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Machine tool:

The purpose of a machine tool is to cut away the surplus material , usually metal from metal
supplied , to leave the work piece of required shape & size , produced to an acceptable degree
of accuracy & surface finish .

Purpose of using Machine tool:

(a) Able to hold work piece & the cutting tool securely.
(b) Endowed with sufficient power to enable the tool to cut the work piece material at
economic rates.
(c) Capable of displacing the tool & work piece to one another to produce required work
piece. Displacement must be controlled with a degree of precision which will ensure the
desired accuracy of surface finish & size.

Conventional Machines:

It is a machine tool under the direct control of on operator. Function are
performed by the operator as & when he considered them to necessary ,
machine is totally hardwire.


Automatic Control system ( NC Machine)

In case of automatic controlled machine tool , the signal to change the speed
etc.
Must be written in to the instruction which are supplied to the machine in order to control its
activites, i.e it must be written in to the input data.


By using automatic control , Human operator is relieved of the routine tasks & is left free to
concentrate an aspects of his work which can be done more Eg: Preparing future work plan
for the machine to do.

CNC Machine

A numerical control machine is a machine positioned automatically along a
preprogrammed path by means of coded instruction.

(a) Advances in microelectronics & microcomputer have allowed the computer to the control
unit on modern numerical control machinery.

(b) This computer takes the place of the tape reader found on earlier NC machines. In other
wise instead of reading & executing the program directly from punched tape , the
program is loaded in to the memory of the computer & executed from the machines
computer. These machines are known as Computer Numerical Control.

(c) CNC machine have more programmable features than older NC type machine. And may
be used as stand alone units, or in a flexible machining center. CNC machined is
programmed by more than one method.

(d) All machines can be programmed via on board computer keyboard. In addition to the
keyboard there is a tape reader as electronic connector to allow the transfer of program
written else where to the CNC machine.





Block diagram of CNC :
















Main constituents are:
(a) CNC system.
(b) PLC
(c) Spindle & axes drives & other prime movers
(d) Feedback elements ( Encoder / Linear scales ; proximity switches , limit switches)

Computer Numerically Controled (CNC)

Advantages of CNC Machine

1. Higher flexibility.
2. Increased Productivity.
3. Consistent Quality.
4. Reduced Scrap Rate.
5. Higher Accuracy.
6. Lesser Floor Space.
7. Machining Advanced Materials.
8. Shorter cycle time.
9. Automatic Material handler.
10. Reduced non-productivity time.










CNC SYSTEM PLC MACHINE
SPINDLE
DRIVE
SPINDLE
MOTOR
AXES DRIVE AXES
MOTOR
Programmable Logic Control (PLC);

It is a solid state device basically designed to perform logical decision based on the combination
of set of input conditions & provides output command to machine.

Working : The processor with built in routines scans the input signal in accordance with strored
program in the memory & initiates the required output.

PLC performs the function like

(a) Timing
(b) Counting & other arithmetic & logical operation.

Address: A unique identification assigned to particular location where the data can be
deposited or retrieved.

BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)

A convenient method of grouping a code when it is required to display a number in its decimal
form. Four bits being required for each decimal.

Binary: A numbering system based upon successive integral power of two is called as Binary .

Bit: Bit is defined as a binary digit used to represent either logical 1 or logical 0

Byte: Group of 8 bits is called as Byte

Nibble: Group of 4bits is called as Nibble

Word: An array or group of bits which together convey an item of information is called as Word.

Digit : Group of characters to which a specific meaning can be assigned.

Digit: Symbol of representation one of the elements of a positional number system.

EEPROM: It is defined as semiconductor non volatile memory. It can be erased by electrically &
once again it can be reprogrammed.

EPROM: It is defined as a semiconductor non volatile memory. It can be erased by exposing to
Ultra Violet Memory of correct intensity for a particular duration & it can be reprogrammed once
again.

Flag; It is defined as a memory location which is basically used for testing conditions in processor
. A control relay or memory internal to the system which can be set or reset.