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Kinematics, Forces and Differential Eqns

Definitions of velocity and acceleration:


v =
dt
dx
x =
vdt

a = 2
2
dt
x d
dt
dv
v =
adt

Differential Equations and Kinematics/Forces:
F = m
dt
dv
Insert forces in left hand side, then separate variables, then integrate
F = m 2
2
dt
x d
Insert forces into left hand side and compare to
0
2
2
2
x
dt
x d

Note: =2 /T
Ex: The force on a car of mass m is given by F(t)=4t+2, find an expression for the velocity as a function of time
v(t) if the car starts from rest.
dt
dv
m t t F 2 4 ) ( (set the forces in a given direction equal to
dt
dv
m )
dv dt
m
t ) 2 4 (
(separate variables to get all t on one side and all v on the other)
dv dt
m
t
v t
0 0
) 2 4 (
(integrate both sides and choose appropriate limits of integration)
m
t
m
t
t v
2
2
4
) (
2
(do integral and use correct limits)
Ex: Air resistance. Assume the force of air resistance on a falling object is given by F = -kv. Determine the
velocity as a function of time for a dropped object.
F
dt
dv
m mg kv (treat downward as positive since object is falling)
mdv dt mg kv ) ( (make the whole force side one term to separate!)
) ( mg kv
dv
m
dt
so
v t
mg kv
dv
m
dt
0 0
) (
(separate variables, and integrate)
mg
mg kv
k
mg
k
mg kv
k m
t ) (
ln
1
) ln(
1
) ln(
1
(now just use algebra to solve for v)
mg kv e mg
m
t
k
) ( and solving for v you get ] 1 [ ) (
m
t
k
e
k
mg
t v
This expression for v(t) mankes sense since at t=0, v=0. And for t= inifinity. v=mg/k which is terminal velocity.

1 D Kinematics

2 D Kinematics

Graphing motion (Note: the graphs below do not represent the same moving object)

Forces
Newtons Laws
1. Objects maintain constant velocity unless there is force.
- No forces does not mean no motion. No forces means no acceleration (constant motion).

2. F = ma = m (dv/dt)
-You need to choose only one direction at a time, e.g. F
x
= ma
x
F
y
= ma
y


3. Every force on an object, has an equal and opposite force
on a different object.
- Since the forces are on different objects they do not cancel.

Some common kinds of forces






Centripetal Motion
F = m v
2
/r
- Forces directed into the circle are positive and forces directed out of the circle are negative
- You can always use this if something is going in a circle (but you dont always have to use this)
- If an object is moving with constant speed in a circle then v = 2 r/Tperiod

Energy and Work
Work

x d F W


x d F U


note: U is just another symbol for potential energy PE, and W = - PE = - U

If F is constant then
W=Fdcos
Fd

(Note: Area under F vs. x graph equals work.)


- Work tells you how much energy is tranfered to an object

- If a force pushes in the direction of d (tries to speed up object), force does + work

- If the object doesnt move d=0, or the force is perpendicular to motion, W=0 (this is why magnetic forces
and centripetal forces never do any work)

- Work done by Conservative Forces (gravity, electric, nuclear) only depends on initial and final position of
object. It does not depend on the path taken to go from the initial point to the final point.

-Work done by Non-conservative Forces (firction, airresistance) depends on the path taken. A longer path
between two points (as opposed to staight path) will cause more work to be done.

- Note: Conservative forces have potential energies associated with them. NC forces do not. Also, the work
done by any conservative force is W
F
= - U .

- Work-Kinetic energy principle W
total
= KE = KE
f
- KE
i

dx
dU
F
Force is the spatial derivative (not time derivative!) of the PE

Types of energy (KE, E, PE, U all represent energies)
KE = mv
2


U
gravity
= -Gm
1
m
2
/r (use for satellites/planets/etc.)

U
gravity
= mgh (use if near the surface of the Earth)

U
spring
= kx
2
(x is the compression or extension of spring)



U
electric
= kq
1
q
2
/r



U
electric
= qV (V is the electric potential in J/C or Volts)

E
capacitor
= CV
2
= QV

E
inductor
= L I
2


Common Energy/Work problems





Momentum and Collisions
Momentum
p = mv [kg m/s]
-Momentum is a vector and direction matters (+ if going right, - if left)
-Momentum is always conserved, unless an outside force is exerted
dt
p d
F


-This is a way to relate changes in momentum to forces

Impulse = p = F t [Ns] or p =Fdt
-Area under F vs. time graph is the Impulse (change in momentum)

Collisions
-momentum is conserved in every type of collision (elastic and inelastic)
a. Elastic collisions
- KE must be conserved to be an elastic collision,
-just because objects bounce off each other, doesnt mean it has to be elastic
-Note: For elastic collisions, (v
1
v
2
)
initial
= -(v
1
v
2
)
final
b. Inelastic collisions
- KE is not conserved, KE gets lost in the collision (turns into thermal energy, etc)
-objects can stick together (perfectly inelastic) or bounce off each other
Note: To determine whether a collision is elastic or inelastic just compare the
KE
tot
before and after the collision.
- If KE
tot initial
= KE
tot final
, then it is elastic. If not, it is inelastic.

Simple Harmonic Motion
Simple Harmonic Oscillators and Differential Equations
F = m
2
2
dt
x d
Insert forces into left hand side and compare to
0
2
2
2
x
dt
x d

= I
2
2
dt
d
Insert torque into left side, use small approx., compare to
0
2
2
2
dt
d

= 2 /T [rad/sec]
1. Mass on a Spring
-kx = m 2
2
dt
x d

2
2
dt
x d
+ (k/m) x = 0

So,

= (k/m) which means

= (k/m)

= 2 /T

T
mass on spring
= 2 [m/k]
1/2
Remember that f = 1/T [Hz]

-Spring Period T does not depend on g or amplitude!

- position as a function of time is described by x(t)=Asin( t) or x(t)=Acos( t)



2. Pendulum
= I 2
2
dt
d

-rFsin = I
2
2
dt
d

-(L)(mg)sin = I
2
2
dt
d
now use small angle aprroximation sin ~
2
2
dt
d
+ (Lmg/I) = 0

So,

= (Lmg/I) which for a mass on a string I= mL
2
means,

= (Lmg/mL
2
)

= (g/L)



= 2 /T = (g/L)


T
pendulum
= 2 [L/g]
1/2
Note that pendulum period T does not depend on mass or Amplitude!

- angle as a function of time described by (t)=Asin( t) or (t)=Acos( t)



Torque and Center of Mass
Torque
rF
rFsin


- r is from the axis to the point where the force is applied
I

- net torque means tangential acceleration
- no net torque does not mean no rotation, just no tangential acc.
- I is the moment of inertia

Moment of inertia
...
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
r m r m mr I

dr r dm r I
2 2

- r is distance from axis to m or dm, and is linear mass density m/L
- more mass farther from axis means larger moment of inertia
- larger moment of inertia means that it is harder to start rotating

Parallel Axis Theorem
2
MR I I
cm tot M is total mass, R is from axis to CM
- use if you rotate object around an axis that is not at CM of object

Angular Momentum
L=I use for an extended object
L = rpsin = Rp = mvR use for a particle or point mass

See above diagram and note: the r in rpsin is the distance from the origin/axis to the particle.
R is distance from origin to nearest line of approach to origin. Or if particle is going in a circle,
that means r=R and sin =1 so just use mvR.
=dL/dt [this is analogous to F=dp/dt]
Equilibrium
0 F

0

- no acceleration and no angular acceleration (usually means at rest)
- i.e. Torque in CW direction = Torque in CCW direction
Center of mass
...
1 1
2 2 1 1
r m r m
M
mr
M
CM
tot tot

dm r
M
rdm
M
CM
tot tot
1 1

- r is distance from arbitrary point (side of object, middle of object, etc.) to mass
m or dm, but if there is an obvious axis it is usually a good idea to use it
- is the linear mass density m/L or m/r (so since m = r dm = dr)
- the CM tells you the position where an object could balance
- the CM is also where you could treat all the mass as residing

Electric Forces, Fields, Energy & Voltage

F
e
is electric force [Newtons]
+ charges feel force in same dir of the electric field (E), - charges feel force in opp. dir of electric field (E)
E is electric field [N/Coulomb or Volts/meter]
+ charges create electric fields that point radially outward from charge, - charges create E pointing inward
U
electric
is electric potential energy [Joules]
Electric Poetential Energy (U) is another form of energy that objects can have
V is electric potential [J/Coulomb or Volts]
Electric Potential (V) at a point is the Electric Potential Energy (U) 1C of charge would have at that point




Note: + and - charges both feel a force toward lower PE
electric
, also Electric fields E point toward lower V





Gauss Law
o
in
Q
a d E

Electric flux though closed surface is proportional to


charge inside surface.
If E is constant over surface then
o
in
Q
EA

For spherical symmetry (sphere of charge, point charge)
o
in
Q
r E ) 4 (
2
and if you only enclose some of the total charge, use
)
3
4
(
3
r V Q
in in

For cylindrical symmetry (cylinder of charge, line of charge)
o
in
Q
rh E ) 2 (
and if you only enclose some of the total charge in a cylinder, use
) (
2
h r V Q
in in

or if there is a line of charge use
h L Q
in

For a plane of charge (or if very near any surface of charge)
o
in
Q
lw E ) (
and if you only enclose some of the total charge, use
) (lw A Q
in

which means near the surface of any shape of surface charge
o
E






Solving 2D electric force (vector) problems
1. Draw the forces exerted on the charge you are concerned with
(These are forces ON charge Q, not the forces charge Q is exerting on other charges)


2. Find the size of each force using F=kq
1
q
2
/r
2


3. Break forces into vertical and horizontal components F
y
and F
x

(For completely vertical or horizontal forces one component will be zero, the other is + F)
(For diagonal forces you need to use sin and cos to break the vector into components)
(Up or Right is a positive component, Left or Down is a negative component)

4. Add up all the F
x
and F
y
to get the components of the total Force vector F
xtot
and
F
ytot

i.e. for the example shown F
xtot
= F
a
cos + 0 + (-F
c
) F
ytot
= F
a
sin + (-F
b
) + 0

5. Find magnitude of total Force using the Pythagorean Theorem i.e. F
tot
2
= F
xtot
2

+ F
ytot
2


6. Find the angle from horizontal by using = tan
-1
(F
ytot
/F
xtot
)
(Note: This angle is always the angle from the nearest x-axis to the total Force vector)
Circuits
Current
dt
dQ
I
[Coulomb/Second = Amperes]
- defined to be in the direction of positive charge flow (or opposite direction of e
-
)
- is directed out of the + terminal of a battery, and into the - terminal

Resistance
The resistance of a length L of cylinder made with resistivity , and cross sectional area A is,
R= L/A [Ohms]

Ohms Law
V = IR (V is voltage drop across resistor, I is current through the resistor, R is resistance)
- V is not necessarily the voltage of the battery!
- Ohmic materials have constant resistance (slope on V vs. I), regardless of what the current is

Electrical Power
P = IV = I
2
R = V
2
/R and to find energy/heat delivered
IVdt Pdt E


Capacitors
C = Q/V (C is capacitance, Q is charge on + plate, V is voltage across capacitor)
- Capacitance tells you how well a capacitor can store charge
- Inserting a Dielectric between a capacitor always increases capacitance by a factor of k
- Capacitors store energy as well, which is given by
E
capacitor
= QV = CV
2

- For a parallel plate capacitor with plates of area A separated by a distance d, capacitance is,
C =
o
A/d [Farads]
Inductors
= -L dI/dt E
inductor
= LI
2
[L is measured in Henry]
- Inductors make it so you can not instantly change current.
- Current through inductor right before you flip switch = Current though inductor right after you flip switch
Combining Resistors


Combining Capacitors



Kirchoffs Rules
Junction Rule: I
in
= I
out

- Total current flowing into junction equals total current flowing out of junction

Loop Rule: V

= 0
- The sum of the changes in voltage around any closed loop always equals zero
V

= -IR (if you pass through resistor in the same direction as current)
V

= IR (if you pass through resistor in the opp. direction as current)

V

= +
battery
(if you pass through the battery from terminal to + terminal)
V

= -
battery
(if you pass through the battery from + terminal to - terminal)

Terminal Voltage
V
ab
= - Ir (V
ab
is the terminal voltage, is the emf of battery, r is internal resistance)
-Every battery has an internal resistance r which will lower the terminal voltage when current flows
- A 9V battery will not necessarily have a measured terminal voltage of 9V, unless no current flows
- The of a 9V battery is 9V even when no current flows, but the measured terminal voltage will be less
- Slope of Vab vs. I graph is negative the internal resistance. The y intercept is the emf .

Electrical Meters
Voltmeter
- Measures voltage change across circuit element (resistor, battery, etc.)
- Ideally has infinite resistance so it does not draw any current away from circuit
- Needs to be hooked up in parallel with circuit element

Ammeter
- Measures current through a circuit element (resistor, battery, etc.)
- Ideally has no resistance so it does not change or affect the current it is trying to measure
- Needs to be hooked up in series with circuit element
Differential equations and R-L-C circuits
When you are asked to find something (current, voltage, charge, etc.) as a function of time, use the loop rule
to write and solve a differential equation.
RC circuit
-for the voltage drop across a resistor use I R= -(dQ/dt)R
-for the voltage drop across a capacitor use Q/C
-for most charging RC circuits you can use
0
C
Q
R
dt
dQ

And you separate Q and t, then integrate to get,
) 1 ( ) (
RC
t
o
e Q t Q
which means that
RC
t
o
RC
t
o
e I e
RC
Q
dt
dQ
t I ) (


Note: = RC gives you an idea of how long it takes to charge/discharge
-for most discharging RC circuits you can use
0
C
Q
R
dt
dQ
Note: You often keep the dQ/dt term negative for a discharging
capacitor since the Q
flows through R
= Q
o
Q
still on capacitor


And you separate Q and t and integrate to get,
RC
t
o
e Q t Q ) (
which means that
RC
t
o
RC
t
o
e I e
RC
Q
dt
dQ
t I ) (


Note: Q
o
= CV
o
for charging and discharging capacitors (V
o
is the maximum voltage across capacitor)
RL circuit
-for the voltage drop across a resistor use I R
-for the voltage drop across an inductor use LdI/dt
-for most RL circuits with a battery being connected in the loop you can use
0
dt
dI
L IR

And you separate I and t, then integrate to get,
) 1 ( ) (
/ R L
t
o
e I t I



Note: = L/R gives you an idea of how long it takes for inductor to allow current to change

-for most RL circuits with a battery being disconnected in the loop you can use
0
dt
dI
L IR




And you separate I and t, then integrate to get,
R L
t
o
e I t I
/
) (



Note: I
o
= V
o
/R I
o
is the maximum current that flows



Magnetism
Magnetic forces
B v q F
B


F
B
= qvBsin
vB
(q is charge, v is speed, B is magnetic field, is angle between v and B)
- The direction of force on + charge is given by the Right hand rule (Very-Bad-Finger)
- If the charge is negative the force is in the opposite direction
- Magnetic forces never do Work (since F
B
is always perpendicular to motion W=Fdcos90=0)
- Magnetic forces often make charges (q) of mass m travel in circles of radius r given by,
r = mv/qB
Note: If you want a charged particle to travel in a straight line (velocity selector), create an electric field E so
that the forces cancel, i.e. speed is ratio of E to B
v=E/B (since F
B
= F
E
or qvB = qE)
Note: The forces have to be of equal size, not the fields! (i.e. F
B
= F
E
,

but E does not equal B)
Magnetic force on wire
F
B
= ILB sin
LB

-to find direction of F
B
use the same right hand rule (except v is now direction of I)
Magnetic fields
Biot Savart Law 2

4 r
r l d
I B
o

(true for all cases, but rarely used)


Long straight wire B =
o
I/2 r [Tesla]
o
= x 10
-7
T m/A
- The magnetic field from a long straight wire is directed along a circle centered at wire with direction given by
right hand rule (Thumb in direction of current, fingers curl in direction of B)

- Note: Wires with I in same direction will attract, Wires with I in opp. Direction will repel
- Also for a solenoid or a toroid,
B
solenoid
=
o
(N/L)I B
toroid
=
o
(N/2 r)I

Magnetic flux and induced voltage
a d B
M

and if B is uniform in space then


cos BA
M

dt
d
M

- You will induce a voltage/current in a loop of wire only if you change either B, A, or in time

For a piece of wire or a conducting bar of length L the induced voltage will be
= LvB (remember there is voltage on Las Vegas Boulevard)

Lenzs Law
- Induced current always opposes the change in flux
If flux increases, induced current creates a magnetic field B in opp direction of external B
If flux decreases, induced current creates a magnetic field B in same direction of external B




Amperes Law

enclosed o
I l d B

Integral around a closed loop is proportional
to the current inside loop.

If B is constant along loop then
enclosed o
I BL


For a long straight wire just integrate in a circle around wire to get,
B(2 r) =
o
I
B=
o
I/(2 r)

For a solenoid integrate in rectangle (part inside solenoid, part outside) which encloses N turns of wire to get,
B(L)=
o
NI
B=
o
(N/L)I

For a toroid integrate in a circle around inside of toroid which encloses all N turns of wire to get,
B(2 r) =
o
NI
B=
o
(N/2 r) I