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Ventilation

and
Air Handling
Csaba Szikra
Faculty of Architecture
Department of Building Energetic and Services
Assignment of comfort ventilation systems is to serve fresh air to the indoors and the occupied
area.
If the ventilation, system apart from serving necessary amount of fresh air, has additional
assignment, according to the function the following systems can be identified:
Air cooling
Air heating
Humidifying
Dehumidifying
Air conditioning
Ventilation and Air Handling
Classification according to the function
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The ventilation system also can be classified according to the environmental pressure in between
the ventilated room and its surroundings.
Accordingly we can define:
depressive
compressive
balanced
Ventilation and Air Handling
Classification according to the pressure related to its surrounding
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
If the infiltration is undesired for ventilated area
because the surrounding air quality is harmful
compressive ventilationsystem can be applied.
In this case the pressure of the ventilated area is
increased by 20-30Pa. Typical applications are
labs industrial clean areas, pharmaceutical
production areas, operating theatres and boiler
houses. Also this type of ventilation can be
applied in restaurants where smell problem can
be solved this way, which could path through
from the kitchen to the serving areas. Other
applications: Bath, hotel rooms etc.
In compressive ventilation systems there are two
duct systems. One for the incoming air and one
for the exhaust air, but in always fun is installed in
the incoming duct. The exhaust duct can be
neglected, in this case the air is leaving through
the building envelop. The level of the over
pressurizing is equal to the pressure loss of the
exhaust duct. If there is no installed exhaust
duct the system is called inlet ventilation. The
inlet ventilation system apart from serving fresh
air to the occupied area, can handle other
functions like air heating and air cooling.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Classification according to the pressure related to its surrounding
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Fan
Inlet air
If the air quality of the ventilated place
is harmful to the surrounding,
depressive ventilation system could
be applied. Typical applications:
Baths, toilets, swimming pools,
industrial areas, kitchen, laundries.
The pressure of the ventilated area
is 20-30Pa less than the pressure of
the surrounding areas.
In depressive ventilation system there is
an exhaust duct with an inbuilt fan.
The entering air is coming through
an inlet duct or a building shell. If
there is installed inlet duct the
pressure different of the ventilated
area is equal to the pressure loss of
the inlet duct. If there is no inbuilt
inlet duct we call that system
exhaust ventilation. The depressive
and the exhaust ventilation system
are not suitable for serving other
functions like air heating and
cooling.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Classification according to the pressure related to its surrounding
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Exhaust air
Fan
In balanced ventilation system there is
no pressure different in-between
the ventilated area and its
surroundings. In this case for the
incoming and also for the
exhausting air there are separated
duct with inbuilt fan. With
balanced ventilation system all the
other services can be handled.
Also with a small modification of
the incoming and exhausting air
volume, this can be achieved by
adjusting element, depressive and
compressive ventilation system can
be operated.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Classification according to the pressure related to its surrounding
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Fan
Exhaust air
Fan
Inlet air
In central ventilation system the incoming and the exhausting air join in one common
area, which is always an air handling unit. For the air handling unit there are
separated ducts, which are (Figure 4.):
Fresh air duct, with an air intake inlet at the external area,
Exhaust duct, with an ejection outlet also in the external area,
Inlet duct for serving the handled air to the ventilated area,
Outlet duct for the removal and delivering to the air handling unit of the used air.
One important aim of the air handling unit is to recover the energy content from the
exhaust air to the fresh air.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Central ventilation system
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Air handling unit
Inlet air
outlet air
Ventilated area
Fresh air Exhaust air
Most of the cases the local ventilation system means air
exhaust system. In the exhaust ventilation system
there is only one exhaust duct for removal of the air
from the ventilated area. In this case the inlet air
enters to the ventilated area through the building
envelop, or a cut-through on the external wall.
The incoming air volume depends on the air
tightness of the building shells, openings or a size of
the cut-through.
The air which enters in the building shell is unhandled.
At winter it is cold at summer it is hot.
The energy content of the exhaust air is not
recovered. Which energetically not an efficient
case.
The pressure of the ventilated area is less than the
surroundings areas pressure.
The investment cost is low.
In small areas where there is no required continuous
operation of the ventilation system, with wall
mounted local fans, demand controlled ventilation
can be achieved.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Local ventilation Exhaust system
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
As it was seen in local exhaust and inlet ventilation also
there is only one duct for the incoming or leaving air.
The only different is in stead of applying local fans
one bigger size fan serving the ventilated areas. This
ventilation system schema is mostly applied in
exhaust ventilation system of multilevel buildings. The
fan is installed in the main duct or at the end of the
duct as a roof fan. Heat recovery system can not be
applied, and also the demand control can not be
achieved easily, so this system is not energy efficient.
Application of this system is advantageous where
there is no heat requirement and continuous
operation is required
If demand control is required, there is possible to install
motor controlled shuttle valve, which closes the
airflow when there is no need for ventilation. In this
case the electric motor of the fan has frequency
converter, so the volume flow rate is adjustable.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Central ventilation Exhaust system
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Roof fan: These types of fans are mounted at the
end of the duct on masonry wall or on
external metal frame. There two types of roof
fans according to the direction of the
ejecting air: horizontal and vertical
Considering acoustic point of view, the
vertical type is better, because the radiated
noise distribution is higher at the top of the
instrument.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Fans
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Duct fans: For smaller pressure head there is an
axial bladed, for higher there are pressure
head radial bladed. Axial bladed fans mostly
are applied in smaller systems. Because of in
bigger system needs bigger pressure, so in
higher system always better o apply redial
bladed fans. For smaller systems better to
apply duct fan because there is no need for
separated room for the ventilation.
Disadvantages of the duct fans are the noise
level, which emitted to the fans
environment. Duct fan is suitable for exhaust,
inlet and also for balanced ventilation
system.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Fresh air system
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The aim of the central ventilation system is to serve fresh air to the ventilated area and to remove
the contaminant source from the occupied rooms.
The balanced ventilation system with a central air handling unit has four ducts. For supplying the
air there is a fresh air duct and inlet duct. The exhaust systemis for removing the
contaminated air which has to parts: before the air handling unit an outlet duct and after the
air handling unit the exhaust duct.
The supply system and the exhaust system are connected by the heat recovery. The aim of the
heat recovery is to gain the energy content of the exhausting air for the supply air. The heat
recovery preheats the fresh air.
Exhaust air Fresh air
Ventilated area
Outlet air
Inlet air
Air handling unit
Fan
for exaust air
Fan
inlet air
Heating
coil
Heat recovery Filter
Silencer
Silencer
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Fresh air system
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The heating coil heats the air to the ambient room temperature. In smaller systems, meaning
limited air volume, the heating coil is not necessary. In this case the heat recovery is the only
heater in the system. Because the efficiency of the heat recovery is not 100%, additional heat
load is necessary. That additional heat load is assured by the heating system.
The Supply and the Exhaust system are extended by silencer. The aim of the silencer is to reduce
the noise level produced by the elements of the air handling unit. The crucial element of the
equipment concerning acoustic problem is the fan of the supply and fan of the exhausting
system. But other elements can produce also noise like duct, filter coil etc.
Exhaust air Fresh air
Ventilated area
Outlet air
Inlet air
Air handling unit
Fan
for exaust air
Fan
inlet air
Heating
coil
Heat recovery Filter
Silencer
Silencer
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Fresh air system
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
In comfort range, the necessary air volume estimation is based on the number of occupancies,
moisture carbon dioxide and moisture source. Air volume estimation based on indoor air
quality gives higher amount of flow rate. In this case all the internal contaminant sources are
considered, like emission of volatile organic compounds and radon etc.
When the ventilation system is designed for night ventilation, the heat recovery is extended by a
bypass duct. That is because during natural cooling there is no need for recovered heat.
Exhaust air Fresh air
Ventilated area
Outlet air
Inlet air
Air handling unit
Fan
for exaust air
Fan
inlet air
Heating
coil
Heat recovery Filter
Silencer
Silencer
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Fresh air system
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
When the ventilation system design is based on the occupancy requirements like fresh air for
metabolism or based on assurance of the indoor air quality of based on moister removal
produced by a human called comfort ventilation.
The minimum requirement on the volume flow rate of the comfort ventilation is 20m3/h,person
If the aim of the ventilation system is to serve the minimum fresh air for the occupants, there is no
recirculation in the air handling unit.
Exhaust air Fresh air
Ventilated area
Outlet air
Inlet air
Air handling unit
Fan
for exaust air
Fan
inlet air
Heating
coil
Heat recovery Filter
Silencer
Silencer
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Air heating
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
In air heating system the temperature of the inlet air is higher than the ambient air temperature.
The additional temperature different covers the heat loss of the heated space.
The energy requirement of the air heating system has to parts. First the air is heated to the
ambient temperature, second it is overheated. It means that the heat requirement of the
air handling unit is higher than in the simple ventilations system without air heating. The heat
load different and the overheating cover partly or totally the heat loss through the building
envelop. The entering overheated air cools under to the ambient room temperature.
Recirculation
box
Exhaust air Fresh air
Air handling unit
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer Filter Heat recovery Heating
coil
Fan
inlet air
Silencer Fan
for exaust air
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Air heating
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The schema of the central heating system is extended by a recirculation box and its . The
necessary fresh air depends on the number of occupancies, but the heat loss on the external
temperature. This means the required fresh air and inlet air have different dependencies.
When the external temperature is low and there is no occupancies most of the air flow is re-
circulated. Energetically the recirculation is more efficient than the heat recovery. Only the
required fresh air is passing through the air handling unit.
The temperature of the inlet air is 15-30C higher than the ambient temperature. That is because
the higher ambient temperature has no as bad effect as the colder one on thermal comfort
of the occupant.
Recirculation
box
Exhaust air Fresh air
Air handling unit
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer Filter Heat recovery Heating
coil
Fan
inlet air
Silencer Fan
for exaust air
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Air cooling
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The air cooling system is along with serving the necessary fresh air for the occupancies in
addition partly or even totally removing the internal and external heat gain of the building..
Sizing of the air cooling system is based on the removal of the heat gains. In bigger public
buildings the central air handling unit is only serving the necessary fresh air, the additional
cooling load locally enters the cooling place.
The air cooling system is similar to the air heating system. The cooling media is chilled water. If the
surface temperature of the cooling coil is lower than the due point temperature, which
depends on the ambient temperature and relative humidity, on the surface of the coil
water starts condensating. (for instance t=20C, RH=50% tdue point=9.3C). In this case
apart from removal of the heat from the air the latent heat is removed and the moisture
content of the entering air also becomes lower.
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer
Air handling unit
Exhaust air Fresh air
Heat recovery Recirculation
box
Heating
coil
Filter Fan
inlet air
Silencer
Fan
for exaust air
Cooling
coil
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Air cooling
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
In general case the inlet air temperature is 5-10C lower than the ambient room temperature. In
special cases when the air distribution system is made good mixing in a residential area the
temperature different could be even higher. If the temperature different is too high
compare to an ambient air temperature and the air velocity is too high it cases rheumatic
disease. By the air distribution system and the air volume the air velocity and the
temperature different should be kept as low as it possible to avoid comfort problems.
The balanced air cooling system with a central air handling unit has four ducts. For supplying the
air there is a fresh air duct and inlet duct. The exhaust systemis for removing the increased
temperature air which has to parts: before the air handling unit an outlet duct and after the
air handling unit the exhaust duct.
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer
Air handling unit
Exhaust air Fresh air
Heat recovery Recirculation
box
Heating
coil
Filter Fan
inlet air
Silencer
Fan
for exaust air
Cooling
coil
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Dehumidifying
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The aimof the dehumidifying system is to keep the relative humidity and the moisture content of
the internal are below the required level. In this process the water content of the air is
reduced.
Application for comfort range: In the internal area, high relative humidity damaging for the
building construction. The building elements like windows walls and other elements absorbs
moisture from the air. High moisture content causes lifetime reduction, geometric torsion of
the timber building element, and causes corrosion on the metal building elements.
Dehumidifier system removes the unnecessary humidity from the air.
Typical applicationin household and public building is to remove the evaporated water from
the surface of the swimming pools.
Exhaust air Fresh air
Fan
for exaust air
Air handling unit
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer Fan
inlet air
Filter Cooling
coil
Heating
coil
Recirculation
box
Heat recovery
Silencer
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Central dehumidifying with fresh air service
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The fresh air ventilation system and air heating systemare working as a dehumidifier system
when the external temperature is below the internal ambient temperature. That is because
warming up the air drying it at the same time. In several cases the air heating and
ventilation system are enough to solve dehumidification problems in the ventilated area.
This schema of the dehumidifying system is similar to the air cooling system. But in a case of air
drying the surface temperature of the cooling coil is below the due point temperature of the
air.
The heating coil heats the air temperature back to the ambient room temperature.
Exhaust air Fresh air
Fan
for exaust air
Air handling unit
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer Fan
inlet air
Filter Cooling
coil
Heating
coil
Recirculation
box
Heat recovery
Silencer
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Central dehumidifying without fresh air service
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
If in apart from drying service of the fresh air is not necessary this schema could be applied
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer Fan
for exaust air
Air handling unit
Silencer Fan
inlet air
Filter Heating
coil
Cooling
coil
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Local dehumidifying equipments
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The local air drying system has a similar structure than the central air drying without fresh air
supply. But the equipment contains in one covering box all the necessary elements including
heating and cooling.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Local dehumidifying equipments
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The humid air of the swimming pool enters to the equipment at the evaporatorthought the
cooled surface. In the evaporator the moisture condensates and the air cools down. At the
other side of the equipment the air passing through the condenser. By the hot surface of the
condenser the air is heated. The dry and warm air leaves the equipments and enters back
to the swimming pool.
In order to achieve efficient system, additional heat exchangeris built for heating the water of
the swimming pool, which uses the additionally loaded energy by the compressor.
The heat exchanger also make the cooling cycle more efficient.
In the equipment there is an inbuilt fanwhich is responsible for the air circulation.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Local dehumidifying equipments
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
The air drying equipmentshould be placed close to the area where dehumidification is required.
In case of swimming pool it is placed at align of the water of under the ceiling. It is possible
to place the equipment also at the other side of the wall.
The condensate always goes back to the swimming pool.
In a case of smaller swimming pools (household range) 2kW electric poweris sufficient of
removing 5l water in one our. That 2 kW electric energy because of closed air and cooling
cycle heats the air and the water of the swimming pool.
The equipment can be extended by and electric battery or heating coil which is serving the
necessary heat load to the area.
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Central air conditioning
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Air conditioning is the system in which the equipment handles the temperature the humidity and
the pressure of the internal place. The air conditioning system distributesand collectsthe air
of the internal place, removes the polluted air and handles the indoor air quality
requirements.
Central air conditioning system is applied in residential buildings, public and office buildings but
also essential applications are industrial and agricultural applications.
If the air conditioning system design is based on the requirements of the occupancy it called
comfort air conditioning. If the air conditioning system designs for industrial or agricultural
cases it called industrial air conditioning.
Heating
coil
(after heating)
Humidifyer
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer Fan
for exaust air
Air handling unit
Exhaust air Fresh air
Heat recovery Recirculation
box
Cooling
coil
Heating
coil
Filter Fan
inlet air
Silencer
Ventilation and Air Handling
Air handling : Types of humidifiers
Department of Building Energetics and Services
H 1111 Budapest, Megyetem rkp. 3.
Stream generating pan: This type consists of an enclosed water tank, which is connected to the
main air duct. High-temperature water coils or direct-fired gas or electrical elements heat
the water in the tank. The tank water vaporizes, and the moisture is entrained into the air
stream as it passes over the tank.
Steam jet: Steam generated from an external source positioned close to the unit is injected into
the air-stream. It is essential that the steam supply is uncontaminated and odorless.
Air Washer: It consists of a chamber incorporating a water spray system, a collection tank, and
an eliminator section. The air, in passing through the chamber, comes into intimate contact
with the water, mass transfer of moisture into the air-stream occurs.
Heating
coil
(after heating)
Humidifyer
Ventilated area
Inlet air
Outlet air
Silencer Fan
for exaust air
Air handling unit
Exhaust air Fresh air
Heat recovery Recirculation
box
Cooling
coil
Heating
coil
Filter Fan
inlet air
Silencer