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Rajeev Kumar

Energy Harvesting through


Piezoelectric Material
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Rajeev Kumar
School of Engineering
IIT Mandi
1
Outlines of the presentation
Introduction
Energy Scavenging through Vibration
Thermodynamic of piezoelectric material
Piezoelectric Frequency Response
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Engineering Design Process
Finite Element Analysis of Layered Piezoelectric Material
Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester by Genetic
Algorithm
Energy harvesting or the process of acquiring energy from the
surrounding environment has been a continuous human
endeavor throughout history.
Energy harvesting
Introduction
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Need of Energy Harvesting
Growing need for renewable sources of energy
Proposes several potentially inexpensive and highly effective
solutions
Reduce dependency on battery power
Introduction (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Reduce dependency on battery power
Complexity of wiring
Increased costs of wiring
Reduced costs of embedded intelligence
Increasing popularity of wireless networks
Limitations of batteries
Reduce environmental impact
Available
energy
sources in the
environment
Introduction (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Available energy sources
Energy Scavenging through Vibration
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Type Advantage Disadvantage
Piezoelectric 1. No separate voltage source
2. Voltages of 2 to 10 Volts
3. No mechanical stops
4. Highest energy density
1. Micro fabrication processes
are not compatible with
standard processes and
piezo thin films have poor
coupling.
Electrostatic 1. Easier to integrate with 1. Separate voltage source
Energy Scavenging through Vibration (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
From this comparison it is clear that the most desirable conversion method results
that piezoelectric one which presents the major number of advantages. So, it is for
these reasons that this is currently the best choice to realize the micro vibration
driven generator for energy harvesting to power sensor nodes.
Electrostatic 1. Easier to integrate with
electronics and microsystems
2. Voltages of 2 to 10 Volts
1. Separate voltage source
required
2. Mechanical stops needed
Electromagnetic 1. No separate voltage source
2. No mechanical stops
1. Max. voltage of 0.1 volt
2. Difficult to integrate with
electronics and microsystems
Examples of common vibration sources
Energy Scavenging through Vibration(Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Thermodynamic of piezoelectric material
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Direct Piezo Effect:
The phenomenon of generation of a voltage under mechanical
stress is referred to as the direct piezoelectric effect.
Thermodynamic of piezoelectric material ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Thermodynamic of piezoelectric material ( Cond..)
The mechanical strain produced in the crystal under electric voltage
is referred as converse piezoelectric effect.
Converse Piezoelectric Effect
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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The phenomenon of generation of a electric field, when the
temperature of the crystal is raised or lowered is referred to as the
Pyroelectric effect.
Pyroelectric Effect
Thermodynamic of piezoelectric material ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Thermodynamic of piezoelectric material ( Cond..)
Piezoelectric Material (Material with Piezoproperties)
:
Naturally occurring crystals:
Berlinite (AlPO4), Cane sugar, Quartz, Rochelle salt, Topaz,
Tourmaline Group Minerals, and dry bone (apatite crystals)
Man-made ceramics:
Barium titanate (BaTiO3), Lead titanate (PbTiO3), Lead zirconate
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Barium titanate (BaTiO3), Lead titanate (PbTiO3), Lead zirconate
titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3 0<x<1) - More commonly known as PZT,
Potassium niobate (KNbO3), Lithium niobate (LiNbO3), Lithium
tantalate (LiTaO3), Sodium tungstate (NaxWO3), Ba2NaNb5O5,
Pb2KNb5O15
Polymer:
Polyvinyledene fluoride (PVDF)
13
Polarization of
Piezoelectric
Material
Thermodynamic of piezoelectric material (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Applications of Energy Harvesting through
Piezoelectric Material
The best-known application is the electric
CIGARETTE LIGHTER: pressing the button
causes a spring-loaded hammer to hit a
piezoelectric crystal, producing a sufficiently
high voltage electric current that flows across
a small spark-gap, thus heating and igniting
the gas.
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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the gas.
Gas burners now have built-in piezo-based
ignition systems .
Battery-less wireless doorbell push button
The armed forces toyed with the idea of
putting piezoelectric materials in soldiers boots
to power radios and other portable electronic
gear
Several nightclubs,
mostly in Europe
have already
begun to power
their strobes and
stereos using the
force of hundreds
Applications of Energy Harvesting through
Piezoelectric Material ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
force of hundreds
of people pounding
on piezoelectric
lined dance floors
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Applications of Energy Harvesting through
Piezoelectric Material ( Cond..)
Several gyms, notable in Portland and a few other places are
powered by a combination of piezoelectric set ups and generators
set up on stationary bikes.
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Laying piezoelectric crystal
arrays underneath sidewalks,
stairwells, and pretty much any
other high traffic area to power
street lights.
Applications of Energy Harvesting through
Piezoelectric Material ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Piezoelectric Powered Music
Instruments
Applications of Energy Harvesting through
Piezoelectric Material ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Applications of Energy Harvesting through
Piezoelectric Material (Cond..)
Capitalizing on the friction and heat created by
walking, running and even just wearing jeans,
engineers from Michigan Technological
University, Arizona State University devised a
way to use this type of generated energy to
charge portable electronic devices, like iPods
and mobile phones.
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
and mobile phones.
Biomechanical Energy Harvester
Energy harvesting by
Piezoelectric windmills
20
Identify the need
or problem
Research the
need or problem
Modify to improve
the design if needed
Engineering Design Process
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Develop possible
solutions
Select the best
solutions
Construct a
prototype
Test and evaluate
the prototype
Detailed Design
Analyze the
problem
Detailed Design
Optimization of
the problem
Detailed Drawing
of the problem
Engineering Design Process (Contd..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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the problem
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model
The electromechanical model of this structure can be represented
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
The electromechanical model of this structure can be represented
by the following set of differential equations
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] [ ][ ] [ ] ( ){ } { } [ ]{ }
u m u u uu uu uu
k F q k k k k q c q m
s s s
2
1
1
+ = + + +

& & &
[ ][ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
a u u
a s s
k k k k



1
2
1
{ } [ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
|

\
|
+ =

q k k k
u s
s s s


2
1
1
Harvested power
Piezoelectric Frequency Response
Piezoelectric energy harvester is only effective under a narrow
bandwidth of excitation frequency. If the excitation frequency shifts
from this band, the power density of the harvester will significantly
decrease
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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If the excitation frequency shifts from this band, the power density
of the harvester will significantly decrease.
Different strategies have been used to enhance the harvesting
performances when the vibration source has a larger frequency
bandwidth.
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
One of them is to use an array of harvesters which consists of
multiple harvesters having different resonance frequencies in order
to increase the harvested power on a wider frequency bandwidth.
However, this leads to a harvester having a higher volume, which
decreases its power density (mW.cm-3).
Therefore Design optimization is required
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
The cost function of this first optimization problem is to maximize
the mean power density over a certain frequency bandwidth.
The power density is defined as the ratio of the harvested Power
and the harvester volume
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model ( Cond..)
Objective function
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { } { } =
k k k k
E e Q
Direct Piezoelectric effect
Constitutive relation
Finite Element Modeling
Converse piezoelectric effect
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
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Direct Piezoelectric effect
{ } [ ] { } { } { } { } + + =
k k
T
k k
P E b e D
For a non piezoelectric layer
{ } o e
k
=
)
`

{ } { } 0 =
k
P
{ } { } o E
k
=
Where
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]

T T T e T e
k
o k v k

=
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
v k v k
T b T b

=
{ } [ ] { }
k v k
p T p

=
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]

T T T Q T T T Q

=
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
{ } [ ] [ ] [ ] { }
k
k
o k
T T T


=
[ ]

T
] [
o
T
[ ]

T
[ ]
v
T
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]

T T T Q T T T Q
k
o k k
o k
=
Strain transformation matrix
Ply orientation transformation matrix
Rotational transformational matrix
Vector transformation matrix

[ ]
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(



=
12
21 12
2
21 12
2 12
21 12
2 12
21 12
1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1
G
v v
E
v v
E v
v v
E v
v v
E
Q

{ }

=
0
12
3
2
1


{ }

=
3
2
1
p
p
p
p
Elastic stiffness coefficients matrix
Stress coefficients
vector
Pyroelectric
coefficients vector
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
(
(
(
(

13
23
12
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
SFG
SFG
G

0
0

{ }
(
(
(

=
36 35 34 33 32 31
26 25 24 23 22 21
16 15 14 13 12 11
e e e e e e
e e e e e e
e e e e e e
e

{ }

=
13
23
12
3
2
1

[ ]
(
(
(

=
3
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
b
b
b
b


6
5
SF = shear correction factor =
Piezoelectric coefficient matrix
Stress vector
Dielectric
constant matrix

[ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
=
2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
3 3 3 3 3 3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l
l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l
l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l
l n n m m l n m l
l n n m m l n m l
l n n m m l n m l
T


[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
(
(
(
(

t
t
t
t
T
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Strain transformation matrix
Rotational
transformation matrix
Transformation matrices
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(

+ + +
3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l

[ ]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
n m l
n m l
n m l
t


[ ]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
c s
s c
s c cs cs
cs c s
cs s c
T
o
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 2 2
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
2 2
2 2
2 2
[ ]
(
(
(

=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
n m l
n m l
n m l
T
v

Ply orientation transformation matrix

sin
cos
=
=
s
c

n m l , , Direction cosines between local and global axis
Vector transformation matrix
z y x

, , , ,
z y x , ,
9-node degenerate shell element
Three Co-ordinate system
Shape Function
( )( ) 1 1 ) 1 (
4
1
+ + + =
i i i i i
N
( )
1
i=1,2,3,4
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012 32
( ) ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
i i
N + =
( )( )
i i
N + = 1 1
2
1
2
( )
2 2
1 ) 1 ( =
i
N
i=5,7
i=6,8
i=9
|
|
|
|

\
|

bottom
i
i
i
top
i
i
i
middle
i
i
i
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
y
x
2
1
Nodal Coordinates
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012 33
\
) ) )
bottom top middle
|
|
|
|

\
|

=
bottom
i
i
i
top
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
z
y
x
z
y
x
t
n
m
l
V
1
3
3
3
3
r
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 / 1
2 2 2
ibottom itop ibottom itop ibottom itop i
z z y y x x t + + =
9-node degenerate shell element
i i
i
i
middle
i
i
i
i
i
V t N
z
y
x
N
z
y
x
3
2
r

Relation between the Co-ordinate systems


Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012 34

=
=
=

=
9
1
3
3
9
1
3
3
3
3
i
i i
i
i
i
V N
V N
n
m
l
V
r
r
r
3
3
1
1
1
1
V i
V i
n
m
l
V
r
r
r
r

= 1 3
2
2
2
2
V V
n
m
l
V
r r r
=

=
Displacement Field
i i
i
i
np
i
i
i
nnel
i
i
V H N
z
y
x
N
z
y
x
3
r

+

Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)


Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012 35
i i
k
k
ok i
t t H
2

+ =
( ) [ ]
|
|
|

\
|
)
`

=
i
i
i i
i
i
i
nnel
i
i
V V H
w
v
u
N
w
v
u


2 1
1
,
r r
{ } [ ] { }
e
e
u
i
i
i
i
i
nnel
i
i i i i i
i i i i i
i i i i i
e
q N w
v
u
H N n H N n N
H N m H N m N
H N l H N l N
w
v
u
u =

(
(
(

1 2
1 2
1 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
Displacement & Strain Field

x
u
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
36
{ }

=
zx
yz
xy
z
y
x

z
u
x
w
y
w
z
v
x
v
y
u
z
w
y
v
x
=
oi
oi
nnel zi i zi i
i
yi i yi i
i
xi i xi i
i
v
u
g n g n
N
g m g m
y
N
g l g l
x
N

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

1 2
1 2
1 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Strain Field
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
37
{ }
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
[ ] { }
e e
i
i
oi
oi
nnel
i
zi i xi i zi i xi i
i i
yi i zi i yi i zi i
i i
xi i yi i xi i yi i
i i
zi i zi i
q B w
v
g l g n g l g n
x
N
z
N
g n g m g n g m
y
N
z
N
g m g l g m g l
x
N
y
N
g n g n
z
=

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+ +

+ +

+ +

1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
0
0
0
0 0
Thermal field
nnel nnel
H N N

+ =
Temperature distribution is taken linear within the element.
Using the shape function the temperature of any point in the element can be
uniquely given in terms of nodal temperature and gradient of the mid plane as
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
38
i
i
i i
i
i
H N N

+ =
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } [ ] { }
e
e
e
e
i
i
nnel
i
i
i
i
nnel
i
i
N N H N N


+ =
)
`

+
)
`

=

0 0
are the mid plane temperature and gradient respectively at node i
i

{ } { }
k
p
e
k
B E

=
Electric field in the k
th
piezoelectric layer within the element can be given as

l
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electric Field
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
39
Where
{ }

=
3
3
3
1
n
m
l
t
B
k
p
e

Thickness of kth piezoelectric layer


Electric potential of kth piezoelectric layer
k
p
t
k
p

{ } { }
k
p
e
k
B E

=
Electric field in the k
th
piezoelectric layer within the element can be given as

l
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electric Field
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
40
Where
{ }

=
3
3
3
1
n
m
l
t
B
k
p
e

Thickness of kth piezoelectric layer


Electric potential of kth piezoelectric layer
k
p
t
k
p

{ } { } dA dz V
k
A
k


=
2
1
Using the variational principle the potential energy is given as
Substituting various values
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Strain energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
41
{ } [ ] { } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] { } [ ]
e
e
u e e
e
u e e
e
uu e
k q k q q k q V


+ =
2
1
Substituting various values
where
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

=
nl
k
V
e k e
e
uu
dV B Q B k
1
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } [ ] [ ] { } [ ] [ ] { }
(

=


V
e
p e
V
e
p e
V
e
p e
e
u
dV B e B dV B e B dV B e B k
npl

...
2 1
[ ] [ ] { } [ ] [ ] { } [ ] ( )dV N B H N B k
nl
k
V
e
k e
e
k e
e
u

+ =
1


Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Strain energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
42
{ }

=
npl
p
p
p
e

.
.
.
2
1
{ } { }dzdA D E W
A
k
t
t
e
e
k
k

=
1
2
1
The element electrical energy can be given as
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electrical energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
43
{ } [ ] { } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] { }
e
e
e e
e
e e
e
u e
e
k k q k W


+ =
2
1
2
1
2
1
Substituting various values
where
[ ] [ ]

=
e
u
e
u
k k

[ ]
{ } [ ] { }
{ } [ ] { }
(
(
(
(
(

V
e
p
e
V
e
p
e
dV B b B
dV B b B


.
2
1
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electrical energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
44
[ ]
{ } [ ] { }
(
(
(
(
(
(
(


V
e
p
e
e
dV B b B
k
npl

.
.
.
[ ]
{ } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] ( )
{ } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] ( )
(
(
(
(
(

+
+

V
e
p
e
e
p
e
V
e
p
e
e
p
e
dV N p B H N p B
dV N p B H N p B


2 2
1 1
Finite Element Modeling (Cond.)
Electrical energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
45
[ ]
{ } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

+
=

V
e
p
e
e p
e
V
e
dV N p B H N p B
k
npl npl

.
.
.
( ) ( )

=
+ + =
nl
k
V
k
dV w v u T
1
2 2 2
2
1
& & &

Substituting various values


The element kinetic energy can be given as
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Kinetic energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
46
k

{ } [ ] { }
e
e
uu e
q m q T
. .
2
1

=
where
density of kth layer
[ ] [ ] [ ]

=
nl
k
V
e u e u k e uu
dv N N m
1

[ ] [ ] [ ]

=
nl
k
V
e
u
e
u k
e
uu
dv N N m
1

[ ]

(
(
(

=
nnel
i
i i i i i
i i i i i
e
u
H N n H N n N
H N m H N m N
H N l H N l N
N
1 2
1 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Kinetic energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
47
(


i
i i i i i
H N n H N n N
1 2
0 0
Where
Work done by the external force and electrical charge is given as
{ } { } { } { }
e
q e
e
m e
s
F F q W

+ =
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { }
e
p u
e
s
e
u
e
m
f N ds f N F

+ =

{ } { } { } ds f B F
e
q
e e
q


=

Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Work done
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
48
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { }
e
p u
e
s
s
e
u
e
m
f N ds f N F + =

1
{ } { } { } ds f B F
e
q
s
e e
q

=
2

{ }
e
s
f
{ }
e
p
f
{ }
e
q
f
Element surface force intensity vector
Element point load vector
Element surface electrical charge density vector

= +
f
o
t
t
s
dt W L 0 ) (
( )

= + +
f
o
t
t
s e
dt W W V T 0
Using Hamiltons principle
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
49
The governing equation for an element can be written as
[ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { } { }
e
m e
e
u e
e
u e e
uu e e
uu
F k k q k q m = + +

2
1
& &
[ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { } { }
e
q e
e
e
e
e
e
u
F k k q k = +

2
1
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } k k F k q k q m + = + +
1
..
Sensors and actuators are present
vector can be partitioned
No charge accumulates on the sensor layer
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Governing equations
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
50
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
a u u s s u uu uu
a s
k k F k q k q m

+ = + +
2
1
..
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } 0
2
1
= +

s s s
k k q k
s u
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
a a a a
q a u
F k k q k = +

2
1
Sensor equation
{ } [ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
|

\
|
+ =

q k k k
u s
s s s


2
1
1
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Governing equations
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
51
Actuator equation
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] [ ][ ] [ ] ( ){ } { } [ ]{ }
u m u u uu uu uu
k F q k k k k q c q m
s s s
2
1
1
+ = + + +

& & &
[ ][ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
a u u
a s s
k k k k



1
2
1
Flowchart of Genetic Algorithm
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Maximize
Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester(Cond..)
Material Properties
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Simulation parameters for the genetic algorithm optimization
Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester(Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Results of optimization problem
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
Harvest a power 75% higher
Conclusion
From the overview, it is quite clear that piezoelectric energy
harvesting has great potential at micro level and some very
important part of applications are still in the research and
development stage.
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
The ability of piezoelectric equipment to convert motion
from human body into electrical power is remarkable.
It is a great hope that energy harvesting will rule the next
decade in the technical field
62
1. M. Raju, Energy Harvesting, ULP meets energy harvesting: A game-
changing combination for design engineers, Texas Instrument White
Paper, Nov. 2008
2. R.J.M. Vullers, V. Leonov, T. Sterken, A. Schmitz, Energy Scavengers For
Wireless Intelligent Microsystems, Special Report in Microsystems &
Nanosystems, OnBoard Technology, June 2006
3. Imec, Design for analog and RF technologies and systems, www.imec.be
References
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
63
3. Imec, Design for analog and RF technologies and systems, www.imec.be
4. Imec, Micropower generation and storage, www.imec.be
5. F. Whetten, Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems A Proposed Application
for 802.15.4f, DOC: IEEE802.15-09/0074-00-004f
6. C. Cossio, Harvest energy using a piezoelectric buzzer, EDN, pg.94-96,
March 20, 2008
Thank you
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy-2012
64