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Sausage making is a logical outcome of efficient butchery.

Traditionally, sausag
e makers would salt various tissues and organs such as scraps, organ meats, bloo
d, and fat to help preserve them. They would then stuff them into tubular casing
s made from the cleaned intestines of the animal, producing the characteristic c
ylindrical shape. Hence, sausages, puddings, and salami are among the oldest of
prepared foods, whether cooked and eaten immediately or dried to varying degrees
.
Early humans made the first sausages by stuffing roasted intestines into stomach
s.[1] The Greek poet Homer mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey, Epi
charmus wrote a comedy titled The Sausage, and Aristophanes' play The Knights is
about a sausage-vendor who is elected leader. Evidence suggests that sausages w
ere already popular both among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and most likely wi
th the various tribes occupying the larger part of Europe.[1]
German Wurst: liver sausage, blood sausage, and ham sausage
The most famous sausage in ancient Italy was from Lucania (modern Basilicata) an
d was called lucanica, a name which lives on in a variety of modern sausages in
the Mediterranean.[citation needed] During the reign of the Roman emperor Nero,
sausages were associated with the Lupercalia festival.[citation needed] Early in
the 10th century during the Byzantine Empire, Leo VI the Wise outlawed the prod
uction of blood sausages following cases of food poisoning.[citation needed]
The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsu
s meaning "salted".[2]
Pt is a similar product made of cooked and minced meat. See also, terrine.
Casings
Main article: Casing (sausage)
Traditionally, sausage casings were made of the cleaned intestines, or stomachs
in the case of haggis and other traditional puddings. Today, however, natural ca
sings are often replaced by collagen, cellulose, or even plastic casings, especi
ally in the case of industrially manufactured sausages. Some forms of sausage, s
uch as sliced sausage, are prepared without a casing. Additionally, luncheon mea
t and sausage meat are now available without casings in tin cans and jars.
Ingredients
A sausage consists of meat, cut into pieces or ground, and filled into a casing,
with other ingredients. Ingredients may include a cheap starch filler such as b
readcrumbs, seasoning and flavourings such as spices, and sometimes others. The
meat may be from any animal, but often is pork, beef, or veal. The lean meat-to-
fat ratio is dependent upon the style and producer. Speciality sausages with oth
er ingredients such as apple and leek[3] are also made. The meat content as labe
lled may exceed 100%; this happens when the weight of meat used exceeds the tota
l weight of the sausage after it has been made, sometimes including a drying pro
cess which reduces water content.
In some jurisdictions foods described as sausages must meet regulations governin
g their content. For example, in the United States The Department of Agriculture
specifies that the fat content of different defined types of sausage may not ex
ceed 30%, 35% or 50% by weight; some sausages may contain binders or extenders.[
4][5]
Many traditional styles of sausage from Europe and Asia use no bread-based fille
r and include only meat (lean meat and fat) and flavorings.[6] In the United Kin
gdom and other countries with English cuisine traditions, many sausages contain
a significant proportion of bread and starch-based fillers, which may comprise 3
0% of ingredients. The filler used in many sausages helps them to keep their sha
pe as they are cooked. As the meat contracts in the heat, the filler expands and
absorbs moisture and fat from the meat.[7]
When the food processing industry produces sausages to a price, almost any part
of the animal can end up in sausages, varying from cheap, fatty specimens stuffe
d with meat blasted off the carcasses (mechanically recovered meat, MRM) and rus
k, while the finest quality contain only meat and seasoning.[3] In Britain "meat
" declared on labels could in the past include fat, connective tissue, and MRM;
these ingredients may still be used, but must be labelled as such, and up to 10%
water may be included without being labelled.[7]
Classifications
Sausages from Runion
Swojska (Polish)
Krajanska (Polish)
Szynkowa (Polish)
Reindeer sausage
Sausages classification is subject to regional differences of opinion. Various m
etrics such as types of ingredients, consistency, and preparation are used. In t
he English-speaking world, the following distinction between fresh, cooked, and
dry sausages seems to be more or less accepted:
Cooked sausages are made with fresh meats, and then fully cooked. They are e
ither eaten immediately after cooking or must be refrigerated. Examples include
hot dogs, Braunschweiger, and liver sausage.
Cooked smoked sausages are cooked and then smoked or smoke-cooked. They are
eaten hot or cold, but need to be refrigerated. Examples include kielbasa and mo
rtadella. Some are slow cooked while smoking, in which case the process takes se
veral days or longer, such as the case for Gyulai kolbsz.
Fresh sausages are made from meats that have not been previously cured. They
must be refrigerated and thoroughly cooked before eating. Examples include Boer
ewors, Italian pork sausage, siskonmakkara, and breakfast sausage.
Fresh smoked sausages are fresh sausages that are smoked and cured. They do
not normally require refrigeration and do not require any further cooking before
eating. Examples include Mettwurst and Teewurst which are meat preparations pac
ked in sausage casing but squeezed out of it (just like any other spread from a
tube).
Dry sausages are cured sausages that are fermented and dried. Some are smoke
d as well at the beginning of the drying process. They are generally eaten cold
and will keep for a long time. Examples include salami, Dro wors, Finnish meetvur
sti, Sucuk, Landjger (smoked), Slim Jim, and summer sausage.
Bulk sausage, or sometimes sausage meat, refers to raw, ground, spiced meat,
usually sold without any casing.
Vegetarian sausage are made without meat, for example, based on soya protein
or tofu, with herbs and spices. Some vegetarian sausages are not necessarily ve
gan, and may contain ingredients such as eggs.
The distinct flavor of some sausages is due to fermentation by Lactobacillus, Pe
diococcus, or Micrococcus (added as starter cultures) or natural flora during cu
ring.
Other countries use different systems of classification. Germany, for instance,
which produces more than 1200 types of sausage, distinguishes raw, cooked and pr
ecooked sausages.
Raw sausages are made with raw meat and are not cooked. They are preserved b
y lactic acid fermentation, and they may be dried, brined or smoked. Most raw sa
usages will keep for a long time. Examples include Mettwurst and salami.
Cooked sausages may include water and emulsifiers and are always cooked. The
y will not keep long. Examples include cervelat, Jagdwurst, and Weiwurst.
Precooked sausages (Kochwurst) are made with cooked meat but may also includ
e raw organ meat. They may be heated after casing, and they will keep only for a
few days. Examples include Saumagen and Blutwurst.
In Italy, the basic distinctions are:
Raw sausage (salsiccia) with a thin casing
Cured and aged sausage (salsiccia stagionata or salsiccia secca)
Cooked sausage (wuerstel)
Blood sausage (sanguinaccio or boudin)
Liver sausage (salsiccia di fegato)
Salami (in Italy, salami is the plural of salame, a big, cured, fermented an
d air-dried sausage)
Cheese sausage (casalsiccia) with cheese inside
The United States has a particular shelf stable type called pickled sausages, co
mmonly sold in establishments such as gas stations and delicatessens. These are
usually smoked or boiled sausages of a highly processed hot dog or kielbasa styl
e plunged into a boiling brine of vinegar, salt, spices, and often a pink colori
ng, then canned in Mason jars. They are usually packaged in single blister packs
or jars.
Certain countries classify sausage types according to the region in which the sa
usage was traditionally produced:
France: Montbliard, Morteau, Strasbourg, Toulouse,..
Germany: Frankfurt am Main, Thuringian sausage, Nuremberg, Pomerania, ..
Austria: Vienna, ..
Italy: Merano (Meraner Wurst)
UK: Cumberland, Chiltern, Lincolnshire, Glamorgan, ..
Slovenia: Kranjska (klobasa), after the Slovenian name for the province of C
arniola
Spain: botifarra catalana, chorizo riojano, chorizo gallego, chorizo de Tero
r, longaniza de Aragn, morcilla de Burgos, morcilla de Ronda, morcilla extremea, m
orcilla dulce canaria, llonganissa de Vic, fuet d'Olot, sobrassada mallorquina,
botillo de Len, llonganissa de Valencia, farinato de Salamanca, ..
Poland: kielbasa krakowska (Krakw-style), torunska (Torun), zywiecka (Zywiec)
, bydgoska (Bydgoszcz), krotoszynska (Krotoszyn), podwawelska (literally: "from
under Wawel"), zielonogrska (Zielona Gra), rzeszowska (Rzeszw), slaska (Silesia), s
wojska, wiejska, jalowcowa, zwyczajna, polska, krajanska, szynkowa, parwkowa.
Hungary: kolbsz gyulai (after the town of Gyula), csabai (after the city of Bks
csaba), Debrecener (after the city of Debrecen).
Serbia: Sremska kobasica, Sremska salama, Sremski kulen (after the region of
Srem/Sirmium), Poarevacka kobasica (after the city of Poarevac)
National varieties
Sausage making in Russia
Many nations and regions have their own characteristic sausages, using meats and
other ingredients native to the region and employed in traditional dishes.
Africa
North Africa
Merguez is a red, spicy sausage from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, North
Africa. It is also popular in France, Israel and the German state of Saarland, w
here it is often grilled on a Schwenker. Merguez is made with lamb, beef, or a m
ixture of both. It can be flavored with a wide range of spices, such as sumac fo
r tartness, and paprika, Cayenne pepper, or harissa, a hot chili paste that give
s it a red color. It is stuffed into a lamb casing, rather than a pork casing. I
t is traditionally made fresh and eaten grilled or with couscous. Sun-dried merg
uez is used to add flavor to tagines. It is also eaten in sandwiches.
South Africa
In South Africa, traditional sausages are known as boerewors or farmer's sausage
. Ingredients include game and beef, usually mixed with pork or lamb and with a
high percentage of fat. Coriander and vinegar are the two most common seasoning
ingredients, although many variations exist. The coarsely-ground nature of the m
eat as well as the long continuous spiral of sausage are two of its recognisable
qualities. Boerewors is traditionally cooked on a braai (barbecue).
Dro wors is an uncooked sausage similar to boerewors made in a dry-curing process
similar to biltong.
A local variant of the hot dog is the "Wors roll", or boerewors roll. This is a
hotdog bun with a piece of boerewors in, served with a tomato and onion relish c
alled seshebo. Seshebo can include chilli, atchaar or curries, depending on the
area within the country.
Asia
China
Main article: Chinese sausage
Smoked Sausages from Harbin
A European-like-style smoked savory hng chng (?? red sausage) is produced in Harbi
n, China's northernmost major city.[8] It is another notable product similar to
Lithuanian and Polish sausages including kielbasa and podhalanska, in that they
tend to be of a much more European flavours than other Chinese sausages. This ki
nd of sausage was first produced in a Russian-capitalized factory named Churin s
ausage factory in 1909, Since then Harbin style sausage become popular in China,
especially in northern regions.[8]
Lap cheong (also lap chong, lap chung, lop chong) are dried pork sausages that l
ook and feel like pepperoni, but are much sweeter. In southwestern China, sausag
es are flavored with salt, red pepper and wild pepper. People often cure sausage
s by smoking and air drying.
Japan
Japanese arabiki pork sausages served with scrambled eggs in a restaurant in Chi
ang Mai, Thailand
Although Japan is not traditionally known for beef, pork, venison, or even blood
sausages, the Japanese do consume a fish-based log called kamaboko, which could
be considered a type of sausage. Kamaboko is made with cured ground fish paste
called surimi. It is usually shaped into half-moons on top of a small plank of w
ood and the outside dyed pink. When the kamaboko is cut into slices it appears t
o have an unmistakable pink rind which surrounds a white interior. It is often c
ut into thin slices and added to soups, salads, bento, and many other dishes as
a garnish. In recent years, kamaboko has also entered the market as a snack food
. Similar to the Slim Jim, cheese, sausage, and fish flavored kamaboko sticks ca
n be found in convenience stores across Japan.
Korea
Sundae, a form of blood sausage, is a traditional Korean sausage. A popular stre
et food, sundae is normally prepared by steaming or boiling cow or pig intestine
s stuffed with various ingredients. The most common variation is composed of por
k blood, cellophane noodle, sliced carrot and barley stuffed into pig intestines
, but other regional variations include squid or Alaska pollock casings. Sundae
is eaten plain with salt, in stews, or as part of a stir-fry.
Philippines
In the Philippines, there are different kinds of sausages called longaniza (Fili
pino languages: longganisa) with mixes dependent on their size of origin: Longan
iza de Vigan (longganisang Vigan), Longaniza de Lucban (longganisang Lucban), an
d Longaniza de Cebu (longganisang Sugbo/Cebu) are examples.
While longganisa is widely accepted as the term for native sausages, in some par
ts of the Visayas and Mindanao chorizo (Visayan: tsoriso) is a more common term.
There are regional varieties such as Vigan (with lots of garlic and not sweet)
and Lucban (lots of oregano and pork fat is chunky). Most longganisas contain Pr
ague powder and are hardly smoked and usually sold fresh. In general there are s
everal common variants:
matamis, sweet
jamonado or hamonado, with lots of garlic, black pepper and other spices
skinless, sans the usual natural casing and rolled in plastic sheets
Chorizo de Macao (in reference to Macao. sweet and dried with lots of chunky
fat and also identified with the red colored abac twine)
Chorizo de Bilbao, with lots of paprika and usually kept in a can with lard.
The best and most popular brand is Marca el Rey; contrary to popular belief tha
t it comes from Bilbao, this is manufactured in the United States. Chorizo de Bi
lbao seems to be a purely Filipino term as the variant does not exist in Spain.
Thailand
Sai krok Isan being freshly grilled at a market in Uttaradit, Thailand
There are many varieties of sausages known to Thai cuisine, some of which are sp
ecialities of a specific region of Thailand. From northern Thailand comes sai ua
, a grilled minced pork sausage flavored with curry paste and fresh herbs.[9] An
other grilled sausage is called sai krok Isan, a fermented sausage with a distin
ctive slightly sour taste from northeastern Thailand (the region also known as I
san).[10] Both sausages are commonly eaten with sticky rice, fresh vegetables, a
nd a fresh nam phrik (Thai chilli paste) or some raw bird's eye chilies. They mi
ght also be served together with a refreshing Thai salad such as som tum (green
papaya salad).
Also very popular in Thailand is naem, a raw fermented pork sausage similar to t
he Vietnamese nem chua and Laotian som moo. This variety of sausage is often enc
ountered as yam naem and naem khluk, both of which are Thai salads. Adopted from
Vietnam comes mu yo. It is somewhat similar in taste and texture to liverwurst
and, served with a nam chim (Thai dipping sauce), a popular snack in Thailand. I
t too can be used as an ingredient for Thai salads and as a meat ingredient in,
for instance, Thai soups. Kun chiang is a dry and sweet Chinese sausage which ha
s also been incorporated into the Thai culinary culture. Known as lap cheong by
Cantonese, in Thailand it is most often used, again, as an ingredient for a Thai
salad, yam kun chiang, one that is normally only eaten together with khao tom k
ui, a plain rice congee. A host of modern, factory-made, sausages have become po
pular as snacks in recent years. These most often resemble hot-dogs and frankfur
ters and are commonly sold grilled or deep-fried at street stalls, and served wi
th a sweet, sticky and slightly spicy soy-based sauce.
Vietnam
A dish of d?i, a popular Vietnamese blood pudding
Further information: Ch? and Ch? l?a
Asia Minor (Eurasia)
Turkey
In Turkey, sausage is known as sosis, which is made of beef.
Sucuk (pronounced tsudjuck or sujuk with accent on the last syllable) is a type
of sausage made in Turkey and neighboring Balkan countries.
There are many types of sucuk, but it is mostly made from beef. It is fermented,
spiced (with garlic and pepper) and filled in an inedible casing that needs to
be peeled off before consuming. Slightly smoked sucuk is considered superior. Th
e taste is spicy, salty and a little raw, similar to pepperoni. Some varieties a
re extremely hot and/or greasy. Some are "adulterated" with turkey, water buffal
o meat, sheep fat or chicken.
There are many dishes made with sucuk, but grilled sucuk remains the most popula
r. Smoke dried varieties are consumed "raw" in sandwiches. An intestinal loop is
one sucuk. Smoked sucuk is usually straight.
Europe
Britain and Ireland
Sausages, seen in The Covered Market, Oxford
In the UK and Ireland, sausages are a very popular and common feature of the nat
ional diet and popular culture.
British sausages[11] and Irish sausages are normally made from raw (i.e., uncook
ed, uncured, unsmoked) pork, beef, venison or other meats mixed with a variety o
f herbs and spices and cereals, many recipes of which are traditionally associat
ed with particular regions (for example Cumberland sausages). They normally cont
ain a certain amount of rusk or bread-rusk, and are traditionally cooked by fryi
ng, grilling or baking. They are most typically 1015 cm long, the filling compres
sed by twisting the casing into concatenated "links" into the sausage skin, trad
itionally made from the prepared intestine of the slaughtered animal; most commo
nly a pig.
Due to their habit of often exploding due to shrinkage of the tight skin during
cooking, they are often referred to as bangers, particularly when served with th
e most common accompaniment of mashed potatoes to form a bi-national dish known
as bangers and mash. (The designation banger was in use at least as far back as
1919 and is often said to have been popularized in World War II, when scarcity o
f meat led many sausage makers to add water to the mixture, making it more likel
y to explode on heating.)[12] There are currently organizations in a number of U
K counties, such as Lincolnshire, which are seeking European Protected designati
on of origin (PDO) for their sausages so that they can be made only in the appro
priate region and to an attested recipe and quality.[13]
Famously, they are an essential component of a full English or Irish breakfast.
In the UK alone, there are believed to be over 470 different types of sausages;[
14] some made to traditional regional recipes such as those from Cumberland or L
incolnshire, and increasingly to modern recipes which combine fruit such as appl
es or apricots with the meat, or are influenced by other European styles such as
the Toulouse sausage or chorizo. Vegetarian sausages are also now very widely a
vailable, although traditional meatless recipes such as the Welsh Selsig Morgann
wg also exist.
A popular and widespread snack is the sausage roll made from sausage-meat rolled
in puff pastry; they are sold from most bakeries and often made at home.
Sausages may be baked in a Yorkshire pudding batter to create "toad in the hole"
, often served with gravy and onions or cooked with other ingredients in a sausa
ge casserole.
In most areas, "sausage meat" for frying and stuffing into poultry or other meat
s is sold as ground, spiced meat without casing.
Battered sausage, consisting of a sausage dipped in batter, and fried, is sold t
hroughout Britain from Fish and Chip shops. In England, the saveloy is a type of
pre-cooked beef sausage, larger than a typical hot-dog, which is served hot. A
saveloy skin was traditionally colored with bismarck-brown dye giving saveloy a
distinctive bright red color. Saveloys are free of pork, and may be kosher and e
aten by Jews.
A thin variety of sausage, known as the chipolata is often wrapped in bacon and
served alongside roast turkey at Christmas time and are known as Pigs in a Blank
et or "Pigs in Blankets". They are also served cold at children's parties throug
hout the year. The word derives from the Italian "cipolatta", "onioned" or made
with onion, although its meaning has been forgotten and it need not contain onio
n.
Black pudding, white pudding and Hog's pudding are fairly similar to their Scott
ish and European counterparts.
Following concerns about health and user preference (distaste for horsemeat), he
ightened by the BSE crisis in the 1990s and the 2013 horsemeat scandal, the qual
ity of the meat content in many British sausages improved with a return to the a
rtisanal production of high quality traditional recipes, which had previously be
en in decline. However, many cheaper sausages contain mechanically recovered mea
t or meat slurry, which must be so listed on packaging.
There are various laws concerning the meat content of sausages in the UK. The mi
nimum meat content to be labelled Pork Sausages is 42% (30% for other types of m
eat sausages), although to be classed as meat, the Pork can contain 30% fat and
25% connective tissue. Often the cheapest supermarket pork sausages do not have
the necessary meat content to be described as "pork sausages" and are simply lab
elled "sausages"; with even less meat content they are described as "bangers" (a
n unregulated name).[15] These typically contain MRM which was previously includ
ed in meat content, but under later EU law cannot be so described.[16][17]
Scotland
Haggis is generally recognized as the national dish, although not described as a
sausage. A popular breakfast food is the square sausage. This is normally eaten
as part of a full Scottish Breakfast or on a Scottish morning roll. The sausage
is produced in a rectangular block and individual portions are sliced off. It i
s seasoned mainly with pepper. It is rarely seen outside Scotland and in fact is
still fairly uncommon in the Highlands.[citation needed] Other types of sausage
include black pudding, similar to the German and Polish blood sausages. Stornow
ay black pudding is held in high regard and measures are currently being taken t
o bring it under EU geographical protection. Additionally a popular native varie
ty of sausage is the red pudding. It is usually served in chip shops, deep fried
in batter and with chips as a red pudding supper.
Bulgaria
Lukanka (???????) is a spicy salami sausage unique to Bulgarian cuisine. It is s
imilar to sujuk, but often stronger flavored.
Croatia / Serbia
Kulen is a type of flavored sausage made of minced pork that is traditionally pr
oduced in Croatia (Slavonia) and Serbia (Vojvodina), and its designation of orig
in has been protected. The meat is low-fat, rather brittle and dense, and the fl
avor is spicy. The red paprika gives it aroma and color, and garlic adds spice.
The original kulen recipe does not contain black pepper because its hot flavor c
omes from hot red paprika.
Other types of sausages in Serbia include Sremska, Poarevacka, and Suduk. And othe
r types of sausages in Croatia include Cenjovka (Garlic Sausage) and Krvavica (a
variation on Blood Sausage).
Finland
Finnish mustamakkara with lingonberry jam
Finnish makkara is typically similar in appearance to Polish sausages or bratwur
sts, but have a very different taste and texture. Nakki is a tinier edition of m
akkara. There is a variety of different nakkis varying almost as much as differe
nt types of makkara. The closest relative to nakki is the thin knackwurst.
Most makkara has very little spice and is therefore frequently eaten with mustar
d, ketchup, or other table condiments without a bun. Makkara is usually grilled,
roasted over coals or open fire, steamed (called hyrymakkara) or cooked on sauna
heating stones. Siskonmakkara, a finely ground light-colored sausage is usually
encountered in the form of soup, siskonmakkarakeitto.
One Finnish variety is mustamakkara, lit. black sausage. Mustamakkara is prepare
d with blood and it is a specialty of Tampere. It is similar to the Scottish bla
ck pudding.
When a steak made out of thick (diameter about 10 cm (3.9 in)) makkara is prepar
ed inside a sliced, fried bun with cucumber salad and other fillings, it becomes
a porilainen after the town of Pori.
Another Finnish speciality is ryynimakkara, a low-fat sausage which contains gro
ats.
Pickled makkara intended to be consumed as slices is called kestomakkara. This c
lass includes various mettwurst, salami and Balkanesque styles. The most popular
kestomakkara in Finland is meetvursti (etymologically this word comes from mett
wurst), which contains finely ground full meat, ground fat and various spices. I
t is not unlike salami, but usually thicker and less salty. Meetvursti used to a
dditionally contain horse meat, but only a few brands contain it anymore, mostly
due to the high cost of production. In general, there is no taboo against eatin
g horse meat in Nordic countries, but the popularity has decreased with decreasi
ng availability of suitable horse meat. There is also makkara and meetvursti wit
h game, like deer, moose or reindeer meat. Even a lohimakkara, i.e., salmon saus
age, exists.
In Finland there are b- and a-classes of BBQ Sausages like Kabanossi, Camping an
d HK Sininen Lenkki, Blue Loop.
France and Belgium
Saucissons in a market in the south of France
Saucisson is perhaps one of the most popularized forms of dried sausage in Franc
e, with many different variations from region to region. Usually saucisson conta
ins pork, cured with a mixture of salt, wine and/or spirits. Regional varieties
sometimes contain more unorthodox ingredients such as nuts and fruits. Other Fre
nch sausages include the diot and various types of boudin.
Germany
A plate of Milzwurst (de) spleen sausage, served with potato salad, mayonnaise a
nd lemon, at the Aumeister (de) inn in Munich, Germany
German sausages include Wrste Frankfurters/Wieners, Bratwrste, Rindswrste, Knackwrst
e, and Bockwrste. Currywurst, a dish of sausages with curry sauce, is a popular f
ast food in Germany.
Greece
Loukaniko is the common Greek word for pork sausage, but in English it refers sp
ecifically to Greek sausages flavored with orange peel, fennel seed and other he
rbs.
Hungary
Hungarian sausages, when smoked and cured, are called kolbsz different types are
often distinguished by their typical regions, e.g. gyulai and csabai sausage. As
no collective word for "sausage" in the English sense exists in Hungarian, loca
l salamis (see e.g. winter salami) and boiled sausages "hurka" are often not con
sidered when listing regional sausage varieties. The most common boiled sausages
are rice liver sausage ("Mjas Hurka") and blood sausage ("Vres Hurka"). In the fi
rst case, the main ingredient is liver, mixed with rice stuffing. In the latter,
the blood is mixed with rice, or pieces of bread rolls. Spices, pepper, salt an
d marjoram are added.
Italy
Italian sausages (salsiccia pl. "salsicce") are often made of pure pork. Sometim
es they may contain beef. Fennel seeds and chilli are generally used as the prim
ary spice in the South of Italy, in Puglia they are called "Zampina", black pepp
er and garlic in the center and North.
Macedonia
Macedonian sausages (kolbas, lukanec) are made from fried pork, onions, and leek
s, with herbs and spices.
Malta
Maltese sausage (Maltese: Zalzett tal-Malti) is made of pork, sea salt, black pe
ppercorns, coriander seeds and parsley. It is short and thick in shape and can b
e eaten grilled, fried, stewed, steamed or even raw when freshly made. A barbecu
e variety is similar to the original but with a thinner skin and less salt.
Netherlands
Dutch cuisine is not known for its abundant use of sausages in its traditional d
ishes. Nevertheless the Dutch have a number of sausage varieties, such as the ro
okworst (smoked sausage) and Slagersworst (lit. Butchers Meat or sausage) mostly
found at the specialist butcher shops and still made by hand and spiced followi
ng traditionally family recipes. Another common variety in the Netherlands is th
e runderworst which is made from beef and the dried sausage known as metworst or
droge worst. The Dutch braadworst's name might suggest it being a variant of th
e bratwurst, but this is not the case and it is closely related to the well know
n Afrikaner Boerewors.
Nordic countries
Sausages on a barbecue in Oslo
Nordic sausages (Danish: plse, Norwegian: plsa/plse/pylsa/korv/kurv, Icelandic: bjga
/pylsa/grjpn/sperill, Swedish: korv) are usually made of 6080% very finely ground po
rk, very sparsely spiced with pepper, nutmeg, allspice or similar sweet spices (
ground mustard seed, onion and sugar may also be added). Water, lard, rind, pota
to starch flour and soy or milk protein are often added for binding and filling.
In southern Norway, grill and wiener sausages are often wrapped in a potato lom
pe, a kind of lefse.
Virtually all sausages will be industrially precooked and either fried or warmed
in hot water by the consumer or at the hot dog stand. Since hot dog stands are
ubiquitous in Denmark (known as Plsevogn) some people regard plser as one of the n
ational dishes, perhaps along with medisterplse, a fried, finely ground pork and
bacon sausage. The most noticeable aspect of Danish boiled sausages (never the f
ried ones) is that the cover often contains a traditional bright-red dye. They a
re also called wienerplser and legend has it they originate from Vienna where it
was once ordered that day-old sausages be dyed as a means of warning. The Swedis
h falukorv is a similarly red-dyed sausage, but about 5 cm thick, usually baked
in the oven coated in mustard or cut in slices and fried. Unlike ordinary sausag
es it is a typical home dish, not sold at hot dog stands. Other Swedish sausages
include prinskorv, flskkorv, kttkorv (sv) and isterband; all of these, in additio
n to falukorv, are often accompanied by potato mash or rotmos (a root vegetable
mash) rather than bread. In Iceland, lamb may be added to sausages, giving them
a distinct taste. Horse sausage and mutton sausage are also traditional foods in
Iceland, although their popularity is waning. Liver sausage, which has been com
pared to haggis, and blood sausage are also a common foodstuff in Iceland.
Poland
Polish sausages: mysliwska, surowa, gralska, biala, parwkowa
Polish sausages, kielbasa, come in a wide range of styles such as swojska, kraja
nska, szynkowa, biala, slaska, krakowska, podhalanska, kishka and others. Sausag
es in Poland are generally made of pork, rarely beef. Sausages with low meat con
tent and additions like soy protein, potato flour or water binding additions are
regarded as of low quality. Because of climate conditions, sausages were tradit
ionally preserved by smoking, rather than drying, like in Mediterranean countrie
s.
Since the 14th century, Poland excelled in the production of sausages, thanks in
part to the royal hunting excursions across virgin forests with game delivered
as gifts to friendly noble families and religious hierarchy across the country.
The extended list of beneficiaries of such diplomatic generosity included city m
agistrates, academy professors, voivodes, szlachta and kapitula. Usually the raw
meat was delivered in winter, but the processed meat, throughout the rest of th
e year. With regard to varieties, early Italian, French and German influences pl
ayed a role. Meat commonly preserved in fat and by smoking was mentioned by hist
orian Jan Dlugosz in his annals:Annales seu cronici incliti regni Poloniae The A
nnales covered events from 965 to 1480, with mention of the hunting castle in Ni
epolomice along with King Wladyslaw sending game to Queen Zofia from Niepolomice
Forest, the most popular hunting ground for the Polish royalty beginning in the
13th century.[1]
Portugal and Brazil
Embutidos (or enchidos) and linguia generally contain hashed meat, particularly p
ork, seasoned with aromatic herbs or spices (pepper, red pepper, paprika, garlic
, rosemary, thyme, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, etc.).
Spain
In Spain, several products that could be dubbed sausage exist, although, of them
, it is salchicha, cooked sausages, and salchichn (cured, smoked and sometimes co
oked sausages) that are the most similar product to summer sausage and English o
r German sausages. They usually contained hashed pork meat. Depending on the her
bs and spices added two distinct varieties can be found: red or white sausages.
Red sausages contain paprika (pimentn in Spanish) and are usually fried; they can
also contain other spices such as garlic, pepper or thyme. The most popular typ
e of red sausage is perhaps txistorra, a thin and long paprika sausage originati
ng in Navarre. White sausages, in turn, do not contain paprika and can be fried,
boiled in wine, or, more rarely, in water.
Sausage vendor in Madrid, Spain
Morcilla could be regarded as another type of sausage, although Spaniards do not
regard it as such. Morcillas are blood sausages, made with pork meat and blood,
usually adding rice, garlic, paprika and some other spices to it. There are man
y regional variations to them, and in general they are either fried or added to
cocidos and boiled.
Although Spanish embutidos such as chorizo or salchichn could be called "sausages
", they are not "sausages" for Spanish speakers at all. In general, Spaniards th
ink of sausages as having to be cooked, whereas chorizo or salchichn are usually
eaten raw.
Switzerland
Cervelat
The cervelat, a cooked sausage, is often referred to as Switzerland's national s
ausage. A great number of regional sausage specialties exist as well.
Sweden
Falukorv is a large traditional Swedish sausage made of a grated mixture of pork
and beef or veal with potato flour and mild spices. The sausage got its name fr
om Falun, the city from where it originates, after being introduced by German im
migrants who came to work in the region's mines.
Isterband is made of pork, barley groats and potato and is lightly smoked.
Latin America
In most of Latin America, a few basic types of sausages are consumed, with sligh
t regional variations on each recipe. These are chorizo (raw, rather than cured
and dried like its Spanish namesake), longaniza (usually very similar to chorizo
but longer and thinner), morcilla or relleno (blood sausage), and salchichas (o
ften similar to hot dogs or Vienna sausages). Beef tends to be more predominant
than in the pork-heavy Spanish equivalents.
Argentina and Uruguay
In Argentina and Uruguay, many sausages are consumed. Eaten as part of the tradi
tional asado, chorizo (beef and/or pork, flavored with spices) and morcilla (blo
od sausage or black pudding) are the most popular. Both share a Spanish origin.
One local variety is the salchicha argentina (Argentine sausage), criolla or par
rillera (literally, barbecue-style), made of the same ingredients as the chorizo
but thinner.[18]
There are hundreds of salami-style sausages. Very popular is the salame tandiler
o, from the city of Tandil. Other types include longaniza, cantimpalo and soppre
ssata.[19]
Vienna sausages are eaten as an appetizer or in hot dogs (called panchos), which
are usually served with different sauces and salads.
Leberwurst is usually found in every market.
Weisswurst is also a common dish in some regions, eaten usually with mashed pota
toes or chucrut (sauerkraut).[20][21]
Chile
Longaniza is the most common type of sausage, or at least the most common name i
n Chile for sausages that also could be classified as chorizo. The Chilean varie
ty is made of four parts pork to one part bacon (or less) and seasoned with fine
ly ground garlic, salt, pepper, cumin, oregano, paprika and chilli sauce. The ci
ties of Chilln and San Carlos are known among Chileans for having the best longan
izas.[22][23]
Another traditional sausage is the prieta, the Chilean version of blood sausage,
generally known elsewhere in Latin America as morcilla. In Chile, it contains o
nions, spices and sometimes walnut or rice and is usually eaten at asados or acc
ompanied by simple boiled potatoes. It sometimes has a very thick skin so is cut
open lengthwise before eating.
"Vienesa"s or Vienna sausages are also very common and are mainly used in the co
mpleto, the Chilean version of the hot dog.
Colombia
Butifarras Soledeas from Soledad, Atlntico, Colombia
A grilled chorizo served with a buttered arepa is one of the most common street
foods in Colombia. Butifarras Soledeas are sausages from Soledad, Atlntico, Colomb
ia.
In addition to the standard Latin American sausages, dried pork sausages are ser
ved cold as a snack, often to accompany beer drinking. These include cbanos (salt
y, short, thin, and served individually), butifarras (of Catalan origin; spicier
, shorter, fatter and moister than cbanos, often eaten raw, sliced and sprinkled
with lemon juice) and salchichn (a long, thin and heavily processed sausage serve
d in slices).
Mexico
Salchicha oaxaquea, a type of semi-dry sausage from the Mexican state of Oaxaca
The most common Mexican sausage by far is chorizo. It is fresh and usually deep
red in color (in most of the rest of Latin America, chorizo is uncolored and coa
rsely chopped). Some chorizo is so loose that it spills out of its casing as soo
n as it is cut; this crumbled chorizo is a popular filling for torta sandwiches,
eggs, breakfast burritos and tacos. Salchichas, longaniza (a long, thin, lightl
y spiced, coarse chopped pork sausage), moronga (a type of blood pudding) and he
ad cheese are also widely consumed.
North America
Frankfurter sausage
North American breakfast or country sausage is made from uncooked ground pork mi
xed with pepper, sage, and other spices. It is widely sold in grocery stores in
a large synthetic plastic casing, or in links which may have a protein casing. I
t is also available sold by the pound without a casing. It can often be found on
a smaller scale in rural regions, especially in southern states, where it is ei
ther in fresh patties or in links with either natural or synthetic casings as we
ll as smoked. This sausage is most similar to English-style sausages and has bee
n made in the United States since colonial days. It is commonly sliced into smal
l patties and pan-fried, or cooked and crumbled into scrambled eggs or gravy. Sc
rapple is a pork-based breakfast meat that originated in the Mid-Atlantic States
. Other uncooked sausages are available in certain regions in link form, includi
ng Italian, bratwurst, chorizo, and linguica.
In Louisiana, there is a variety of sausage that is unique to its heritage, a va
riant of andouille. Unlike the original variety native to Northern France, Louis
iana andouille has evolved to be made mainly of pork butt, not tripe, and tends
to be spicy with a flavor far too strong for the mustard sauce that traditionall
y accompanies French andouille: prior to casing, the meat is heavily spiced with
cayenne and black pepper. The variety from Louisiana is known as Tasso ham and
is often a staple of both Cajun and Creole cooking. Traditionally it is smoked o
ver pecan wood or sugar cane as a final step before being ready to eat. In Cajun
cuisine, boudin is also popular.
The frankfurter or hot dog is the most common pre-cooked sausage in the United S
tates and Canada. If proper terminology is observed in manufacture and marketing
(it often is not), "frankfurters" are more mildly seasoned, "hot dogs" more rob
ustly so. Another popular variation is the corn dog, which is a hot dog that is
deep fried in cornmeal batter and served on a stick.
A common and very popular regional sausage in the Trenton, New Jersey and Philad
elphia, PA areas is pork roll.
Other popular ready-to-eat sausages, often eaten in sandwiches, include salami,
American-style bologna, Lebanon bologna, prasky, liverwurst, and head cheese. Pe
pperoni and Italian crumbles are popular pizza toppings.
Oceania
Australia
Australian "snags" cooking on a campfire
Australian sausages have traditionally been made with beef, pork and chicken, wh
ile recently game meats such as kangaroo have been used that typically have much
less fat.
English style sausages, known colloquially as "snags", come in two varieties: th
in, that resemble an English 'breakfast' sausage, and thick, known as 'Merryland
' in South Australia. These types of sausage are popular at barbecues, and can b
e purchased from any butcher or supermarket.
Devon is a spiced pork sausage similar to Bologna sausage and Gelbwurst. It is u
sually made in a large diameter, and often thinly sliced and eaten cold in sandw
iches.
Mettwurst and other German-style sausages are highly popular in South Australia,
often made in towns like Hahndorf and Tanunda, due to the large German immigrat
ion to the state during early settlement. Mettwurst is usually sliced, and eaten
cold on sandwiches or alone as a snack.
A local variation on cabanossi, developed by Italian migrants after World War II
using local cuts of meat, is a popular snack at parties.
The Don small goods company developed a spiced snack-style sausage based on the
cabanossi in 1991 called Twiggy Sticks.
New Zealand
Sausage rolls are a popular snack and party food, as are saveloys, cheerios, and
locally manufactured cabanossi. Traditional sausages similar to English bangers
are eaten throughout the country; these are usually made of finely ground beef
or mutton[24] with breadcrumbs, very mildly spiced, stuffed into an edible colla
gen casing which crisps and splits when fried. These may be eaten for breakfast,
lunch or dinner. In recent years, many international and exotic sausages have a
lso become widely available in NZ.[25]
Other variations
Kabosi, shells, and cheese
Sausages may be served as hors d'uvres, in a sandwich, in a bread roll as a hot d
og, wrapped in a tortilla, or as an ingredient in dishes such as stews and casse
roles. It can be served on a stick (like the corn dog) or on a bone as well.[26]
Sausage without casing is called sausage meat and can be fried or used as stuff
ing for poultry, or for wrapping foods like Scotch eggs. Similarly, sausage meat
encased in puff pastry is called a sausage roll.
Sausages are almost always fried in oil, served for any meal, particularly break
fast or lunch and often "sweet sausages" have been created which are made with a
ny of the above: dried fruit, nuts, caramel and chocolate, bound with butter and
sugar. These sweet sausages are refrigerated rather than fried and usually, how
ever, served for dessert rather than as part of a savory course.
Sausages can also be modified to use indigenous ingredients. Mexican styles add
oregano and the guajillo red pepper to the Spanish chorizo to give it an even ho
tter spicy touch.
Certain sausages also contain ingredients such as cheese and apple, or types of
vegetable.
Vegetarian sausage
See also: Vegetarian hot dog
Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on
Vegan Bratwurst
Vegetarian and vegan sausages are also available in some countries, or can be ma
de from scratch.[27] These may be made from tofu, seitan, nuts, pulses, mycoprot
ein, soya protein, vegetables or any combination of similar ingredients that wil
l hold together during cooking.[28] These sausages, like most meat-replacement p
roducts, generally fall into two camps: some are shaped, colored, flavored, etc.
to replicate the taste and texture of meat as accurately as possible; others su
ch as the Glamorgan sausage rely on spices and vegetables to lend their natural
flavor to the product and no attempt is made to imitate meat.[29]
While not vegetarian, the soya sausage was invented 1916 in Germany. First known
as Klner Wurst ("Cologne Sausage") by later German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer (1
8761967).[30]