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You are on page 1of 12

2 (2008)

PAGES 141-152

A STUDY ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS USING MODAL ANALYSIS

D. Ravi Prasad

Structures Division, National Institute of Technology, Warangal

Abstract

Modal analysis is a process of describing a structure in terms of its natural characteristics

which are the frequency, damping and mode shapes - its dynamic properties [1]. The change

of modal characteristics directly provides an indication of structural condition based on

changes in frequencies and mode shapes of vibration. This paper presents results of an

experimental modal analysis of beams made with different materials such as Steel, Brass,

Copper and Aluminum. The beams were excited using an impact hammer excitation

technique over the frequency range of interest, 02000 Hz. Frequency response functions

(FRFs) were obtained using OROS vibration analyzer. The FRFs were processed using NV

Solutions modal analysis package to identify natural frequencies, Damping and the

corresponding mode shapes of the beams.

Keywords: Modal analysis; natural frequency; damping; mode shape; free vibration

1. Introduction

Over the past decade, the modal testing has become an effective means for identifying,

understanding, and simulating dynamic behavior and responses of structures. Experimental

modal analysis (EMA) or modal testing is a non-destructive testing strategy based on

vibration responses of the structures. One of the techniques widely used in modal analysis is

based on an instrumented hammer impact excitation. By using signal analysis, the vibration

response of the structures to the impact excitation is measured and transformed into

frequency response functions (FRFs) using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) technique,

the measurement of the frequency response function is the heart of modal analysis [2].

Subsequently the series of FRFs are used to extract such modal parameters as natural

frequency, damping, and corresponding mode shape [1]. In a wide range of practical

applications the modal parameters are required to avoid resonance in structures affected by

external periodic dynamic loads. Practical applications of modal analysis span over various

fields of science, engineering and technology. In particular, numerous investigations related

to aeronautical engineering, automotive engineering, and mechanical engineering.

D. Ravi Prasad and D.R. Seshu 142

Interestingly, not many are involved with structural engineering and dynamics of civil

structural systems. In recent years, experimental modal analysis has received wide

acceptance in structural engineering application, particularly for identification of modal

properties of bridges, damage detection of structures using modal data, structural health

monitoring, dynamic FEM updating, active vibration control, dynamic buckling of structures

etc. The present investigation reports the dynamic characteristics of common structural

materials.

2. Experimental Investigation

For carrying out the experimental modal analysis the test specimens made of different

materials were selected. The dimensions and masses of the test beams are tabulated in Table.1.

All the test specimens were tested under free-free condition. A completely free dynamic test

setup is only aimed to eliminate the support influence to the dynamic characteristics [3]. The

excitation points were marked on the top surface of the beams along the length. The number of

excitation points was selected such that they represent the vibration modes of interest [4]. In

this case, an accelerometer had a fixed position (at mid point), whilst an instrumented impact

hammer was roved along the excitation points [2]. The measurement set up for the present

experimental work is shown schematically in Figure 1. The force applied to the structure by an

impact hammer and the corresponding response of the accelerometer attached to the specimen

is measured by the OROS make dynamic analyzer.

Table 1. Dimensions and mass of the test specimens

Material Length (m) Breadth (mm) Depth (mm) Mass (kg)

Steel 1.14 10 10 0.833

Brass 1.08 10 10 0.76

Copper 1.18 10 10 0.93

Aluminum 1.14 16 16 0.79

The instruments used in this study were the PCB impact hammer (model 086D05) having

sensitivity 0.00225V/N, an Accelerometer (DYTRON model 3055A1) having sensitivity

0.0010194V/M/s

2

and 8-channel OROS dynamic analyzer [5]. The mass and tip hardness of

the impact hammer are varied to give the desired magnitude and duration of the force pulse

at all test locations on the beams.

Input settings and analyzer settings made in the OROS vibration Analyzer to obtain good

frequency response functions of beams for the given excitation are given in table 2 and 3.

The obtained frequency response functions were processed to get the Modal Parameters

(frequency, damping and mode shapes) using NV Solutions Smart Office software package

A STUDY ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

143

[6]. The driving point Frequency response functions of all beams are shown below.

Figure 1. Schematic representation of test setup

Table 2. Input settings

Input

Channel

Range Gain Coupling Unit Transducer Sensitivity

Ch. 1 31mV 40 dB ICP N IMPULSE 0.00225 V/N

Ch. 2 3,16V 0 dB ICP m/S

2

DYTRAN 0.0010194 V/M/s

2

FF

Curve

fit

Modal Parameters

Frequency

Damping

Mode Shapes

Time

Accelerometer

Test

Impulse Response

Impact hammer

FRF

D. Ravi Prasad and D.R. Seshu 144

Table 3. Analyzer settings

Frequency Range 0-2kHz Resolution 801 Zoom Without Envelope OFF

Analysis

Overla

p

Retrigger WeightW1 Force W2 Response -- --

Average Domain Spectral Mode Linear Number 3 Refresh 1

Trigger Mode Level Channel Ch.1 Thresh.% 10% Delay

-0.02

S

Tach Mode OFF Channel External Thresh.% 10% Tach/rev. 1.000

Arming Mode Free Run Channel -- -- -- -- --

Generator1 Mode Stopped Freq. 0.100kHz Level 1 V -- --

Generator2 Mode Stopped Freq. 0.100kHz Level 1 V Phase 0

o

Waterfall Mode Single Type Off Number 5 -- --

Figure 2. Frequency response function of steel beam

Figure 3. Frequency response function of brass beam

A STUDY ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

145

Figure 4. Frequency response function of copper beam

Figure 5. Frequency response function of aluminum beam

3. Theoretical Natural Frequencies

In order to validate the experimentally obtained natural frequencies, Theoretical natural

frequencies of the specimens which were tested under free-free condition also calculated

based on the free vibration analysis of distributed (continuous) systems [7]. As the initial

modes are significant in the vibration analysis, the calculated theoretical natural frequencies

of the first six modes are shown in the Tables 5-8.

4. Discussion of Test Results

4.1 Modal parameters

The experimental modal results (model frequency, model damping ratio and mode shapes)

are discussed in the following section.

D. Ravi Prasad and D.R. Seshu 146

4.2 Natural frequencies

The Smart Office (modal analysis) package gave the values of natural frequencies. These

natural frequencies were calculated using SDOF and MDOF estimation algorithms. Again in

SDOF estimation the modal parameters are calculated using finite difference and quadrature

methods [6]. Theoretical natural frequencies are also calculated for the beams using the

distributed mass concept. The experimental and theoretical natural frequencies of Steel,

Copper, Brass, and Aluminum beams for the first six modes are given in the Table 4-7.

Table 4. Natural frequencies of steel beam

Experimental

SDOF(Hz)

Mode No

Finite

Difference

Quadrature

MDOF

(Hz)

Theoretical

(Hz)

1 40.27 41.07 40.133 39.412

2 110.34 110.00 110.076 109.475

3 216.50 216.25 215.955 214.57

4 353.72 353.75 353.852 354.698

5 532.22 532.52 532.00 529.86

6 533.75 532.5 737.74 740.049

Table 5. Natural frequencies of brass beam

Experimental

SDOF(Hz)

Mode No

Finite

Difference

Quadrature

MDOF

(Hz)

Theoretical

(Hz)

1 40.00 43.86 38.353 34.60

2 105.52 105.76 105.879 96.04

3 224.83 225.23 226.033 188.25

4 333.61 333.18 333.84 311.18

5 469.46 470.00 469.96 464.86

6 619.46 620.00 619.425 649.26

A STUDY ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

147

Table 6. Natural frequencies of copper beam

Experimental

SDOF(Hz)

Mode No

Finite

Difference

Quadrature

MDOF

(Hz)

Theoretical

(Hz)

1 24.43 24.73 23.06 27.40

2 45.21 49.09 50.71 76.05

3 150.78 150.00 150.43 149.05

4 250.108 249.77 249.51 246.40

5 367.85 367.73 368.68 368.06

6 518.46 517.50 518.47 514.10

Table 7. Natural frequencies of aluminum beam

Experimental

SDOF(Hz)

Mode No

Finite

Difference

Quadrature

MDOF

(Hz)

Theoretical

(Hz)

1 70.71 70.00 70.48 64.00

2 170.29 172.05 184.89 177.43

3 329.16 330.00 329.16 347.77

4 548.42 549.77 548.96 574.88

5 808.60 807.5 808.54 858.77

6 1136.87 1137.5 1136.99 1199.44

5. Damping

The Smart Office (modal analysis) package gave the values of damping ratio. The Table 8-

11 show damping in percentage both in SDOF (finite difference and quadrature) and MDOF

methods.

D. Ravi Prasad and D.R. Seshu 148

Table 8. Damping ratio of steel beam

SDO (%)

Mode

Finite Difference Quadrature

MDOF (%)

1 2.02 1.70 1.38

2 0.78 0.89 0.50

3 0.33 0.37 0.29

4 0.18 0.22 0.18

5 0.13 0.20 0.17

6 0.10 0.24 0.11

Table 9. Damping ratio of brass beam

SDOF (%)

Mode

Finite Difference Quadrature

MDOF (%)

1 14.53 12.74 29.90

2 1.78 2.97 1.81

3 1.02 1.90 1.27

4 0.7 1.24 0.76

5 0.56 0.92 0.59

6 0.47 0.70 0.50

Table 10. Damping ratio of copper beam

SDOF (%)

Mode

Finite Difference Quadrature

MDOF (%)

1 39.21 36.30 38.76

2 17.44 13.34 15.59

3 1.96 3.15 2.01

4 1.28 1.99 1.25

5 1.01 1.37 0.96

6 1.71 1.04 0.74

7 0.62 0.71 0.54

A STUDY ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

149

Table 11. Damping ratio of aluminum beam

SDOF (%)

Mode

Finite Difference Quadrature

MDOF (%)

1 6.12 6.22 4.90

2 1.48 1.82 2.03

3 0.51 0.87 0.50

4 0.31 0.53 0.304

5 0.22 0.36 0.224

6 0.24 0.28 0.23

7 0.19 0.23 0.19

6. Mode Shapes

The mode shapes obtained using NV solutions modal analysis software is presented in

following Tables.

Table 12. Mode shapes of steel beam in SDOF (finite difference method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 40.27Hz 110.34 Hz 216.50 Hz 353.72 Hz

Table 13. Mode shapes of steel beam in SDOF (quadrature method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 41.07 Hz 110.00 Hz 216.25 Hz 353.75 Hz

D. Ravi Prasad and D.R. Seshu 150

Table 14. Mode shapes of steel beam in MDOF method

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 40.133 Hz 110.075 Hz 215.955 Hz 3563.852 Hz

Table 15. Mode shapes of brass beam in (finite difference method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 40 Hz 105.52 Hz 224.83 Hz 333.61 Hz

Table 16. Mode shapes of brass beam in SDOF (quadrature method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 43.86 Hz 105.76 Hz 225.23 Hz 333.18 Hz

Table 17. Mode shapes of brass beam in MDOF method

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 38.353 Hz 105.879 Hz 226.033 Hz 333.84 Hz

Table 18. Mode shapes of copper beam in SDOF (finite difference method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 24.43 Hz 45.21 Hz 150.78 Hz 250.108 Hz

A STUDY ON DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

151

Table 19. Mode shapes of copper beam in SDOF (quadrature method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 24.73 Hz 49.09 Hz 150.00 Hz 249.77 Hz

Table 20. Mode shapes of copper beam in MDOF method

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 23.06 Hz 50.71 Hz 150.43 Hz 249.51 Hz

Table 21. Mode shapes of aluminum beam in SDOF (finite difference method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 70.71 Hz 170.29 Hz 329.16 Hz 548.42 Hz

Table 22. Mode shapes of aluminum beam in SDOF (quadrature method)

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 70.00 Hz 172.05 Hz 330.00 Hz 549.77 Hz

Table 23. Mode shapes of aluminum beam in MDOF method

Mode No. Mode.1 Mode.2 Mode.3 Mode.4

Mode shape

Frequency 70.00 Hz 184.89 Hz 329.16 Hz 548.96 Hz

D. Ravi Prasad and D.R. Seshu 152

7. Conclusion

The dynamic parameters such as the natural frequency and inherent damping value of their

components are very important in compliant structures. Modal testing is a non-destructive

testing strategy based on vibration responses of the structural members. In this paper, the

application of experimental modal testing to various beams based on the impact hammer

excitation is attempted to assess the natural frequency, damping constant and associated

mode shapes of these examples. The modal testing has proven to be an effective and non-

destructive test method for estimation of dynamic characteristics of beams.

Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully to acknowledge the support from L.

Veerababu, P.G. student in carrying out experiments and the authors are also thankful to the

Structures Division, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Warangal for providing the

necessary testing facilities.

References

1. Avitabile P, Experimental Modal Analysis - A simple non mathematical presentation,

Modal Analysis and Controls Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department,

University of Massachusets Lowell, Lowell, Massachusets USA.

2. William G. Halverson, David L Brown. Impulse technique for structural frequency

response testing, University of Cincinnati, Reprinted from Sound and Vibration

November, 1977.

3. Wei-Xin Ren, Guido De Roeck., Structural damage identification using modal data. II:

test verification, Journal of Structural Engineering, 126(2002) 96-104.

4. Remennikov AM, Kaewunruen S. Investigation of vibration characteristics of

prestressed concrete sleepers in free-free and in-situ conditions, Australian Structural

Engineering Conference 2005 (ASEC 2005), Newcastle, Australia, 11-14 September,

2005.

5. OROS OR763/ OR773 (For windows) Operating manual, Document F197 804 1 version

4.4.

6. NV Solutions-reporting and structural solutions smart office modal revision 2.5 operating

manual.

7. J ames ML, Smith GM, Wolford J C, Whaley PW. Vibration of Mechanical and Structural

Systems: with Microcomputer Applications, Harper and Row Publishers, New York,

1994.

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