th truy bt. Phng thc ny thc
hin 2 bc. Bc 1: Xc nh gc to tng i ti dng nhc "Base
point" (bng cch nhp to hco s dng cc phng thc truy bt
khc) Bc 2: Nhp to tng i, cc tng i ca im cn tm ti
dng nhc "Offset" so vi im gc to tng i va xc nh ti bc
1
12. APPint
Phng thc ny cho php truy bt giao im cc i tng 3D trong m
im hnh hin hnh m thc t trong khng gian chng khng giao nhau.
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 14 -
13. Tracking
Trong AutoCAD ta c th s dng la chn Tracking nhp to im
tng i qua mt im m ta s xc nh. S dng tng t Point filters
v From


4. Lnh Osnap (OS) gn ch truy bt im thng tr

Menu bar Nhp lnh Toolbar
Tools\Drafting Settings... OSnap hoc OS

gn ch truy bt im thng tr bng hp thoi Drafting Setting. lm xut hin
hp thoi Drafting Setting ta thc hin

G lnh OSnap (OS) hoc tools/Dsettings hoc bng Menu hoc gi Shift v nhp phi
chut trn mn hnh CAD s xut hin Shortcut Menu v ta chn OSnap Settings... ( Nu trc
cha gn ch truy bt im thng tr no ta c th nhn phm F3)

Khi hp thoi Drafting Setting xut hin ta chn trang Object Snap Sau ta chn cc
ph ng thc truy bt im cn dng sau nhn OK thot.

5. Lnh v ng thng Line ( vi cc phng php nhp to )


Command : L Ch cn g ch ci l
Specify first point - Nhp to im u tin
Specify next point or [Undo] - Nhp to im cui ca on thng
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 15 -
Specify next point or [Undo/Close] - Tip tc nhp to
im cui ca on thng hoc g ENTER kt
thc lnh ( Nu ti dng nhc ny ta g U th Cad s
hu ng thng va v. Nu g C th Cad s ng
im cui cng vi im u tin trong trng hp v
nhiu on thng lin tip)

-Trong trng hp F8 bt th ta ch cn a chut v pha mun v on thng sau nhp chiu di
ca on thng cn v .
V d:
Command : L
- Specify first point - Chn mt im u tin
Specify next point or [Undo]: 100 - Bt F8 (Ortho On) a chut sang phi g s s c
on thng nm ngang di 100
Specify next point or [Undo]: 100 - Bt F8 (Ortho On) a chut ln trn g s s c
on thng ng di 100

V d: Dng phng php nhp to tuyt i v tng i v cc hnh trong bi tp.


6. Lnh v ng trn Circle ( vi cc phng php nhp to )



C 5 phng php khc nhau v ng trn

Tm v bn knh hoc ng knh ( Center, Radius hoc Diameter)
Command : C
- Specify center Point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr] - Nhp to tm (bng cc phng php
nhp to hoc truy bt im)
-Specify Radius of circle or [Diameter]: - Nhp bn knh hoc to ca ng trn
(Nu ta g D ti dng nhc ny th xut
hin dng nhc sau)
- Specify Diameter of circle: - Ti y ta nhp gi tr ca ng knh

V d: V ng trn c tm bt k v c bn knh l 50 v ng trn c ng knh l 50

3 Point (3P) v ng trn i qua 3 im

Command : C
Specify center Point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr] : Ti dng nhc ny ta g 3P
Specify First Point on circle : Nhp im th nht ( dng cc phng
php nhp to hoc truy bt im)
Specify Second Point on circle : Nhp im th 2

Specify Third Point on circle : Nhp im th 3

Ngoi phng php nhp qua 3 im nh trn ta c th dng Menu (Draw\ Circle) dng phng
php TAN, TAN, TAN v ng trn tiu xc vi 3 i tng.


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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 16 -
2 Point (2P) v ng trn i qua 2 im

Command : C
Specify center Point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr] : Ti dng nhc ny ta g 2P
Specify First End Point of circle's diameter : Nhp im u ca ng knh (dng
cc phng php nhp to hoc truy
bt im)
Specify Second End Point of circle diameter : Nhp im cui ca ng knh


ng trn tip xc 2 i tng v c bn knh R (TTR)

Command : C
Specify center Point for circle or [3P/2P/Ttr] : Ti dng nhc ny ta g TTR
Specify Point on Object for first tangent of Circle : Chn i tng th nht ng
trn tip xc
Specify Point on Object for Second tangent of Circle : Chn i tng th hai ng
trn tip xc
Specify Radius of Circle <> : Nhp bn knh ng trn





























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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 17 -

IV. Cc thit lp bn v c bn

1. Gii hn khng gian v - Lnh LIMITS

Sau khi khi ng chng trnh AutoCad, nhp chut vo Start from scartch v chn h o l
Metric, ta s c mt mn hnh ca khng gian lm vic c ln mc nh l 420, 297 n v. Nu
quy c 1 n v trn mn hnh tng ng vi 1 mm ngoi thc t, ta s v c i tng c kch 42
cm x 29,7 cm. Nu v cng trnh, khng gian rt cht hp. Do vy ta cn nh ngha mt khng
gian lm vic ln hn.

Nhp lnh:
Menu : Format/Drawing Limits Bn phm : Limits

Command : limits G lnh gii hn mn hnh
Reset Model space limits : Nhp Enter ng vi to im u
Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] ca gii hn mn hnh.
<0.0000,0.0000> :
Specify upper right corner Cho gii hn mn hnh ln bng mt khng
<420.0000,297.0000> : 42000,29700 gian rng 42 m x 29,7 m ngoi thc t

Lu :
-Cho d khng gian c nh ngha rng hn 100 ln hin ti, mn hnh lc ny vn khng c g
thay i. Ta phi thc hin lnh thu khng gian gii hn vo bn trong mn hnh bng lnh di
y.

2. Thu khng gian c gii hn vo trong mn hnh - Lnh ZOOM.

Nhp lnh:
Menu : View/Zoom Bn phm : zoom

Command : z - G lnh thu phng mn hnh
-Specify corner of window, enter a scale factor - Nhp tham s cn dng sau g Enter
(nX or nXP), or [All/Center/Dynamic/Extents/
Previous/Scale/Window] <real time> : a

Cc Tham s ca lnh ZOOM

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 18 -
Extens: Nhn tng quan tt c i tng trn mng hnh cad

Lu :
-Nu c i tng v to hn hoc nm ngoi gii hn mn hnh th lnh ny s thu ng thi c gii
hn mn hnh (t to 0,0) v i tng v vo trong mn hnh.

3. Lnh y bn v Pan


5 Lnh Snap, lnh Grid, lnh Ortho

a) Lnh Snap



Lnh Snap iu khin trng thi con chy (Cursor) l giao im ca hai si tc. Xc nh
bc nhy con chy v gc quay ca hai si tc. Bc nhy bng khong cch li Grid Trng thi
Snap c th tt m bng cch nhp p chut vo nt Snap trn thanh trng thi pha di hoc nhn
phm F9.

b) Lnh Grid ( Ch li)



Lnh Grid to cc im li trn gii hn bn v khong cch cc im li theo phng X,
Y c th ging nhau hoc khc nhau tu theo ta nh ngha trong hp thoi Drafting Setting...
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 19 -
Trng thi Grid c th tt m bng cch nhp p chut vo nt Grid trn thanh trng thi pha di
hoc nhn phm F7.
c) Lnh Ortho



Lnh Orthor thit lp ch v lnh Line theo phng ca cc si tc

d) Thit lp ch cho Sanp v Grid

C th trong hnh sau


6. Lnh Mvsetup to khung bn v



Sau khi nhp lnh xut hin cc dng nhc sau.

. Enable pager Space? [No/Yes] <Y> : (Ta nhp N v nhn Enter)
. Enter units type [.........../Metric] : (ta nhp M chn h mt v nhn Enter)
. Enter the scale factor : ( Nhp gi tr t l)
. Enter the Pager width : (Nhp chiu rng kh giy)
. Enter the Pager height : (Nhp chiu cao kh giy)

Bng nh gii hn bn v (Limits) theo kh giy in v t l
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 20 -
























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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 21 -

V. Cc Lnh v c bn.



S dng lnh ARC v cung trn. Trong qu trnh v ta c th s dng cc phng thc truy
bt im, cc phng php nhp to xc nh cc im. C cc phng php v cung trn sau.

Cung trn i qua 3 im ( 3 Point )
V cung trn i qua 3 im. Ta c th chn ba im bt k hoc s dng phng thc truy bt im.

Command : A Menu: Draw\ARC\3 Points
. Specify start point of arc or [CEnter] - Nhp im th nht
. Specify second point of arc or [CEnter/ENd] - Nhp im th hai
. Specify end point of arc - Nhp im th ba.

V cung vi im u tm im cui ( Start, Center, End )
Nhp ln lt im u, tm v im cui . im cui khng nht thit phi lm trn cung
trn. Cung trn c v theo ngc chiu kim ng h.
Command : A Menu: Draw\ARC\Start, Center, Endpoint

. Specify start point of arc or [CEnter] -Nhp im th u S

. Specify second point of arc or [CEnter/ENd]: -Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp CE
CE Nu chn lnh v Menu th khng
c dng nhc ny.
. Specify Center point of arc - Nhp to tm cung trn.

. Specify end point of arc or [Angle/chord Length] - Nhp to im cui

V cung vi im u tm v gc tm ( Start, Center, Angle )
Command : A Menu: Draw\ARC\Start, Center, Angle

. Specify start point of arc or [CEnter] -Nhp im th u
. Specify second point of arc or [CEnter/ENd]: -Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp CE
CE Nu chn lnh v Menu th khng
c dng nhc ny.
. Specify Center point of arc -Nhp to tm cung trn.
. Specify end point of arc or [Angle/chord Length]: - Ti dng nhc ny ta g ch A
A (nu chn t menu th khng c
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 22 -
dng nhc ny)
-Specify included Angle -Nhp gi tr gc tm.

V cung vi im u tm v chiu di dy cung ( Start, Center, Length of Chord )

Command : A Menu: Draw\ARC\Start, Center, Length

. Specify start point of arc or [CEnter] -Nhp im th u

. Specify second point of arc or [CEnter/ENd]: CE -Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp CE ( Nu
chn lnh v Menu th khng c dng
nhc ny.
. Specify Center point of arc -Nhp to tm cung trn.

. Specify end point of arc or [Angle/chord Length]: L - Ti dng nhc ny ta g ch L (nu
chn t menu th khng c dng nhc
ny)
. Specify length of chord -Nhp chiu di dy cung


V cung vi im u, im cui v bn knh (Start, End, Radius)

Command : Arc Menu: Draw\ARC\Start, End, Radius
. Specify start point of arc or [CEnter] - Nhp im th u
. Specify second point of arc or [CEnter/ENd]: - Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp CE ( Nu
chn EN lnh t Menu th khng c dng
nhc ny)
. Specify end point of arc - Nhp im cui ca cung trn.
. Specify center point of arc or [Angle/ - Ti dng nhc ny ta g ch R (nu
Direction/Radius]: R chn t menu th khng c dng nhc ny)
Specify radius of arc - Nhp bn knh ca cung

V cung vi im u, im cui v gc tm (Start, End, Included Angle)

Command : A
Menu: Draw\ARC\Start, End, Included Angle
. Specify start point of arc or [CEnter] - Nhp im u
. Specify second point of arc or [CEnter/ENd]: - Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp EN ( Nu
chn EN lnh v Menu th khng c
dng nhc ny.
. Specify end point of arc - Nhp to im cui ca cung.
. Specify center point of arc or [Angle/ - Ti dng nhc ny ta g ch A (nu
Direction/Radius]: A chn t menu th khng c dng nhc
ny)
Specify included angle - Nhp gi tr gc tm

Ngoi ra cn c cc phng php v cung trn ph sau

V cung vi im u, im cui v hng tip tuyn ca cung ti im bt u
(Start, End, Direction)
V cung vi tm, im u v im cui (Center, Start, End)
V cung vi tm, im u v gc tm (Center, Start, Angle)
V cung vi tm, im u v chiu di dy cung (Center, Start, Length)
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 23 -
4. Lnh v ng a tuyn Pline (PL) : ng c b rng nt



Command : PL
- Specify start point : - Nhp im u ca ng thng
- Current line-width is 0.0000 - Th hin chiu rng hin hnh
- Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth - Nhp im th 2 hoc chn cc tham s khc
/Length /Undo/Width]: ca lnh Pline
- .............. - ............ ( tim tc nhp im tip theo...)

- Cc tham s chnh
+ Close + ng Pline bi mt on thng nh Line
+ Halfwidth + nh na chiu rng phn on sp v
* Starting halfwidth<>: * Nhp gi tr na chiu rng u
* Ending halfwidth<>: * Nhp gi tr na chiu rng cui
+ Width + nh chiu rng phn on sp v
* Starting Width<>: * Nhp gi tr chiu rng u
* Ending Width<>: * Nhp gi tr chiu rng cui
+ Length + V tip mt phn on c chiu nh on thng trc
nu phn on trc l cung trn th n s tip
xc vi cung trn .
* Length of line: * Nhp chiu di phn on sp v.
+ Undo + Hu b nt v trc .
+ Arc + V cung trn ni tip vi ng thng.

5. Lnh v a gic u Polygon (POL)



-V a gic ngoi tip ng trn Command : POL

-Enter number of side <4>: Nhp s cnh ca a gic
-Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: Nhp to tm ca a gic
-Enter an option [.....] <I>: C Ti dng nhc ny ta g C
-Specify radius of circle: Ti y nhp bn knh ng trn ni tip a
gic hoc to im hoc truy bt im l
im gia mt cnh a gic.

-V a gic ni tip ng trn Command : POL

-Enter number of side <4>: Nhp s cnh ca a gic
-Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: Nhp to tm ca a gic
-Enter an option [.....] <I>: I - Ti dng nhc ny ta g I
-Specify radius of circle: -Ti y nhp bn knh ng trn ngoi tip
a gic hoc to im hoc truy bt im
l im nh ca a gic

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 24 -
-V a gic theo cnh ca a gic Command : POL

. Enter number of side <4>: -Nhp s cnh ca a gic
. Specify center of polygon or [Edge]: E - Ti dng nhc ny ta goa E
. Specify first endpoint of edge: Chn hoc nhp to im u mt cnh
. Specify Second endpoint of edge: Chn hoc nhp to im cui cnh

6. Lnh v hnh ch nht Rectang (REC)



Lnh REC dng v hnh ch nht. Hnh ch nht a tuyn ta c th dng lnh Pedit
hiu chnh v lnh Explode ph v chng ra thnh cc on thng.

Command : REC
- Specify first corner point or [Chamfer/ - Nhp gc th nht ca HCN hoc nhp cc
Elevation/ Fillet/ Thickness/ Width: tham s (nhp ch ci u ca tham s)
- Specify other corner point or [Dimensions]: ] - Nhp gc th hai ca HCN hoc nhp tham s
D
( cc tham s c th nh sau)

+ Chamfer (Sau khi vo lnh g ch C ) - Vt mp 4 nh HCN
* Specify first chamfer distance........ * Nhp gi tr ca cnh cn vt th nht
* Specify Second chamfer distance........ * Nhp gi tr ca cnh cn vt th hai
* Specify first corner........ * Sau khi nhp thng s cho vt mp ta nhp gc
th nht ca HCN
* Specify other corner point....... * Nhp gc th hai ca HCN

+ Fillet (Sau khi vo lnh g ch F ) - Bo trn cc nh ca HCN
* Specify fillet radius for rectangles.. * Nhp bn knh cn bo trn
* Specify first corner........ * Sau khi nhp bn knh ta nhp gc th nht
ca HCN
* Specify other corner point....... * Nhp gc th hai ca HCN

+ Width (Sau khi vo lnh g ch W ) - nh b rng nt v HCN
* Specify line width for rectangles<>: * Nhp b rng nt v HCN
* Specify first corner........ * Sau khi nhp b rng nt v ta nhp gc th
nht ca HCN
* Specify other corner point....... * Nhp gc th hai ca HCN

+ Elevation/ Thickness - Dng trong v 3D

+ Dimension - Tham s ny cho php nhp chiu cao v chiu di HCN theo cc dng nhc sau
y.
* Specify lenght for rectangles<..>: * Nhp chiu di ca HCN
* Specify Widht for rectangles<..>: * Nhp chiu cao ca HCN





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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 25 -
7. Lnh v Elip Ellipse (EL)



Lnh EL dng v ng Elip. Tu thuc vo bin PELLIPSE ng Elip c th l
PELLIPSE = 1 ng EL l mt a tuyn, a tuyn ny l tp hp cc cung trn.
Ta c th s dng lnh PEDIT hiu chnh
PELLIPSE = 0 ng Elip l ng Spline y l ng cong NURBS ( xem lnh Spline) v ta
khng th Explode n c. ng Elip ny c th truy bt tm v im 1/4 nh
ng trn

Nu thay i bin ta g PELLIPSE ti dng lnh sau nhp gi tr ca bin l 0 hoc l 1
Trng hp PELLIPSE = 0 ta c ba phng php v Elip

Nhp ta mt trc v khong cch na trc cn li
Command : EL

- Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/ center] - Nhp im u trc th nht
- Specify other endpoint of axis: - Nhp im cui trc th nht

- Specify distanceto other axis or [Rotation]: - Nhp khong cch na trc th hai
. R ( nu chn tham s R ) * Chn R xc nh khong cch na trc th hai
. Specify rotation around major axis: * Nhp gc quay quanh ng trn trc

Tm v cc trc
Command : EL
- ecify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/ center]: - Ti dng nhc ny ta g C
- ecify center of Ellipse : - Nhp to hoc chn tm Elip
-Specify endpoint of axis: - Nhp khong cch na trc th nht
- Specify distanceto other axis or [Rotation]: - Nhp khong cch na trc th hai
* ( nu chn tham s R xem nh trn )

V cung Elip
Command : EL
- Specify axis endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/ center]: - Ti dng nhc ny ta g A
- Specify axis endpoint of elliptical arc or [center] - Nhp to hoc chn im u ca
trc th nht
- Specify other endpoint of axis : - Nhp to hoc chn im u ca
trc th nht
- Specify distanceto other axis or [Rotation]: - Nhp khong cch na trc th hai
- Specify start angle or [Parameter]: - Chn im u ca cung hoc nhp gi
tr gc y l gc gia trc ta va nh
vi ng thng t tm n im u
ca cung
- Specify end angle or [Parameter/Include angle]: -Chn cui ca cung hoc nhp gi tr
gc y l gc gia trc ta va nh vi
ng thng t tm n im cui ca
cung



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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 26 -
8. Lnh v ng Spline (SPL) lnh v cc ng cong



Dng to ng cong NURBS ( Non Uniform Rational Bezier Spline ) cc ng cong
c bit. ng Spline i qua tt c cc im m ta chn cc im ny gi l CONTROL
POINT . Lnh Spline dng to cc ng cong c hnh dng khng u.

V d v cc ng ng mc trong h thng thng tin a l hoc trong thit k khung sn
t, v tu thuyn ...

Command : SPL
- Specify first point or [Object]: - Chn im u ca Spline
- Specify next point: - Chn im k tip
-Specify next point or [Close/Fit tolerance] <start - Chn to im k tip
tangent>:
-Specify next point or [Close/Fit tolerance] <start - Chn to im k tip hoc nhn phm
tangent>: ENTER kt thc
- Specify start tangent: -Chn hng tip tuyn ti im u hoc
ENTER chn mc nh
-Specify end tangent: -Chn hng tip tuyn ti im cui hoc
ENTER chn mc nh

. Tham s CLOSE - ng kn ng SPLINE ( ni im u vi
im cui)
. Tham s Fit to lerance - To ng cong Spline min hn. Khi gi tr
- Specify next point or [Close/Fit tolerance] <start ny = 0 th ng SLPINE i qua tt c cc
tangent>: f im ta chn. Khi gi tr ny khc khng th
ng cong ko ra xa cc im ny to
ng cong min hn
- Specify fit tolerance <0.0000>: 5 - ENTER hoc nhp gi tr dng

9. Lnh Mline v ng // v MlStyle v MLedit

Lnh Mline dng v mt bng cc cng trnh kin trc, xy dng, v bn . to kiu
ng Mline ta s dng lnh Mlstyle, hiu chnh ng mline ta s dng lnh Mledit.

a. To kiu ng mline bng lnh Mlstyle
Trc khi thc hien lenh Mline ta phai tao kieu ng Mline va xac nh cac thanh phan
cua ng mline va khoang cach gia cac thanh phan , dang ng va mauchothanh phan
Sau khi vao lenh xuat hien hop thoai sau:
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 27 -


Hop thoai hieu chnh dang Mline

b. V ng song song Mline



Mline V cc ng song song, mi ng song song c gi l thnh phn (element) ca
ng mline. Ti a to c 16 thnh phn.

Command : ML
.Specify start point or [Justification/ Scale/ STyle] : Chn im u tin ca Mline
.Specify next point : Chn im k tip
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 28 -
.Specify next point or [Undo] : Chn im k tip hoc nhp U hu
phn on va v
.Specify next point or [Close/Undo] : Chn im k tip hoc s dng cc la
chn. Nu chn C ng im u
vi im cui trong trng hp v lin
tc.

Cc tham s ca lnh Command : ML

- Specify start point or [Justification/ Scale/ STyle]: J- Nu ti dng nhc ny ta nhp J nh
v tr ca ng Mline bng ng tm
hay ng trn hoc ng di.

* Enter justification type [Top/Zero/Bottom] <top>: Chn cc tham s cn nh v tr
.Specify start point or [Justification/ Scale/ STyle]: S -Nu ti dng nhc ny ta nhp S
nh t l cho kong cch gia cc
thnh phn
.Specify start point or [Justification/ Scale/ STyle]: S -Nu ti dng nhc ny ta nhp S
nhp tn khiu Mline c sn

c. Lnh hiu chnh ng mline


Sau khi nhap lenh xuat hien hop thoai multiline edit tools, ta chon 1 trong 12 dang bang
cach nhap up vao hnh ta chon.


10. Lenh ve iem point (Po)



Comand : Po
- Specity a point : Ch nh v tr iem



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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 29 -
11. Lenh nh kieu iem Ddptype



Sau khi nhap lenh se lam xuat hien hop thoai Point Style. Ta thng s dung phng thc
truy bat iem NODe


12. Lnh chia i tng thnh nhiu on bng nhau Divide (DIV)



Dng chia i tng ( Line, Arc, Circle, Pline, Spline) thnh cc on c chiu di bng
nhau. Ti cc im chia ca i tng s xut hin mt im. i tng c chia vn gi nguyn
tnh cht l mt i tng. nh kiu ca cc im chia ny ta dng lnh PointStyle hc trn.
truy bt cc im ny ta dng phng php truy bt NODe

Command : DIV
. Select object to divide: - Chn i tng cn chia
. Enter the number of segments or [Block]: - Nhp s on cn chia hoc nhp B ( Bu
chn B xut hin dng nhc sau) chn mt
khi (Block) vo cc im chia.
. Enter name of block to insert: * Nhp tn khi cn chn
. Align block with object? [Yes/No] <Y>: * Mun quay khi khi chn khng
. Enter the number of segments: * Nhp s on cn chia

13. Lnh chia i tng ra cc on c chiu di bng nhau Measure (ME)



Tng t Divide lnh Measure dng chia i tng ( Line, Arc, Circle, Pline, Spline)
thnh cc on c chiu di cho trc bng nhau. Ti cc im chia ca i tng s xut hin mt
im. i tng c chia vn gi nguyn cc tnh cht i tng ban u.

Command : ME
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 30 -
. Select object to Measure: - Chn i tng cn chia
. Specify length of segment or [Block]: - Nhp chiu di mi on hoc nhp B ( Bu
chn B xut hin dng nhc sau)chn mt khi
(Block) vo cc im chia.
. Enter name of block to insert: * Nhp tn khi cn chn
. Align block with object? [Yes/No] <Y>: * Mun quay khi khi chn khng
. Specify length of segment: * Chiu di on cn chia
































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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 31 -

VI. Cc lnh hiu chnh cn bn.

1. Lnh xa i tng Erase (E)



Dng xo cc i tng c chn trn bn v hin hnh. Sau khi chn i tng ta ch
cn nhn phm ENTER th lnh c thc hin.
Command : E
. Select object - Chn i tng cn xo
. Select object - Chn tip cc i tng cn xo hoc ENTER thc hin xo

2. Lnh phc hi i tng b xo Oops

phc hi cc i tng c xo bng lnh Erase trc ta s dng lnh Oops. Tuy
nhin lnh lnh ny ch phc hi cc i tng b xo trong mt lnh Erase trc

Command : Oops Vo lnh sau ENTER

3. Lnh hu b lnh va thc hin Undo (U)



Lnh Undo hu b ln lt cc lnh thc hin trc .
Command : U Vo lnh sau ENTER

4. Lnh phc hi i tng va Undo l Redo



S dng lnh Redo sau cc lnh Undo phc hi cc lnh va hu trc
Command : REDO Vo lnh sau ENTER

5. Lnh ti to mn hnh hay v li mn hnh Redraw (R)



Lnh Redraw lm mi cc i tng trong khung nhn hin hnh. Lnh ny dng xo cc
du "+" ( gi l cc BLIPMODE) trn Viewport hin hnh

Command : R Vo lnh sau ENTER
Lnh Redrawall lm mi li cc i tng trong tt c khung nhn bn v hin hnh
Command : Redrawall Vo lnh sau ENTER
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 32 -
6. Lnh ti to i tng trn mn hinh Regen (RE)



Lnh Regen s dng tnh ton v ti ti li ton b cc i tng trn khung nhn hinh
hnh. Tng t l Regenall tnh ton v ti ti li ton b cc i tng trn c bn v






























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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 33 -

VII. Cc lnh hiu chnh to hnh

1. Lnh to cc i tng song song vi cc i tng cho trc Offset (O)



Lnh Offset dng to cc i tng song song theo hng vung gc vi cc i tng
c chn. i tng c chn c th l Line, Circle, Arc, Pline ......

Command : O Vo lnh sau ENTER
. Specify offset distance or [Through] : 2 - Nhp khong cch gia hai i tng //
. Select object to offset or <exit>: - Chn i tng cn to //
. Specify point on side to offset: - Chn im bt k v pha cn to i tng //
. Select object to offset or <exit> - Tip tc chn i tng cn to // hoc nhn
phm ENTER kt thc lnh

Command : O Vo lnh sau ENTER
. Specify offset distance or [Through] : T - Nu ti dng nhc ny ta nhp T
. Select object to offset or <exit>: - Chn i tng cn to //
-Specify through point: - Truy bt im m i tng mi c to i
qua
- Select object to offset or <exit> - Tip tc chn i tng cn to // hoc nhn
phm ENTER kt thc lnh

2. Lnh ct i tng gia hai i tng giao Trim (TR)



Lnh Trim dng xo on cui ca i tng c gii hn bi mt i tng giao hoc
on gia ca i tng c gii hn bi hai i tng giao.

Command : TR Vo lnh sau ENTER
.Select objects: -Chn ng chn
.Select objects: -chn tip ng chn hoc ENTER kt thc
vic la chn ng chn.
.Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or -Chn i tng cn xn
[Project/Edge/Undo]:
.Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or -Tip tc chn i tng cn xn hay
[Project/Edge/Undo]: ENTER kt thc lnh

Xn bt i tng nhng thc cht hai i tng khng thc s giao nhau m chng ch
thc s giao nhao khi ko di ra.

Command : TR Vo lnh sau ENTER
-Select objects: -Chn ng chn
- Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or - Ti dng nhc ny ta g ch E
[Project/Edge/Undo]: E
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 34 -
-Enter an implied edge extension mode -Ti dng nhc ny ta tip tc g ch E
[Extend /No extend] <No extend>: E
- Select object to trim or shift-select to extend or -Chn i tng cn xn
[Project/Edge/Undo]: hay ENTER kt thc lnh

3. Lnh ct m rng Extrim



Lnh Extrim dng ct b tt c phn tha ra v mt pha no so vi ng chn.

Command : EXTRIM Vo lnh sau ENTER
-Select objects: - Chn ng chn
- Specify the side to trim on: - Chn pha cn ct so vi ng chn

4. Lnh xn mt phn i tng gia hai im chn Break (BR)



Lnh Break cho php ta xn mt phn ca i tng Arc, Line, Circle, ....on c xn
gii hn bi hai im ma ta chn. Nu ta xn mt phn ca ng trn th on c xn nm ngc
chiu kim ng h v bt u t im chn th nht.

C 4 phng php khi thc hin lnh Break

a. Chn hai im.

Thc hin theo phng php ny gm 2 bc sau

Bc 1: Chn i tng ti mt im v im ny l im u tin ca on cn xn.
Bc 2: Chn im cui ca on cn xn.

Command : BR Vo lnh sau ENTER
- Select objects: Chn i tng m ta mun xn v im trn
i tng ny l im u tin ca on cn
xn.
- Specify second break point or [Firrst Point]: Chn im cui ca on cn xn

b. Chn i tng v hai im.

Command : BR Vo lnh sau ENTER
- Select objects: Chn i tng m ta mun xn
- Specify second break point or [Firrst Point]: F Ti dng nhc th 2 ta chn F
- Specify first break point Chn im u tin on cn xn
- Specify second break point Chn im cui on cn xn.




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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 35 -
c. Chn mt im.

Lnh Break trong trng hp ny dng tch 1 i tng thnh hai i tng c lp.
im tch l im m ta chn i tng thc hin lnh Break.

Command : BR Vo lnh sau ENTER
-Select objects: - Chn i tng m ta mun xn ti im cn tch i tng.
- Specify second break point or [Firrst Point]: @ - Ti dng nhc ny ta g @ sau nhn phm
ENTER

d. Chn i tng v mt im.

Phng php ny tch 1 i tng thnh hai i tng c lp ti v tr xc nh. Phng
php ny c chc nng tng t phng php c

Command : BR Vo lnh sau ENTER
-Select objects: - Chn i tng tch thnh 2 i tng.
. Specify second break point or [Firrst Point]: F - Ti dng nhc ny ta chn F
. Specify first break point - Chn im cn tch bng cc phng thc truy bt im v
im ny l im cn tch hai i tng.
- Specify second break point : @ - Ti dng nhc ny ta g @ sau nhn phm ENTER

5. Lnh ko di i tng n i tng chn Extend (EX)


Command : EX Vo lnh sau ENTER
. Select objects: Chn i tng chn
. Select objects: Tip tc chn hoc nhn ENTER kt thc
vic la chn.
- Select object to extend or shift-select to trim Chn i tng cn ko
or [Project/Edge/Undo]: di hoc nhn ENTER kt thc lnh.

6. Lnh thay i chiu di i tng Lengthen (LEN)



Dng thay i chiu di ( ko di hay lm ngn li ) cc i tng l on thng hay
cung trn.

Command : LEN Vo lnh sau ENTER
- Select objects or [DElta/ Percent/ Total / DYnamic]: -Ti dng nhc ny ta chn i tng th
Cad s hin th chiu di ca i tng
c chn

* Nu ta g tham s DE ( xut hin dng nhc sau) -Thay i chiu di i tng bng cch
nhp vo khong tng. Gi tr khong
tng m th lm gim kch thc gi tr
khong tng dng lm tng kch thc
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 36 -
.Enter delta length or [Angle] + Nhp khong cch tng
.Select an object to change or [Undo] + Chn i tng cn thay i kch
Thc ( c th chn nhiu i tng
kt thc nhn ENTER)

* Nu ta g tham s Percent ( xut hin dng nhc sau) -Thay i chiu di i tng theo phn
trm so vi tng chiu di i tng
c chn
.Enter percentage length <100.000>: + Nhp t l phn trm
.Select an object to change or [Undo] + Chn i tng cn thay i kch
Thc ( c th chn nhiu i tng
kt thc nhn ENTER)

* Nu ta g tham s Total ( xut hin dng nhc sau) -Thay i tng chiu di ca mt i
Tng theo gi tr mi nhp vo.
.Specify total length or [Angle] Nhp gi tr mi vo
.Select an object to change or [Undo] Chn i tng cn thay i

* Nu ta g tham s Dynamic ( xut hin dng nhc sau) -Dng thay i tng chiu di
i tng.

7. Lnh vt mp cc cnh Chamfer (CHA)



Trnh t thc hin lnh Chamfer : u tin ta thc hin vic nhp khong cch vt mp
sau chn ng thng cn vt mp.

Command : CHA Vo lnh sau ENTER
- Select first line or [Polyline / Distance / Angle / : Chn cc tham s t ch vt
Trim / Method / Ultiple] mp.

Chn tham s D (Distance) Dng nhp 2 khong cch cn vt mp.

First chamfer distance <0.0000> : Nhp khong cch th nht
Specify second chamfer distance <20.0000> : Nhp khong cch th hai
Select first line or [Polyline /Distance / : Chn cnh th nht cn vt mp
Angle /Trim /Method/mUltiple]
Select second line : Chn cnh th 2 cn vt mp

Chn tham s P (Polyline) Sau khi ta nhp khong cch th ta chn tham s P vt mp 4
cnh ca Polyline

Chn tham s A (Angle) Cho php nhp khong cch th nht v gc ca ng vt mphp
vi ng th nht.

Chamfer length on the first line <0.0000> : Nhp khong cch vt mp trn ng
th nht
Specify chamfer angle from the first line <0> : Nhp gi tr gc ng vt mp hp
vi ng th nht
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 37 -
Select first line or [Polyline /Distance /Angle / :Chn cnh th nht cn vt mp
Trim /Method /mUltiple]:
Select second line : Chn cnh th 2 cn vt mp

Chn tham s T (Trim) Cho php ct b hoc khng ct b gc b vt mp

Enter Trim mode option [Trim/No trim]<Trim> : Ti y ta g T hoc N la chn ct
hoc khng ct b gc b vt
Select first line or [Polyline/ Distance/ Angle/ : Chn cnh th nht cn vt mp
Trim/ Method/mUltiple]
Select second line : Chn cnh th 2 cn vt mp

* Chn tham s U (mUltiple) Khi chn tham s ny th dng nhc chn i tng s xut hin li
mi khi kt thc chn cp i tng l ng thng. ( c ngha chn c nhiu ln trong trng hp
cn vt mp cho nhiu i tng.

8. Lnh vut gc hai i tng vi bn knh cho trc Fillet (F)



Dng to gc ln hoc bo trn hai i tng. Trong khi thc hin lnh Fillet ta phi nhp
bn knh R sau mi chn hai i tng cn Fillet

Command : F Vo lnh sau ENTER
Select first object or [Polyline / Chn cc tham s t ch vut gc.
Radius /Trim /mUltiple]:

Chn tham s R (Radius) Dng nhp bn knh cn vut gc.

Specify fillet radius <0.0000>: Nhp bn knh
Select first object or [Polyline / Chn cnh th nht cn vut gc
Radius /Trim/ mUltiple]:
Select second object: Chn cnh th 2 cn vut gc

Chn tham s P (Polyline) Sau khi ta nhp bn knh th ta chn tham s P vut gc cho tt c
cc gc ca Polyline

Chn tham s T (Trim) Cho php ct b hoc khng ct b gc c vut

Enter Trim mode option >: Ti y ta g T hoc N la chn ct hoc
[Trim/No trim]<No trim khng ct b gc c bo trn

Select first object or [Polyline: Chn cnh th nht cn vut gc
/Radius /Trim /mUltiple]
Select second object: Chn cnh th 2 cn vut gc

Chn tham s U (mUltiple) Nu ta nhp mt la chn khc trn dng nhc chnh trong kho ang
chn tham s ny th dng nhc vi la chn c hin th sau dng nhc chnh oc hin th.


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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 38 -

9. Lnh hiu chnh a tuyn Pedit



Command : PEDIT Vo lnh sau ENTER
- Select polyline or [Multiple] (Chn a tuyn cn hiu chnh)
-La chn Multiple cho php ta chn nhiu i tng trn dng
nhc "Select polyline:"
-Nu i tng l on thng hoc cung trn khng phi l a
tuyn th dng nhc sau xut hin
- Objects selected is not a polyline (i tng ta chn khng phi l a tuyn)
-Do you want it turn into one? (Bn c mun chuyn i tng chn thnh a tuyn
khng?Nhn ENTER chuyn thnh a tuyn)
Sau xut hin dng nhc hiu chnh a tuyn
-Nu i tng chn l a tuyn th s xut hin dng nhc
hiu chnh ton b a tuyn.


- Enter an option [Close/Join/Width/Edit vertex/ (Chn la chn hoc ENTER kt thc
Fit/Spline/Decurve/Ltype gen/Undo] lnh) hoc chn cc tham s cn dng

*Close (Open) - ng a tuyn ang m (hoc m a
tuyn ng) Nhp C ng (nhp O
m)
*Join - Nhp tham s J : Ni cc on thng,
cung trn hoc a tuyn khc vi a
tuyn c chn thnh 1 a tuyn chung
(ch ni c trong trng hp cc nh
ca chng trng nhau) i tng a
tuyn chung c cc tnh cht ca a
tuyn c chn.

.Select objects + Chn cc i tng cn ni
.Select objects + Tip tc chn hoc nhn ENTER
kt thc vic la chn
.n segments added to polyline + Thng bo i tng c ni vi
nhau.

* Width - nh chiu rng mi cho a tuyn, khi
nhp W s xut hin dng nhc
+ Specify new width for all segments + Nhp chiu rng mi cho c a tuyn
Fit - Chuyn a tuyn thnh mt ng
cong l tp hp cc cung trn, cc cung
trn ny tip xc nhau v i qua cc nh
ca a tuyn.
Spline - Chuyn a tuyn thnh 1 ng cong
i qua im u ca a tuyn (nu ng
cong h).
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 39 -
-ng cong ny khc vi cc ng
cong to bi la chn Fit v khc ng
spline to bi lnh Spline.
Khi bin SPLINETYPE = 5 th ng
cong c dng B-spline bc hai v tip
xc im gia ca cc phn on, khi
bin SPLINETYPE = 6 th ng cong
c dng B-spline bc ba.
- lm xut hin cc ng khung bao
ca a tuyn ta nh bin SPLFRAME l
ON. Ta c th gn gi tr bin
SPLINETYPE bng cch chn la chn
Polyvars trn screen menu ca lnh
Pedit.
-Khi s xut hin hp thoi Set Spline
Fit Variables Bin SPLINESEGS qui
nh s cc phn on ca mi on
spline.
Decurve -
Chuyn cc phn on l cc cung trn
ca a tuyn thnh cc phn on thng
Ltype gen - Khi dng ng khng phi l ng
lin tc nu Ltype gen l ON th cc
ng nt ca a tuyn khng lin quan
n cc nh ca a tuyn. Khi Ltype
gen l OFF th ng nt c th hin
theo cc phn on.
Undo - Hu 1 la chn va thc hin
eXit - Kt thc lnh Pedit


10. Lnh v mt ng thng hoc mt chm ng thng giao nhau. XLINE (Construction
line)

Lnh ny thng c s dng v cc ng ging, cc ng nm ngang hoc thng ng.
Trong php v mt chiu cng c th s dng lnh ny tm im v, nu kt hp thm vi cc lnh
Trim, Scale... c th to thnh cc cnh ca hnh chiu.

Command line: XLine Draw/ Construction line

Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]: chn mt im bt u v (hoc
chn H,V,A,B,O)
Specify through point: chn im th hai ca ng thng
Specify through point: chn im khc nu mun v chm ng thng
i qua im 1

Cc la chn ca lnh XLine


Hor :
to ng thng nm ngang. Sau la chn ny ta ch vic nhp (hoc truy bt im)
mt im m ng thng i qua.

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 40 -
Ver :
To ng thng theo phng thng ng. Sau la chn ny ta ch vic nhp (hoc
truy bt im) mt im m ng thng i qua.

Ang :
To ng thng xin theo mt gc no . Sau la chn ny AutoCAD yu cu ta
nhp vo

Enter angle of xline (0) or [Reference]: nhp gc nghing
Specify through point: chn mt im thuc ng thng

Bisect :
to ng thng i qua phn gic ca mt gc (thng qua 3 im), la chn ny AutoCAD yu cu
ta nhp vo 03 im. im (1) thuc v tm ca gc, im (2) v (3) thuc v hai cnh ca gc.

Command: XLine
Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]: B
Specify angle vertex point: bm chn nh ca gc
Specify angle start point: bm chn mt im thuc cnh th nht ca gc
Specify angle end point: bm chn mt im thuc cnh th hai ca gc

Offset : To mt ng thng song song vi mt ng thng c sn.

Command: XLine
Specify a point or [Hor/Ver/Ang/Bisect/Offset]: O
Specify offset distance or [Through] <Through>: nhp khong cch hoc t
Select a line object: chn i tng gc
Specify through point: chn mt im xc nh v tr ng thng s pht sinh


11.Lnh v mt na ng thng (qua tam ng tron) RAY

Command line: Ray Draw menu chn Ray

Lnh ny thc hin hon ton tng t nh lnh XLine nhng thay v v c ng thng lnh
Ray s ch v na ng thng xut pht t im nh ngha u tin.

Command: Ray
Specify start point: chn im u tin (im xut pht)
Specify through point: chn im th hai (im nh hng cho na ng thng)
Specify through point: chn im khc (im nh hng cho na ng thng mi i
qua im (1)
Specify through point: kt thc lnh



12. Lnh v hnh vnh khn DONUT

Command line: Donut Draw / Donut
Specify inside diameter of donut <current>: Gi tr ng knh trong
Specify outside diameter of donut <current>: Gi tr ng knh ngoi
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 41 -
Specify center of doughnut: To tm

Hnh vnh khuyn s c t mu bn trong nu gi tr ca lnh Fill l ON v ngc li khi Fill
l OFF.

13.Lnh v cc on thng c dy TRACE

Command line: Trace
Specify trace width <0.2000>:Nhp khong cch, hoc vo gi tr, hoc
Specify start point: Tr im (1)
Specify next point: Tr im (2)
Specify next point: Tr im (3) hoc kt thc lnh
on thng c t khi lnh Fill c gi tr ON

14.Lnh v min c t c SOLID

Mi 2D Solid c m t bi 3 hoc 4 cnh. Vi cc hnh 3 cnh th cch nhp tng i n
gin ch vic bm chn 3 im lin tip khng thng hng ta s c mt ming tam gic t c. Ring
vi hnh Solid 4 cnh khi khai bo im phi ch th t im nhp vo. Nu im (1) - (2) l m t
cnh th nht th (3) - (4) l m t cnh i din nhng phi c cng hng vi (1) - (2)


V hnh 2D Solid.

Command line: Solid
SOLID Specify first point: bm chn im (1)
Specify second point: bm chn im (2)
Specify third point: bm chn im (3)
Specify fourth point or <exit>: bm chn im (4) hoc kt thc

15. Lnh to mt min t cc hnh ghp (REGION)

Lnh ny dng chuyn i mt i tng (dng hnh kn) hoc mt nhm i tng thnh
mt i tng duy nht - gi l mt min (Region). Mi min c th c to ra t mt s i tng
n gin. Tuy nhin nu to mt Region t cc cc ng (Line, Arc...) th cc i tng ny phi
to thnh mt vng kn.

Sau lnh Region c bn hnh dng th hin ca cc i tng trn bn v l khng thay i,
tuy nhin tnh cht i tng ho thay i. V d mt hnh t gic ng kn c to bi lnh
Line s gm 04 i tng Line, sau khi c Region s tr thnh 01 i tng duy nht. Mt vng
trn v bng lnh Circle nu cha Region th c th d dng thay i bn knh thng qua cc tay
cm, nu Region th s tr thnh 01 min trn.
T thanh cng c chn
Command line: Region T Draw / Region...

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 42 -
Sau AutoCAD s yu cu chn i tng cn Region (Select objects:). Khi chn xong
bm Hy bm kt thc lnh.

16.Lnh Cng cc vng Region UNION

T thanh cng c chn
Command line: Union Modify/ Solids editings - Union...
Lnh ny cho php hp nht cc vng Region ( nh ngha) nu cc vng c giao nhau th
phn nt nm trong vng giao nhau s c loi b.

a) Trc khi Union b) Sau khi Union

thc hin c hnh v hoa vn nh th hin trn hnh trn y. Th t cc bc thc hin nh
sau:

*V cc hnh ch nht, trn v elip bng cc lnh v thng thng;
*Gi lnh Region to ra 5 i tng Region
*Gi lnh Union - nh du ton b 5 i tng Region to c hnh hoa vn

17.Lnh Tr cc vng Region (SUBTRACT )

Command line: Subtract Modify / Solids editings - Subtract...

Lnh ny loi b phn giao nhao ca cc min Region. Min (region) c chn trc c
hiu l min c s (min s cn li mt phn sau lnh Subtract), cc min chn sau c hiu l cc
min iu kin loi b.


a) Trc khi Subtract b) Sau khi Subtract chn c) Sau khi Subtract
chn hnh ch nht trc chn cc hnh trn, elip trc

Command: subtract
Select solids and regions to subtract from ..
Select objects: chn min c s
Select objects: kt thc
Select solids and regions to subtract ..
Select objects: chn min iu kin
Select objects: kt thc

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 43 -
18.Lnh Ly giao ca cc vng Region (INTERSECT )

T thanh cng c chn
Command line: Intersect T Modify / Solids editings - Intersect...

Cch thc hin lnh ny tng t nh vi lnh Subtract nhng kt qu th ch nhng vng
giao nhau ca cc Region mi c gi li (hnh )

Hnh - S dng lnh Intersect



19.Lnh to nn mt i tng Pline (hoc Region) c dng mt ng bao kn (BOUNDARY)

Lnh Boundary to nn mt i tng Pline (hoc Region) c dng mt ng bao kn. Cc i
tng gc khng b mt i.

Command line: Boundary T Draw / Boundary
Thy xut hin hp thoi hnh sau



Chn ri bm vo mt im bn trong vng ng kn (hnh). Kt thc lnh
ny mt i tng Pline c to thnh, s dng lnh MOVE ri di PLine ra bn cnh ta c
th hin nh hnh sau.
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 44 -


Hnh - Minh ho s dng lnh Boundary.








































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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 45 -

VIII. Cc Lnh bin i v sao chp hnh

1. Lnh di di i tng Move (M)


Lnh Move dng thc hin php di mt hay nhiu i tng t v tr hin ti n 1 v tr
bt k trn hnh v. Ta c th v mt phn ca hnh v ti v tr bt k, sau s dng Lnh di di
i tng Move (M)

Command : Move Hoc t Modify menu chn Move
- Select objects - Chn cc i tng cn di
- Select objects - Tip tc chn cc i tng hoc ENTER
kt thc vic la chn,
- Specify base point or displacement - Chn im chun hay nhp khong di: c
th dng phm chn ca chut, dng cc
phng thc truy bt im, to tuyt i,
tng i, cc tng i...
- Specify second point of displacement or <use - im m cc i tng di n, c th s
first point as displacement> dng phm chn ca chut, dng cc phng
thc truy bt im, to tuyt i, tung
i, to cc tng i, direct distance,
polar tracking...

Ch
(1) im Base point v Second point of displacement c th chn bt k.

(2) Nu mun di i tng cn v tr chnh xc th ti Base point v Second point of displacement ta
dng cc phng thc truy bt im.

(3) im Base point ta chn bt k hoc truy bt im v Second point of displacement dng to
tng i, cc tng i, direct distance hoc polar tracking.

(4) Ti dng nhc "Base point or displacement" ta c th nhp khong di theo phng X v Y, khi
ti dng nhc tip theo ta nhn phm ENTER.

2. Lnh sao chp i tng Copy (Co)



Lnh Copy dng sao chp cc i tng c chn theo phng tnh tin v sp xp
chng theo cc v tr xc nh. Thc hin lnh Copy tng t lnh Move.

Command : Copy Hoc t Modify menu chn Copy
Select objects Chn cc i tng cn sao chp
Select objects Chn tip cc i tng cn sao chp
hay ENTER kt thc vic la chn.
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 46 -
Specify base point or displacement, Chn im chun bt k, kt hp vi cc
or[Multiple]: phng thc truy bt im hoc nhp khong
di.
Specify second point of displacement or :Chn v tr ca cc i tng sao chp, c th
<use first point as displacement> dng phm chn kt hp vi cc phng thc
truy bt im hoc nhp to tuyt i, tng
i, cc tng i, direct distance, polar
tracking...

Multiple : Trong lnh Copy c la chn Multiple, la
chn ny dng sao chp nhiu bn t nhm
cc i tng c chn.
Select objects - Chn i tng cn sao chp
Select objects - Chn tip i tng hay ENTER.

- <Base point or displacement>/Multiple: M
-Base point - Chn im chun.
Specify second point of displacement or - Chn im sao chp n
<use first point as displacement>
Specify second point of displacement or - Chn tip im sao chp n hoc ENTER
<use first point as displacement> kt thc lnh

Ch
(1) C th chn Base point v Second point l cc im bt k.

(2) Chn cc im Base point v Second point bng cch dng cc phng thc truy bt im.

(3) Ti dng nhc " Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>" ta c
th nhp to tng i, cc tng i, c th s dng Direct distance v Polar tracking.

(4) Ti dng nhc "Base point or displacement" ta c th nhp khong di.

3. Lnh quay i tng xung quanh mt im Rotate (RO)



Lnh Rotate thc hin php quay cc i tng c chn chung quanh 1 im chun (base
point) gi l tm quay. y l 1 trong nhng lnh chnh hnh quan trng.

Command : Rotate Hoc t Modify menu chn Rotate
Select objects - Chn i tng cn quay
Select objects - Chn tip i tng hoc ENTER kt thc
vic la chn.
Select base point - Chn tm quay
Specify rotation angle or [Reference] - Chn gc quay hoc nhp R nhp gc tham
chiu Reference. Nu nhp R ti dng nhc
cui s lm xut hin:
Specify the reference angle <0> - Gc tham chiu
Specify the new angle <> - Gi tr gc mi

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 47 -
4. Lnh thu phng i tng theo t l Scale (SC)



Lnh Scale dng tng hoc gim kch thc cc i tng trn bn v theo 1 t l
nht nh (php bin i t l)

Command : Scale Hoc t Modify menu chn Scale
Select objects Chn i tng cn thay i t l.
Select objects Chn tip i tng hoc ENTER kt thc
vic la chn.
Specify base point Chn im chun l im ng yn khi thay i
t l
Specify scale factor or [Reference] Nhp h s t l hay nhp R
Reference Nu nhp R s xut hin dng nhc:
Specify reference length <1> Nhp chiu di tham chiu, c th truy bt 2
im A v B nh chiu di
Specify new length <> Nhp chiu di mi hoc bt im C

5. Lnh i xng qua trc Mirror (MI)



Lnh Mirror dng to cc i tng mi i xng vi cc i tng c chn qua 1 trc,
trc ny c gi l trc i xng (mirror line). Ni mt cch khc, lnh Mirror l php quay cc
i tng c chn trong 1 khng gian chung quanh trc i xng mt gc 180
0


Command : Mirror Hoc t Modify menu chn Mirror
. Select objects Chn cc i tng thc hin php i xng.
. Select objects ENTER kt thc vic la chn.
. Specify first point of mirror line Chn im th nht P1 ca trc i xng
. Specify second point of mirror line Chn im th hai P2 ca trc i xng
. Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N> Xo i tng c chn hay khng? Nhp N
nu khng mun xo i tng chn, nhp Y
nu mun xo i tng chn. Nu mun hnh
i xng ca cc dng ch khng b ngc th
trc khi thc hin lnh Mirror ta gn bin
MIRRTEXT = 0 (gi tr mc nh MIRRTEXT
= 1)

6. Lnh di v ko gin i tng Stretch (S)



Lnh Stretch dng di v ko gin cc i tng. Khi ko gin vn duy tr s dnh ni cc
i tng. Cc i tng l on thng c ko gin ra hoc co li (chiu di s di ra hoc ngn
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 48 -
li), cc i tng l cung trn khi ko gin s thay i bn knh. ng trn khng th ko gin m
ch c th di i.

Khi chn cc i tng thc hin lnh Stretch ta dng phng thc chn la Crossing
Window hoc Crossing polygon, nhng i tng no giao vi khung ca s s c ko gin
(hoc co li), nhng i tng no nm trong khung ca s s c di i. i vi ng trn nu c
tm nm trong khung ca s chn s c di i.

Command : Stretch Hoc t Modify menu chn Stretch

Select objects to stretch by crossing-window or crossing-polygon...
Select objects Chn cc i tng ch theo phng php
Crossing window
Select objects Nhn ENTER kt thc vic la chn.
Specify base point or displacement Chn im chun hay khong di,
Tng t lnh Move
Specify second point of displacement or im di n, nu nhp khong di th <use
first point as displacement> ENTER.

Tu vo cc i tng c chn c cc trng hp sau:

(1) Cc on thng giao vi khung ca s chn c ko gan ra hoc co li, na ng trn
c di i.

(2) Cung trn c ko gin v on thng ngang b ko co li.

(3) on ng c di, hai on nm ngang c ko gin.

7. Lnh sao chp dy Array (AR)



Lnh Array dng sao chp cc i tng c chn thnh dy theo hng v ct
(Rectangular array, sao chp tnh tin (copy) hay sp xp chung quanh tm (Polar array, sao chp
(copy) v quay (rotate). Cc dy ny c sp xp cch u nhau. Khi thc hin lnh s xut hin
hp thoi Array.
Nu ta nhp lnh -Array th cc dng nhc s xut hin nh cc phin bn trc . Dng
sao chp cc i tng c chn thnh dy c s hng (rows) v s ct (columns) nht nh hoc
to cc dy sp xp chung quanh mt tm ca ng trn . Nu ta s dng lnh -Array s xut hin
cc dng nhc:

Command : -Ar Hoc t Modify menu chn Array>Rectangular
. Select objects Chn cc i tng cn sao chp
. Select objects Nhn ENTER kt thc vic la chn.
. Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp R sao chp
<R>: R cc i tng theo hng hoc ct
. Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 2 S cc hng
. Enter the number of columns (///) <1>: 3 S cc ct
-Specify the distance between columns (|||): 20 Nhp khong cch gia cc ct, gi tr
ny c th m hoc dng.
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 49 -
. Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] Ti dng nhc ny ta chn P sao chp
<R>: P chung quanh mt tm.
. Specify center point of array or [Base]: Chn tm cc i tng quay xung
quanh
. Enter the number of items in the array: 5 Nhp s cc bn sao chp ra
. Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw,-=cw)<360>: Gc cho cc i tng sao chp ra c th
m hoc dng.
. Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: C quay cc i tng khi sao chp
khng

Ch :
Nu ta nhp lnh AR ti dng Command m khng c du tr ng trc th xut hin cc hp thoi
sau.
a.Hp thoi Rectangular Array



b. Hp thoi Porla Array


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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 50 -

IX. Qun l bn v theo lp, ng nt v mu

Trong cc bn v AutoCad cc i tng c cng chc nng thng c nhm thnh mt
lp (layer). V d lp cc ng nt chnh, lp cc ng tm, lp k hiu mt ct, lp lu cc kch
thc, lp lu vn bn.....

Mi lp c th gn cc tnh cht nh: Mu (color) dng ng (linetype), chiu rng nt v
(Line weight). Ta c th hiu chnh trng thi ca lp nh m (on), tt (off), kh (lock) m kho
(unlock), ng bng (freeze) v tan bng (thaw). Cc i tng v trn lp c th xut hin hoc
khng xut hin trn mn hnh hoc trn giy v.

1. To lp mi Lnh Layer



Khi thc hin lnh Layer s xut hin hp thoi Layer Properties Manager
Khi ta to bn v mi th trn bn v ny ch c mt lp l lp 0. Cc tnh cht c gn cho
lp 0 l : Mu White (trng), dng ng Continuous (lin tc), chiu rng nt v l 0,025mm
(bn v h mt) v kiu in l Normal. Lp 0 ta khng th no xo hoc i tn.



-Gn v thay i mu cho lp :

Nu click vo nt vung nh chn mu s xut hin hp thoi Select Corlor (hnh sau) v
theo hp thoi ny ta c th gn mu cho lp sau nhn nt OK chp nhn.
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 51 -


-Gn dng ng cho lp :
Chn lp cn thay i hoc gn dng ng. Nhn vo tn dng ng ca lp ( ct Linetype) khi
s xut hin hp thoi Select Linetype (hnh sau) sau chn dng ng mong mun sau nhn
nt OK.

u tin trn bn v ch c mt dng ng duy nht l CONTINUOUS s dng cc dng
ng khc trong bn v ta nhn vo nt LOAD... trn hp thoi Select Linetype. Khi xut hin
hp thoi Load or Reload Linetype sau ta chn cc dng ng cn dng v nhn nt OK. Sau
dng ng va chn s c ti vo hp thoi Select Linetype

Gn chiu rng nt v:
Gn chiu rng nt cho tng lp theo trnh t sau.
Trong hp thoi to lp ta nhn vo ct LineWeight ca lp
s xut hin hp thoi LineWeight (hnh sau) . Sau ta
chn rng nt cn gn cho lp cui cng nhn OK

Gn lp hin hnh:
Ta chn lp v nhn nt Current. Lc ny bn phi
dng Current Layer ca hp thoi Layer Properties Manager
s xut hin tn lp hin hnh m ta va chn. Nu mt lp l
hin hnh th cc i tng mi c to trn lp ny s c
cc tnh cht ca lp ny

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 52 -

-Thay i trng thi ca lp
Tt m (ON/OFF) ta nhn vo biu tng trng thi ON/OFF. Khi mt lp c tt th cc
i tng s khng hin trn mn hnh. Cc i tng ca lp c tt vn c th c chn nu nh
ti dng nhc "Select objects" ca cc lnh hiu chnh ta dng la chn All chn i tng.

ng bng v lm tan bng (FREEZE/THAW) :
Ta nhn vo biu tng trng thi FREEZE/THAW. Cc i tng ca lp ng bng
khng xut hin trn mn hnh v ta khng th hiu chnh cc i tng ny ( Khng th chn cc
i tng trn lp b ng bng k c la chn All). Trong qu trnh ti hin bn v bng lnh
Regen, Zoom....cc i tng ca lp ng bng khng tnh n v gip cho qu trnh ti hin c
nhanh hn. Lp hin hnh khng th ng bng.

Kho lp (LOCK/UNLOCK)
Ta nhn vo biu tng trng thi LOCK/UNLOCK i tng ca lp b kho s khng
hiu chnh c ( khng th chn ti dng nhc "Select objects" ) tuy nhin ta vn thy trn mn
hnh v c th in chng ra c.

-Xo lp (DELETE) :
Ta c th d dng xo lp a to ra bng cch chn lp v nhn vo nt Delete. Tuy nhin
trong mt s trng hp lp c chn khng xo c m s c thng bo khng xo c nh lp
0 hoc cc lp bn v tham kho ngoi v lp cha cc i tng bn v hin hnh.

- Ngoi ra ta c th thc hin cc lnh lin quan n tnh cht v trng thi ca lp bng thanh cng
c Objects Properties c mc nh trong vng ho

2. Nhp cc dng ng vo trong bn v Linetype hoc Format \ Linetype


Dng ng, mu v chiu rng nt v c th gn cho lp hoc cho cc i tng. Thng
thng khi bt u bn v trn hp thoi ch c mt dng ng duy nht l Continuous. nhp
dng ng ta s dng lnh Linetype hoc vo menu Format\ LineType... xut hin hp thoi
Linetype Manager v chn nt Load nh trong khi to lp ta gn dng ng cho mt lp no .



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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 53 -
3. nh t l cho dng ng Ltscale



-Cc dng ng khng lin tc: HIDDEN, DASHDOT, CENTER... thng thng c cc
khong trng gia cc on gch lin. Lnh Ltscale dng nh t l cho dng ng, ngha l
nh chiu di khong trng v on gch lin. Nu t l ny nh th khong trng qu nh v cc
ng nt c v ging nh ng lin tc. T l ny qu ln th chiu di on gch lin qu ln,
nhiu lc vt qu chiu di ca i tng c v, do ta cng thy xut hin ng lin tc.
Trong AutoCAD 2007 nu ta chn bn v theo h Mt th khng cn nh li t l dng ng.

Command: Ltscale
Enter new linetype scale factor <1.0000>: Nhp 1 gi tr dng bt k
Trn hp thoi Linetype Manager gi tr Ltscale c nh ti son tho Global Scale
Factor (khi chn nt Details>)

4. Bin CELTSCALE

CELTSCALE dng gn t l dng ng cho i tng sp v. Bin ny lin quan ti ga
tr t l nh bng lnh Ltscale. V d nu on thng c v vi bin CELTSCALE = 2 vi t l
gn bng lnh Ltscale l 0.5 th s xut hin trn bn v ging nh on thng to bi bin
CELTSCALE = 1 trong bn v vi gi tr Ltscale = 1.

Command: CELTSCALE
Enter new value for CELTSCALE <1.0000>: Nhp 1 gi tr dng bt k

Nn cn phn bit rng khi thay i gi tr Ltscale s nh hng ti ton b cc i tng
trn bn v. Nhng khi thay i gi tr ca bin CELTSCALE ch nh hng ti trc tip cc i
tng sp v
-Trn hp thoi Linetype Manager gi tr bin CELTSCALE c nh ti bi son tho
Current Objects Scale (khi chn nt Details>)



















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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 54 -

X. Hnh ct mt ct v v k hiu vt liu

1. Trnh t v mt ct
. To hnh ct mt ct
. T menu Draw/ Hatch...., hoc thc hin lnh Bhatch hoc
. Trn hp thoi ta chn trang Hatch
. Chn kiu mt ct trong khung Type
. Chn tn mu t ti mc Pattern
. Chn t l ti khung Scale v nghing ti mc Angle
. Chn nt pick Point ch nh mt im nm trong vng ct ( vng ct phi kn)
. Nu mun xem trc mt ct th chn Preview.
. Kt thc ta nhn nt OK

2. V mt ct bng lnh Hatch (H) hoc BHatch



Sau khi vo lnh xut hin hp thoi. Hi thai ny c 2 trang Hacth, v Gradient

a. Trang Hatch





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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 55 -
b. Trang Gradient



One Color:
Xc nh vng t s dng s bin i trong gia bng v mu nn sng ca mt mu. Khi
One Color c chn, AutoCAD hin th mu mu vi nt Browse v thanh trt Shade and Tint
(bin GFCLRSTATE)

Two Color:
Xc nh vng t s dng s bin i trn gia bng v mu nn sng ca hai mu. Khi
Two Color c chn, AutoCAD hin th mu mu vi nt Browse cho mu 1 v mu 2 (bin
GFCLRSTATE)

Centered :
Xc nh cu hnh gradient i xng. Nu thnh phn ny khng c chn, vng ph
gradient thay i v pha tri, to ngun sng o pha tri ca i tng (bin GFSHIFT)

Angle:
Xc nh gc ca vng t gradient. Gc xc nh quan h vi UCS hin hnh. La chn ny ph
thuc vo gc ca mu mt ct (bin GFANG)

3. Lnh hiu chnh mt ct HatchEdit



Cho php ta hiu chnh mt ct lin kt. Ta c th nhp lnh hoc nhp p chut ti i
tng cn thay i sau s xut hin hp thoi Hatch Edit cho ta hiu chnh.
Tng t nh hp thoi Hacth Gradient ta chn cc thng s cn thay i sau nhn nt
OK hon tt cng vic.

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 56 -

XI. Nhp v hiu chnh vn bn

1. Trnh t nhp v hiu chnh vn bn

nhp v hiu chnh vn bn ta tin hnh theo ba bc sau

-To cc kiu ch cho bn v bng lnh Style
- Nhp dng ch bng lnh Text hoc on vn bn bng lnh Mtext
-Hiu chnh ni dung bng lnh Ddedit ( hoch nhp p chut)
- Sau khi to cc kiu ch (text Style) ta tin hnh nhp cc dng ch. Lnh Text dng
nhp cc dng ch trn bn v, lnh Mtext cho php ta nhp on vn bn trn bn v c
lm trong khung hnh ch nht nh trc. Dng ch trong bn v l mt i tng nh Line,
Circle... Do ta c th dng cc lnh sao chp v bin i hnh i vi dng ch. V dng
ch trong bn v l mt i tng ho vy trong mt bn v c nhiu dng ch s lm
chm i qu trnh th hin bn v cng nh khi in bn v ra giy.

2. To kiu ch lnh Style (ST)hoc vo menu Format \ TextStyle



Sau khi vo lnh s xut hin hp thoi sau.



Ta c th xem kiu ch va to ti Preview. C th thay i tn v xo kiu ch bng cc
nt Rename v Delete. Sau khi to mt kiu ch ta nhp nt Apply to kiu ch khc hoc mun
kt thc lnh ta nhp nt Close. Kiu ch c th c ng nhiu ni khc nhau.




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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 57 -

3. Lnh nhp dng ch vo bn v Text



Lnh text cho php ta nhp cc dng ch vo trong bn v. Trong mt lnh Text ta c th
nhp nhiu dng ch nm cc v tr khc nhau v cc dng ch s xut hin trn mn hnh khi ta
nhp t bn phm.

Command: Text
. Current text style: "Viet" Text height: - Th hin kiu ch hin ti v chiu cao
. Specify start point of text or [Justify/Style] - Chn im cn l tri dng ch hoc
nhp tham s S nhp kiu ch ta va
to trn.
+ Style name (or ?): ( sau khi nhp S ta nhp tn kiu ch ti
dng nhc ny)
. Specify height <10.000> - Nhp chiu cao ch
. Specify Rotation Angle of Text<0> - Nhp nghing ca ch
- Enter Text: -Nhp dng ch hoc Enter kt thc lnh

4. Lnh TextFill t en ch hoc khng t en.



Tu vo gi tr ca bin TEXTFILL cc ch c c t hay l ch xut hin cc ng vin.
Nu bin TEXTFILL l ON (1) th ch c t v ngc li .
Command: TextFill
- Enter new value for TEXTFILL <1>: - Nhp gi tr mi cho bit l 0 hoc l 1

5. Lnh nhp on vn bn Mtext (MT)



Lnh Mtext cho php to mt on vn bn c gii hn bi ng bin l khung hnh ch
nht. on vn bn l mt i tng ca AUTOCAD

Command: MT
. Current text style: "Viet" Text height: - Th hin kiu ch hin ti v chiu cao
. Specify first corner: - im gc th nht on vn bn
Specify opposite corner or....... - im gc i din on vn bn

Sau xut hin hp thoi Text Formatting. Trn hp thoi ny ta nhp vn bn nh cc
phn mm vn bn khc.
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 58 -


Ta c th nhp dng ch trc sau bi en v thay i cc thuc tnh ca dng ch nh
FONT ch v c ch, ch m, nghing, ch gch chn, mu ch.......

6. Lnh hiu chnh vn bn DDedit (ED)



Lnh DDedit cho php ta thay i ni dung dng ch v cc nh ngha thuc tnh. Ta c th
gi lnh hoc nhp o chut vo dng ch cn hiu chnh.
Nu dng ch chn c to bi lnh Tetx s xut hin hp thoi Edit Text cho php hiu chnh ni
dung dng ch.

Nu i tng chn c to bi lnh Mtext th s xut hin hp thoi Text Formatting sau
ta thay i cc thng s cn thit v nhn nt OK.

7. Lnh QTEXT hin th dng k t theo dng rt gn

Vic th hin vn bn trn mn hnh thng chim nhiu thi gian v mi mt k t l mt
i tng v phc tp c to thnh t nhiu ng thng hoc cung trn. tit kim thi gian,
trong trng hp khng cn phi c cc ch gii th hin trn bn v bn c th dng lnh QTEXT.
Do lnh ny cho php cc ch gii th hin trn bn v c th hin nhanh di dng khung hnh
ch nht m chiu di hnh ch nht l chiu di ca dng ch v chiu rng ca n l chiu cao ca
ch, nn thi gian ti hin rt nhanh. Cch thc hin nh sau:
Command line: qtext
ON / OFF <current>: Chn ON hoc OFF

Nu bn mun th hin cc ch gii di dng khung ch nht tit kim thi gian ti sinh
do s dng lnh REGEN th bn nh ch On. Ngc li, nu bn mun c cc ch gii th bn tt
cng tc trn bng ch OFF. Hnh bn l cc th hin ca hai ch ON v OFF ca lnh QTEXT


QTEXT OFF QTEXT ON
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 59 -

XII. Ghi v hiu chnh kch thc

1. Cc thnh phn kch thc

Mt kch thc c ghi bt k bao gm cc thnh phn ch yu sau y:

Dimension line (ng kch thc) :
ng kch thc c gii hn hai u bi hai mi tn (gch cho hoc mt k hiu bt
k). Nu l kch thc thng th n vung gc vi cc ng ging, nu l kch thc gc th n l
mt cung trn c tm nh gc. Trong trng hp ghi cc kch thc phn t i xng th ng
kch thc c k qu trc i xng v khng v mi tn th hai. Khi tm cung trn ngoi gii
hn cn v th ng kch thc ca bn knh c v gy khc hoc ngt on v khng cn phi
xc nh tm.

Extension line (ng ging):
Thng thng ng ging l cc ng thng vung gc vi ng kch thc. Tuy nhin,
bn c th hiu chnh n thnh xin gc vi ng kch thc. ng ging c ko di qu ng
kch thc 1 on bng 2 n 3 ln chiu rng ng c bn. Hai ng ging ca cng mt kch
thc phi song song nhau.

Dimension text (Ch s kch thc):
Ch s kch thc l ln ca i tng c ghi kch thc. Trong ch s kch thc c
th ghi dung sai (tolerance), nhp tin t (prefix), hu t (suffix) ca kch thc. Chiu cao ch s
kch thc trong cc bn v k thut l cc gi tr tiu chun. Thng thng, ch s kch thc nm
trong, nu khng ch n s nm ngoi. n v kch thc di theo h Mt l mm, trn bn v
khng cn ghi n v o. Nu dng n v di khc nh centimt hoc mt th n v o c ghi
ngay sau ch s kch thc hoc trong phn ch thch bn v.

Arrowheads (Mi tn, gch cho) :
K hiu hai u ca ng kch thc, thng thng l mi tn, du nghing, chem. hay mt
khi (block) bt k do ta to nn. Trong AutoCAD 2007 c sn 20 dng mi tn. Hai mi tn c
v pha trong gii hn ng kch thc. Nu khng ch chng c v pha ngoi. Cho php thay
th hai mi tn i nhau bng mt chm m.

i vi kch thc bn knh v ng knh th kch thc c 4 thnh phn: ng kch thc,
mi tn (gch cho), ch s kch thc v du tm (center mark) hoc ng tm (center line). Khi
ta xem ng trn hoc cung trn l cc ng ging.

2. To cc kiu kch thc DimStyle (D) hoc Ddim hoc Dimension \ Style



S dng lnh ny to kiu kch thc mi, hiu chnh kch thc c sn. Trn cc hp
thoi c cc hnh nh minh ho khi thay i cc bin
Sau khi vo lnh xut hin hp thoi sau
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 60 -


Cc mc trong hp thoi Dimension Style Manager

. Style : Danh sch cc kiu kch thc c sn trong bn v hin hnh
. Lits : Chn cch lit k cc kiu kch thc
. SetCurent: Gn mt kiu kch thc ang chn lm hin hnh
. New...: To kiu kch thc mi lm xut hin hp thoi Create New Dimension Styel
Sau ta t tn cho kiu kch thc sau chn Continue s xut hin hp
thoi New Dimension Style v sau ta gn cc ch cho kiu kch thc
mi ny.
. Modify...: Hiu chnh kch thc sn c
. Override... Hin th hp thoi Override Dimension Style trong bn c th gn chng
tm thi cc bin kch thc trong kiu kch thc hin hnh. AutoCad ch gn
chng khng ghi li trong danh sch Style
. Compare....: Lm hin th hp thoi Compare Dimension Style trong bn c th so snh
ga tr cc bin gia hai kiu kch thc hoc quan st tt c gi tr cc bin
ca kiu kch thc.

a. To kiu kch thc mi :
to kiu kch thc mi ta chn nt New khi xut hin hp thoi Create New Dimension
Style



- Khung New Style Name: t tn kiu kch thc mi
-Khung Start With: C s ca kin kch thc mi V d ISO-25
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 61 -
-Khung Use for : Chn loi kch thc cn s dng nu chn
. All Dimensions : Tt c cc loi
. Linear Dimensions : Kch thc thng
. Angular Dimensions : Kch thc gc
. Radius Dimensions : Kch thc bn knh
. Diameter Dimensions : Kch thc ng knh
. Ordinate Dimensions : Kch thc to im
. Leader and tolerance: Ch thch, ng dn v dung sai

- Sau khi t tn, la chn cc thng tin cn thit cho kiu ng kch thc ta chn Continue...

b. Trang Lines
Trong trang ny c 4 khung hnh ch nht v tng ng ta s nh cc bin lin quan nh sau:



-Dimension Lines : Thit lp cho ng kch thc trong
. Color : Mu ng kch thc
. Lineweight: nh chiu rng nt v
. Extend beyond ticks: Khong cch ng kch thc nh ra khi ng dong (Nhap
gia tr bang 1,0 vi bang ve A4)
. Baseline spacing Khong cch gia cc ng kch thc song song vi nhau.
. Suppress: B ng kch thc.

-Extension Lines : Thit lp ng ging

. Color : Mu ng ging
. Lineweight: nh chiu rng nt v ng ging
. Extend beyond dim lines: Khong cch nh ra khi ng kch thc (Nhap
gia tr bang 1,0 vi bang ve A4)
. Offset From Origin: Khong cc t gc ng ging n vt c o .( Nhap
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 62 -
gia tr bang 1,0 vi bang ve A4)
. Suppress: B cc ng ging.
b. Trang symbols and Arrows



-Arrowheads : Thit lp m tn ca ng kch thc
. Fist : Dng m tn cho u kch thc th nht
. Second : Dng m tn cho u kch thc th hai
. Leader: Dng m tn cho u ng dn dng ch thch
. Arrow size: ln ca u m tn (1,2 ban ve A4)

-None, Mark, line : t kiu du tm v ng tm
- Size : Kch thc du tm.

Chu y: Cac gia tr tren dung cho ban ve A4, A3 cac gia tr nay c cong them 0,5 cho
ban ve A2; 1,0 cho ban ve A1,Ao..).Gia tr nay ch mang tnh tham khao, tuy theo yeu cau ngi
ve ma co thong so hp ly.

c. Trang Text : Gip ta hiu chnh cc thng s cho ch s kch thc

-Text Appearance : iu chnh hnh dng v kch c ca ch kch thc
. Text Style: Gn kiu ch c nh ngha sn.
. Text Color: Gn mu cho ch kch thc.
. Text Height: Gn chiu cao cho ch kch thc. (2,0 2,5 cho ban ve A4;
2,53,0 cho ban ve A3; 3,03,5 cho ban ve A1,A0)
. Fraction height Scale: Gn t l gia chiu cao ch s dung sai kch thc v ch s
kch thc
. Draw Frame Around Text: V khung ch nht bao quanh ch s kch thc.

-Text Placement: iu kin ch s kch thc
+ Vertical Position : iu kin ch s kch thc theo phng thng ng
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 63 -
Centered Ch s kch thc nm gia ng kch thc
Above V tr ch s kch thc nm trn ng kch thc
Outside V tr ch s kch thc nm v hng ng kch thc c
khong cch xa nht t im gc ng ging
JIS V tr ng kch thc theo chun Nht bn
+ Horizontal Position : V tr ch s kch thc so vi ng kch thc v ng
ging. C 5 la chn sau.
Centered : Ch s kch thc nm dc theo ng kch thc v gia hai ng ging.
TCVN chn Centered
1st Extension Line Ch s kch thc nm lch v pha ng ging th nht
2nd Extension Line Ch s kch thc nm lch v pha ng ging th hai
Over 1st Extension Line V tr ch s kch thc nm trn ng ging th nht
Over 2nd Extension Line V tr ch s kch thc nm trn ng ging th hai

+ Offset From Dimension Line: Khong cch gia ch s kch thc v ng kch thc theo tiu
chun khong cch ny t 1 1,5 mm. (1,0 cho ban ve A4)

- Text Alignment : Hng ca ch s kch thc
+ Horizontal: Ch s kch thc s nm ngang.

+ Aligned With Dimension Line: Ch s kch thc lun song song vi ng kch thc.

+ ISO Standard: Ch s kch thc s song song vi ng kch thc khi nm trong hai ng
ging v nm ngang khi nm ngoi hai ng ging.




d. Trang Fit : Kim tra v tr ch s kch thc, u m tn. ng dn v ng kch thc.

-Fit Option: Kim tra v tr ca ch s kch thc v ng kch thc nm trong hoc ngoi cc
ng ging da trn khong cch gia cc ng ging. Khi cho th AutoCad t ch s kch
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 64 -
thc v mi tn nm gia cc ng ging. Nu khng ch th v tr ca ch s kch thc v
mi tn ph thuc vo cc la chn trong mc ny.
+ Either the text or Arrows (Best Fits): V tr ch s kch thc v m tn c sp xp nh sau.

* Khi ch cho mi tn v ch s kch thc th c hai s nm trong hai ng ging
* Khi ch ch cho ch s kch thc th ch s nm trong hai ng ging cn mi tn nm ngoi
ng ging.
* Khi ch ch cho mi tn th mi tn nm gia hai ng ging cn ch s kch thc nm
ngoi ng ging.
* Khi khng ch cho ch s kch thc hoc mi tn th c hai s nm ngoi ng ging.

+ Arrows: V tr ch s kch thc v m tn c sp xp nh sau.

* Khi ch cho mi tn v ch s kch thc th c hai s nm trong hai ng ging
* Khi ch ch cho mi tn th mi tn nm gia hai ng ging cn ch s kch thc nm
ngoi ng ging.
* Khi khng ch cho mi tn th c hai s nm ngoi ng ging.
+ Text: V tr ch s kch thc v m tn c sp xp nh sau.

* Khi ch cho mi tn v ch s kch thc th c hai s nm trong hai ng ging
* Khi ch ch cho ch s kch thc th ch s nm trong hai ng ging cn mi tn nm ngoi
ng ging.
* Khi khng ch cho ch s kch thc th c hai s nm ngoi ng ging.

+ Both text and Arrows: Khi khng chc cho ch s khch thc v mi tn th c hai s
nm ngoi ng ging.

+ Always keep text between Ext Lines: Ch s kch thc lun nm trong hai ng ging.

+ Suppress Arrows if They Don't Fit Inside Extension lines: Khng xut hin m tn nu
khng ch. Vi iu kin l ch s kch thc phi nm trong hai ng ging.

-Text Placement : Gn ch s kch thc khi di chuyn chng khi v tr mc nh

+ Beside the Dimension line: Sp xp ch s bn cnh ng kch thc

+ Over the Dimension Line, with a leader: C mt ng dn ni gia ch s kch thc v
ng kch thc.

+ Over the Dimension Line, Wihtout a leader: Khng c ng dn ni gia ch s kch
thc v ng kch thc..

-Scale for Dimension Features : Gn t l kch thc cho ton b bn v hoc t l trong khng
gian v

+ Use Overall Scale of: Gn t l cho ton b cc bin ca kiu kch thc. T l ny khng
thay i gi tr s ca ch s kch thc.

+ Scale Dimension to Layout (Paper Space) : Xc nh h s t l da trn t l gia khung
nh hin hnh trong khng gian v v khng gian giy.

-Fine Tuning Option : Gn cc la chn FIT b xung.

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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 65 -
+ Place Text Manually When Dimensioning : B qua tt c thit lp ca ch s kch thc
theo phng nm ngang, khi ta ch nh v tr ch s kch thc theo im nh v tr ca
ng kch thc ti dng nhc : "Dimension line location"

+ Always Draw Dim Line Between Ext Lines : Nu chn nt ny th bt buc c ng
kch thc nm gia hai ng ging khi ch s kch thc nm ngoi hai ng ging.



e. Trang Primary Units : nh cc thng s lin quan n hnh dng v ln ca ch s kch
thc . Gn dng v chnh xc ca n v di v gc .....

-Linear Dimensions : Gn dng v n v cho kch thc di.
. Unit Format : Gn dng n v cho tt c cc loi kch thc tr gc.
. Precision: Gn cc s thp phn c ngha
. Fraction Format : Gn dng cho phn s
. Decimal Separator: Gn dng du tch gia s nguyn v s thp phn.
. Round off : Gn quy tc lm trn s
. Prefix / Suffix : nh tin t v hu t cho ch s kch thc.
.
-Measurement Scale : Xc nh cc la chn cho t l o bao gm

+ Scale Factor : Gn h s t l o chiu dai cho tt c cc dng kch thc ngoi tr kch
thc gc. V d nu ta nhp 10 th Autocad hin th 1mm tng ng vi 10mm khi ghi
kch thc.

+ Apply to Layout Dimensions Only: p dng t l ch cho cc kch thc to trn layout.

-Zero Suppression : iu khin vic khng hin th cc s 0 khng ngha.
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 66 -

+ Leading: B qua cc s 0 khng c ngha ng trc ch s kch thc. V d 0.5000 th
s him th .5000

+ Trailing: B qua cc s 0 khng c ngha trong s cc s thp phn. V d 60.55000 s
hin th l 60.55
-Angular Dimensions : Gn dng hin hnh cho n v gc.
. Units Format: Gn dng n v gc
. Precision : Hin th v gn cc s thp c ngha cho n v gc
. Zero Suppression: B qua cc s 0 khng c ngha



f. Trang Alternate Units: Gn cc n v lin kt, gn dng v chnh xc n v chiu di, gc,
kch thc v t l ca n v o lin kt.

-Display Alternate Units: Thm n v o lin kt vo ch s kch thc.
-Alternate Units: Hin th v gn dng n hin hnh cho tt c loi kch thc ngoi tr kch thc
gc.

. Unit Format: Gn dng n v lin kt
. Precision : Gn s cc s thp phn c ngha
. Multiplier for Alternate Units: Ch nh h s chuyn i gia n v kch thc chnh
v kch thc lin kt
. Round Distances To: Gn quy tc lm trn cho n v lin kt vi tt c cc
loi kch thc.
. Prefix / Suffix; Gn tin t, hu t ca kch thc lin kt.
-Zero Suppression: Kim tra b qua cc s 0 khng c ngha.
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 67 -
-Placement: nh v tr t cc kch thc lin kt.
. After Primary Units : t ch s lin kt sau ch s kch thc
. Befor Primary Units : t ch s lin kt di ch s kch thc



g. Trang Tolerance: iu khin s hin th v hnh dng ca cc ch s dung sai.

-Tolerance Format : iu khin hnh dng ca ch s dung sai.
. None Khng thm vo sau ch s kch thc sai lch gii hn gi tr dung sai
. Symmetrical Du xut hin trc cc gi tr sai lch gii hn. Khi sai lch gii hn
trn v di c gi tr tuyt i ging nhau. Ta ch cn nhp gi tr vo
Upper value
. Deviation Sai lch m v dng c gi tr khc nhau. Ta nhp gi tr sai lch dng vo
Upper Value v sai lch m vo Lower Value. Khi nhp du tr vo trc gi
tr ti Lower Value th sai lch di s c gi tr dng, tng t nhp du tr
vo Upper Value th sai lch trn c gi tr m
. Limits To nn cc kch thc gii hn, khi AutoCAD s hin th gi tr kch
th c
gii hn ln nht v nh nht. Gi tr ln nht bng kch thc danh ngha
cng vi sai lch trn, gi tr nh nht bng kch thc danh ngha cng (tr)
vi sai lch di
. Basic To mt khung ch nht bao quanh ch s kch thc. Khong cch t ch s
kch thc n cc cnh ca khung ch nht bng gi tr bin DIMGAP.

-Precision: Hin th v gn s cc s thp phn c ngha
-Upper Value: Hin th v gn gii hn sai lch trn.
-Lower Value: Hin th v gn gii hn sai lch di.
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 68 -
-Scaling for Height: T s gia chiu cao ch s kch thc v ch s dung sai kch thc
-Vertical Position: iu khin im canh l ca cc gi tr dung sai i vi kch thc dung sai.
-Zero Suppression: iu khin s hin th cc s 0 khng c ngha i vi cc n v dung sai lin
kt..
- Alternate Unit Tolerance: Gn chnh xc v quy tc b s 0 khng c ngha i vi cc n v
dung sai lin kt.
. Precision : Hin th v gn chnh xc
. Zero Suppression: iu khin s hin th cc s 0 khng c ngha



3. Cc lnh ghi kch thc thng

a. Lnh DimLinear (DLI) ghi kch thc ngang thng ng



Ghi kch thc thng nm ngang (Horizontal) hoc thng ng (Vertical) v nghing
(Rotated). Khi ghi kch thc thng ta c th chn hai im gc ng ging hoc chn i tng
cn ghi kch thc.

Command : DLI Hoc Dimlinear
- Specify first extension line origin or <select - im gc ng ging th nht
object>:
- Specify second extension line origin: - im gc ng ging th hai
- Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Chn 1 im nh v tr ng kch thc
Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertaical/Rotated]: hoc nhp to tng i
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 69 -
Dimension text = 120

Khong cch gia ng kch thc (Dimension line) v i tng cn ghi kch thc nm
trong khong 6-10mm.

a2. Phng php chn i tng o kch thc.

Ti dng nhc u tin ca lnh Dimlinear (hoc Dimalign) ta nhn phm ENTER:

Command : DLI Hoc Dimlinear
- Specify first extension line origin or <select object>: - Ti dng nhc ny ta nhn ENTER
-Select object to dimension: - Chn i tng cn ghi kch thc.
- Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Chn 1 im nh v tr ng kch
Thc
Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertaical/Rotated]:
Tu thuc vo hng ko (hng ca si dy thun ko) ti dng nhc Specify dimension
line location or ta ghi cc kch thc thng khc nhau. Nu ko ngang th ta ghi kch thc thng
ng hoc ko ln hoc xung ta ghi kch thc ngang.

Cc la chn khc

Rotated
La chn ny ghi kch thc c ng kch thc nghing vi ng chun mt gc no .
Command DLI Hoc Dimlinear
. Specify first extension line origin or <select object>: - Bt im P1
. Specify second extension line origin: - Bt im P2
. Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Ti dng nhc ny ta chn tham s R
Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertaical/Rotated]:R
. Specify angle of dimension line <0>: 60 - Nhp gc nghing v d l 600
. Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Chn 1 im nh v tr ng kch
Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertaical/Rotated]: thc

Text
Dng nhp ch s kch thc hoc cc k t trc (prefix) v sau (suffix) ch s kch thc:

. Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp tham s T
Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertaical/Rotated]: T
. Dimension text <>: - Nhp gi tr hoc ENTER chn mc nh

Mtext
Khi nhp M vo dng nhc Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ Text/ Angle/
Horizontal/ Vertaical/ Rotated]: s xut hin hp thoi Text Formatting (tng t hp thoi khi
s dng lnh Mtext). Trn hp thoi ny ta nhp ch s kch thc, tin t (prefix), hu t
(suffix) nhp cc k hiu, v d: ,
0
, ta nhp theo bng sau:


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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 70 -



Angle
nh gc nghing cho dng ch s kch thc so vi phng ngang
. Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Ti dng nhc ny ta nhp tham s A
Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertaical/Rotated]:A
. Specify angle of dimension text: - Nhp gi tr gc nghing ch s kch thc

Horizontal
Ghi kch th c nm ngang, khi chn H xut hin dng nhc:
. Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Chn v tr ng kch thc hoc s dng
Text/Angle]: cc la chn
. Dimension text =

Vertical
Ghi kch thc thng ng, nhp V xut hin cc dng nhc tng t la chn Horizontal.

b. Lnh DimAligned (DAL) ghi kch thc theo ng nghing.



ng kch thc ghi bng lnh Dimaligned s song song vi on thng ni 2 im gc
ng ging.

b1. Ghi kch thc thng
Command : DAL Hoc Dimaligned
- Specify first extension line origin or <select - im gc ng ging th nht
object>:
- Specify second extension line origin: - im gc ng ging th hai

- Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ - Chn 1 im nh v tr ng kch thc
Text/Angle]: hoc nhp to tng i nh khong
cch

b2. Ghi kch thc cung v ng trn

ghi kch thc ng knh ng trn, ta thc hin nh sau:

Command : DAL Hoc Dimaligned
- Specify first extension line origin or <select object>: - Ti dng nhc ny ta chn ENTER
-Select object to dimension: - Chn ng trn, im chn nh v tr
2 ng ging.
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 71 -
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ Text/Angle]: T
Dimension text < >: - Nhp ch s kch thc, %%C
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ Text/Angle]: - Chn im nh v tr ng kch
Thc.

Sau khi ghi kch thc khng c k hiu , nhp k hiu ny ta s dng lnh Dimedit, la chn
New.
La chn Mtext v Angle ca lnh Dimaligned tng t lnh Dimlinear.




c. Lnh DimBaseline (DBA) ghi kch thc // vi 1 kch thc c sn.



Khi ghi chui kch thc song song bng lnh Dimbaseline kch thc s ghi (kch thc
thng, gc, to ) c cng ng ging th nht vi kch thc va ghi trc hoc kch thc sn
c trn bn v (gi l ng chun kch thc hoc chun thit k). Cc ng kch thc cch nhau
mt khong c nh bi bin DIMDLI (theo TCVN ln hn 7mm) hoc nhp gi tr vo
Baseline Spacing trn trang Lines and Arrows ca hp thoi New Dimension Styles hoc
Override Current Style.

c1. Kch thc cng chun vi kch thc va ghi:

Nu ta ghi chui kch thc song song vi kch thc va ghi (kch thc P1P2) th tin hnh nh
sau:

Command : DBA Hoc Dimbaseline
. Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: -Gc ng ging
th hai P3
Dimension text = 70
. Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: -Gc ng ging
th hai P4
. Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select> -Tip tc chn gc
ng ging th
hai P5:
. Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: -Tip tc chn gc
ng ging th
hai P6
- Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: -Nhp phm ESC
hoc ENTER hai
ln

c2. Chn ng chun kch thc:

Nu mun chui kch thc song song vi mt kch thc c (khng phi l kch thc
va ghi) th ti dng nhc u tin ta nhp ENTER.

Khi , dng nhc sau y s xut hin:
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 72 -

Command : DBA Hoc Dimbaseline

Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:

Select base dimension: - Chn ng ging chun lm ng ging th nht

Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: - Gc ng ging th hai P3

Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: - Gc ng ging th hai P4
d. Lnh DimContinue (DCO) ghi chui kch thc ni tip vi mt kch thc c sn.



S dng lnh Dimcontinue ghi chui kch thc ni tip.

d1. Ni tip kch thc va ghi :
ng ging th nht ca kch thc s ghi (kch thc thng, gc, to ) l ng ging
th hai ca kch thc va ghi trc .

Command : DCO Hoc Dimcontinue
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: Gc ng ging th hai P3
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: Gc ng ging th hai P4
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: Gc ng ging th hai P5
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: Gc ng ging th hai P6
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: Nhn phm ESC kt thc lnh

Mun kt thc lnh ta s dng phm ESC hoc ENTER hai ln.

d2. Ni tip vi kch thc bt k :
Nu mun ghi kch thc ni tip vi mt kch thc hin c trn bn v (khng phi l kch
thc va ghi) ti dng nhc u tin, ta nhp S hoc ENTER.

Khi dng nhc sau s xut hin:

Select continued dimension:Chn ng ging ca kch thc ghi lm ng ging th nht
Cc dng nhc tip theo xut hin nh phn trn.

d3. Ghi chui kch thc gc ni tip
Ta thc hin nh sau:

Command : DAN Hoc Dimangular
- Select arc, circle, line or <specify vertex>:
- Specify angle vertex: Chn nh gc, v d tm vng trn ln
- Specify first angle endpoint: Xc nh im cui cnh th nht
- Specify second angle endpoint: Xc nh im cui cnh th hai
- Specify dimension arc line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]: Chn v tr ng cung kch thc

Command : DCO Hoc Dimcontinue

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 73 -
Specify a second extension line origin or Chn cnh tip ti im P3
[Undo/Select] <Select>:
Specify a second extension line origin or Chn cnh tip ti im P4
[Undo/Select] <Select>:
Specify a second extension line origin or Chn cnh tip ti im P5
[Undo/Select] <Select>:
Specify a second extension line origin or Chn cnh tip ti im P6
[Undo/Select] <Select>:
Specify a second extension line origin or Chn cnh tip ti im P7
[Undo/Select] <Select>:
Specify a second extension line origin or Chn cnh tip ti im P8
[Undo/Select] <Select>:
Specify a second extension line origin or Nhn phm ESC kt thc lnh
[Undo/Select] <Select>:



4. Cc lnh ghi kch thc hng tm

ghi kch thc ng knh ng trn (circle) hoc cung trn (arc) c gc tm ln
hn 180
0
dng lnh Dimdiameter, ghi kch thc bn knh cung trn c gc tm nh hn
180
0
ta s dng lnh Dimradius.

a. Lnh DimDiameter (DDI) ghi kch thc ng knh.



Lnh Dimdiameter dng ghi kch thc ng knh.

Command : DDI Hoc Dimdiameter
Select arc or circle: Chn ng trn ti 1 im bt k.
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ V tr ca ng kch thc.
Text/Angle]:

Khi ghi kch thc l hoc ng trn c ng knh nh th mi tn v ch s kch thc
nm ngoi ng trn.
du tm (Center mark) v ng tm (Center line) khng xut hin th trc khi ghi
kch thc bn knh v ng knh ta nh bin DIMCEN = 0 hoc chn loi (Type) ca Center
Marks for Circles trn hp thoi New (Modify) Dimension Styles l None.
La chn Mtext, Text v Angle trong lnh Dimdiameter tng t nh cc la chn trong
lnh Dimlinear.

b. Lnh DimRadius (DRA) ghi kch thc bn knh.



Lnh Dimradius dng ghi kch thc bn knh.

Command : DRA Hoc Dimradius
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 74 -
Select arc or circle: Chn cung trn ti 1 im bt k.
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/ V tr ca ng kch thc.
Text/Angle]:

Khi ghi kch thc cung trn c bn knh nh th mi tn v ch s kch thc nm ngoi
ng trn.
La chn Mtext, Text v Angle trong lnh Dimradius tng t nh cc la chn trong lnh
Dimlinear.

c. Lnh DimCenter (DCE) v ng tm hoc du tm.



Lnh Dimcenter v du tm (Center mark) v ng tm (Center line) ca ng trn
hoc cung trn.
Command : DCE Hoc Dimcenter
Select arc or circle: Chn cung hoc ng trn.

Tu thuc vo bin DIMCEN khi s dng lnh Dimcenter s xut hin ng tm v du
tm hoc ch l du tm. Sau khi v ng tm ta phi thay i lp cho cc i tng va v sang lp
ng tm th dng ng tm mi xut hin.

5. Cc lnh ghi kch thc khc

a. Lnh DimAngular (DAN) ghi kch thc gc.



Lnh Dimangular dng ghi kch thc gc.

a1. Ghi kch thc gc gia hai on thng

Ghi kch thc gc gia hai on thng P1P2 v P1P3.
Command : DAN Hoc Dimangular
Select arc, circle, line or <specify vertex>: Chn on thng th nht P1P2
Select second line: Chn on thng th hai P1P3
Specify dimension arc line location or V tr ng kch thc
[Mtext/Text/Angle]:

a2. Ghi kch thc gc qua 3 im

Ghi kch thc gc qua 3 im P1, P2 v P3.
Command : DAN Hoc Dimangular
Select arc, circle, line or <specify vertex>:
Angle Vertex: Chn im nh ca gc
First angle endpoint: Xc nh im cui cnh th nht
Second angle endpoint: Xc nh im cui cnh th hai
Specify dimension arc line location or Chn v tr ng kch thc
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 75 -
[Mtext/Text/Angle]:
La chn Mtext, Text v Angle trong lnh Dimangular tng t nh cc la chn trong
lnh Dimlinear.

b. Lnh Leader ghi kch thc theo ng dn



Lnh Leader ghi ch thch cho ng dn, nh s v tr trong bn v lp Leader l mt
i tng bao gm u mi tn gn vi cc phn on l ng thng hoc ng spline. Ngoi ra,
c mt on thng nh ngang nm di dng ch m t. Nu kch thc l lin kt (bin
DIMASSOC = ON) th im bt u ca leader s lin kt vi mt v tr ca i tng. Nu i
tng hnh hc thay i v tr th mi tn ca leader s lin kt vi i tng v cc ng dn s
ko gin ra, cc dng ch thch vn nm trn v tr c.

Command : Leader
Specify leader start point: im dn u tin P1
Specify next point: im dn k tip P2
Specify next point: im dn k tip P3 hoc ENTER
Specify next point or [Annotation/Format/ Nhp dng ch hoc ENTER
Undo] <Annotation>:
Enter first line of annotation text or Nhp dng ch vo hoc ENTER
<options>:
Enter next line of annotation text: Tip tc nhp dng ch vo hoc ENTER
kt thc lnh.

Lc ny xut hin hp thoi Edit Mtext cho php ta nhp ch s kch thc vo. Ti dng
nhc Specify leader start point ta s dng phng thc bt im NEArest. Nu ti dng nhc
Annotation ta nhn phm ENTER th cc dng nhc sau s xut hin:

Command : Leader
Specify leader start point: im dn u tin P1
Specify next point: im dn k tip P2
Specify next point: im dn k tip hoc ENTER
Specify next point or [Annotation/Format/
Undo] <Annotation>:
Enter first line of annotation text or Nhp ENTER hoc nhp dng ch
<options>:
Enter an annotation option [Tolerance/Copy/ Nhp ENTER hoc s dng cc la chn
Block/None/Mtext] <Mtext>:

Cc la chn
Format
La chn ny xut hin dng nhc:
Enter leader format option [Spline/STraight/Arrow/None]<Exit>:
Spline/STraight ng dn c th l ng cong (Spline) hoc ng thng (STraight)
Arrow/None u ng dn xut hin mi tn (Arrow) hoc khng c mi tn (None)

Annotation :La chn ny cho php nhp dng ch s kch thc hoc dng ch vo.
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 76 -
Mtext: Lm xut hin hp thoi Text Formatting cho php ta nhp vn bn vo.
Tolerance: Cho php ghi dung sai hnh dng v v tr bng hp thoi Geometric Tolerance (tham
kho thm lnh Tolerance)

Copy
Sao chp mt i tng l dng ch (nhp bng lnh Text, Dtext hoc Mtext) vo u ng
dn. Dng ch ny s lin kt vi kch thc ghi. Khi nhp C s xut hin:
Select an object to copy: Chn dng ch cn sao chp.
Block: Chn mt block vo u ng dn. Khi nhp B:
Enter block name or [?]:
None: Khng c ch thch ti u ng dn.
Undo :Hu b mt nh va chn trong lnh Leader.

6. Lnh hiu chnh kch thc

a. Lnh Dimtedit thay i v tr v phng ca ch s kch thc.



Lnh Dimtedit cho php ta thay i v tr v phng ca ch s kch thc ca mt kch
Thc lin kt.

Command : Dimtedit
Select Dimension: - Chn kch thc cn hiu chnh
Specify new location for dimension text or - Di ch s kch thc n v tr cn thit
[Left/Right/Center/Home/Angle]: hoc chn L, R, C, H, A

Ti dng nhc Specify new location for dimension text or [Left /Right /Center/ Home/
Angle]: ta di v tr ch s kch thc n v tr cn thit (lc ng kch thc v ng ging
thay i theo) hoc chn mt trong cc la chn.

Cc la chn
Left : Kch thc c di sang tri.
Right : Kch thc c di sang phi.
Home: Kch thc v tr ban u khi ghi kch thc
Center : t v tr ch s kch thc nm gia ng kch thc.
Angle: Quay ch s kch thc, ti dng nhc cui cng khi nhp A:
Enter text angle: Nhp gc quay cho ch s kch thc.

b. Lnh DimEdit (DED) hiu chnh v tr, gi tr, gc quay ch s kch thc.



Lnh Dimedit dng thay i ch s kch thc ca kch thc ang hin th trn
mn hnh v nghing ca ng ging.

Command : DED Hoc Dimedit
Enter type of dimension editing [Home/New/ Rotate/Oblique] <Home>:

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 77 -
Cc la chn
Home:
a ch s kch thc tr v v tr ban u khi ghi kch thc. Khi nhp H, xut hin
dng nhc: Select object: Chn kch thc cn hiu chnh
New
Thay i ch s kch thc cho kch thc ghi. Khi nhp N ti dng nhc cui cng s
xut hin hp thoi Multiline Edit Mtext v ta nhp ch s kch thc mi vo. Dng nhc sau s
xut hin:
Select object: Chn kch thc cn thay i ch s kch thc.
hiu chnh gi tr ch s kch thc ta c th s dng lnh Ddedit.
Rotate
Tng t la chn Angle ca lnh DimtEdit
OBLique
To cc ng gc xin (gc nghing ng ging vi ng kch thc). S dng la chn
Oblique ghi kch thc hnh chiu trc o trong bn v 2D. Khi nhp O s xut hin dng
nhc:
Select objects: Chn kch thc cn hiu chnh
Select objects: Chn tip kch thc cn hiu chnh hoc ENTER kt thc vic la chn
Enter oblique angle (press ENTER for none): Gi tr gc nghing so vi ng chun.


































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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 78 -

XIII. To khi v ghi khi.

1. Lnh to khi Block

Sau khi s dng cc phng php to mt hnh hnh hc, ta s dng lnh Block hoc nhm
chng li thnh mt i tng duy nht gi l block. Block l tham kho bn trong bn v, Bn c
th s dng cc phng php sau to block:
- Kt hp cc i tng to nh ngha block trong bn v hin hnh ca bn.
-To file bn v v sau chn chng nh l mt block trong bn v khc.

To file bn v vi vi nh ngha block lin quan nhau phc v nh mt th vin block.
Mt block c th bao gm cc i tng c v trn nhiu lp khc nhau vi cc tnh cht mu,
dng ng v t l ng ging nhau.

Mc d mt block lun lun c chn trn lp hin hnh, mt tham kho block vn gi
thng tin v cc tnh cht lp, mu v dng ng ban u ca i tng m nhng tnh cht ny c
trong block. Bn c th kim tra cc i tng c gi cc tnh cht ban u hoc tha hng cc tnh
cht t cc thit lp lp hin hnh hay khng.

a.Lnh Block


Khi thc hin lnh Block s xut hin hp thoi Block Denifition. lm xut hin cc
dng nhc nh cc phin bn trc ta thc hin lnh Block.
Command : Block Hoc t Draw menu chn Block>Make

Khi xut hin hp thoi Block Denifition.



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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 79 -
Cc la chn hp thoi Block Denifition

Block name:
Nhp tn block vo son tho Name, v d GHE. Tn block ti a 255 k t c th l: ch
ci, ch s, khong trng hoc k t bt k m Microsoft Window v AutoCAD s dng cho cc
mc ch khc nu bin h thng EXTNAMES = 1. Nu bin EXTNAMES = 0 th tn block ti a
31 k t. Tn block v cc nh ngha c lu trong bn v hin hnh. Khng c s dng cc tn
sau y lm tn block: DIRECT, LIGHT, AVE_RENDER, RM_SDB, SH_SPOT v
OVERHEAD. Mun xem danh sch block trong bn v ta chn nt

Base point
Ch nh im chun chn block, mc nh l 0,0,0.
X Ch nh honh X
Y Ch nh tung Y
Z Ch nh cao Z

Pick Point
Nu chn nt ny th tm thi hp thoi Block Denifition s ng li v xut hin dng nhc
Specify insertion base point: v bn chn im chun chn trc tip trn bn v.

Objects:
Ch nh i tng c trong block mi v cho php ta gi li, chuyn i cc i tng chn
thnh block hoc xo cc i tng ny khi bn v sau khi to block.

Retain
Gi li cc i tng chn nh l cc i tng ring bit sau khi to block.

Convert to Block
Chuyn cc i tng chn thnh block ngay sau khi to block (tng t chn ngay
block va to ti v tr c)

Delete
Xo cc i tng chn sau khi to block.

Select Objects
Tm thi ng hp thoi Block Denifition trong lc bn chn cc i tng to block.
Khi kt thc la chn cc i tng trn bn v, bn ch cn ENTER th hp thoi Block Denifition
s xut hin tr li.

Quick Select
Hin th hp thoi Quick Select cho php bn chn nhm cc i tng theo lp, mu, ng
nt (tng t lnh Qselect)

Objects Selected
Hin th s cc i tng c chn to thnh block.

Preview Icon:
Xc nh vic c lu hay khng preview icon (Biu tng xem trc) vi nh ngha block
v ch nh ngun (source) ca icon.

Do Not Include an Icon
Preview icon s khng c to.
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 80 -
Create Icon from Block Geometry
To preview icon c lu vi nh ngha block t hnh dng hnh hc ca cc i tng
trong block.

Preview Image
Hin th hnh nh ca preview icon m bn ch nh.

Insert Units:
Ch nh n v ca block trong trng hp block c s thay i t l khi ko t AutoCAD
DesignCenter vo bn v.

Description:
nh cc dng text m t lin kt vi cc nh ngha block.

b. Trnh t to block bng hp thoi Block Denifition

to block ta thc hin theo trnh t sau:

-Thc hin lnh Block (hoc t Draw menu chn Block>Make..), hp thoi Block
Denifition xut hin.

-Nhp tn block vo son tho Name, v d GHE.

-Chn nt Select Objects< s tm thi ng hp thoi tr v vng ho bn v v s
dng cc phng php chn khc nhau chn cc i tng ca block. Sau khi chn xong cc i
tng, nhp ENTER s xut hin li hp thoi Block Denifition. Cn ch rng khi chn cc i
tng th s cc i tng chn s xut hin di khung Objects.

-Nhp im chun chn (Insertion base point) ti cc X, Y, Z hoc chn nt Pick Point<
chn mt im chn trn vng ho.

-Nhn nt OK kt thc lnh. Nu ta chn nt Delete trn vng Objects th khi cc i
tng to block s b xo i, mun phc hi cc i tng ny ta thc hin lnh Oops. Mun gi li
cc i tng to block ta chn nt Retain. Mun chuyn cc i tng c chn thnh block ngay
sau khi to block, ta chn nt Convert to Block.

Ch
. Ta c th thay i gc quay v im chn ca block bng lnh Change.
. truy bt im chn block (Insertion point) ta s dng phng thc bt im INSert.
. Cc block c th xp lng nhau (nested block) trong block BAN cha block GHE,
trong bn v OFFICE.DWG ta chn block BAN vo.

c.To block bng lnh Block

Nu thc hin lnh Block th ta c th to block theo cc dng nhc lnh tng t cc
phin bn trc .

Command : -Block
Enter block name or [?]: Nhp tn block
Specify insertion base point: Chn im chun chn
Select objects: Chn cc i tng to block
Select objects: Tip tc chn cc i tng hoc ENTER kt thc lnh
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 81 -
Cc la chn lnh Block

Block Name
Tn block ti a 255 k t. Nu ta nhp trng tn vi block c trong bn v s xut hin dng
nhc sau:
Block NAME already exists. Redefine it? [Yes/No] <N>: Nhp Y nh ngha li
block, nhp N nhp tn khc hoc ENTER chn mc nh.

?
Nu ti dng nhc Enter block name [?] ta nhp ? s xut hin dng nhc tip theo:
Enter block(s) to list <*>: Nhp ENTER lit k cc block c trong bn v.

Trn danh sch bao gm: cc block nh ngha trong bn v, xref v cc block ph thuc
ngoi v s cc block khng c tn trong bn v.

2. Lnh chn Block vo bn v Insert

Sau khi to block th ta c th chn n vo bn v hin hnh ti v tr bt k. Ngoi ra ta cn
c th chn bn v bt k vo bn v hin hnh. Ta c th chn mt block hoc file bn v (lnh
Insert, -Insert), chn nhiu block sp xp theo dy (lnh Minsert) hoc chn block ti cc im
chia (lnh Divide, Measure). Ngoi ra ta c th chn cc block t file bn v ny sang bn v khc
bng AutoCAD Design Center.

a. Chn block vo bn v (lnh Insert)



S dng lnh Insert chn block hoc file bn v vo trong bn v hin hnh.

Command : Insert Hoc t Insert menu chn Block
Xut hin hp thoi Insert.

Cc la chn hp thoi Insert

Name
Ch nh tn ca block hoc file bn v cn chn vo bn v hin hnh. Block m bn chn
trong ln ny s l block mc nh cho cc ln chn bng lnh Insert sau . Bin h thng
INSNAME lu tr tn ca block mc nh.

Browse
Lm xut hin hp thoi Select Drawing File (tng t khi thc hin lnh Open), trn hp
thoi ny bn c th chn block hoc file bn v cn chn.

Path
Ch nh ng dn ca file bn v chn.

Insertion point
Ch nh im chn ca block.

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 82 -
Specify On-Screen Khi chn nt ny v chn OK th hp thoi Insert tm thi ng li v ta nh
im chn trn bn v theo dng nhc:
Specify insertion point or[Scale/X/Y/Z/Rotate/ X, Y, Z Nhp honh , tung v cao
PScale/PX/PY/PZ/PRotate]: im chn.

Scale
Ch nh t l cho block hoc bn v c chn. Nu nhp gi tr t l X, Y v Z m th cc
block hoc file bn v c chn s i xng qua trc.
Specify On-Screen Ch nh t l chn bng cc dng nhc
Specify insertion point or [Scale/X/Y/Z/Rotate/ Chn cc la chn
PScale/PX/PY/PZ/PRotate]:
Cc la chn

X, Y, Z T l chn theo phng X, Y, X
Scale T l chn theo cc phng X, Y v Z ging nhau.
PScale La chn ny cho php xem trc hnh nh block trn mn hnh trc khi chn.

Khi nhp PS xut hin cc dng nhc sau:

Specify preview scale factor for XYZ axes: Nhp t l xem trc
Specify insertion point: Chn im chn
Enter X scale factor, specify opposite corner, or [Corner/XYZ]<1>: Nhp t l theo phng X

PX, PY, PZ La chn ny cho php xem trc hnh nh block trn mn hnh trc khi chn.
Uniform Scale T l chn X, Y, Z ging nhau, khi ch nhp mt gi tr t l X.

Rotation
Ch nh gc quay cho block c chn

Angle
Nhp gi tr gc quay trc tip vo hp thoi Insert

Specify On-Screen
Ch nh gc quay bng cc dng nhc

Explode
Ph v cc i tng ca block sau khi chn. Khi ta ch cn nhp t l X (v X, Y v Z
bng nhau). Cc i tng thnh phn ca block v trn lp 0 th s nm trn lp ny. Cc i tng
c gn BYBLOCK s c mu trng. i tng c dng ng gn l BYBLOCK th s c dng
ng CONTINUOUS.

b. Trnh t chn block hoc file vo bn v hin hnh

chn block v file bn v, ta thc hin theo trnh t sau:

- Thc hin lnh Insert (hoc t Insert menu chn Block) s xut hin hp thoi Insert.
- Nhp tn block hoc tn file (vi ng dn) ti son tho Name.
- Nu khng nh tn block hoc file, ta c th chn t danh sch hoc chn nt Browse
lm xut hin cc hp thoi Select Drawing File cho php ta chn file chn.

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 83 -
Nu chn nt Specify on Screen v nt OK th ta ln lt nhp: Insertion point (im chn),
X, Y-Scale (t l chn theo phng thc X, Y), Rotation angle (gc quay block) trn dng nhc lnh
(tng t lnh -Insert)

Nu mun block c ph v sau khi chn, ta chn nt Explode trn hp thoi Insert. Block
c th chn v tr bt k, vi t l theo phng X, Y khc nhau v quay chung quanh im chn 1
gc tu .

c.Chn block vi t l chn m
T l chn c th m. Nu t l X m th block c chn i xng qua trc song song vi trc
Y v i qua im chn (tng t thc hin lnh Mirror qua trc song song trc Y). Nu Y m th
block c chn i xng qua trc song song vi trc X v i qua im chn (tng t thc hin lnh
Mirror qua trc song song trc X)

d. Mu v dng ng ca block
Mu v dng ng ca block khi chn c xc nh khi to block:

(1) Nu block c to trn lp 0 (lp 0 l lp hin hnh khi to block) th khi chn block c mu v
dng ng ca lp hin hnh.

(2) Nu block c to vi mu v dng ng l BYLAYER trong mt lp c tn ring (khng
phi lp 0) th khi chn block vn gi nguyn mu v dng ng theo lp (BYLAYER) i tng
to block.

(3) Nu block c to vi mu v dng ng c gn BYBLOCK, th khi chn s c mu v
dng ng ang gn cho cc i tng ca bn v hin hnh hoc theo mu v dng ng ca lp
hin hnh.

(4) Nu i tng to block c mu v dng ng c gn ring (khng phi theo BYLAYER
hoc BYBLOCK) th block s gi mu v dng ng ring ca n.

e. Lnh Insert
Khi thc hin lnh Insert s xut hin cc dng nhc cho php ta chn block hoc file bn
v vo bn v hin hnh nh cc phin bn trc .

Command : - Insert
Enter block name or [?]: GHE Nhp tn block
Specify insertion point or [Scale/X/Y/Z/ nh im chn block
Rotate/PScale/PX/PY/PZ/PRotate]:
Enter X scale factor, specify opposite corner Nhp h s t l theo phng X
or [Corner/XYZ] <1>:
Enter Y scale factor <use X scale factor>: Nhp h s t l theo phng Y
Specify rotation angle <0>: Nhp gc quay

Nu to dng nhc Enter block name <> ta nhp ? s lit k danh sch cc block c trong bn v.
Nu to dng nhc Enter block name <> ta nhp du ng (~) th s hin th hp thoi Select
Drawing File.
Bn c th kim tra s chn block vo trong bn v ti dng nhc Enter block name <> nh sau:

-Chn block c ph v
Nu nhp du hoa th (*) trc tn block th khi chn, block b ph v thnh cc i tng n.
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 84 -

-Cp nht ng dn cho block
Nu bn nhp tn block cn chn m khng nhp ng dn (path) th AutoCAD u tin s
tm kim trong d liu bn v hin hnh c tn block hoc file bn v bn va nhp khng. Nu
khng tm c th AutoCAD s tm tn file trong cc ng dn hin c. Nu AutoCAD tm c
file ny th s s dng file ny nh mt block trong sut qu trnh chn. Sau file bn v va chn
th chng tr thnh block ca bn v hin hnh. Bn c th thay th nh ngha block hin ti bng
file bn v khc bng cch nhp ti dng nhc Enter Block Name:

Block name (tn block c s dng) = file name (tn file bn v)

Khi cc block chn s c cp nht bng block hoc file mi.

-Cp nht nh ngha Block Definition
Nu bn mun thay i cc block chn bng mt file bn v hoc block khc th ti dng
nhc Enter Block Name: nhp tn block hoc tn file bn v.
Block name =
Khi xut hin cc dng nhc tip theo:
Block current already exists. Redefine it? [Yes/No] <No>:
Nhp Y hoc N. Nu bn nhp Y th AutoCAD thay th nh ngha block hin hnh bi mt
nh ngha block mi. AutoCAD ti to bn v v nh ngha mi s p dng cho ton b cc block
chn. Nhn phm ESC ti dng nhc nhp im chn sau y nu nh bn khng mun chn
block mi.
Specify insertion point or [Scale/X/Y/Z/ Rotate/PScale/PX/PY/PZ/PRotate]:

Chn la chn
Ta c th nhp Rotation angle hoc cc t l chn X, Y, Z trc khi xut hin dng nhc
Enter X scale factor, specify opposite corner, or [Corner/XYZ] <1>: bng cch nhp R hoc
S, Y, Z ti dng nhc Specify Insertion point ,

v d:

Command : - Insert
Enter block name <>: Nhp tn block hoc file bn v
Specify insertion point or [Scale/X/Y/Z/ Nhp gi tr Rotation angle trc
Rotate/PScale/PX/PY/PZ/PRotate]: R
Specify rotation angle <0>: 45 Gc quay 450
Specify insertion point or [Scale/X/Y/Z/ Chn im chn
Rotate/PScale/PX/PY/PZ/PRotate]:
Enter X scale factor, specify opposite corner, Nhp gi tr hoc ENTER
or [Corner/XYZ] <1>:
Enter Y scale factor <use X scale factor>: Nhp gi tr hoc ENTER

Ch
hnh nh ca block khi chn hin th ng trn mn hnh ta chn bin DRAGMODE = 1.

3. Lnh lu Block thnh File dng nhiu ln (lnh Wblock)



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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 85 -
Lnh Wblock (Write block to file) s dng lu mt block hoc mt s i tng ca bn
v hin hnh thnh mt file bn v mi. Block c lu thnh file phi nm trong bn v hin hnh.
File bn v sau khi u7c to bng lnh Wblock c th chn vo file bn v khc.

Nu ta mun chn mt block hoc mt s i tng ca file bn v hin hnh (v d block
GHE trn file TABLE.DWG) vo file bn v khc (v d ROOM.DWG) th ta thc hin theo trnh t:

-u tin ti bn v TABLE.DWG ta s dng lnh Wblock lu block GHE bn v ny thnh 1 file
(v d CHAIR.DWG)

-Sau ti bn v ROOM.DWG thc hin lnh Insert chn file va to (CHAIR.DWG) vo.

Ch
Trong AutoCAD 2007, ta c th s dng AutoCAD Design Center ko mt block ca mt file bn
v bt k vo bn v hin hnh.

a. To file t block c sn

to mt file bn v t mt block sn c ta thc hin theo trnh t sau:

-Thc hin lnh Wblock xut hin hp thoi Write block.
-Ti vng Source ta chn nt block.
-Ta nhp tn file vo son tho File name, cn ch n ng dn ( son tho Location:) v n
v ( son tho Insert units:)
-Sau chn block cn lu thnh file ti danh sch ko xung trong mc Source.
. Nhp phm OK.

b.To file t mt s i tng ca bn v

Nu mun s dng lnh Wblock lu mt s i tng ca bn v hin hnh thnh mt file
ta thc hin nh sau:

-Thc hin lnh Wblock xut hin hp thoi Write block.
-Ti vng source ta chn Objects.
-Nhp tn file vo son tho File name.
- Chn im chun chn (Base point) v i tng (Objects) tng t hp thoi Block Definition.
- Chn nt OK.

c.Lu tt c i tng bn v hin hnh thnh mt file

Ta c th lu tt c cc i tng bn v thnh file, tuy nhin lnh Wblock, khc vi lnh
Save as, l ch nhng i tng bn v v cc i tng c t tn (Named Objects) nh: block,
lp (layer), kiu ch (text style) c s dng trong bn v mi c lu.

Command: Wblock
Xut hin hp thoi Write block. Ti vng Source ta chn Entire drawing. Nhp tn file
vo son tho File name v chn nt OK.
lu cc i tng hoc block thnh file bn v ta c th s dng lnh Export (danh mc
ko xung File, mc Export). Xut hin hp thoi Export v ta chn Block (*.dwg) ti danh sch
ko xung Save as type:


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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 86 -
4. Lnh ph v Block l Explode hoc Xplode.

Block c chn vo bn v l mt i tng ca AutoCAD. Block b ph v ngay khi
chn, ta c th chn nt Explode trn hp thoi Insert hoc sau khi chn ta thc hin cc lnh
Explode hoc Xplode. Tuy nhin trong a s trng hp ta khng nn ph v block, ngoi tr khi cn
nh ngha li.

a. Ph v block bng lnh Explode



Mun ph v block chn thnh cc i tng n ta s dng lnh Explode. Trong
AutoCAD 2007, ta c th ph v block vi t l chn X, Y khc nhau. Cc i tng n c cc tnh
cht (mu, dng ng, lp) nh trc khi to block.
Command: Explode
. Select objects: - Chn block cn ph v
. Select objects: - Tip tc chn hoc nhn phm ENTER thc hin lnh

Nu block c to thnh t cc i tng phc: a tuyn, mt ct, dng ch th ln u
tin ta thc hin lnh Explode ph v block thnh cc i tng phc, sau ta tip tc thc hin
lnh Explode ph v cc i tng phc ny thnh cc i tng n. Khi ph v ng trn v
cung trn c t l chn khc nhau, th chng s tr thnh elip hoc cung elip.

b. Ph v block bng lnh Xplode



Mun ph v Block chn thnh cc i tng n ban u vi cc tnh cht ta gn ring
cho tng i tng hoc cho tt c cc i tng th s dng lnh Xplode. Ta ch c th thc hin
lnh Xplode vi cc block c t l chn X, Y theo gi tr tuyt i bng nhau.



















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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 87 -

XIV. BANG PHM TAT MOT SO LENH TRONG
AUTOCAD


Phm
Tt
Tn Lnh mc ch
1. 3A 3DARRAY To ra 1 mng 3 chiu ty chn
2. 3DO 3DORBIT
3. 3F 3DFACE To ra 1 mng 3 chiu
4. 3P 3DPOLY
To ra 1 a tuyn bao gm cc on thng trong khng gian
3 chiu

A
5. A ARC V cung trn
6. ADC ADCENTER
7. AA AREA
Tnh din tch v chu vi 1 i tng hay vng c xc
nh
8. AL ALIGN
Di chuyn v quay cc i tng cn chnh cc i
tng khc bng cch s dng 1, 2 hoc 3 tp hp im
9. AP APPLOAD
a ra hp thoi ti v hy ti AutoLisp ADS v cc
trnh ng dng ARX
10. AR ARRAY To ra nhiu bn sao cc i tng c chn
11. ATT ATTDEF To ra 1 nh ngha thuc tnh
12. -ATT -ATTDEF To cc thuc tnh ca Block
13. ATE ATTEDIT Hiu chnh thuc tnh ca Block

B
14. B BLOCK To Block
15. BO BOUNDARY To a tuyn kn
16. BR BREAK Xn 1 phn on thng gia 2 im chn

C
17. C CIRCLE V ng trn bng nhiu cch
18. CH PROPERTIES Hiu chnh thng s k thut
19. -CH CHANGE Hiu chnh text, thay i R, D
20. CHA ChaMFER Vt mp cc cnh
21. COL COLOR Xc lp mu dnh cho cc i tng c v theo trnh t
22. CO, cp COPY Sao chp i tng

D
23. D DIMSTYLE To ra v chnh sa kch thc dng lnh
24. DAL DIMALIGNED Ghi kch thc thng c th cn chnh c
25. DAN DIMANGULAR Ghi kch thc gc
26. DBA DIMBASELINE
Tip tc 1 kch thc on thng, gc t ng nn ca
kch thc c chn
27. DCE DIMCENTER
To ra 1 im tm hoc ng trn xuyn tm ca cc cung
trn v ng trn
28. DCO DIMCONTINUE Tip tc 1 ng thng, 1 gc t ng m rng th 2 ca
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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 88 -
kch thc trc y hoc kch thc c chn
29. DDI DIMDIAMETER Ghi kch thc ng knh
30. DED DIMEDIT Chnh sa kch thc
31. DI DIST o khong cch v gc gia 2 im
32. DIV DIVIDE
t mi 1 i tng im v cc khi dc theo chiu di
hoc chu vi i tng
33. DLI DIMLINEAR To ra kch thc thng ng hay nm ngang
34. DO DONUT
V cc ng trn hay cung trn c t dy hay l v hnh
vnh khn
35. DOR DIMORDINATE To ra kch thc im gc
36. DOV DIMOVERRIDE Vit chng ln cc tuyn h thng kch thuc
37. DR DRAWORDER Thay i ch hin th cc i tng v hnh nh
38. DRA DIMRADIUS To ra kch thc bn knh
39. DS DSETTINGS
Hin th DraffSetting t ch cho Snap end Grid,
Polar tracking
40. DT DTEXT
V cc mc vn bn (hin th vn bn trn mn hnh ging
nh l n ang nhp vo)
41. DV DVIEW Xc lp php chiu song song hoc cc ch xem cnh

E
42. E ERASE Xo i tng
43. ED DDEDIT
a ra hp thoi t c th chnh sa ni dung vn bn ;
nh ngha cc thuc tnh
44. EL ELLIPSE V elip
45. EX EXTEND Ko di i tng
46. EXIT QUIT Thot khi chng trnh
47. EXP EXPORT Lu bn v sang dng file khc (*.wmf...)
48. EXT EXTRUDE
To ra vt th rn bng cch n xut i tng 2 chiu
ang c
49. F FILLET Ni hai i tng bng cung trn
50. FI FILTER
a ra hp thoi t c th a ra danh sch chn i
tng da trn thuc tnh ca n

G
51. G GROUP
a ra hp thoi t c th to ra mt tp hp cc i
tng c t tn
52. -G -GROUP Chnh sa tp hp cc i tng
53. GR DDGRIPS
Hin th hp thoi qua c th cho cc hot ng v xc
lp mu cng nh kch c ca chng
54. H BHATCH T vt liu
55. -H -HATCH nh ngha kiu t mt ct khc
56. HE HATCHEDIT Hiu chnh ca t vt liu
57. HI HIDE To li m hnh 3D vi cc ng b khut

I
58. I INSERT
Chn mt khi c t tn hoc bn v vo bn v hin
hnh
59. -I -INSERT Chnh sa khi c chn
60. IAD IMAGEADJ UST
M ra hp thoi iu khin sng tng phn, c
ca hnh nh trong c s d liu bn v
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 89 -
IAT
IMAGEATTAC
H
M hp thoi ch ra tn ca hnh nh cng nh tham s
61. ICL IMAGECLIP To ra 1 ng bin dnh cho cc i tng hnh nh n
62. IM IMAGE Chn hnh nh cc dng khc vo 1 file bn v AutoCa
63. -IM -IMAGE Hiu chnh hnh nh chn
64. IMP IMPORT
Hin th hp thoi cho php nhp cc dng file khc vo
AutoCad
65. IN INTERSECT
To ra cc c th tng hp hoc vng tng hp t phn giao
ca 2 hay nhiu c th
66. INF INTERFERE
Tm phn giao ca 2 hay nhiu c th v to ra 1 c th tng
hp t th tch chung ca chng
67. IO INSERTOBJ Chn 1 i tng lin kt hoc nhng vo AutoCad

L
68. L LINE V ng thng
69. LA LAYER To lp v cc thuc tnh
70. -LA -LAYER Hiu chnh thuc tnh ca layer
71. LE LEADER
To ra 1 ng kt ni cc dng ch thch cho mt thuc
tnh
72. LEN LENGTHEN
Thay i chiu di ca 1 i tng v cc gc cng nh
cung c cha trong
73. Ls,LI LIST
Hin th thng tin c s d liu cho cc i tng c
chn
74. Lw LWEIGHT Khai bo hay thay i chiu dy nt v
75. LO -LAYOUT
76. LT LINETYPE Hin th hp thoi to v xc lp cc kiu ng
77. LTS LTSCALE Xc lp tha s t l kiu ng

M
78. M MOVE Di chuyn i tng c chn
79. MA MATCHPROP
Sao chp cc thuc tnh t 1 i tng ny sang 1 hay nhiu
i tng khc
80. ME MEASURE
t cc i tng im hoc cc khi ti cc mc o trn
mt i tng
81. MI MIRROR To nh ca i tng
82. ML MLINE To ra cc ng song song
83. MO PROPERTIES Hiu chnh cc thuc tnh
84. MS MSPACE
Hon chuyn t khng gian giy sang cng xem khng gian
m hnh
85. MT MTEXT To ra 1 on vn bn
86. MV MVIEW
To ra cc cng xem di ng v bt cc cng xem di ng
ang c

O
87. O OFFSET V cc ng thng song song, ng trn ng tm
88. OP OPTIONS M menu chnh
89. OS OSNAP
Hin th hp thoi cho php xc lp cc ch truy chp
i tng ang chy
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 90 -

P
90. P PAN Di chuyn c bn v
91. -P -PAN Di chuyn c bn v t im 1 sang im th 2
92. PA PASTESPEC
Chn d liu t Window Clip-board v iu khin dng
thc ca d liu;s dng OLE
93. PE PEDIT Chnh sa cc a tuyn v cc mng li a tuyn 3 chiu
94. PL PLINE V a tuyn ng thng, trn
95. PO POINT V im
96. POL POLYGON V a gic u khp kn
97. PROPS PROPERTIES Hin th menu thuc tnh
98. PRE PREVIEW Hin th ch xem 1 bn v trc khi a ra in
99. PRINT PLOT
a ra hp thoi t c th v 1 bn v bng my v, my
in hoc file
100. PS PSPACE
Hon chuyn t cng xem khng gian m hnh sang khng
gian giy
101. PU PURGE
Xo b cc tham chiu khng cn dng ra khi c s d
liu

R
102. R REDRAW Lm ti li mn hnh ca cng xem hin hnh
103. RA REDRAWALL Lm ti li mn hnh ca tt c cc cng xem
104. RE REGEN To li bn v v cc cng xem hin hnh
105. REA REGENALL To li bn v v lm sng li tt c cc cng xem
106. REC RECTANGLE V hnh ch nht
107. REG REGION To ra 1 i tng vng t 1 tp hp cc i tng ang c
108. REN RENAME
Thay i tn cc i tng c cha cc khi, cc kiu kch
thc, cc lp, kiu ng,kiu UCS,view v cng xem
109. REV REVOLVE
To ra 1 c th bng cch quay 1 i tng 2 chiu quanh 1
trc
110. RM DDRMODES
a ra hp thoi qua c th xc lp cc tr gip bn v
nh Ortho, Grid, Snap
111. RO ROTATE Xoy cc i tng c chn xung quanh 1 im nn
112. RPR RPREF Hin th hp thoi cho php xc lp cc tham chiu t bng
113. RR RENDER
Hin th hp thoi t to ra hnh nh c t bng, hin
thc trong khung 3D hoc trong m hnh c th

S
114. S StrETCH Di chuyn hoc cn chnh i tng
115. SC SCALE Phng to, thu nh theo t l
116. SCR SCRIPT Thc hin 1 chui cc lnh t 1 Script
117. SEC SECTION
S dng mt giao ca 1 mt phng v cc c th nhm to
ra 1 vng
118. SET SETVAR Lit k tt c cc gi tr thay i ca bin h thng
119. SHA SHADE
Hin th hnh nh phng ca bn v trong cng xem hin
hnh
120. SL SLICE Cc lp 1 tp hp cc c th bng 1 mt phng
121. SN SNAP
Hn ch s di chuyn ca 2 si tc theo nhng mc c ch
nh
122. SO SOLID To ra cc a tuyn c th c t y
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 91 -
123. SP SPELL
Hin th hp thoi c th kim tra cch vit vn bn c
to ra vi Dtext, text, Mtext
124. SPL SPLINE To ra cung;v cc ng cong lin tc
125. SPE SPLINEDIT Hiu chnh spline
126. ST STYLE
Hin th hp thoi cho php to ra cc kiu vn bn c
t tn
127. SU SUBTRACT To ra 1 vng tng hp hoc c th tng hp
128. T MTEXT To ra 1 on vn bn
129. TA TABLET nh chun bng vi h to ca 1 bn v trn giy
130. TH THICKNESS
131. TI TILEMODE
132. TO TOOLBAR Hin th che du nh v tr ca cc thanh cng c
133. TOL TOLERANCE To dung sai hnh hc
134. TOR TORUS To ra 1 c th hnh vnh khuyn
135. TR TRIM
Ct ta cc i tng ti 1 cnh ct c xc nh bi i
tng khc

U
136. UC DDUCS
a ra hp thoi qun l h to ngi dng c xc
nh trong khng gian hin hnh
137. UCP DDUCSP
a ra hp thoi c th chn 1 h to ngi dng c
xc lp trc
138. UN UNITS Chn cc dng thc to chnh xc ca to v gc
139. UNI UNION To ra vng tng hp hoc c th tng hp

V
140. V VIEW Lu v phc hi cc cnh xem c t tn
141. VP DDVPOINT a ra hp thoi xc lp hng xem 3 chiu
142. -VP VPOINT Xc lp hng xem trong 1 ch xem 3 chiu ca bn v
143. W WBLOCK Vit cc i tng sang 1 file bn v mi
144. WE WEDGE To ra 1 c th 3 chiu vi 1 b mt nghing v 1 gc nhn

X
145. X EXPLODE
Ngt 1 khi a tuyn hoc cc i tng tng hp khc thnh
cc thnh phn to nn n
146. XA XATTACH
a ra hp thoi c th gn 1 tham chiu ngoi vo bn v
hin hnh
147. XB XBIND Buc cc biu tng ph thuc ca 1 Xref vo 1 bn v
148. XC XCLIP
Xc nh 1 ng bin Xref v tp hp cc mt phng
nghing
149. XL XLINE To ra 1 ng m rng v hn theo c 2 hng
150. XR XREF
Hin th hp thoi iu khin cc tham chiu ngoi vo
cc file bn v
151. Z ZOOM
Tng hay gim kch thc ca cc i tng trong cng xem
hin hnh
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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 92 -


XV. BAI TAP

Bai 1

Bai 2


Bai 3
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Bai 4


Bai 5



Bai 6




Bai 7
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Bai 8



Bai 9


Bai 10
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Bai 11

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Bai 12


Bai 13

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GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 97 -


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TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 102 -








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http://www.ebook.edu.vn
TRNG CAO ANG KT-CN TP. HCM_ KHOA C KH XAY DNG

GIAO TRNH AUTO CAD 2007 _ bien soan : PHAM GIA HAU - 111 -
Bai 25: On tap(cho sinh vien nganh xay dng)
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