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Chap 4 Optical sensor system

4.1 Introduction
wavelength of light is most stable (used to
define length)
optical sensor systems operate using:
- Intensity of reflected light: principally analog,
generates signal proportional to distance, or
on/off voltage (optical limit switch)
- interference: very high accuracy
- time-of-flight: measuring exceptionally long
range (speed of light = 3x10
8
m/s)
far more accurate and greater frequency
response than nonoptical sensors
4.2 Autocollimators
precise measurement of small rotations
around axes orthogonal to an optical axis
combination of collimator + telescope
- collimator: takes diverging light and focuses it
into a nondiverging column
- telescope: takes light from a source at infinity
and focuses it onto a point
4.2 Autocollimators
angle of incidence changes
focused image on the focal plane changes
light source
condenser
monochrom
atic filter target
reticle
optical
micrometer
refractor
block
eye piece
beam
splitter
photocell
amplifier
objective
reference
mirror
meter
beam
splitter

4.2 Autocollimators
light from the source is focused by
condenser optics
projected onto collimator reticle
reticle projects a desired pattern via beam
splitter
rays (from collimating reticle) are bent 90
toward objective lens
projects the image (nondiverging manner) at
target mirror
target mirror reflects the image back through
the objective lens to the beam splitter
4.2 Autocollimators
beam splitter: semi-reflecting (50% pass, 50%
reflect)
50% to the photodiode, output from the
photodiode recorded for analysis or used as a
feedback signal for control
fast and simple to measure
- straightness or flatness (1/2 - 1/4 m))
- angle change, squareness
angle change light intensity to photodiode
change voltage output changes
4.2 Autocollimators
4.2 Autocollimators
mirror moved by L
step
, and angle measured by
autocollimator

sled
mirror
L
step
=
tan
step
L =
4.2 Autocollimators

L
sled
minimize the effect of variation in
contact height between sled and surface
L
step
- high resolution
L
sled
, L
step
are selected properly error in
straightness is a function of error in L
step
, 5
step sled
sled
L L
L

<
step
L =
4.2 Autocollimators
used in determining precision optic surface
profile
the sled should be clean and the area should
be greater than local deflection
4.2 Autocollimators
Verify the accuracy of a rotary table
using autocollimator and polygon
Determine flatness of surface plates
Comparison of work angle
with standard angle block
Verify straightness of movement
along machined rails
4.2 Autocollimators
Determine parallelism of end surfaces
Verify the squareness of base surfaces
with penta prism and reference mirror
Align autocollimator to optical bench
Measure angle of optical cube
4.2 Autocollimators
Measure Deviation of a Wedge Measure Penta Prism's Deviation
4.2 Autocollimators
Figure How to make the optical axis of an autocollimator
parallel to an optical bench
4.2 Autocollimators
Figure Using an autocollimator to measure the 90 degree angle of a high precision cube
4.2 Autocollimators
Figure How to measure small wedge angles and their deviation
4.2 Autocollimators
Figure How to measure the deviation angle of a penta prism
Operating considerations
target mirror distance (due to
atmospheric turbulence) distortion
center of beam intensity shifts from ideal position
registers angular change
temperature gradient refractive index of air
changes bending of light, misunderstanding
as angular motion
(refractive index change is always a problem
in optical measurement)
Operating considerations
nominal
2
293
( 1) ( 1)
760 ( )
Abbe error
c
n
v
p
n n
mmHg T K
d k dT
dx nT dy
d
L
dx

=
=

Operating considerations
turbulence, inhomogeneous temperature
distribution output of autocollimator changes
many measurements, and average
size of target mirror affects measuring
range, but does not affect measurement angle
directly
Operating considerations
focal length lateral displacement on
photodiode increases more, with a small motion
of target mirror resolution , sensitivity ,
measurable range
target mirror is too far reflected light misses
the objective lens
4.3 optical encoders
counts number of scale lines using a light
source and a photodiode angle of rotation,
linear displacement
encoder
light source
collimating lens
index plate
focusing lens
photodiode
4.3 optical encoders
types of outputs
- digital output related to number of lines
immunes to electrical noise (problem in
synchros, resolvers, RVDT, etc.)
- analog sine, cosine wave output susceptible
to electrical noise
extremely sensitive to dirt, dust and fluid
contamination (optical sensors) sealed or
used in a clean environment
output: absolute or incremental angle
4.3.1 incremental position
encoders
encoder
light source
collimating lens
index plate
focusing lens
photodiode
index plate
4.3.1 incremental position
encoders
4.3.1 incremental position
encoders
Encoder disk
4.3.1 incremental position
encoders
encoder shaft is connected to motor shaft
encoder disk consists of transparent and
opaque sectors
mask (between light source and disk) allows
many windows of light to be turned on/off
simultaneously averaging effect of local error
in line spacing
light from LED is collimated light passes
through disk and mask focused by a lens onto
a photodiode
4.3.1 incremental position
encoders
photodiode output: square wave pulses
(voltage > certain voltage 1, otherwise 0)
sum of pulses represent angle of disk or shaft
4.3.1 incremental position
encoders
position information (number of counts)
saved in an external counter
power shut down information disappears.
In order to find the shaft position at power on,
home bit or external limit switch is necessary
output resolution function of number of
transparent and opaque sectors (100100,000
counts per 1 rotation)
quadrature encoder
used in most encoders
uses two rectangular waves (90 phase shift )
determines rotating direction and increases
resolution by 4 times)
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
Forward motion
0100 1101 1011 0010
Reverse motion
1000 1110 0111 0001
cosine sine home
quadrature encoder
assign two element boxes to each square
wave and assume that the boxes move in phase
with each other to the right
box encounters state change (on, off) - old left
is removed, right value moves to left, right most
value is wave state value (shift register)

In the right direction: 4, 13, 11, 2


In the left direction: 8, 14, 7, 1
changes 4 times per one period, value
vibrates at edges
quadrature encoder
if one wave is used vibration near the
boundary is interpreted as high speed rotation
2 waves are necessary (quadrature encoder)
quadrature encoder
quadrature encoder
Moire fringes and interpolation
encoders
2 grids (similar period, tilted each other) are
overlapped bright only at transparent potions
interference fringe (Moire fringe)
Moire fringes and interpolation
encoders
one grid moves bright part moves
perpendicularly
grid width is large negligible diffraction
small , distance between two lines bright
part moving range is / resolution increases
from to
Moire fringes and interpolation
encoders
reference grid windows (not tilted, 1/4 pitch)
can give better performance signal increases,
and can be smaller produces sine and cosine
wave outputs
after interpolation, 2 square waves (90 phase
shift) are produced (quadrature method)
resolution is enhanced more