\

+ =
q k k k
u s
s s s
2
1
1
Harvested power
Piezoelectric Frequency Response
Piezoelectric energy harvester is only effective under a narrow
bandwidth of excitation frequency. If the excitation frequency shifts
from this band, the power density of the harvester will significantly
decrease
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
24
If the excitation frequency shifts from this band, the power density
of the harvester will significantly decrease.
Different strategies have been used to enhance the harvesting
performances when the vibration source has a larger frequency
bandwidth.
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
One of them is to use an array of harvesters which consists of
multiple harvesters having different resonance frequencies in order
to increase the harvested power on a wider frequency bandwidth.
However, this leads to a harvester having a higher volume, which
decreases its power density (mW.cm3).
Therefore Design optimization is required
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model ( Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
The cost function of this first optimization problem is to maximize
the mean power density over a certain frequency bandwidth.
The power density is defined as the ratio of the harvested Power
and the harvester volume
Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Model ( Cond..)
Objective function
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { } { } =
k k k k
E e Q
Direct Piezoelectric effect
Constitutive relation
Finite Element Modeling
Converse piezoelectric effect
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
28
Direct Piezoelectric effect
{ } [ ] { } { } { } { } + + =
k k
T
k k
P E b e D
For a non piezoelectric layer
{ } o e
k
=
)
`
{ } { } 0 =
k
P
{ } { } o E
k
=
Where
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]
T T T e T e
k
o k v k
=
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
v k v k
T b T b
=
{ } [ ] { }
k v k
p T p
=
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]
T T T Q T T T Q
=
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
{ } [ ] [ ] [ ] { }
k
k
o k
T T T
=
[ ]
T
] [
o
T
[ ]
T
[ ]
v
T
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ][ ]
T T T Q T T T Q
k
o k k
o k
=
Strain transformation matrix
Ply orientation transformation matrix
Rotational transformational matrix
Vector transformation matrix
[ ]
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
12
21 12
2
21 12
2 12
21 12
2 12
21 12
1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1
G
v v
E
v v
E v
v v
E v
v v
E
Q
{ }
=
0
12
3
2
1
{ }
=
3
2
1
p
p
p
p
Elastic stiffness coefficients matrix
Stress coefficients
vector
Pyroelectric
coefficients vector
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
(
(
(
(
13
23
12
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
SFG
SFG
G
0
0
{ }
(
(
(
=
36 35 34 33 32 31
26 25 24 23 22 21
16 15 14 13 12 11
e e e e e e
e e e e e e
e e e e e e
e
{ }
=
13
23
12
3
2
1
[ ]
(
(
(
=
3
2
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
b
b
b
b
6
5
SF = shear correction factor =
Piezoelectric coefficient matrix
Stress vector
Dielectric
constant matrix
[ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
=
2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
3 3 3 3 3 3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l
l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l
l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l
l n n m m l n m l
l n n m m l n m l
l n n m m l n m l
T
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
(
(
(
(
t
t
t
t
T
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Strain transformation matrix
Rotational
transformation matrix
Transformation matrices
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(
+ + +
3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2 l n l n n m n m m l m l n n m m l l
[ ]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
n m l
n m l
n m l
t
[ ]
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
=
c s
s c
s c cs cs
cs c s
cs s c
T
o
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 2 2
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
2 2
2 2
2 2
[ ]
(
(
(
=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
n m l
n m l
n m l
T
v
Ply orientation transformation matrix
sin
cos
=
=
s
c
n m l , , Direction cosines between local and global axis
Vector transformation matrix
z y x
, , , ,
z y x , ,
9node degenerate shell element
Three Coordinate system
Shape Function
( )( ) 1 1 ) 1 (
4
1
+ + + =
i i i i i
N
( )
1
i=1,2,3,4
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012 32
( ) ) 1 ( 1
2
1
2
i i
N + =
( )( )
i i
N + = 1 1
2
1
2
( )
2 2
1 ) 1 ( =
i
N
i=5,7
i=6,8
i=9




\

bottom
i
i
i
top
i
i
i
middle
i
i
i
z
y
x
z
y
x
z
y
x
2
1
Nodal Coordinates
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012 33
\
) ) )
bottom top middle




\

=
bottom
i
i
i
top
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
z
y
x
z
y
x
t
n
m
l
V
1
3
3
3
3
r
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 / 1
2 2 2
ibottom itop ibottom itop ibottom itop i
z z y y x x t + + =
9node degenerate shell element
i i
i
i
middle
i
i
i
i
i
V t N
z
y
x
N
z
y
x
3
2
r
=
=
=
=
9
1
3
3
9
1
3
3
3
3
i
i i
i
i
i
V N
V N
n
m
l
V
r
r
r
3
3
1
1
1
1
V i
V i
n
m
l
V
r
r
r
r
= 1 3
2
2
2
2
V V
n
m
l
V
r r r
=
=
Displacement Field
i i
i
i
np
i
i
i
nnel
i
i
V H N
z
y
x
N
z
y
x
3
r
+
+ =
( ) [ ]



\

)
`
=
i
i
i i
i
i
i
nnel
i
i
V V H
w
v
u
N
w
v
u
2 1
1
,
r r
{ } [ ] { }
e
e
u
i
i
i
i
i
nnel
i
i i i i i
i i i i i
i i i i i
e
q N w
v
u
H N n H N n N
H N m H N m N
H N l H N l N
w
v
u
u =
(
(
(
1 2
1 2
1 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
Displacement & Strain Field
x
u
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
36
{ }
=
zx
yz
xy
z
y
x
z
u
x
w
y
w
z
v
x
v
y
u
z
w
y
v
x
=
oi
oi
nnel zi i zi i
i
yi i yi i
i
xi i xi i
i
v
u
g n g n
N
g m g m
y
N
g l g l
x
N
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
1 2
1 2
1 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Strain Field
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
37
{ }
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
[ ] { }
e e
i
i
oi
oi
nnel
i
zi i xi i zi i xi i
i i
yi i zi i yi i zi i
i i
xi i yi i xi i yi i
i i
zi i zi i
q B w
v
g l g n g l g n
x
N
z
N
g n g m g n g m
y
N
z
N
g m g l g m g l
x
N
y
N
g n g n
z
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
+ +
+ +
+ +
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
0
0
0
0 0
Thermal field
nnel nnel
H N N
+ =
Temperature distribution is taken linear within the element.
Using the shape function the temperature of any point in the element can be
uniquely given in terms of nodal temperature and gradient of the mid plane as
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
38
i
i
i i
i
i
H N N
+ =
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } [ ] { }
e
e
e
e
i
i
nnel
i
i
i
i
nnel
i
i
N N H N N
+ =
)
`
+
)
`
=
0 0
are the mid plane temperature and gradient respectively at node i
i
{ } { }
k
p
e
k
B E
=
Electric field in the k
th
piezoelectric layer within the element can be given as
l
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electric Field
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
39
Where
{ }
=
3
3
3
1
n
m
l
t
B
k
p
e
{ } { }
k
p
e
k
B E
=
Electric field in the k
th
piezoelectric layer within the element can be given as
l
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electric Field
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
40
Where
{ }
=
3
3
3
1
n
m
l
t
B
k
p
e
{ } { } dA dz V
k
A
k
=
2
1
Using the variational principle the potential energy is given as
Substituting various values
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Strain energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
41
{ } [ ] { } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] { } [ ]
e
e
u e e
e
u e e
e
uu e
k q k q q k q V
+ =
2
1
Substituting various values
where
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
=
nl
k
V
e k e
e
uu
dV B Q B k
1
[ ] [ ] [ ] { } [ ] [ ] { } [ ] [ ] { }
(
=
V
e
p e
V
e
p e
V
e
p e
e
u
dV B e B dV B e B dV B e B k
npl
...
2 1
[ ] [ ] { } [ ] [ ] { } [ ] ( )dV N B H N B k
nl
k
V
e
k e
e
k e
e
u
+ =
1
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Strain energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
42
{ }
=
npl
p
p
p
e
.
.
.
2
1
{ } { }dzdA D E W
A
k
t
t
e
e
k
k
=
1
2
1
The element electrical energy can be given as
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electrical energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
43
{ } [ ] { } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] { }
e
e
e e
e
e e
e
u e
e
k k q k W
+ =
2
1
2
1
2
1
Substituting various values
where
[ ] [ ]
=
e
u
e
u
k k
[ ]
{ } [ ] { }
{ } [ ] { }
(
(
(
(
(
V
e
p
e
V
e
p
e
dV B b B
dV B b B
.
2
1
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Electrical energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
44
[ ]
{ } [ ] { }
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
V
e
p
e
e
dV B b B
k
npl
.
.
.
[ ]
{ } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] ( )
{ } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] ( )
(
(
(
(
(
+
+
V
e
p
e
e
p
e
V
e
p
e
e
p
e
dV N p B H N p B
dV N p B H N p B
2 2
1 1
Finite Element Modeling (Cond.)
Electrical energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
45
[ ]
{ } { } [ ] { } { } [ ] ( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
+
=
V
e
p
e
e p
e
V
e
dV N p B H N p B
k
npl npl
.
.
.
( ) ( )
=
+ + =
nl
k
V
k
dV w v u T
1
2 2 2
2
1
& & &
{ } [ ] { }
e
e
uu e
q m q T
. .
2
1
=
where
density of kth layer
[ ] [ ] [ ]
=
nl
k
V
e u e u k e uu
dv N N m
1
[ ] [ ] [ ]
=
nl
k
V
e
u
e
u k
e
uu
dv N N m
1
[ ]
(
(
(
=
nnel
i
i i i i i
i i i i i
e
u
H N n H N n N
H N m H N m N
H N l H N l N
N
1 2
1 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Kinetic energy
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
47
(
i
i i i i i
H N n H N n N
1 2
0 0
Where
Work done by the external force and electrical charge is given as
{ } { } { } { }
e
q e
e
m e
s
F F q W
+ =
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { }
e
p u
e
s
e
u
e
m
f N ds f N F
+ =
{ } { } { } ds f B F
e
q
e e
q
=
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Work done
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
48
{ } [ ] { } [ ] { }
e
p u
e
s
s
e
u
e
m
f N ds f N F + =
1
{ } { } { } ds f B F
e
q
s
e e
q
=
2
{ }
e
s
f
{ }
e
p
f
{ }
e
q
f
Element surface force intensity vector
Element point load vector
Element surface electrical charge density vector
= +
f
o
t
t
s
dt W L 0 ) (
( )
= + +
f
o
t
t
s e
dt W W V T 0
Using Hamiltons principle
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
49
The governing equation for an element can be written as
[ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { } { }
e
m e
e
u e
e
u e e
uu e e
uu
F k k q k q m = + +
2
1
& &
[ ] { } [ ] { } [ ] { } { }
e
q e
e
e
e
e
e
u
F k k q k = +
2
1
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } k k F k q k q m + = + +
1
..
Sensors and actuators are present
vector can be partitioned
No charge accumulates on the sensor layer
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Governing equations
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
50
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
a u u s s u uu uu
a s
k k F k q k q m
+ = + +
2
1
..
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { } 0
2
1
= +
s s s
k k q k
s u
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
a a a a
q a u
F k k q k = +
2
1
Sensor equation
{ } [ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }

\

+ =
q k k k
u s
s s s
2
1
1
Finite Element Modeling (Cond..)
Governing equations
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
51
Actuator equation
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] [ ][ ] [ ] ( ){ } { } [ ]{ }
u m u u uu uu uu
k F q k k k k q c q m
s s s
2
1
1
+ = + + +
& & &
[ ][ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
a u u
a s s
k k k k
1
2
1
Flowchart of Genetic Algorithm
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Maximize
Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester(Cond..)
Material Properties
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Simulation parameters for the genetic algorithm optimization
Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester(Cond..)
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Results of optimization problem
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
Harvest a power 75% higher
Conclusion
From the overview, it is quite clear that piezoelectric energy
harvesting has great potential at micro level and some very
important part of applications are still in the research and
development stage.
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
The ability of piezoelectric equipment to convert motion
from human body into electrical power is remarkable.
It is a great hope that energy harvesting will rule the next
decade in the technical field
62
1. M. Raju, Energy Harvesting, ULP meets energy harvesting: A game
changing combination for design engineers, Texas Instrument White
Paper, Nov. 2008
2. R.J.M. Vullers, V. Leonov, T. Sterken, A. Schmitz, Energy Scavengers For
Wireless Intelligent Microsystems, Special Report in Microsystems &
Nanosystems, OnBoard Technology, June 2006
3. Imec, Design for analog and RF technologies and systems, www.imec.be
References
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
63
3. Imec, Design for analog and RF technologies and systems, www.imec.be
4. Imec, Micropower generation and storage, www.imec.be
5. F. Whetten, Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems A Proposed Application
for 802.15.4f, DOC: IEEE802.1509/007400004f
6. C. Cossio, Harvest energy using a piezoelectric buzzer, EDN, pg.9496,
March 20, 2008
Thank you
Computational Intelligence Applications to Renewable Energy2012
64