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CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 12
Sponges and Sponges and
Placozoans Placozoans
Sponges and Sponges and
Placozoans Placozoans
Powerpoint revised by Franklyn Tan Te
Copyright 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
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A Caribbean demosponge, Aplysina fistularis.
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Origins of Multicellularity Origins of Multicellularity
Cells are the elementary units of life Cells are the elementary units of life
Natures Natures experiments with larger experiments with larger
organisms without cellular differentiation organisms without cellular differentiation
are are limited limited such that large, single celled such that large, single celled
marine algae are marine algae are rare rare
Sponges Sponges are the are the simplest multicellular simplest multicellular
animals but their animals but their ccell assemblages are ell assemblages are
distinct distinct from other metazoans. from other metazoans.
Sponges have cells embedded in an Sponges have cells embedded in an
extracellular matrix supported by a extracellular matrix supported by a
skeleton skeleton with needle with needle--like like spicules and spicules and
protein. protein.
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Origins of Multicellularity Origins of Multicellularity
Increasing the size of a cell causes Increasing the size of a cell causes
problems of exchanging molecules with problems of exchanging molecules with
the environment. the environment.
Multicellularity Multicellularity prevents surface prevents surface--to to--mass mass
problems as smaller units greatly increase problems as smaller units greatly increase
surface area for metabolic activities surface area for metabolic activities
HHighly adaptive towards ighly adaptive towards larger body size larger body size
Sponges neither look like or behave as Sponges neither look like or behave as
animals but molecular evidence animals but molecular evidence demonstrates demonstrates
that they are phylogenetically grouped with that they are phylogenetically grouped with
animals animals
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Origin of Metazoa Origin of Metazoa
Evolution of the Metazoa (animals) Evolution of the Metazoa (animals)
Eukaryotic cells evolved and diversified Eukaryotic cells evolved and diversified
into many lineages that led to modern day into many lineages that led to modern day
descendants descendants
Includes all Includes all unicellular protozoans, colonial unicellular protozoans, colonial
and multicellular plants, animals, and fungi and multicellular plants, animals, and fungi
Multicellular organisms were collectively Multicellular organisms were collectively
called called metazoans metazoans and are now also and are now also
termed termed animals animals
Metazoans are placed in the Metazoans are placed in the Opisthokont Opisthokont
clade clade which include fungi, which include fungi,
choanoflagellates, choanoflagellates, and other groups and other groups
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Origin of Metazoa Origin of Metazoa
Choanoflagellates Choanoflagellates
Solitary or colonial aquatic eukaryotes Solitary or colonial aquatic eukaryotes
Each cell has a flagellum surrounded by a collar Each cell has a flagellum surrounded by a collar
of microvilli of microvilli
Flagellum beats and draws water into collar Flagellum beats and draws water into collar
where the microvilli collect particles like where the microvilli collect particles like
bacteria bacteria
Most are sessile Most are sessile but one species attaches to but one species attaches to
floating diatom colonies and feed midwater floating diatom colonies and feed midwater
Strongly resemble sponge feeding cells called Strongly resemble sponge feeding cells called
choanocytes choanocytes, which have been argued to be , which have been argued to be
ancestral to choanoflagellates ancestral to choanoflagellates
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Evidences of common ancestry between Evidences of common ancestry between
Choanoflagellates and Choanoflagellates and MMetazoans etazoans
By comparing the genomes or proteomes of By comparing the genomes or proteomes of
sponges with more complex taxa, scientists sponges with more complex taxa, scientists
can discover what can discover what cell transmitters cell transmitters or or
morphogens morphogens the first metazoans possessed. the first metazoans possessed.
Shared characteristics would have been Shared characteristics would have been
inherited from the most recent common inherited from the most recent common
ancestor of animals. ancestor of animals.
Molecular phylogeny indicates that colonial Molecular phylogeny indicates that colonial
bodies evolved early in the lineage. bodies evolved early in the lineage.
Origin of Metazoa Origin of Metazoa
Origin of Metazoa Origin of Metazoa
Recent research Recent research indicates indicates proteins used by proteins used by
colonial choanoflagellates for colonial choanoflagellates for cell cell
communication and adhesion communication and adhesion are are
homologous to those that metazoans use in homologous to those that metazoans use in
cell cell--to to--cell signaling. cell signaling.
Sponge genome contains elements that Sponge genome contains elements that
code for code for regulatory pathways regulatory pathways of more of more
complex metazoans complex metazoans
Sponges have proteins that code for Sponges have proteins that code for spatial spatial
patterning patterning that specify anterior and that specify anterior and
posterior pole of larvae. posterior pole of larvae.
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Origin of Metazoa Origin of Metazoa
Sponges today are less complex than their Sponges today are less complex than their
ancestors ancestors
Sponges have simple bodies composed of Sponges have simple bodies composed of
aggregates of several cell types held together aggregates of several cell types held together
by extracellular matrix by extracellular matrix
Sponge bodies are not symmetrical and have Sponge bodies are not symmetrical and have
no mouth or digestive tract no mouth or digestive tract
Placozoans share features with other Placozoans share features with other
animal groups. animal groups.
Have small nuclear genome and the largest Have small nuclear genome and the largest
mitochondrial genome in the animal kingdom mitochondrial genome in the animal kingdom
Placozoan bodies are as puzzling as sponges: Placozoan bodies are as puzzling as sponges:
they also have no heads or tails they also have no heads or tails
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
General Features of Sponges General Features of Sponges
Mostly sessile Mostly sessile
Body designed for efficient aquatic filter feeding Body designed for efficient aquatic filter feeding
Porifera Porifera means means pore pore--bearing; bearing; sac sac--like bodies like bodies
are perforated by many pores are perforated by many pores
Use flagellated collar cells, or Use flagellated collar cells, or choanocytes, choanocytes, to to
move water to bring food and oxygen while move water to bring food and oxygen while
removing wastes removing wastes
Most Most of the 8600 sponges are marine, found in all of the 8600 sponges are marine, found in all
seas and all depths, while few live in brackish seas and all depths, while few live in brackish
water and 150 live in fresh water water and 150 live in fresh water
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Figure 12.1 Some growth habits and forms of sponges.
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Figure 12.2 Sponge choanocytes have a collar of microvilli
surrounding a flagellum.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Sponges Sponges vary in size vary in size from a few from a few
millimeters to over 2 meters in diameter millimeters to over 2 meters in diameter
Many species are Many species are brightly colored brightly colored because because
of pigments in dermal cells of pigments in dermal cells
Embryos Embryos are free are free--swimming while swimming while adult adult
sponges sponges always attached always attached
Some appear radially symmetrical but many Some appear radially symmetrical but many
are irregular in shape are irregular in shape
Some stand erect, some are branched, and Some stand erect, some are branched, and
others are encrusting others are encrusting
Growth patterns depend on shape of Growth patterns depend on shape of
substratum, direction of water, speed of flow substratum, direction of water, speed of flow
and availability of space and availability of space
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Many animals like crabs, nudibranchs, Many animals like crabs, nudibranchs,
fish, and other species do live as fish, and other species do live as
commensals or parasites commensals or parasites in or on sponges in or on sponges
Sponges can also grow on a variety of Sponges can also grow on a variety of
other living organisms with some crabs other living organisms with some crabs
using sponges for camouflage and using sponges for camouflage and
protection protection
Sponges and microorganisms living on Sponges and microorganisms living on
them often have a them often have a noxious odor and noxious odor and
produce a variety of bioactive compounds produce a variety of bioactive compounds
Certain sponge extracts have manifested Certain sponge extracts have manifested
medical and pharmaceutical effectiveness. medical and pharmaceutical effectiveness.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Skeletal structure of a sponge can be Skeletal structure of a sponge can be fibrous fibrous
and/or rigid and/or rigid consisting of consisting of calcareous or calcareous or
siliceous spicules siliceous spicules
Fibrous portion comes from collagen protein Fibrous portion comes from collagen protein
fibrils in intercellular matrix fibrils in intercellular matrix
There are several types of collagen, which vary in There are several types of collagen, which vary in
chemical composition; sponges contain chemical composition; sponges contain spongin spongin
Composition and shape the spicules form the Composition and shape the spicules form the
basis of sponge classification basis of sponge classification
Modern Modern materials science materials science view spicules for view spicules for
possible possible nanoparticle products nanoparticle products
The simplistic exterior of sponges often mask The simplistic exterior of sponges often mask
their chemical and functional sophistication their chemical and functional sophistication
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Figure 12.3 Diverse forms of spicules that support a sponge body.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Sponges date back to the Sponges date back to the early Cambrian and early Cambrian and
maybe even Precambrian period maybe even Precambrian period
Traditionally grouped in three classes based on Traditionally grouped in three classes based on
spicules and chemical composition spicules and chemical composition
Calcarea: Calcarea: calcium carbonate spicules with calcium carbonate spicules with
one, three, or four rays one, three, or four rays
Hexactinellids: Hexactinellids: glass sponges with six glass sponges with six--rayed rayed
siliceous spicules siliceous spicules
Demospongiae: Demospongiae: siliceous spicules around an siliceous spicules around an
axial filament, spongin fibers, or both axial filament, spongin fibers, or both
Homoscleromorpha Homoscleromorpha, was formed to contain , was formed to contain
sponges without a skeleton or with siliceous sponges without a skeleton or with siliceous
spicules without an axial filament spicules without an axial filament
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Figure 12.4 Cladogram depicting evolutionary relationships among the
four classes of sponges.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Form and Function Form and Function
Body openings consist of small incurrent Body openings consist of small incurrent
pores or pores or dermal ostia dermal ostia in the outer layer of in the outer layer of
cells called cells called pinacoderm pinacoderm
Sponges feed by collecting suspended Sponges feed by collecting suspended
particles from the water through internal particles from the water through internal
canal systems canal systems
Water is directed past the choanocytes, which Water is directed past the choanocytes, which
are flagellated collar cells that keep the current are flagellated collar cells that keep the current
flowing via beating of flagella flowing via beating of flagella
Microvilli in the collar trap and phagocytize Microvilli in the collar trap and phagocytize
food particles that pass by. food particles that pass by.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Sponges non Sponges non--selectively consume food selectively consume food
particles (detritus, plankton, and bacteria) particles (detritus, plankton, and bacteria)
The smallest particles (80%) are taken into The smallest particles (80%) are taken into
choanocytes by choanocytes by phagocytosis phagocytosis
Protein molecules may be taken in by Protein molecules may be taken in by
pinocytosis pinocytosis
Two other cell types, Two other cell types, pinacocytes pinacocytes and and
archaeocytes, archaeocytes, facilitate feeding facilitate feeding
Dissolved nutrients can also be Dissolved nutrients can also be absorbed absorbed by by
sponges sponges
Efficiency of food capture is dependent on Efficiency of food capture is dependent on
water movement through the sponge body water movement through the sponge body
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Three types of sponge body designs Three types of sponge body designs
Asconoids Asconoids
Simplest Simplest body organization body organization
Small and tube Small and tube--shaped to allow water to flow shaped to allow water to flow
directly across cells so no directly across cells so no dead space dead space
Choanocytes are in a large internal chamber, the Choanocytes are in a large internal chamber, the
spongocoel spongocoel
Choanocyte flagella pull water through the Choanocyte flagella pull water through the
pores and extract food particles pores and extract food particles
Used water is expelled through a large single Used water is expelled through a large single
osculum osculum
All All Calcarea Calcarea are asconoids are asconoids
Leucosolenia sp. Leucosolenia sp. and and Clathrina sp, Clathrina sp, for example for example
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Figure 12.5 Three
types of sponge
structure.
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Figure 12.6 Clathrina canariensis (class Calcarea) is a common
Asconoid on Caribbean reefs.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Syconoids Syconoids
Resemble asconoids but Resemble asconoids but larger and with a larger and with a
thicker more complex body wall thicker more complex body wall
Body wall is folded outwards with Body wall is folded outwards with choanocyte choanocyte--
lined radial canals lined radial canals that empty into that empty into spongocoel spongocoel
Water enters through dermal ostia and move Water enters through dermal ostia and move
into tiny openings called into tiny openings called prosopyles into the prosopyles into the
radial canals radial canals
Food is ingested by Food is ingested by choanocytes choanocytes and used and used
water is pumped through internal pores water is pumped through internal pores
called called apopyles apopyles then outwards via osculum then outwards via osculum
Spongocoel Spongocoel is lined with is lined with epithelial cells epithelial cells rather rather
than choanocytes as in asconoids than choanocytes as in asconoids
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Developmental evidence of being derived Developmental evidence of being derived
from asconoid ancestors from asconoid ancestors
Syconoids pass through an asconoid stage in Syconoids pass through an asconoid stage in
development but do not form highly branched development but do not form highly branched
colonies colonies
Flagellated canals form by Flagellated canals form by evagination of the evagination of the
body wall body wall
Syconoid body plan is not homologous among Syconoid body plan is not homologous among
all sponges that have it all sponges that have it
Classes Classes Calcarea Calcarea and and Hexactinellida Hexactinellida have have
syconoid species (ex: syconoid species (ex: Sycon sp. Sycon sp.))
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Figure 12.7 Cross section through wall of sponge Sycon
sp., showing choanocytes in canals within the wall but do
not line spongocoel.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Leuconoids Leuconoids
Most complex Most complex and larger, for more food and larger, for more food--
collecting regions collecting regions
These regions have choanocytes lining in small These regions have choanocytes lining in small
chambers that effectively filter all water present chambers that effectively filter all water present
Clusters of flagellated chambers Clusters of flagellated chambers are filled from are filled from
incurrent canals incurrent canals and discharge and discharge to excurrent to excurrent
canals canals which lead to osculum which lead to osculum
After food is removed, used water is pooled to After food is removed, used water is pooled to
form an exit stream that leaves through an exit form an exit stream that leaves through an exit
pore at very high velocity pore at very high velocity
This high rate of exit flow prevents the sponge This high rate of exit flow prevents the sponge
from re from re--filtering used water and wastes filtering used water and wastes
Most sponges are leuconoid type Most sponges are leuconoid type
Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
The leuconoid system has high adaptive The leuconoid system has high adaptive
value to efficiently meet high food value to efficiently meet high food
demands of larger body size demands of larger body size
Has the highest proportion of flagellated Has the highest proportion of flagellated
surface per volume of cell tissue surface per volume of cell tissue
More collar cells can filter more particles More collar cells can filter more particles
Water flow slows down inside due to greater Water flow slows down inside due to greater
surface area within the chambers surface area within the chambers
Large sponges filter 1500 liters of water per Large sponges filter 1500 liters of water per
day for maximum food collection day for maximum food collection
The leuconoid system has evolved The leuconoid system has evolved
independently many times in sponges independently many times in sponges
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Figure 12.8 This orange demosponge, Mycale laevis, often grows
beneath plate-like colonies of the stony coral Montastrea annularis.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Types of Cells in Sponges Types of Cells in Sponges
Sponge cells are arranged in a gelatinous Sponge cells are arranged in a gelatinous
extracellular matrix called extracellular matrix called mesohyl or mesohyl or
mesenchyme mesenchyme
The connective tissue of sponges found in The connective tissue of sponges found in
fibrils, skeletal elements, and amoeboid cells fibrils, skeletal elements, and amoeboid cells
Absence of organs requires that all Absence of organs requires that all
fundamental processes occur at the fundamental processes occur at the
individual cell level individual cell level
Respiration and excretion via diffusion and Respiration and excretion via diffusion and
water regulation via contractile vacuoles in the water regulation via contractile vacuoles in the
archaeocytes and choanocytes archaeocytes and choanocytes
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Visible activities seen in sponges include Visible activities seen in sponges include
slight alterations in shape, local slight alterations in shape, local
contraction, propagating contractions, and contraction, propagating contractions, and
closing and opening of incurrent and closing and opening of incurrent and
excurrent pores excurrent pores
Sponges can close their osculum due to Sponges can close their osculum due to
heavy sediment load heavy sediment load
Movements occur very slowly but they suggest Movements occur very slowly but they suggest
a whole body response in organisms lacking a whole body response in organisms lacking
complex organization above the cellular level complex organization above the cellular level
Apparently excitation spreads from cell to cell Apparently excitation spreads from cell to cell
by mechanical stimuli and signaling molecules by mechanical stimuli and signaling molecules
like hormones or via electrical impulses like hormones or via electrical impulses
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Figure 12.9 Small section through sponge wall, showing
four types of sponge cells.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Choanocytes Choanocytes
Oval cells with one end embedded in Oval cells with one end embedded in mesohyl mesohyl
and exposed end has one and exposed end has one flagellum flagellumsurrounded surrounded
by a by a collar collar
Collar Collar consists of microvilli connected to consists of microvilli connected to
each other by fine microfibrils each other by fine microfibrils
Forms a Forms a fine filtering device fine filtering device to strain food to strain food
Particles too large to enter collar are trapped Particles too large to enter collar are trapped
in mucous and slide down to base in mucous and slide down to base to be to be
phagocytized phagocytized
Food is passed to Food is passed to archaeocytes archaeocytes for for
intracellular digestion with no need for gut intracellular digestion with no need for gut
cavity cavity
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Figure 12.10 Food trapping by sponge cells. A) Cutaway section of
canals showing direction of water flow. B) Two choanocytes, and C)
structure of the collar.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Archaeocytes Archaeocytes
Amoeboid cells Amoeboid cells that move about in the that move about in the
mesohyl with many functions mesohyl with many functions
Phagocytize particles in the Phagocytize particles in the pinacoderm pinacoderm
Receive particles for digestion from Receive particles for digestion from
choanocytes choanocytes
Can differentiate into many other more Can differentiate into many other more
specialized cell types specialized cell types
Sclerocytes: Sclerocytes: secrete spicules secrete spicules
Spongocytes: Spongocytes: secrete spongin secrete spongin
Collencytes: Collencytes: secrete fibrillar secrete fibrillar collagen collagen
Lophocytes: Lophocytes: secrete large amounts of secrete large amounts of
collagen collagen
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Pinacocytes Pinacocytes
Thin, flat, epithelial Thin, flat, epithelial--like cells that cover the like cells that cover the
exterior and interior surfaces of sponges exterior and interior surfaces of sponges
almost like real tissues almost like real tissues
Form Form pinacoderm pinacodermwith a variety of intercellular with a variety of intercellular
junctions but no basal membrane for most junctions but no basal membrane for most
sponges sponges
Ingest food by phagocytosis and are Ingest food by phagocytosis and are
contractile contractile to regulate surface area of sponge to regulate surface area of sponge
Form Form myocytes myocytes that are circular bands around that are circular bands around
oscula and help regulate flow of water oscula and help regulate flow of water
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Cell Independence: Regeneration and Cell Independence: Regeneration and
Somatic Embryogenesis Somatic Embryogenesis
Sponges have a great ability to regenerate Sponges have a great ability to regenerate
lost parts and repair injuries lost parts and repair injuries
Complete reorganization of the structure Complete reorganization of the structure
and function of participating cells or bits and function of participating cells or bits
of tissue occurs in of tissue occurs in somatic embryogenesis somatic embryogenesis
Process of reorganization differs in Process of reorganization differs in
sponges of differing complexity sponges of differing complexity
Regeneration following fragmentation is Regeneration following fragmentation is
one means of one means of asexual reproduction asexual reproduction
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Types of Asexual reproduction Types of Asexual reproduction
Fragmentation Fragmentation
Sponge breaks into parts that are capable of Sponge breaks into parts that are capable of
forming a completely new sponge forming a completely new sponge
BBud formation ud formation
External buds External buds
Small individuals that break off from Small individuals that break off from
parents that have reached a certain size parents that have reached a certain size
Internal buds or gemmules Internal buds or gemmules
Formed by archaeocytes that collect in Formed by archaeocytes that collect in
mesohyl mesohyl and coated with tough spongin and and coated with tough spongin and
spicules that can survive harsh spicules that can survive harsh
environmental conditions environmental conditions
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
How gemmules work? How gemmules work?
When parent sponge dies, gemmules survive When parent sponge dies, gemmules survive
and remain dormant during the harsh and remain dormant during the harsh
situations situations
Live cells within gemmules escape through Live cells within gemmules escape through
special opening called micropyles and develop special opening called micropyles and develop
into new sponges into new sponges
Gemmulation is a adaptation to changing Gemmulation is a adaptation to changing
seasons and for colonization of new habitats seasons and for colonization of new habitats
Gemmules are controlled by weather, internal Gemmules are controlled by weather, internal
chemicals, and by remaining inside the parent chemicals, and by remaining inside the parent
sponge. sponge.
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Figure 12.11 Section through a gemmule of a freshwater
sponge (Spongillidae).
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction
Most are Most are monoecious (both male and monoecious (both male and
female sex cells in one body) female sex cells in one body)
In some Demospongiae and Calcarea In some Demospongiae and Calcarea
Gametes develop from Gametes develop from choanocytes choanocytes
Some gametes from Some gametes from archaeocytes archaeocytes
Most sponges are Most sponges are viviparous viviparous where zygote where zygote
is retained within parent and provided with is retained within parent and provided with
nourishment until it is released as a nourishment until it is released as a
ciliated larva ciliated larva
One One sponge releases sperm which enter sponge releases sperm which enter
the pores of another sponge the pores of another sponge
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Different types of fertilization and zygote Different types of fertilization and zygote
formation exits in sponges formation exits in sponges
Viviparous Viviparous sponges have choanocytes sponges have choanocytes that that
phagocytize the sperm and transform into phagocytize the sperm and transform into
carrier cells carrier cells that transport sperm through the that transport sperm through the
mesohyl and to oocytes to form zygotes mesohyl and to oocytes to form zygotes
Oviparous Oviparous sponges release both sperm and sponges release both sperm and
oocytes into water for external fertilization oocytes into water for external fertilization
The The free free--swimming larva swimming larva of most sponges of most sponges
is a solid is a solid--bodied bodied parenchymula; six other parenchymula; six other
larval forms exits. larval forms exits.
The outwardly directed flagellated cells of The outwardly directed flagellated cells of
the parenchymula become the parenchymula become choanocytes choanocytes
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Unique development patterns in Calcarea Unique development patterns in Calcarea
and some Demospongiae and some Demospongiae
Hollow Hollow stomoblastula stomoblastula develops with flagellated develops with flagellated
cells oriented toward the interior cells oriented toward the interior
Blastula then turns inside out ( Blastula then turns inside out (inversion inversion) and the ) and the
flagellated cells now turn outside flagellated cells now turn outside
Small flagellated cells or Small flagellated cells or micromeres micromeres located at located at
anterior end while larger non anterior end while larger non--flagellated flagellated
macromeres macromeres located at posterior end located at posterior end
Macromeres Macromeres overgrow invaginating micromeres overgrow invaginating micromeres
during metamorphosis and settlement during metamorphosis and settlement
Micromeres Micromeres become choanocytes, archaeocytes, become choanocytes, archaeocytes,
and collencytes and collencytes while while macromeres macromeres give rise to give rise to
pinacoderm and sclerocytes pinacoderm and sclerocytes
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Figure 12.12 A) Development of demosponges, B) Development of the
calcareous syconoid sponge Sycon sp..
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Class Calcarea (Calcispongiae) Class Calcarea (Calcispongiae)
Calcareous sponges with spicules of Calcareous sponges with spicules of
calcium carbonate calcium carbonate
Spicules Spicules are straight (monaxons) or have are straight (monaxons) or have
three or four rays three or four rays
Most are small with tubular or vase shapes Most are small with tubular or vase shapes
Many are drab in color, but some are bright Many are drab in color, but some are bright
yellow, green, red, or lavender yellow, green, red, or lavender
Leucosolenia sp. Leucosolenia sp. and and Sycon sp. Sycon sp. are marine are marine
shallow shallow--water water
Asconoid, syconoid and leuconoid Asconoid, syconoid and leuconoid body body
forms forms
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Figure 12.13 Some sponge body forms.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Class Hexactinellida (Hyalospongiae) Class Hexactinellida (Hyalospongiae)
Glass sponges with six Glass sponges with six--rayed spicules of rayed spicules of
silica bound together to form network silica bound together to form network
Nearly all are Nearly all are deep deep--sea sea forms forms
Most are radially symmetrical with vase or Most are radially symmetrical with vase or
funnel shaped bodies attached by stalks of funnel shaped bodies attached by stalks of
root spicules onto the substrate root spicules onto the substrate
Have Have syncytial syncytial cell structure that have many cell structure that have many
nuclei with a large cell which were produced nuclei with a large cell which were produced
by the fusion of many cells or division of by the fusion of many cells or division of
nuclei without dividing the cytoplasm nuclei without dividing the cytoplasm
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Most Hexactinellids have Most Hexactinellids have trabecular trabecular
reticulum reticulumthat is that is bilayered bilayered, sheet , sheet--like and like and
tubular with collagenous mesohyl cells tubular with collagenous mesohyl cells
Cytoplasmic bridges connect choanoblasts Cytoplasmic bridges connect choanoblasts
and archaeocytes with trabecular reticulum and archaeocytes with trabecular reticulum
Choanoblasts Choanoblasts are unusual cells that make are unusual cells that make
flagellated outgrowths called flagellated outgrowths called collar bodies collar bodies
whose flagella beat to move water like whose flagella beat to move water like
choanocytes choanocytes
Food is collected by directing water Food is collected by directing water
through the primary and secondary through the primary and secondary
reticulum layers reticulum layers
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Figure 12.14 Diagram of part of a flagellated chamber of hexactinellids.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Class Demospongiae Class Demospongiae
Contains Contains 95% of living sponge species 95% of living sponge species
include most large sponges include most large sponges
Spicules Spicules are siliceous but not six rayed are siliceous but not six rayed
and may be absent or bound together by and may be absent or bound together by
spongin spongin
Leuconoid Leuconoid body form for all species body form for all species
All marine except for All marine except for Spongillidae, Spongillidae, the the
freshwater sponges freshwater sponges
Marine demosponges Marine demosponges are highly are highly varied in varied in
color and color and shape, with some growing to shape, with some growing to
several meters in diameter. several meters in diameter.
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Freshwater Freshwater demosponges demosponges
Widely distributed in well Widely distributed in well--oxygenated ponds oxygenated ponds
and and streams streams
They encrust plant stems and submerged They encrust plant stems and submerged
wood wood
Look like wrinkled scum, pitted and porous Look like wrinkled scum, pitted and porous
with brown and green colors with brown and green colors
Flourish in Flourish in summer summer and and in in early autumn early autumn
Reproduce sexually, but existing genotypes Reproduce sexually, but existing genotypes
may also reappear annually from may also reappear annually from gemmules gemmules
Sponges Sponges die by late autumn die by late autumn and asexually and asexually
release gemmules to prepare for next years release gemmules to prepare for next years
population. population.
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Figure 12.15 Marine Demospongiae on Caribbean coral reefs. A)
Pseudoceratina crassa, B) Aplysina fistularis, C) Monanchora unguifera
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Class Homoscleromorpha Class Homoscleromorpha
Mostly marine with a variety of colors but Mostly marine with a variety of colors but
live in cryptic habitats live in cryptic habitats
Generally found near shore but have deep Generally found near shore but have deep
water forms water forms
Separated from Demospongiae due to Separated from Demospongiae due to
presence of presence of true basement membrane true basement membrane
under pinacoderm or extracellular matrix under pinacoderm or extracellular matrix
Also have Also have adherens cell junctions adherens cell junctions that that
from fromtrue tissues true tissues unlike other sponges unlike other sponges
Divided into two clades based on absence Divided into two clades based on absence
or presence of spicules or presence of spicules 12-53
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Phylogeny and Adaptive Diversification Phylogeny and Adaptive Diversification
Sponges appeared before the Cambrian and Sponges appeared before the Cambrian and
two calcareous sponge two calcareous sponge--like organisms were like organisms were
in Paleozoic reefs. in Paleozoic reefs.
Sponges share many traits with other Sponges share many traits with other
animals and are considered sister taxon animals and are considered sister taxon
Proteins for cell Proteins for cell adhesion and cell adhesion and cell--signaling signaling are are
homologous to other animals homologous to other animals
Some sponges have Some sponges have basement membrane basement membrane with with
collagen and adherens junctions with cadherin collagen and adherens junctions with cadherin
molecules that connect epithelial cells molecules that connect epithelial cells
Sponge have Sponge have blastula blastula and some form and some form gastrula gastrula
stages like many animals stages like many animals
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Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Adaptive Diversification Adaptive Diversification
Poriferans are a highly successful group Poriferans are a highly successful group
with thousands of species in diverse with thousands of species in diverse
habitats habitats
Diversification centers on their Diversification centers on their unique unique
water water--current system current systemand its degree of and its degree of
complexity complexity
New feeding mode New feeding mode has evolved for has evolved for sponges sponges
found in found in deep water caves with low deep water caves with low
nutrients nutrients
Illustrates the non Illustrates the non--directional nature of directional nature of
evolution evolution
Phylum Porifera Phylum Porifera
Unique features of deep water sponges Unique features of deep water sponges
Many tiny Many tiny hook hook--like spicules cover like spicules cover highly highly
branched body branched body
Spicule Spicule layer can entangle the legs of layer can entangle the legs of
crustaceans that come near sponge crustaceans that come near sponge
Filaments of the sponge body grow over Filaments of the sponge body grow over prey, prey,
slowly enveloping it and later digesting it slowly enveloping it and later digesting it
Most of the group are carnivores and Most of the group are carnivores and not not
suspension suspension feeders feeders
Some have symbiotic methanotrophic Some have symbiotic methanotrophic
bacteria bacteria
Contain siliceous spicules, but Contain siliceous spicules, but lack lack
choanocytes and internal choanocytes and internal canals so very canals so very
different than regular sponges different than regular sponges
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Figure 12.16 The carnivorous sponge, Chondrocladia lyra , is
commonly called a harp sponge.
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Phylum Placozoa Phylum Placozoa
Proposed by K Proposed by K. G. Grell (1971) . G. Grell (1971) based on based on
a single species a single species-- Trichoplax adhaerens Trichoplax adhaerens
Tiny (2 Tiny (2--3 mm) marine form that is plate 3 mm) marine form that is plate--like like
and has no symmetry and has no symmetry
No major organs, no muscular or nervous No major organs, no muscular or nervous
system system
Lacks basal lamina Lacks basal lamina beneath epidermis and beneath epidermis and
no extracellular matrix but has genes for it no extracellular matrix but has genes for it
Body has dorsal epithelium to cover cells Body has dorsal epithelium to cover cells
and have thick ventral epithelium of and have thick ventral epithelium of
monociliated cells and nonciliated gland monociliated cells and nonciliated gland
cells cells
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Phylum Placozoa Phylum Placozoa
Space between the epithelia contain Space between the epithelia contain
multinucleated fibrous multinucleated fibrous cells within a cells within a
contractile contractile syncytium syncytium
PPlacozoans glides over food, secretes lacozoans glides over food, secretes
digestive enzymes, and absorb nutrients digestive enzymes, and absorb nutrients
Divide asexually and produce swarmer Divide asexually and produce swarmer
stages by budding. stages by budding.
No sexual stages have been seen but have No sexual stages have been seen but have
isolated eggs in the laboratory isolated eggs in the laboratory
Considered Considered diploblastic diploblastic with dorsal with dorsal
epithelium representing epithelium representing ectoderm ectodermand and
ventral epithelium representing ventral epithelium representing endoderm endoderm
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Figure 12.17 A) Trichoplax adhaerens is a marine placozoan, B)
Section through Trichoplax adhaerens, showing histological structure.