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in two-phase cross-ow

Shahab Khushnood

Zafar Ullah Koreshi, Mahmood Anwar Khan

College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Received 8 May 2003; received in revised form 8 October 2003; accepted 21 November 2003

Abstract

Flow-induced vibration is an important concern to the designers of heat exchangers subjected to high ows of gases or liquids.

Two-phase cross-ow occurs in industrial heat exchangers, such as nuclear steam generators, condensers, and boilers, etc. Under

certain owregimes and uid velocities, the uid forces result in tube vibration and damage due to fretting and fatigue. Prediction

of these forces requires an understanding of the ow regimes found in heat exchanger tube bundles. Excessive vibrations under

normal operating conditions can lead to tube failure.

Relatively little information exists on two-phase vibration. This is not surprising as single-phase ow induced vibration; a

simpler topic is not yet fully understood. Vibration in two-phase is much more complex because it depends upon two-phase ow

regime, i.e. characteristics of two-phase mixture and involves an important consideration, which is the void fraction. The effect

of characteristics of two-phase mixture on ow-induced vibration is still largely unknown. Two-phase ow experiments are

much more expensive and difcult to carry out as they usually require pressurized loops with the ability to produce two-phase

mixtures. Although convenient from an experimental point of view, airwater mixture if used as a simulation uid, is quite

different from high-pressure steamwater. A reasonable compromise between experimental convenience and simulation of

steamwater two-phase ow is desired.

This paper reviews known models and experimental research on two-phase cross-ow induced vibration in tube bundles.

Despite the considerable differences in the models, there is some agreement in the general conclusions. The effect of tube bundle

geometry, random turbulence excitations, hydrodynamic mass and damping ratio on tube response has also been reviewed.

Fluidstructure interaction, void fraction modeling/measurements and nally Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

(TEMA) considerations have also been highlighted.

2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Two-phase cross-ow induced vibration in tube

bundles of process heat exchangers and U-bend region

of nuclear steam generators can cause serious tube

fax: +92-51-2824132.

E-mail address: seeshahab@yahoo.com (S. Khushnood).

failures by fatigue and fretting wear. Tube failures

could force entire plant to shutdown for costly repairs

and suffer loss of production. Such vibration prob-

lems may be avoided by thorough vibration analysis.

However, these require an understanding of vibra-

tion excitation and damping mechanism in two-phase

ow. An important parameter that characterizes the

two-phase ow is void fraction, which is the ratio of

the volume of gas to the volume of the liquidgas

0029-5493/$ see front matter 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2003.11.024

234 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

Nomenclature

a tube gap

A

v

upstream ow area

b exponent

B Chisholm correlation parameter

C connement factor

C

1

, C

0

drift ux model parameters

C

I

coefcient of interaction

C

1

non-dimensional liquid force

coefcient

C

g

non-dimensional gas force

coefcient

Cap capillary number

d, D tube diameter

D

e

equivalent diameter

Eu Euler number

Eu

G0

Euler number for gas

Eu

L0

Euler number for liquid

f tube natural frequency in two-phase

mixture

f

g

tube natural frequency in air

F instantaneous normal force

Fr Schrage correlation parameter

FIV ow induced vibration

g acceleration due to gravity

G

P

pitch mass ux, mass ow

HEM Homogeneous Equilibrium Model

i mode number

j

g

supercial gas velocity

j

l

supercial liquid velocity

K constant fraction in Smith correlation,

Connors critical factor

K

0

, K

1

drift ux model parameters

L, l tube length, limit span subjected to

cross-ow

L drift ux model parameter

m mass, mass per unit length

m

0

mass

m

geq

gas phase effective mass

m

h

hydrodynamic mass/added mass

m

leq

liquid phase effective mass

m

t

mass of tube alone

m mass ow rate

m

p

mass ux of mixture

n number of points discretized/index in

Chisholm correlation

N gamma count of experimental (trial)

N

G

gamma count for 100% gas

N

L

gamma count for 100% liquid

NPSD Normalized Power Spectral Density

p

D

dynamic pressure

p

S

static pressure

P pressure, tube pitch

P

cr

two-phase ow critical pressure

p pressure drop across tube row

p

G0

Pressure drop for gas

p

L0

Pressure drop for liquid

p

TPF

two-phase ow pressure drop

PDF probability density function

Q mass ux

r drift ux model parameter

Re Reynolds number

Ri Richardson number

RAD Radiation Attenuation Method

R-11, R-12 refrigerant types

RMS root mean square

S velocity ratio/slip

S

F

(f) power spectral density of random

excitation force

S sliding distance

T time period

T

s

sample duration

TEMA Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers

Association

U

g

, U

G

gas velocity

U

l

, U

L

liquid velocity

U

h

homogeneous velocity

U

p

, V

p

pitch velocity

U

c

critical velocity

U

cl

critical ow velocity of liquid phase

U

cg

critical ow velocity of gas phase

V

eq

equivalent two-phase velocity

U

gj

averaged gas phase drift velocity

W work rate

x location

X quality of ow/mass quality

Y Chisholm parameter

Y(1),

Y(x), Y tube response

(Y

2

) mean square tube response

(Y

2

)

0.5

root mean square tube response

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 235

Greek symbols

void fraction

average value of (s)T

(time length of gas phase)

H

homogeneous void fraction

non-dimensional parameter

non-dimensional parameter

average damping in two-phase

g

homogeneous void fraction

total damping ratio, modal damping

ratio

eq

non-dimensional effective ow

velocity of gas phase

ratio of non-dimensional effective

masses per unit length of tube in

liquid and gas phases

L

liquid phase absolute viscosity

viscosity of mixture in McAdams

equation

l

viscosity of liquid phase

g

viscosity of gas phase

eq

non-dimensional effective ow

velocity of liquid phase

two-phase mixture density

g

,

G

gas mass density

l

,

L

liquid phase density

H

HEM uid density

density difference between phases

liquid surface tension

2

L0

two-phase friction multiplier

L0

function of two-phase ow

parameters

i

(S) shape function

(S) ow distribution

Table 1

Types of ow in two-phases

Flow type Average void fraction Specication

Bubble 0.3 Some bubbles are present in liquid ow and move with the same velocity

Slug 0.30.5 Liquid slugs ow intermittently

Froth 0.50.8 More violent intermittent ow

Annular 0.80.9 Mainly gas ow, liquid adheres to the tube surface

Mist 0.9 Almost gas ow. Mist sometimes causes energy dissipation

mixture. A number of ow regimes (Table 1) can

occur for a given boundary conguration, depending

upon the concentration and size of the gas bubbles and

on the mass ow rates of the two-phases. Two-phase

ow characteristics greatly depend upon the type of

ow occurring.

Tube vibration in two-phase ow displays different

ow regimes, i.e. gas and liquid phase distributions,

depending upon the void fraction and mass ux. It is

known that four mechanisms are responsible for the

excitation of tube arrays in cross-ow (Pettigrew et al.,

1991). These mechanisms are turbulence buffeting,

vortex shedding or Strouhal periodicity, uid-elastic

instability and acoustic resonance. Table 2 presents

a summary of these vibration mechanisms for sin-

gle cylinder and tube bundles for liquid, gas and

liquidgas two-phase ow, respectively. Of these four

mechanism, uid-elastic instability is the most dam-

aging in the short term because it causes the tubes to

vibrate excessively, leading to rapid wear at the tube

supports. This mechanism occurs once the ow rate

exceeds a threshold velocity at which tubes become

self excited and the vibration amplitude rise rapidly

with an increase in ow velocity.

Typically, researchers have relied on the Homo-

geneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) to dene impor-

tant uid parameters in two-phase ow, such as den-

sity, void fraction and velocity. This model treats the

two-phase ow as a nely mixed and homogeneous

in density and temperature, with no difference in ve-

locity between the gas and liquid phases. This model

has been used a great deal because it is easy to im-

plement and is widely recognized which facilitated

earlier data comparison. Other models include Smith

Correlation (Smith, 1968), drift-ux model developed

by Zuber and Findlay (1965), Schrage Correlation

(Schrage, 1988) which is based on empirical data, and

Feenstra model (Feenstra et al., 2000) which is given

in terms of dimensionless numbers.

236 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

Table 2

Vibration excitation mechanisms (Pettigrew et al., 1991)

Flow situation Fluid-elastic instability Periodic shedding Turbulence excitation Acoustic resonance

Cross ow

Single cylinder

Liquid

a

a

Gas

a

a

Two phase

a

a

Tube bundle

Liquid

b

a

Gas

b

b

Two phase

b

a

a

Unlikely.

b

Possible.

c

Most important.

Dynamic parameters such as added mass and damp-

ing are very important considerations in two-phase

cross-ow induced vibrations. Hydrodynamic mass

depends upon pitch-to-diameter ratio and decrease

with increase in void fraction. Damping is very com-

plicated in two-phase ow and is highly void fraction

dependent.

Tube-to-restraint interaction at the bafes (loose

supports) can lead to fretting wear because of out of

plane impact force and in-plane rubbing force. Frick

et al. (1984) has given an overview of the development

of relationship between work-rate and wear-rate.

Another important consideration in two-phase ow

is the random turbulence excitation. Vibration re-

sponse below uid-elastic instability is attributed to

random turbulence excitation (Pettigrew et al., 2000;

Mirza and Gorman, 1973; Taylor et al., 1989; Papp,

1988; Wambsganss et al., 1992) to name some who

have carried potential research for RMS vibration re-

sponse encompassing spatially correlated forces, Nor-

malized Power Spectral Density (NPSD), two-phase

ow pressure drop, two-phase friction multiplier,

mass ux, and coefcient of interaction between uid

mixture and tubes.

Earlier reviews on the topic are provided by

Paidoussis (1982), Weaver and FitzPatrick (1988),

and Price (1995). More recently researchers have

expanded the study to two-phase ow which occur

in nuclear steam generators and many other tubular

heat exchangers, a review of which was last given by

Pettigrew and Taylor (1994). The aim of present at-

tempt is to review all known models and experimental

research on two-phase cross-ow induced vibrations

of tube bundles. It is intended to provide design

guidelines to the heat exchanger designers, to give an

insight to the process designers and the maintenance

personnel.

2. Modeling two-phase ow

Most of the early experimental research in this eld

relied on sectional models of tube arrays subjected to

single-phase uids such as air or water, using rela-

tively inexpensive ow loops and wind tunnels. The

cheapest and simplest approach to model two-phase

ow is by mixing air and water at atmospheric pres-

sure. However, airwater ows have a different den-

sity ratio between phases than steamwater ow and

this will affect the difference in the ow velocity be-

tween the phases. The liquid surface tension, which

controls the bubble size, is also not accurately modeled

in airwater mixtures. Table 3 gives the comparison

of liquid and gas phase of refrigerants R-11, R-22 and

airwater mixtures at representative laboratory con-

ditions with actual steamwater mixture properties at

typical power plant conditions (Feenstra et al., 2000).

This comparison reveals that the refrigerants approxi-

mate the liquid surface tension and liquid dynamic vis-

cosity of steamwater mixtures more accurately than

airwater mixtures.

In the outer U-bend region, of typical nuclear steam

generators such as those used in the CANDU de-

sign, the tubes are subjected to two-phase cross-ow

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 237

Table 3

Comparison of properties of airwater, R-22, and R-11 with steamwater at plant conditions (Feenstra et al., 2000)

Property R-11 Airwater R-22 Steamwater

Temperature (

C) 40 22 23.3 260

Pressure (kPa) 175 101 1000 4690

Liquid density (kg/m

3

) 1440 998 1197 784

Gas density (kg/m

3

) 9.7 1.18 42.3 23.7

Liquid kinematic viscosity (m

2

/s) 0.25 1.0 0.14 0.13

Gas kinematic viscosity (m

2

/s) 1.2 1.47 0.30 0.75

Liquid surface tension (N/m) 0.016 0.073 0.0074 0.0238

Density ratio 148 845 28.3 33

Viscosity ratio 0.20 0.70 0.47 0.17

of steamwater. It is highly impractical and costly

to perform ow induced vibration experiments on

a full-scale prototype of such a device so that

small-scale sectional modeling is most often adopted.

R-11 simulates the density ratio, viscosity ratio and

surface tension of actual steamwater mixtures better

than airwater mixtures and it also allows for local-

ized phase change which airwater mixture does not

permit. While more costly and difcult to use than

airwater mixture, R-11 is a much cheaper modeling

uid than steamwater because it requires 8% of the

energy to evaporate the liquid and operating pressure

is much lower, thereby reducing the size and cost of

the ow loop (Feenstra et al., 2000).

3. Representative published tests on two-phase

ow across tube arrays

Table 4, an extension of period beyond 1993

(Nakamura et al., 1993) presents summary of salient

features of the experimental tests performed on the

three possible geometric tube arrangements.

4. Thermal hydraulic models

Considering two-phase ow, homogeneous ow as-

sume that the gas and liquid phases are owing at the

same velocity, while other models for two-phases ow,

such as drift-ux assume a separated ow model with

the phases allowed to ow at different velocities. Gen-

erally the vapor ow faster in upward ow because of

the density difference.

4.1. The homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM)

A general expression for void fraction , is given

by (Feenstra et al., 2000):

=

_

1 +S

L

_

1

X

1

__

1

(1)

where

G

and

L

are the gas and liquid densities, re-

spectively and S is the velocity ratio of the gas and liq-

uid phase (i.e. S = U

G

/U

L

). The quality of the ow,

X is calculated from energy balance, which requires

measurement of the mass ow rate, the temperature

of the liquid entering the heater, the heater power, and

the uid temperature in the test section. The HEM

void fraction

H

, is the simplest of the two-phase uid

modeling, whereby the gas and liquid phases are as-

sumed to be well mixed and velocity ratio S in Eq. (1)

is assumed to be unity. The average two-phase uid

density, is determined by:

=

G

+(1 )

L

(2)

The (HEM) uid density,

H

, is determined using

Eq. (2) by substituting

H

in place of . The (HEM)

pitch ow velocity, V

P

is determined by:

V

P

=

G

P

H

(3)

The pitch mass ux, G

P

, is determined from ow

measurements obtained from the orice plate reading

by:

G

P

=

( m/A

v

)P

(P D)

(4)

where m is the mass ow rate, A

v

is the upstream ow

area, P is the tube pitch, and D is the tube diameter.

238 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

Table 4

Representative published tests on two-phase ow

Researchers (published) Fluid Tube array Void

fraction

Tube

length

(mm)

Natural

frequency

(Hz)

Damping

ratio (%)

Pettigrew and Gorman

(1973)

Airwater Triangular/parallel,

square/rotated square

1020%

(quality) 50.8

17, 30 2.52.7

Heilker and Vincent

(1981)

Airwater Triangular/rotated

square

0.50.87

910

5662 0.84

Hara and Ohtani (1981) Airwater Single tube 0.020.61

60

Rigid

Remy (1982) Airwater Square 0.650.85 1000 56.6 0.61.75

Nakamura et al. (1982) Airwater Square/rotated square 0.20.94

190

142 1.31.7

Pettigrew et al. (1985) Airwater Triangular/square 0.050.98

600

2632 0.98.0

Axisa et al. (1984) Steamwater Square 0.520.98 1190 74 0.23.0

Nakamura et al. (1986) Steamwater Square 0.750.95

174

15.216 4.08.0

Hara (1987) Airwater Single/row 0.010.5

58

6.08.4 2.915.6

Goyder (1988) Airwater Triangular 0.50.8

360

175

Gay et al. (1988) Freon Triangular 0.580.84 1000 39.8 0.891.7

Nakamura and Fujita

(1988)

Airwater Square 0.020.95

600

52

2.1

Funakawa et al. (1989) Airwater Square/triangular 0.00.6

100

12.8

3.3

Nakamura et al. (1990) Steamwater Square 0.330.91

174

94137

Axisa et al. (1990) Steamwater Square/triangular

parallel/triangular

0.520.99 1190 72 0.24

Papp and Chen (1994) Normal

triangular/normal

square/parallel

triangular

2598%

Pettigrew et al. (1995) Freon Rotated triangular 4090%,

1090% 609

28150

0.15

Noghrehkar et al.

(1995)

Airwater Square fth and sixth

row

090%

200

1525 0.33.9

Taylor et al. (1995) Airwater U-bend tube bundle

with 180

U-tubes

parallel triangular

conguration

090% U-tube

radii

0.60.7

23114 1.52

Marn and Catton (1996) Airwater Normal triangular,

parallel triangular,

and rotated square

599%

0.721

Taylor and Pettigrew

(2000)

Freon Rotated triangular

and rotated square

5098%

609

0.25

Pettigrew et al. (2000) Airwater Normal 30

and

rotated 60

triangular,

normal 90

and

rotated 45

square

0100%

600

30160 15

Inada et al. (2000) Airwater Square 070% 198 15 2.5 1.6

Eq. added

damping

coefcient

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 239

Table 4 (Continued )

Researchers (published) Fluid Tube array Void

fraction

Tube

length

(mm)

Natural

frequency

(Hz)

Damping

ratio (%)

Nakamura et al. (2000)

(summary of Takai)

Freon 46 5 U-bend tubes,

specication of actual

Westinghouse type-51

series steam generator

(Not

considered)

based on

Connors

single-phase

relation

1626 Damping

ratio <1

Feenstra et al. (2000) R-11 Parallel/triangular 00.99

0100 1.12.9

Results 19731993 (Nakamura et al., 1993).

The main problem with using the (HEM) is that it

assumes zero velocity ratio between the gas and liquid

phases. This assumption is not valid in the case of

vertical upward ow, because of signicant buoyancy

effects.

4.2. Homogeneous ow (Taylor and Pettigrew, 2000)

This model assumes no relative velocity between

the liquid velocity U

l

and the gas velocity U

g

:

Slip = S = 1 : U

h

= U

g

= U

l

,

g

=

j

g

j

g

+j

l

(5)

where U

h

is the homogeneous velocity,

g

is the ho-

mogeneous void fraction, j

g

is supercial gas velocity

and j

l

is the supercial liquid velocity.

4.3. Smith correlation

Smith (1968) assume that kinetic energy of the liq-

uid is equivalent to that of the two-phase mixture and

a constant fraction K of liquid phase is entrained with

the gas phase. The value K = 0.4 was chosen to cor-

respond with the best agreement to experimental data

for ow in a vertical tube. Using the smith correlation,

the slip is dened as follows:

S = K +(1 K)

_

(X

l

/

g

) +K(1 X)

X+K(1 X)

_

1/2

(6)

where X is the mass quality,

g

is the density of the

gas phase and

l

is the density of the liquid phase.

4.4. Drift-ux model

The main formulation of drift-ux model was devel-

oped by Zuber and Findlay (1965). This model takes

into account both the two-phase ow non-uniformity

and local differences of velocity between the two

phases. The slip is dened as follows:

S =

(1

g

)

(1/(C

0

+(U

gj

/j))

g

)

=

(C

0

+(U

gj

/j)) (X/(X(1

g

/

l

))+(

g

/

l

))

(1 (X/(X(1

g

/

l

)) +(

g

/

l

)))

(7)

Out of the four unknown values of this relation,

two are determined experimentally: X directly and j

indirectly from mass ux measurement m:

j = j

g

+j

l

= m

_

X

g

+

(1 X)

l

_

(8)

The remaining two unknowns are empirical and

Lellouche and Zolotars Correlation (Lellouche and

Zollotar, 1982) is used to estimates these. This corre-

lation is well adapted for tube bundles in two-phase

cross-ow. An averaged gas phase drift velocity is de-

ned as follows:

U

gj

= 1.41

__

2

l

_

_

1/4

(1

g

)

1/2

(1 +

g

)

(9)

where is the liquid surface tension.

C

0

=

L

K

1

+(1 K

1

)

r

g

(10)

240 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

with

K

1

= K

0

+(1 K

0

)

_

l

_

1/4

,

K

0

= (1 +e

(Re/10

5

)

)

1

r =

_

1 +1.57

(

g

/

l

)

(1 K

0

)

_

, L =

(1 e

C

1

g

)

(1 e

C

1

)

,

C

1

=

4P

2

cr

P(P

cr

P)

where P

cr

is the two-phase ow critical pressure. Re =

UD/, where D is the tube diameter and is the mix-

ture viscosity which can be evaluated by McAdams

equation:

=

l

1 +

g

(

l

/

g

1)

(11)

where

l

and

g

are the viscosities of liquid and gas

phases, respectively.

4.5. Schrage correlation

The correlation by Schrage (1988) is based on em-

pirical data from an experimental test section, which

measures void fraction directly. This test section has

two valves capable of isolating a part of the ow al-

most instantaneously.

The correlation is based on physical considerations

and assumes two hypotheses:

1. For very low qualities, the gas phase appears only

as very small bubbles. The ow behaves as a homo-

geneous one and the minimum reduced void frac-

tion,

g

/

gh

value is 0.1.

2. For very high qualities, when X = 1, ow is con-

sidered homogeneous and we obtain the limit con-

dition

g

/

gh

= 1.

Then, the Schrage correlation is as follows:

gh

= 1 +0.123Fr

0.191

ln X with Fr =

m

gD

(12)

This correlation was established with an airwater

mixture but it remains valid for any other phase ow.

4.6. Feenstra model (Feenstra et al., 2000)

In this model predicted velocity ratio of the phases

is given by:

S = 1 +25.7(Ri Cap)

0.5

_

P

D

_

1

(13)

where the velocity ratio S is used in conjunction with

Eq. (1) for void fraction. The Richardson number Ri

is calculated by:

Ri =

2

ga

G

2

P

(14)

where a is the gap between tubes, ( =

l

g

)

is the density difference between the phases, g is the

gravitational acceleration and G

P

is the mass ow. The

capillary number (Cap) is calculated by:

Cap =

L

U

G

(15)

where

L

is the liquid phase absolute viscosity, is

the surface tension of liquid and U

G

is the gas phase

velocity.

4.7. Comparison of void fraction models

The (HEM) greatly over-predicts the actual gamma

densitometer void fraction measurement and the pre-

diction of void fraction model by Feenstra et al., is

superior to that of other models. It also agrees with

data in literature for airwater over a wide range of

mass ux and array geometry (Feenstra et al., 2000).

5. Dynamic parameters

5.1. Hydrodynamic mass

Hydrodynamic mass m

h

is dened as the equivalent

external mass of uid vibrating with the tube. It is

related to the tube natural frequency f in two-phase

mixture as discussed in (Carlucci and Brown, 1983)

and is given by:

m

h

= m

t

_

_

f

g

f

_

2

1

_

(16)

where m

t

is the mass of tube alone and f

g

is the natu-

ral frequency in air. The tube frequency is measured at

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 241

Fig. 1. Added mass as a function of void fraction (Carlucci, 1980).

mass uxes sufciently below uid-elastic instability.

Signicant shifts in frequency are observed at insta-

bility.

Hydrodynamic mass depends on the ratio P/d of the

tube pitch P to diameter d, given by Pettigrew et al.

(1989a):

m

h

=

_

d

2

4

__

(D

e

/d)

2

+1

(D

e

/d)

2

1

_

(17)

where is the two-phase mixture density.

D

e

d

=

_

0.96 +0.5P

d

_

P

d

, for a triangular bundle

D

e

d

=

_

1.07 +0.56P

d

_

P

d

, for a square bundle

where D

e

is equivalent diameter to model connement

due to the surrounding tubes as given by Rogers et al.

(1984).

Early airwater studies (Carlucci, 1980) showed

that added mass decreases with the void fraction as

shown in Fig. 1. It is also less than (1 ) where

is the void fraction. This deviation from expected

(1 ) line is caused by the air bubble concentrate

at the ow passage center. Added mass in two-phase

still receives little attention.

Fig. 2. Damping ratio as a function of void fraction (Carlucci and

Brown, 1983).

5.2. Damping

Subtracting the structural damping ratio from

the total yields the two-phase uid-damping ra-

tio (Noghrehkar et al., 1995). Total damping in-

cludes structural damping, viscous damping and

a two-phase component of damping as explained

by Pettigrew et al. (1994). The damping ratio in-

creases as the void fraction increases and peaks at

60% (Carlucci and Brown, 1983), then the ratio de-

crease with (Fig. 2). Damping also decrease as

the vibration frequency increase (Pettigrew et al.,

1985).

Damping in two-phase is very complicated. It is

highly dependent upon void fraction and ow regime.

The results for the two-phase component of damping

can be normalized to take into account the effect of

connement due to surrounding tubes by using the

connement factor C (Pettigrew et al., 2000). This

factor is a reasonable formulation of the connement

due to P/D. As expected, greater connement due to

smaller P/Ds increase damping. The connement fac-

tor is given by:

C =

1 +(D/D

e

)

3

[1 (D/D

e

)

2

]

2

(18)

242 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

6. Flow regimes

Many researchers have attempted the prediction of

owregimes in two-phase vertical ow. As yet, a much

smaller group has examined owregimes in cross-ow

over tube bundles. Some of the rst experiments were

carried out by Grant (Collier, 1979) as it was the only

available map at the time. Early studies in two-phase

cross-ow used the Grant map to assist in identify-

ing tube bundle ow regimes (Pettigrew et al., 1989b;

Taylor and Pettigrew, 2000). More recently (Ulbrich

and Mewes, 1994) performed a comprehensive anal-

ysis of available ow regime data resulting in ow

regime boundaries that cover a much larger range of

ow rates. They found that their new transition lines

had an 86% agreement with available data. Their ow

map is shown in Fig. 3 by Feenstra et al. (1996) with

the ow regime boundary transitions in solid lines and

the ow regimes identied with upper-case text. The

dotted lines outline a previous ow regime map based

on Freon-11 ow in a vertical tube, from (Taitel et al.,

1980).

Almost every study of ow regimes in tube bundles

has concluded that three distinct ow regimes exist.

In fact, several studies have shown that these regimes

can easily be identied by measuring the probability

density function (PDF) of the gas component of the

Fig. 3. Flow regime map for vertically upward two-phase ow from

(Feenstra et al., 1996, 1980). Data symbolize: square (Pettigrew

et al., 1989a,b), upward triangle (Axisa, 1985), downward triangle

(Pettigrew et al., 1995), and circle (Feenstra et al., 1995).

ow (Ulbrich et al., 1997; Noghrehkar et al., 1995;

Lian et al., 1997).

7. Tube to restraint interaction (wear work-rate)

Signicant tube-to-restraint interaction can lead to

fretting wear. Large amplitude out-of-plane motion

will result in large impact forces and in-plane motion

will contribute to rubbing action. Impact force and

tube-to-restraint relative motion can be combined to

determine work-rate. Work-rate is calculated using the

magnitude of the impact force and the effective slid-

ing distance during line contact between the tube and

restraint (Taylor et al., 1995). The work rate is given

in Eqs. (19) and (20):

W =

1

T

s

_

n

i=0

F

i

dS

i

(19)

W =

1

T

s

n

i=0

F

i

S

i

=

1

T

s

n

i=0

F

i

+F

i+1

2

S

i

(20)

where F is the instantaneous normal force, S is the

sliding distance during line contact and n is the num-

ber of points discretized over the sample duration T

s

.

As the work-rate increases, the effective wear rate in-

creases and the operational life of the U-bend tube

decreases. Implementation of the technology is de-

scribed in detail by Fisher et al. (1991). Measured val-

ues of wear work-rate for pitch velocity and mass ux

(Taylor et al., 1995) are presented in Fig. 4a and b,

respectively. The effect of uid-elastic forces is very

evident in the measured work-rates.

It is interesting to note that at higher pitch veloci-

ties and/or mass uxes, the wear work-rate does not

increase. Further study is required to understand why

the ow-rates do not affect the work-rates. This may

be related to the fact that at high void fractions and

high ow rates the random excitation forces are con-

stant with increasing ow rate (Taylor, 1992).

8. Fluid-elastic instability

Pettigrew and Gorman (1973) established the

fundamental treatment of two-phase ow induced

vibration. That was based on the method used for

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 243

Fig. 4. (a) Measured work-rate vs. pitch velocity (Taylor et al., 1995). (b) Measured work-rate vs. mass ux (Taylor et al., 1995).

single-phase ow-induced vibration. It was con-

cluded that uid-elastic instability seems possible in

two-phase ow as well as in liquid ow. The same in-

stability criterion seemed to apply to both liquid and

two-phase ow according to the following equation

in terms of dimensionless ow velocity U

p

/fD and

dimensionless mass-damping term [2m/D

2

]

1/2

.

U

p

fD

= K

_

m

D

2

_

1/2

(21)

where K is the instability factor, U

p

the average ow

velocity, the average uid density, the average

damping in two-phase ow and f is the tube natural

frequency in two-phase ow mixture at mass ux m

p

,

with u

p

= m

p

/ and is the total damping ratio.

Fluid-elastic instability is possible when the uid

dynamic forces on the tubes are proportional to the

tube motion. When energy absorbed form the uid by

the tubes exceeds the energy dissipated by damping,

uid-elastic instability results in very large vibration

amplitudes. A complete, stability boundary estimation

method has not yet been established, at least not in for-

mal theoretical manner (Nakamura et al., 2000). A de-

sign procedure has already been proposed by Connors

(1970) and it is widely believed to be useful for de-

signers, although there have been some modications

of his parameters such as the critical factor K, and the

exponents in Eq. (21).

The distribution of density and uid ow velocity

is estimated using the following equation proposed by

Connors (1978):

U

c

f

i

D

= K

_

m

0

0

D

2

S

i

_

1/2

(22)

where

S

i

=

_

L

0

((S)/

0

)(S)

2

i

(S)

2

ds

_

L

0

(m(S)/m

0

)

i

(S)

2

ds

where (S) is the ow distribution,

i

(S) is the corre-

sponding shape function, L is the limit span subjected

to cross-ow and i refers to mode number.

Eq. (22) is theoretically derived from the hypoth-

esis that the uid-elastic force has a linear relation

to the tube displacement; this implies the so called

displacement mechanism (Chen, 1987). However, it

was late established in the 1980s that the mechanism

of uid-elastic instability is not limited to displace-

ment mechanism but also that a velocity mechanism

exists. Eq. (22) therefore cannot be applied to every

244 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

case. This is true for single-phase ow. Pettigrew et al.

(1978) considered the effect of two-phase ow, but

Connors derived the analysis from the same equation.

Some papers have been published for the estimation

of the critical factor K in two-phase ow condition

based on Eq. (21) by Antunes et al. (1985). Nakamura

et al. (1997, 2000) have tried to develop a new method

with different approaches to this problem. This method

is based on the insight into the physical aspect of

the two-phase phenomenon. The method is essentially

macroscopic in nature being based on Connors dis-

placement mechanism.

Eq. (23) gives the stability boundary for the case of

homogeneous two-phase ow.

2

eq

+

2

eq

= 1 + (23)

where parameter = (m

geq

/m

leq

) is dened to be

the ratio of non-dimensional effective masses per unit

length of tube in liquid phase and gas phase, respec-

tively. Eq. (23) is the energy balance in simple form.

eq

and

eq

are the non-dimensional effective ow ve-

locities of the liquid phase and gas phase, respectively,

where = ( /1 ) (non-dimensional parameter),

(s). T is the time length of gas phase, the aver-

age value of (s), a non-dimensional parameter and

T is the time period. = (C

g

/C

l

)(

g

/

l

)(U

cg

/U

cl

)

2

,

where C

l

, C

g

are non-dimensional uid force coef-

cients, U

cl

and U

cg

are critical ow velocities for dif-

ferent phases.

Fig. 5. Vibration response at 80% void fraction: exible vs. rigid tube bundle (Pettigrew et al., 1995).

Fig. 6. Instability results in two-phase cross-ow: comparison of

Freon vs. airwater (Pettigrew et al., 1995).

In two-phase Freon, the critical mass ux for insta-

bility is reasonably well dened as shown in Fig. 5.

Instability results (Pettigrew et al., 1995) are presented

in Fig. 6. Generally, the results show two regions of in-

stability. The rst is a region where the mass-damping

parameter exponent is roughly 0.5 as expected. These

regions occur at void fractions below approximately

80% for airwater mixtures, and below approximately

65% for Freon two-phase ow. For this region, the in-

stability factor K is above the recommended guideline

K = 3.0. There appears another instability region at

void fractions above 80% for airwater and above

65% for Freon, where the slope of instability curve

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 245

is considerably lower. In fact, the change in behavior

is dramatic for Freon two-phase ow. At 90% void

fractions the instability factor K = 1.36, which is less

than the recommended design guidelines of K = 3.0.

9. Random turbulence excitation

For a given void fraction, the vibration response

of the tube bundle generally increase with mass ux

until uid-elastic instability is reached as shown in

Fig. 7ad, which gives typical comparative (exible

versus rigid tube bundle) vibration response (RMS)

at the tube free end versus mass ux. The differ-

ence in vibration response between exible bundle and

Fig. 7. (ad) Typical RMS vibration response: comparison between exible and rigid tube bundle (Pettigrew et al., 2000).

rigid bundle is small at mass uxes below instabil-

ity, which means that random turbulence excitation is

not much effected by surrounding tubes. On the other

uid-elastic instability occurs at lower mass uxes for

exible tube bundle (Pettigrewet al., 2000). The vibra-

tion response below instability is attributed to random

turbulence excitation. The approach is to deduce the

randomturbulence excitation forces fromthe vibration

response (Pettigrew et al., 2000). The relationship be-

tween the mean square amplitude of the tube vibration

response (Y

2

) and the power spectral density S

F

(f) of

the random excitation forces can be developed from

random vibration theory. For the fundamental mode of

a cantilevered tube subjected to uniformly distributed

and spatially correlated forces over its entire length,

246 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

Y

2

(l) by Mirza and Gorman (1973) is given by:

Y

2

(l) = 0.613S

F

(f)/(16

2

f

3

m

2

) (24)

where m is mass per unit length including that of tube

m

t

and hydraulic mass m

h

, is modal damping ra-

tio, f is natural frequency of tube, and C = 0.613 is

the coefcient of uid tube interaction which varies

with the tube boundary conditions and axial location x.

For Taylors experimental conditions (Cantilever tube)

maximum displacement occur at x = l, where l is

the tube length. Thus, it is easy to deduce S

F

(f) from

the vibration response with Eq. (24). A relationship

(Inada et al., 2000) between the vibration response

and the mass ux m

p

was established by doing a lin-

ear regression analysis on the experimental data. By

choosing only the data points corresponding to mass

uxes below the threshold for uid-elastic instability

a mass ux exponent b was determined for the rela-

tion (Y

2

)

0.5

m

b

p

. The scatter in the results was sig-

nicant, but a tendency towards a value of b = l was

found in the void fraction range of 2590%. At void

fraction below 25% the plots were extremely difcult

to interpret, due to the presence of some periodic wake

shedding peaks, as discussed in Taylor et al. (1989).

Pettigrew et al. (2000) uses an exponent of b = l to

collapse the random turbulence data. This allowed for

the calculation of a simplied normalized power spec-

tral density NPSD of the excitations forces formulated

Fig. 8. (a and b) Normalized power spectral density of random turbulence excitation (Pettigrew et al., 2000).

by:

NPSD =

S

F

(f)

( m

p

D)

2

(25)

The normalized power spectral densities (Nakamura

et al., 1982) were plotted against void fraction in

Fig. 8a and b. A comparison between P/D = 1.22

and 1.47 indicates that random turbulence forces are

not greatly affected by P/D. This is not entirely un-

expected since the response is not much affected by

the motion of surrounding tubes as shown in Fig. 7,

which gives typical RMS vibration response. Fig. 8a

and b illustrates that the random turbulence levels are

practically the same for triangular and square bundles

for the worst orientation. The curve (Taylor et al.,

1989) is dened by:

NPSD = 10

(0.03

g

5)

, for 25 <

g

< 90% (26)

Total owpressure is a sumof dynamic pressure p

D

,

and static pressure p

S

. Flow-induced vibration must

dissipate energy from this ow. Therefore, tube vi-

bration must require a decrease in total ow pressure.

When other owparameters remain the same, the mea-

sure of dissipated energy is a decrease in static pres-

sure. Papp (1988) proposed the following relationship:

(Y

2

)

0.5

pd (27)

where p is the pressure drop across a tube row, and

d is the tube diameter. Of course, there is energy dissi-

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 247

pation in the form of heat; but it is not expected to be

important to tube vibration. From Eqs. (24) and (27)

the following relation can be written:

S

F

(f) = C

2

I

2

p d

2

(28)

The two-phase owpressure drop is given by Hewitt

(1990) (Section 2.3.2):

p

TPF

=

2

L0

Eu

L0

Q

2

2

L

(29)

where

L

is liquid density,

2

L0

is the two-phase fric-

tion multiplier and Eu

L0

the Euler number, is related

only to the pressure drop of liquid ow (total mass ux

represented by liquid) by p

L0

= Q

2

/(2

L

). Substi-

tuting Eqs. (28) and (29) in (24) gives:

(Y

2

(x))

0.5

= C

I

2

L0

Eu

L0

_

C

16f

3

m

2

_

1/2

Q

2

2

L

d

(30)

where C

I

is coefcient of interaction.

It is evident that Eq. (30) takes into account all the

parameters of a coupled uid/tube system, i.e.

(a)

L0

is a function of two-phase ow parameters

(void fraction , mass ux Q, and pressure p);

(b) Eu

L0

depends on tube bundle geometry; and

(c) The parameters within the parentheses on the

right-hand side of the equation are determined by

the properties of the tube and its end condition.

The main source of uncertainty in Eq. (30) is the

lack of data on the two-phase friction multiplier

2

L0

(Wambsganss et al., 1992). For a tube bundle (Hewitt,

1990), (Section 2.3.2) recommended the Chisholm

correlation given by:

2

L0

=1 +(Y

2

1)

[BX

(2n)/2

(1 X)

(2n)/2

+X

(2n)

] (31)

Table 5

Values of the coefcient of interaction C

I

(Papp and Chen, 1994)

(%) Normal triangular

array P/d = 1.47

Normal triangular

array P/d = 1.32

Normal square

array P/d = 1.47

Parallel triangular

array P/d = 1.47

25 0.0260 0.0193 0.0379 0.0280

50 0.0278 0.0149 0.0326 0.0340

75 0.0458 0.0353 0.0591 0.0607

90 0.0460 0.0308 0.0599 0.0725

98 0.0467 0.0334

a

0.0716 0.0591

where X is ow quality, Y

2

= p

G0

/p

L0

=

Eu

G0L

/Eu

L0

G

0

, (p

G0

) is the pressure drop for

the gas owing alone, n = 0.37 and B = 1. Nev-

ertheless, intermediate ow regimes are typical for

the experimental data used. Therefore, the original

Chisholm recommendation was used for

2

L0

calcula-

tions. According to Chisholms recommendation, the

following relationships were used for parameter B:

B =

520

YQ

1/2

for Q 600 kg/m

2

s (32a)

and

B =

21

Y

for Q > 600 kg/m

2

s (32b)

Using recommended equations for Euler number

(Hewitt, 1990, Section 2.2.4), the values of n for

Re = 100, 1000 and 10,000 were calculated. In this

range of Reynolds number, the value of n changes

from n = 0.86 (Re = 100) to 0 (Re = 10,000; nor-

mal square conguration). Therefore, the interval of

Reynolds number was divided into three particular

intervals with the following values of n:

Re 650 (Q 50 kg/m

2

s), n = 0.8

650 < Re < 2000

(50 < Q 154 kg/m

2

s), n = 0.5

Re 2000 (Q 154 kg/m

2

s), n = 0.25

(33)

Using these values of n and Eqs. (31) and (32), the

two-phase pressure drop multiplier was calculated. Fi-

nally from Eq. (30) the values of C

I

were calculated.

These values (average for each geometry and void

fraction) are given in Table 5. It is evident that for each

geometry we obtained two intervals of void fraction,

= 2550 and 7598%. In each interval, the value of

C

I

can be regarded as constant; i.e. the condition of

validity of correlation is validated.

248 S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251

10. Measurement of void fraction

In general, the surveyed research indicates two

types of void fraction measurements (Feenstra et al.,

2000), the HEM void fraction and Radiation Atten-

uation Method (RAD) void fraction. HEM refers to

Homogeneous Equilibrium Model and RAD refers

to Radiation Attenuation Method. The determination

of uid parameters (uid density and ow velocity)

are quite different when these two methods are used

(Feenstra et al., 2000). In RAD method (Feenstra

et al., 2000; Chan and Bannergee, 1981) gamma ux

from radiation source which penetrates the test section

will be attenuated by different amounts depending

upon the average density of the two-phase ow. Void

fraction can be determined by interpolating the

average density of the uid between the benchmark

measurements for 100% liquid and gas according to

the following equation:

=

ln(N/N

L

)

ln(N

G

/N

L

)

(34)

where N represents the gamma counts obtained dur-

ing an experimental trial, N

L

and N

G

are the reference

counts obtained prior to the experiment for 100% liq-

uid and 100% gas, respectively. U

G

and U

L

can be

Table 6

Results of example FIV analysis (TEMA, 8th ed.)

calculated by:

U

G

=

xG

P

G

(35)

U

L

=

(1 x)G

P

(1 )

L

(36)

Alogical measure of an equivalent two-phase veloc-

ity, V

eq

determined from averaging the dynamic head

of the gas and liquid phases is given by Eq. (37):

V

eq

=

_

G

U

2

G

+(1 )

L

U

2

L

(37)

Local void fraction measurements have been pub-

lished by Haquet and Gouirand (1995), Lian et al.

(1997), and Mann and Mayinger (1995).

11. Application of TEMA (FIV) code

Table 6 give the results summary of application of

TEMA (2003) (FIV) software to a U-tube span sub-

jected to two-phase cross-ow. Summary of input ge-

ometric and process parameters is given. Analysis re-

sults for various mechanisms, logarithmic decrement

and acceptable amplitudes are also presented.

S. Khushnood et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 230 (2004) 233251 249

12. Conclusions

The current paper has reviewed the two-phase

cross-ow induced vibration in tube bundles. Follow-

ing topics have been considered.

Types of two-phase ow and ow regimes.

Choice of modeling uids, their comparison from

experimental standpoint and dynamic parameters

such as damping and added mass.

Various void factors models, their comparison and

void fraction measurement.

Tube vibration excitation mechanisms induced by

uid-elastic instability and random turbulence.

Wear work rates for tube-to-restraint interaction.

There is a strong need for establishing reliable

design procedures for two-phase cross-ow tube

bundle vibrations. This could be achieved by carry-

ing out modeling and simulation of the system with

uidstructure interaction focusing on void fraction,

and reliable experimental data. Test data on high

pressure and temperature conditions are insufcient,

therefore a potential challenge lies ahead.

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to College of Electrical &

Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sci-

ences & Technology (NUST), Pakistan, and Pakistan

Science Foundation (PSF) for the completion of this

research work. We also gratefully acknowledge the

help provided by Pakistan Scientic & Technical In-

formation Center (PASTIC) in acquiring the related

literature.

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