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assertion a statement or a claim

author's purpose
the author's reason for writing (to
inform, persuade, entertain)
autobiography
a true story about a person's
life written by that person
bandwagon
the argument that since everyone is
doing it, you should too
biography
an account of a person's life
written by someone else
cause and effect pattern
an effect is said to have happened
because of some cause
character
a person or animal in a
story
chronological order
the time order in which
events occur
circular reasoning
in persuasion, when restating your point
instead of offering proof for your point
citation
evidence or proof used to
support an assertion (claim)
clarify
to make clear or easier to
understand
climax
the plot's most dramatic and revealing
moment, usually the turning point of the
story
compare and contrast
pattern
tell how things are alike
and different
conflict
the tension or struggle that
propels a story's plot forward
connotation
the emotions and associations
surrounding a word (e.g. inexpensive vs.
cheap)
context clues
hints in a text that help you figure
out the meaning of a word
contrived
as a plot: obviously planned or
made up; unrealistic
credible believable
denotation
the direct or the dictionary meaning of a
word (in contrast to its connotation)
dynamic character
a character who encounters conflict
and is changed by it
evidence
details that provide support for
an idea or conclusion
external conflict
struggle between a character
and an outside force
fable
a brief story which uses animal
characters to teach a lesson/moral
fantasy
story that takes the reader into an unreal
world with events that could not happen
fiction
writing that tells about imaginary
characters and events
figure of speech
a word or phrase that departs from
everyday literal language (metaphor,
personification, simile, etc.)
first person P.O.V.
the person narrating the story is a
character in the story (I, me, mine)
folk tale
story passed on from one generation
to another by word of mouth.
free verse
poetry that has no fixed
pattern of meter or rhyme.
generalization
a conclusion presented as a truth
without the back up to support it
graphic features
information in texts presented visually
(charts, graphs, pictures, headings)
imagery
author creates mental pictures by
using words that appeal to the senses
inference
combining clues from the text and your
own experience to make an educated
guess
informational text
writing that provides factual information
like newspapers, magazines, web sites. etc.
internal conflict
a struggle that takes place
within a character
legend
stories often thought to be true; actually
they contain a mixture of fact and fiction
media
the channels through which information is
distributed; (examples: news, magazines,
the Internet)
meter
pattern of stressed and
unstressed syllables
myth
stories about gods that explain
something about the world
name-calling
attacking an opponent instead of
giving reasons for your position
narrator
the speaker who tells the
story
non fiction
writing that tells about real
people, places and events
novel
a long book with plot,
characters, conflict, etc.
novella
longer than a short story
but shorter than a novel
organizational pattern
the way an author presents his ideas (ex.
sequence of events, cause and effect, compare
and contrast, problem and solution)
persuade
to convince a listener or reader to think or
act in a particular way, esp. to change
someone's mind
plot
the sequence of events in a
story
plot complications
plot events that plunge the
character deeper into conflict
point of view
the perspective from which
the narrator tells the story
propaganda
an attempt to persuade people to accept
certain ideas or promote a cause
realistic like real life
refrain
a repeated line or group of
lines in a poem
repetition
repeating a word or phrase
within a poem
resolution
the character solves the
problem and ends the conflict
rhyme
repetition of sounds in words that appear
close to one another in a poem
rhyme scheme
the pattern of rhymes in a
poem
setting
the time period and place
of a story
short story a brief fictional narrative
source (of info)
a book, article, website, etc. that we
consult to provide support or evidence or
details
stanza
a group of lines that form a
unit in a poem
static character
a character in a story who does not
change regardless of events in the story
stereotypes
fixed ideas about what
members of a group are like
structural features
characteristics that make up a particular
type of literature, poetry, drama etc
summarize
restate author's point in your own
words; only use important ideas
suspense
feeling of anxious uncertainty
about the outcome of a story
symbol
something that stands for
something else
testimonial
using a famous person to try to
promote an idea or product
theme
an idea or message about life, society, or
human nature the writer shares with the
reader
third person P.O.V.
the story is being told by an outside
narrator or observer who is not in the story
(he, hers, its)
tone
attitude that the author creates
toward its subject matter