# Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2

Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
BAHAGIAN A
1. A radioactive source emits two rays P and Q is placed in front of an electric field and the
radioactive path is shown in Diagram 1.

Diagram 1
Rajah1

(a) Name the material of container X
Namakanbahanbagibekas X
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(b) (i) Complete this sentence by underlining one correct phrase in the box.
berikut.

Ray P is
Sinar P ialah

Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark/ 1 arkah ]

Berikansebabbagijawapananda di (a)(i)
………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark ]
An alpha particle
Satuzarah alpha

A beta particle
Satuzarah beta

A gamma ray
Satusinargama
Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
(c) Why the size of deflection of ray P is greater than ray Q ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

2. Radioisotope Uranium-238 decayed to become Thorium-234 as shown in the equation
below.

(a) (i) What is meant by radioisotope ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]
(ii) What is radiation P ?
ApakahsinarP ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(b) If the mass defect in the above radioactive decay is 3.35 x 10
-27
kg. calculate the
energy released in joule. ( Speed of light, c = 3.0 x 10
8
m s
-1
)
Jikacacatjisimdalampereputan di atasadalah 3.35 x 10
-27
kg. hitungtenaga yang
dibebaskandalam joule. ( Lajucahaya, c = 3.0 x 10
8
m s
-1
)

Aras Tinggi [ KBAT ]
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
(c) A radioactive source which emits radiation P is placed near an electric field as shown in
Diagram 3
diletakkanberdekatanmedanelektriksepertidalam Rajah 3.

Diagram 3 / Rajah 3

(i) On Diagram 3, draw the path of Radiation P in the electric field.
Dalam Rajah 3, lukiskanlaluansinaran P di dalammedanelectrik.

Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

3. A polonium nucleus emits alpha particles and gamma ray to become a Lead nucleus.

(a) Complete the decayed equation for Polonium nucleus by writing the appropriate number
in the boxes provided.
sesuaidalamkotak yang disediakan.

Aras Sederhana
[ 1 mark / 1 markah]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

(b) The Polonium nucleus is placed in front of electric field as shown in Diagram 3.1.
Nucleus Polonium itudiletakkan di hadapanmedanelektrikseperti yang ditunjukkandalam
Rajah 3.1

Diagram 3.1 / Rajah 3.1

(i) Draw path of ray for alpha particle and gamma ray in Diagram 3.1.

Aras Sederhana
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

(ii) Explain why the rays follow the path as you drawn in Diagram 3.1
Terangkanmengapalintasansinarseperti yang andalukisdalam Rajah 3.1.

Alpha :……………………………………………………………………………………
Alfa

Gamma : …………………………………………………………………………………
Gama
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

(c) A sample of Polonium of mass 120 g has a half-life of 45 s. Determine the mass of
Polonium that has decayed after 180 second.
Satusampel Polonium berjisim 120 g mempunyaiseparuhhayat 45 s. Tentukanjisim
Polonium yang mereputselepas 180 saat.

Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
4. Figure 4.1 and 4.2 represent the radioactive decay of Radium-226 and Carbon -14
respectively.
Karbon-14.

Diagram 4.1 / Rajah 4.1

Diagram 4.2 / Rajah 4.2

(a) (i) Why does the parent nuclide decay ?
Mengapanukleusunsurasalmereput ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark ]

(ii) Compare the total mass in a.m.u before and after the decay process.
Bandingkanjumlahjisimdalamu.j.asebelumdanselepas proses pereputan.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark ]
(iii) Explain the reason for the observation in 4 (a)(ii).
Nyatakansebabuntukpemerhatian 4 (a)(ii).
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark ]
14.003242 a.m.u 14.003074 a.m.uNegligible mass 2.51 x 10
-14
J
u.j.a u.j.ajisimamatkecil
226.025406a.m.u 222.017574 a.m.u 4.002603 a.m.u 7.81 x 10
-13
J
u.j.a u.j.au.j.a
Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
(iv) Write an equation to show the relationship between mass defect, m, speed of
light, c and energy, E.
halajucahaya, c dantenaga, E.

………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(v) State the relationship between the mass defect and the energy released.
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(b) The half-life of Radium-226 and Carbon-14 are 1600 years and 5 600 years respectively.
5600 tahun.

(i) What is meant by half-life ?
Apakah yang dimaksudkandenganseparuhhayat ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah]

Terangkanjawapananda.

………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 2 marks / 2 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
BAHAGIAN B

1. Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2 shows the rate of decay of radioactive Xenon-133 and
Iodine-131 respectively.
Iodin-131.

Diagram 1.1 / Rajah 1.1

Diagram 1.2 / Rajah 1.2

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
(a) (i) What is the meaning of radioactive decay ?
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(ii) Based on Diagram 1.1 and Diagram 1.2, compare the shape of the graphs,the
way the activity changes with time and time taken for the activity to become half
of the original activity.
Name the time for the activity to become half of the original activity.
Berdasarkan Rajah 1.1 dan Rajah 1.2 bandingkanbentukgraf,
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 5 marks / 5 markah ]

(b) Why is an isotope that emits alpha particles not suitable for use as a tracer in
medicine ?
Mengapakahisotop yang
memancarkanzarahalfatidaksesuaidigunakansebagaipenyurihdalambidangperubatan ?
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 4 marks /4 markah ]

(c) Radiotherapy is used in the treatment of cancer. The radioactive ray used can causes
side effects to the patient.
Using the knowledge about radioactivity, explain the steps taken to reduce the side
effects. In your explanation, emphasize the aspects of ;
perludiambiluntukmengurangkankesansampingantersebut. Dalampenerangananda,

(i) The type of ray used.
Jenissinarandigunakan.
(iii) The dosage of the ray required.
Dos sinaran yang diperlukan.
(iv) The time of the ray exposure.

Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 10 marks / 10 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
2. Table 2.1 shows an equation of a reaction and total atomic mass before and after a nuclear
fission.
sebelumdanselepastindakbalaspembelahan nucleus.

Nuclear fission
Pembelahannukleus
Before reaction
Sebelumtindakbalas
After reaction
Selepastindakbalas
Equation
Persamaan

+

+

+

+ Energy
Total atomic mass
Jumlahjisim atom
240.06082 u 239.85830 u

Table 2.2 shows an equation of a reaction and total atomic mass before and after a
nucklear fusion.
sebelumdanselepaspelakuran nucleus.

Nuclear fission
Pembelahannukleus
Before reaction
Sebelumtindakbalas
After reaction
Selepastindakbalas
Equation
Persamaan

+

+

+ Energy
Total atomic mass
Jumlahjisim atom
5.03013 u 5.01043 u

(a) (i) What is meant by a nuclear fission ?
Apakahmaksudpembelahannukleus ?
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(ii) Using only the information given in Table 2.1 and 2.2, compare nuclear fission
and nuclear fusion. Hence state the relationship between mass and energy
involved.
bandingkanpembelahannukleusdanpelakurannukleus.
Seterusnyanyatakanhubunganantarajisimdantenagaitu.

Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 5 marks / 5 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
(b) Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction. Describe how the chain happens in a nuclear
fission of an atom of uranium.
Pembelahannukleusmenghasilkantindakbalasberantai.Terangkanbagaimanatindakbalas
berantaiberlakusemasapembelahannukleus uranium.

Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 4 marks / 4 markah ]

(c) As a researcher, you are assigned to investigated the characteristics of certain
radioactive isotope that could be used to detect the thickness of paper in a paper factory.
bolehdigunakanuntukmengesanketebalankertas di kilangkertas.

Jawapanandahendaklahberdasarkanaspekberikut.

(ii) The state of matter of the radioactive isotope.
Bentukatausifatjirimisotop.

(iii) The type of radiation emitted
Jenissinarandihasilkan.

(iv) The half-life of the radioactive isotope.

(v) The penetrating power of the radioactive isotope

(vi) Suitable detectors of radioactive emissions

Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 10 marks / 10 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
1. Diagram 3.1 shows a G-M tube that is connected to rate meter placed near a radioactive
source consisting of the isotopes of aluminium, Al-29. The rate meter shows that the mass
of the isotope Al-29 has decreased.
yang diletakkanberhampiransatusumberradioaktif yang mengandungi isotope Aluminium,

Diagram 3.1 / Rajah 3.1

(a) What is meant by isotopes of an element ?
Apakah yang dimaksudkandengan isotope suatuunsur ?
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]
(b) What is the uses of
Apakahkegunaan
(i) The G-M tube / tiub G-M
(ii) The rate meter / meter kadar
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(c) From the observations mentioned above, described what happened to the isotopes Al-
29 and state the name of the process that has occurred to the isotopes.
Dari pemerhatian yang disebutkan di atas, perihalkanapa yang berlakupadaisotop Al-29
dannyatakannama proses yang berlakupada isotope itu.

Aras Sederhana
[ 3 marks / 3markah ]

(d) What is nuclear fission and nuclear fusion ?. Explain how these two nuclear reactions
are able to release energy.
Apakahpembelahan nucleus danpelakurannukleus ?Huraikanbagaimanakedua-
Aras Tinggi
[ 4 marks / 4markah ]
Rate meter
G-M tube
Tube G-M
Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014
(e) Diagram 3.2 shows an application of radioactive substances in agriculture in studying
the intake of fertilizer by plants.
Rajah 3.2
uhan.

Diagram 3.2 / Rajah 3.2

(i) Explain how the study is carried out.
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 1 marks / 1 markah]

(ii) Radioactive substances are hazardous and must be used with care. In using a
radioactive substance to study the intake of fertilizer, suggest how the substance
and detector should be chosen by considering the following aspects.
pek-aspekberikut ;

- The half-life of substance
Separuhhayatbahanitu.

- The types of radiation emitted by substance
Jenissinaran yang dikeluarkanolehbahanitu.

- The type of detector to be used.
Jenisalatpengesan yang digunakan.

Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 6 marks / 6 mark ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

BAHAGIAN C

1. Diagram 1 shows a Geiger Muller tube is connected to a counter that reads the
yang memberikanbacaanlatarbelakang.

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1

(a) Name one source that produced the background reading.
Namakansatupunca yang menghasilkanbacaanlatarbelakang.
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(b) Diagram 1.2 shows a charged electroscope. When a radioactive source is brought near
the metal plate of the electroscope the gold leaf collapsed.
Rajah 1.2
plat logamelektroskopitu , daunemasakanmenguncup.

Diagram 1.2 / Rajah 1.2

Metal plate
Plat logam
Gold leaf
Daunemas
Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

(i) Name the type of radiation emitted by the source
Namakanjenispancaran yang dipancarkanolehsumber.
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]
(ii) Explain why the gold leaf collapsed.
Aras Sederhana[ KBAT ]
[ 3 marks / 3 markah ]

(c) Radioisotop is used to detect the position of blood clots ( thrombosis ) in the blood
vessels.You are required to investigate the characteristics of the radioisotopes as shown
in Table 1
Radioisotop digunakan untuk mengesan kedudukan darah beku di dalam salur darah.
1.

State of matter
Half-life
Separuh hayat
Jenis sinaran
Type of detector
jenis pengesan
J
Liquid
cecair
6 days
6 hari
Gamma
Gama
GM-tube
Tiub-GM
K
Liquid
cecair
15 hours
15 jam
Gamma
Gama
GM-tube
Tiub-GM
L
Solid
Pepejal
140 days
140 hari
Beta
Spark counter
Pembilang Bungapi
M
Solid
Pepejal
28 years
28 tahun
Beta
Spark counter
Pembilang Bungapi

Explain the suitability of each characteristics of the radioisotope to be used to detect the
blood clots in the blood vessels. Determine the most suitable radioisotope that can be
used to detect the position of the blood clots. Give reasons for your choice.

kedudukandarahbekudalamsalurdarah. Tentukan radioisotope yang paling sesuai
yangbolehdigunakanuntumengesankedudukandarahbekuitu. Berikansebab-sebab
untukpiihananda.

Aras Tinggi [ KBAT ]
[ 10 marks / 10 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

(d) A nuclear reaction is represented by the following equation :
Satutindakbalas nuclear diwakiliolehpersamaanberikut :

+

+

+ energy

Mass of :
Jisimbagi ;

= 235.04392 u

= 1.00867 u

= 140.91963 u

=92.92157 u

1 u = 1.6 x 10
-27
kg

Speed of light, c = 3.0 x 10
8
ms
-1

Based on the equation , calculate.
Berdasarkanperempuanitu, hitungkan

(I) The mass defect cet in kg.
Kecacatanjisimdalam kg

(II) The energy released.

Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 5 marks / 5 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

2. Radioactive material is used in the field of agriculture as tracers to study the absorption of
fertilizers by plants.
Bahan radioaktif digunakan dalam bidang pertanian sebagai penyurih untuk mengkaji
penyerapan baja oleh tumbuhan.

(a) A researcher conducted a study on absorption of fertilizers by plants using a
radioisotope. Diagram 2.1 shows how the radioisotope is injected into the stem of the
plant.
Seorangpenyelidiktelahmenjalankansatukajianuntukmenyiasatpenyerapanbajaolehtumb

Diagram 2.1 / Rajah 2.1

Based on the information on radioactivity and Diagram 2.1 ;

(i) What is meant by radioisotope ?
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah]

(ii) The detector used is able to detect background radiation. State two sources of
Aras Sederhana
[ 2 marks / 2markah]

(b) You are assigned to study the characteristics of some radioisotope that are suitable to
be use in studying the absorption of fertilizers by plants.
sesuaidigunakanuntukdalammengkajipenyerapanbajaolehtumbuhan.
Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

Table 2.2 shows the characteristics of four radioisotopes.

Kuasapenembusanolehsinaran
Half life
Separuhhayat
State of matter
J
High
Tinggi
140 days
140 hari
Solid
Pepejal
K
High
Tinggi
8 years
8 tahun
Liquid
Cecair
L
Low
Rendah
5.27 years
5.27 tahun
Solid
pepejal
M
Low
Rendah
14.3 days
14.3 hari
Liquid
cecair

Table 2.2
Explain the suitability of each characteristics of the radioisotope and determine the most
suitable radioisotope to be used for studying the absorption of fertilizers by plants.
sesuaiuntukdigunakanbagitujuanmengkajipenyerapanbajaolehtumbuhan.
Berisebabbagipilihananda.

Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 8 marks / 8 markah ]

(c) Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction. Describe how chain reaction occurs in nuclear
fission of Uranium-235.
Pembelahan nucleus
menghasilkantindakbalasberantai.Terangkanbagaimanatindakbalasberantaiberlakudala
mpembelahan atom Uranium-235
Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 4 marks / 4 markah ]

Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

3. An engineer uses radioisotope to detect leakage of water pipe line as shown on Diagram 3.
He is assigned to design a system to detect the thickness of card in a factory.

Diagram 3 / Rajah 3

(a) What is meant by radioisotope ?
Aras Rendah
[ 1 mark / 1 markah ]

(b) Table 1 shows the characteristics of five different radioisotopes.

Characteristics of isotope
Ciri-ciriisotop
Physicl state
emitted
Sinaran yang
dipancarkan
Penetrating power
Kuasapenembusan
Half-life
Separuhhayat
V
Gas
Gas
Alpha
Alfa
Low
Rendah
30 days
30 hari
W
Liquid
Cecair
Beta
Beta
Moderate
Sederhana
8 months
8 bulan
X
Liquid
Cecair
Gamma
Gama
High
Tinggi
2 years
2 tahun
Y
Solid
Pepejal
Beta
Beta
Moderate
Sederhana
32 years
32 tahun
Z
Solid
Pepejal
Gamma
Gama
High
Tinggi
60 seconds
60 saat

Water pipe / Pair air
Position of leakage
Kedudukankebocoran
Bab 5Tingkatan 5 Keradioaktifan Kertas 2
Form 5 Chapter 5 Radioactivity Paper II
Modul SOLAF Fizik 2014

Based on Table 1, explain the suitable characteristics of the radioisotopes to be used to
detect the thickness of card. Select the most suitable isotopes to be used and give your
reasons.
sesuaidanberikansebabanda.

Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 10 marks / 10 markah ]

(c) Explain the arrangement of the apparatus used to detect the thickness of card. State
how radioactivity is used to detect the thickness of the card.
Aras Tinggi[ KBAT ]
[ 10 marks / 10 markah ]

(d) Sketch activity against time graph to show the decay of a radioactive substance.