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Abstract-- This paper presents the power optimization for

a stall-regulated wind turbine with a variable-speed


concept, using scalar control approach. To optimize the
power under low wind speed velocity, speed regulation was
adapted. In this regulation, speed needs to be controlled at
the optimum points by keeping the power coefficient at the
peak curve and by maintaining the tip speed ratio at
optimal value. To achieve this, the conventional method of
closed-loop scalar control was developed and then compared
with the cascade-loop scalar control. The complete proposed
system was developed by using Matlab/Simulink Software.
The results showed that both scalar control methods could
regulate the speeds, hence able to optimize the power at
each wind speed under low wind speed velocity. However,
cascade-loop scalar control method performed a better
result compared to the conventional one.



Index Termsscalar control, power optimization, stall-
regulated, wind turbine.
I. INTRODUCTION
It is well known that the stall-regulated wind turbine is
usually equipped with fixed-speed operation [1-5].
Hence, the aerodynamic power cannot be optimized at
each wind speed, where the optimal one only occurs at
one wind speed [6-7]. As written in many works [1-2,
4,6-8] and as proven in the wind-turbine industry,
nowadays, pitch-regulated wind turbine monopolies the
wind-turbine industry. This is due to its ability to control
its aerodynamic power by pitching the turbines blades.
Using pitch-regulated wind turbine, power can be
optimized at each wind speed [3-5]. On the other hand,
for stall-regulated wind-turbine, this active dynamic
control cannot be done due to its fixed-blade.
Nevertheless, this turbine offers cheaper production cost,
operation and maintenance due to the lack of electronics
actuators and parts [1-2, 4, 6-10]. The difference
schematic diagram between the stall-regulated and the
pitch- regulated wind turbine is depicted in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1(a) presents the pitch-regulated wind turbine
with variable speed operation. It is also known as
Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine,
which consists of an arrangement of interconnections

This work was supported by Research University Grant 2012
(Q.J130000.2623.06J67), Research University Grant 2013
(Q.J130000.2523.05H18) and FRGS (Q.J13000078234F108).
between the turbine rotor, drive train, generator and
power converter. The stator of the electrical machine is
connected directly to the grid network, whilst the rotor
circuit is connected to the grid via a variable frequency
power converter. Power is delivered to the grid through
the stator and rotor, while the rotor can also absorb
power. With this design, a wound rotor induction
generator with slip rings is used to inject current in and
out of the rotor winding. To allow variable speed
operation in the rotor, controllable voltage from the
generator side power converter will be injected into the
rotor at slip frequency, whereby the grid side power
converter detaches the electrical grid frequency from the
rotor mechanical frequency. Though DFIG has little
energy losses compared to other configurations due to the
power converter connection, it has extra complexity by
having extra maintenance cost for brush replacement
every or less than six months since the brush can easily
wear out [11-12]. Note that in DFIG, power converter is
connected to the machine rotor via slip rings.

(a)


(b)


Fig.1. The schematic diagram of (a) Pitch-regulated wind turbine
(b) Stall-regulated wind turbine

Power Optimization for a Variable-speed Stall-
regulated Wind-turbine using Scalar Control

N. Rosmin*
,
**, S.J. Watson**, and A.H. Mustaamal***
* Centre of Electrical Energy System (CEES), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, (Malaysia)
** Loughborough University, LE11 3TU, Loughborough, Leicestershire, (United Kingdom)
*** Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, (Malaysia)
440 978-1-4673-4430-2/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE

The stall-regulated variable-speed wind turbine is illustrated
in Fig. 1(b). This configuration uses a full-rated converter to
control the wind generator. The full-rated converter is directly
coupled to a squirrel-cage induction generator through the
machine stator whilst the machine rotor is connected to the
turbine rotor via a gearbox [12-13]. The generator-side
converter controls the current from the rotor winding in and out
in the generator, whilst the network-side converter maintains the
DC bus voltage relative to the variation of the rotor mechanical
frequency applied in the generator. The control work of this
turbine may obtained from many works such as in [1-2, 4, 6-10,
14-28]. As can be seen from the development progress in the
wind turbine industries nowadays, manufacturers are keen to
develop offshore wind farms rather than the onshore wind
farms, in order to avoid the disadvantages or drawbacks of the
wind farm on the land. For instance, in Europe, though the
offshore installation in 2011 was reduced by 1.92% less than in
2010 [29], the amount of its total installation of 3,813 MW still
showed a very positive development. From a report found in
[30] and literature survey in [31], the projection of offshore
wind installation in 2020 will be increased ten times than in
2011 in Europe market. Through this effort, around 102 Mt CO
2

gas level is expected able to be reduced by 2020, as shown in
Fig. 2.



Fig. 2. Installation and estimation of offshore wind energy of the
European market from 2011 to 2020 [8]

A number of other benefits can be gained by
developing offshore wind farm, such as higher wind
resource, broader space, a more secure environment and
others. Although the pitch-regulated wind turbine seems
to be mostly preferred due to its active aerodynamic
control, another drawback may occur. For instance, the
cost might increase dramatically owing to the operation,
for example during the maintenance works, where a
helicopter must be used during the maintenance or
troubleshooting work. Since pitch-regulated wind turbine
involves many electrical and moving parts, this may lead
to additional cost; not only from the electronics parts and
the helicopters costs, but also to from workers safety
and their insurance premium. Due to these reasons, it is
expected that if stall-regulated wind turbine can be built
using the variable-speed concept, the drawback of the
fixed-speed stall-regulated wind-turbine can be improved,
as shown in Fig. 3. To date, the performance of stall-
regulated variable-speed wind turbine (SRVSWT)
operation is still able to compete with the pitch-regulated
wind turbine performance during power optimization
under low wind speed velocity.


Fig. 3. Stall-Regulated Control Strategy

Hence, the objective of this paper is to optimize the
aerodynamic power that is captured by the turbines
blades during low wind speed velocity, by using variable
speed drive, namely scalar control approach. Scalar
control refers to the magnitude variation of a control
variable only. Note that the coupling effects in the
machine variables are unnoticed. For instance, to control
the machine flux, the voltage source of the stator machine
needs to be controlled [32]. In the meantime, torque can
be controlled by controlling the frequency and the slip.
Note that, flux and torque are also a function of frequency
and voltage, respectively. The behavior of the stall-
regulated wind-turbine with the variable-speed concept
using scalar control can be demonstrated by developing a
software simulation. Hence, the actual behavior of its
operation, together with its advantages compared to
fixed-speed stall-regulated wind-turbine can be revealed.
II. METHOD: SCALAR CONTROL
A. Scalar Control Approaches
In this study, two different types of scalar control were
applied. This method is known as the closed-loop speed
control with Voltage/Hertz control with slip speed
compensation. With assistance of cascade orientation, the
second method called as the cascade-loop control with
Volt/Hertz control, with slip speed and torque
441

compensation was proposed. The first and the second
approach are referred to as SC-A1 and SC-A2 in this
paper. The diagrams of these approaches are shown in
Fig. 4(a) and 4(b), respectively. In the first method, only
one controller was involved, and for the second method,
two controllers were used to track the reference values
more tightly.

(a)


(b)



Fig. 4. (a) Closed-loop Scalar Control approach (SC-A1), (b)
Cascade-loop Scalar Control approach (SC-A2)
B. Control Aims
The aim was to analyse the SRVSWTs behaviour and
to control the SRVSWTs performance on power
optimization region, as summarised in Table I.

TABLE I
CONTROL AIM
Region Aims Wind
velocity
condition
Speed
range
(m/s)
Strategy
of
p
C
Strategy
of
Strategy
of
t
e
I Power
Optimization
Low 3 to 8
max p
C

opt


Increased
III. STALL-REGULATED VARIABLE-SPEED WIND-TURBINE
MODELING SYSTEM
The stall-regulated variable-speed wind-turbine system
consisted of four sub-models: the wind speed time series,
aerodynamic, drive train and squirrel cage induction
generator (SCIG) models. These sub-models are
schematically represented in Fig. 5.
The wind speed model represents the input of the
complete model, whereas the aerodynamic model
represents the torque or power created at the turbine rotor
blades. The drive train links the rotor blade speed and the
generator shaft speed, while the SCIG shows how the
generated power corresponds to the chosen control
strategy.


Fig. 5. The structure system of SRVSWT

A. Wind Speed Model
Equivalent or actual instantaneous velocity is a
superimposition of the turbulence wind and mean of wind
speed components. The equivalent or actual instantaneous
wind speed behaviour was modelled using Equation (1)
[33]:
) ( ) ( ) ( t
t
v t
m
v t
eq
v + = , (1)
where ) (t
eq
v is the equivalent or actual instantaneous
wind speed velocity. ) (t
m
v is the mean wind speed
component which determines the turbine current
operating point. ) (t
m
v is assumed constant in several
minutes. ) (t
t
v is turbulence component which has high
frequency oscillation nearby the operating points. The
frequency and amplitude of wind speed variance is
limited by this ) (t
t
v .
B. Aerodynamic Model
The aerodynamic model represents the interaction
between the turbine rotor and the wind field. The
extraction of useful mechanical power from the wind
depends on the blade profiles. The efficiency of power
extracted from the windalso known as the power
coefficient,
p
C of the turbine used in this study had a
maximum power coefficient,
max p
C value of 0.4781 at
the optimum tip speed ratio of 5.781. The equation of this
p
C can be found in [28]. For a rotor of radius R, the tip
speed ratio is the ratio between the speed of the blade tip,
R
t
e and the wind speed, U . The tip speed ratio, was
computed using Equation (2) and then was used to
calculate the aerodynamic torque,
aero
T and
aerodynamic power,
aero
P in Equation (3) and (4),
respectively [3, 34-35]:
U
R
t
e
= (2)
t
p
C
U R
aero
T
e
t
3 2
2
1
= (3)
442

p
C U R
aero
P
3 2
2
1
t = (4)
where
t
e = rotor speed,
R
= rotor radius, U = wind
speed and = air density. The relationship between the
wind speed and the power coefficient, aerodynamic
power and aerodynamic torque is shown in Fig. 6.



Fig. 6. Relation between Cp, output power and torque to the wind
velocity
C. Drive Train Model
In the drive train model, the difference between the
low speed shaft and the high speed shaft is determined by
the gearbox ratio. To avoid the necessity for complex
analysis, the drive train model was developed using the
simplest equation of motion, where only rotational inertia
was considered. The effects of damping and the twisting
angle of the shaft were ignored. In a wind turbine system,
unbalanced torque occurs when turbine torque is not
matched by the generator torque. As a result, the shaft
will accelerate or decelerate. The shaft will accelerate
when the aerodynamic torque is greater than the load
torque (
load
T
aero
T > ), and the shaft decelerates when
the aerodynamic torque is lower than the load torque
(
load
T
aero
T < ).
The following simple dynamic equations, as in (5) and
(6), depict the relation between the wind turbine rotor and
the machine generator [36-37]:

load
T
aero
T
acc
T
dt
m
d
J = = =
e
(5)
g
J G
r
J J
2
+ = (6)
where J is combined moment of inertia of turbine and
generator, kgm
2
,
m
e is angular velocity of the rotor,
rad/s,
acc
T is accelerating or decelerating torque, N.m,
aero
T is aerodynamic torque, N.m,
load
T is load torque
or generator torque, N.m,
r
J is rotor inertia,
g
J is
generator inertia and G is the gearbox ratio.
D. SCIG Model
To generate the output power and torque of the turbine
machine generator, Equation (7) and (8) were used [32,
38].
s
s
r
R I
g
P

=
1
2
3 (7)
where
g
P is the generated power or developed power or
converted power, s is slip, I is rotor current and
r
R is
rotor resistance.

Therefore, the induced torque or developed torque was
equivalent to
r
conv
P
ind
T
e
= (8)
In the squirrel-cage induction machine model, there
are two types of impedance in the primary (stator) and
secondary (rotor) winding resistance and leakage
reactance. Also used was the equivalent rotor resistance
s
r
R
which had been broken up into two components,
r
R and ) 1 ( s
s
r
R
. The first component corresponded to
the losses of the rotor copper, while the second
component corresponded to the power developed by the
motor due to the rotation of the turbine rotor. The shunt
element was also included. This was the magnetising
reactance and corresponded to the core of the motor.
In the SCIG simulink model, the inputs were generator
speed, stator voltage and stator line frequency, while the
generator torque and generator power were considered as
the machine outputs. The output generator torque and the
generator power would be fed back to the drive train
model and the reference set point, respectively.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Based on the control aims that have been summarized
in Table I, the step input of wind speed time series was
used to demonstrate the closed-loop system behaviour of
the SRVSWT system. Then, a selected wind speed
variation which covered the complete wind speed range
would also be tested in order to show the controller
performance. The step input test or ramp input test is
important since this test is able to show the transient
behaviour of the outputs of a general system clearly,
when its inputs change from one state to another state in a
very short time.
This section presents the simulation results of the
SRVSWT behaviour system during occurrence of
disturbance. The disturbance occurred when aerodynamic
power reduced or decreased due to the decrement or
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increment in the wind speed velocity. In this section, the
explanation of the test is divided into two parts. In the
first part, the situation of the disturbance when
aerodynamic power would be reduced 20% was chosen.
For this assessment, the mechanical input torque applied
to the wind turbine was decreased by 20%. The generator
mechanical speed response covering this situation is
depicted in Fig. 7. Then, in the second part, the generator
speed response would be shown when a selected wind
speed variation was used. This selected wind speed
variation covered the behaviour of constant wind speed
operation from a lower to a higher wind speed, as shown
in Fig. 9(a).


Fig. 7. Step change in the mechanical torque input

A. Step Wind Speed Series to the SRVSWT
From Fig. 8, it was found that when the mechanical
torque input was reduced 20% from 0.8064 p.u. and wind
speed was decreasing from 8 m/s, the generator
mechanical response using all proposed approach was
obtained. For the step input test, it could be seen that SC-
A2 performed better performance compared to the SC-A1
approach. The detail of the responses in this test is given
in Table II.

9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
(a) Step change in mechanical torque input
T
e

(
p
u
)



Fig. 8. Step change in the mechanical torque input

TABLE II
TRANSIENT DETAILS DURING DISTURBANCE OCCURRENCE

Steady-
state
error
(%)

Rise
time
(s)

Settling
Time
(s)

Overshoot
(%)

Phase
Margin

SC-A1

0.42

0.925

3.46

11

64.7

SC-A2

0

0.268

1.25

19.9

60
B. Random Wind Speed Series to the SRVSWT
To assess the real behaviour of SRVSWT system,
random wind speed time series from 3 to 8 m/s was tested
to demonstrate the closed-loop system behaviour of
SRVSWT. In contrast to the step input, the random wind
speed time series was simulated for 200 seconds, to show
a broader realistic wind profile. However, to focus on the
power optimization region, the simulation was zoomed-in
between 167.4 to 182.6 seconds.





Fig. 9. The SRVSWT behaviour, (a) The realistic wind speed
profile, (b) The generator mechanical speed, (c) The power coefficient,
(d) The tip speed ratio

Based on Fig. 9(a), it can be seen that at time 167.4 to
182.6 second, the stall-regulated variable-speed wind-
turbine experienced low wind speed profile, ranging from
3 to 8 m/s. In this situation, the wind speed was in the
optimal tracking region. During this time, the mechanical
speeds of SC-A1 and SC-A2 seemed able to track the
reference speed, as shown in Fig. 9(b). However, SC-A2
tracked the reference more tightly. The power
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coefficients could also be maintained at the peak area of
its maximum curve. It was found that the SC-A2 could
maintain its power efficiency at the top of the curve better
than SC-A1. Similar situation was utilized for the TSR
evolution. SC-A2 showed better performance in keeping
the TSR at the optimum value of 5.781. This is clearly
shown in Fig. 9(c) and 9(d). From these figures, it can be
seen that for SC-A2, the speed operated at the optimum
value with a smaller percentage error of right and left of
its optimum TSR. However, for SC-A1, the response
tended to deviate more to the left side of its Cp-TSR
curve. This had slowed down its speed from its optimum
values.




Fig. 10. The SRVSWT power-speed curve, (a) SC-A1,
(b)SC-A2

Fig. 10 shows the power-rotational speed curve of the
proposed approaches. Based on this figure, both methods
could track the maximum power curve smoothly.
However, SC-A2 presented the smoothest response in
tracking the maximum power curve. To achieve the
proposed variable-speed operation, an adjustable/variable
frequency drive was considered. By using this frequency
drive, the stator voltage and the frequency of the
generator could be adjusted or regulated so that they
could operate at the demanded load torque by changing
the rotation speed of the generator [32, 38]. Hence, the
synchronous speed could be adjusted to a wide range. As
in this case, for a squirrel cage induction generator wind
turbine with a fixed number of poles, an effective way to
change the generator speed would be to change the
frequency of the applied voltage. With an adjustable
frequency drive, the fixed frequency supply voltage
would be able to be converted into a continuously
variable frequency, thereby allowing a proportional
change in the synchronous speed and the rotor speed [17-
18]. The cascade control then improved further the
conventional scalar control by reducing the error signals
faster.
V. CONCLUSIONS
The simulation results for the SRVSWT system
applied to the step input and the realistic wind speed
profile have been presented in this paper. Two
approaches of SC-A1 (closed-loop scalar control) and
SC-A2 (cascade-loop scalar control), which employed
type PI controller, was studied. The proposed approaches
with the estimated PI controller gains could capture the
maximum power during power optimization. However,
the SC-A2 performed better step response, tracking
performance and less noise, compared to SC-A1.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank Research
Management Centre (RMC), Faculty of Electrical
Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and the
Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia for the
financial support provided under Research University
Grant (RUG2012) Vote. No: Q.J130000.2623.06J67,
Research University Grant (RUG 2013) Vote. No:
Q.J130000.2523.05H18 and Fundamental Research Grant
(FRGS) Vote. No: J13000078234F108 to carry out this
research.
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