Chemistry Notes

The Chemical Earth.
Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory.
An element is a pure substance which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances. Some common
elements are aluminium, copper, carbon, oxygen, gold, nitrogen and mercury.
A compound is a pure substance which CAN be decomposed into simpler substance, for example into
elements. Some common compounds are table salt (NaCl) sugar (sucrose) water, sodium carbonate,
sulphate of ammonia, alcohol (ethanol) and aspirin.
A Compound:
 Is made up of two or more elements.
 Always have the elements present in the same ratio by mass.
 Have properties that are quite different from the contributing elements.
A Mixture can be separated into two or more pure substances by physical or mechanical means such as
filtering, boiling or using magnets. A pure substance cannot be separate into two or more substances by
physical or mechanical means.
A homogenous mixture or substance means it has uniform composition throughout, for example water or
A heterogeneous mixture means it does not have uniform composition where we can recognise small
pieces of the material which are different from other pieces, for example jam, wood or water with ice in it.
A mixture may be homogenous (tap water, air) or heterogeneous (fruit cake, concrete). A pure substance is
homogeneous (crystals of sugar, piece of copper).
A mixture displays the properties of the pure substances making it up (different parts of the mixture show
different properties). A pure substance has properties such as appearance colour, density, melting and
boiling points, which are constant throughout the whole sample.
A mixture its properties can change as the relative amounts of the substances present are changed. A pure
substance has properties which do not change regardless of how it is prepared or how many times it is
subjected to purification procedures.
A mixture has variable composition, that is the relative amounts of each pure substances present can be
varied. A pure substance has a fixed composition, no matter how it is made or where it comes from.
Mixtures: sea water, air, coffee, milk, petrol, whisky, brass and silver coins.
Pure substances: table salt, sugar, copper, aluminium, diamond, gold, polythene and alcohol.

Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of
elements and compounds.
The biosphere contains all the living matter in earth, encompassing the atmosphere, hydrosphere and
lithosphere. Such organism consists of carbon-containing compound, fats lipids carbohydrates and proteins
in the insoluble forms.
The atmosphere is a mixture of gases, predominantly nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, though it may contain
small amounts of gaseous compounds such as water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfuret dioxide and
carbon monoxide.
The Hydrosphere also consists of different mixtures; the major component of mixtures in here is water. Sea
water is an example of a mixture in the hydrosphere; it also contains small amounts of compounds such as
iodide. Ground water is a mixture similar to river water, except that it generally contains larger amounts of
dissolved solids such as chlorides and sulphates. Apart from dissolved oxygen and nitrogen, the mixtures
of hydrosphere contain only compounds.
The lithosphere contains a diverse range of mixtures:
 Rocks which are mixtures of various silicates
 Sand which is mainly silicon dioxide with variable amounts of ground up shells or dirt
 Soils which are mixtures of aluminosilicates
 Mineral ores which are mainly oxides, sulphides, carbonates, sulphates and chlorides of metals
mixed with various silicates or aluminosilicates
 Coal, oil and natural gas which are mixtures of compounds of carbon formed from decayed plant
and animal matter

Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of:
 Solids of different sizes.
 Solids and liquids
 Dissolved solids in liquids.
 Liquids
 Gases
Some Key Words:
 A suspension is a dispersion of particles through a liquid with the particles being sufficiently large
that they settle out on standing/
 A solution is a homogenous mixture in which the dispersed particles are so small (molecules or
ions) that they never settle out and cannot be seen by microscope.
 An immiscible liquid is when two liquids mix but they do not form a homogeneous liquid, instead
they stay as drops of one liquid dispersed through the other. Generally, we are known to
remember it as one liquid dissolved in the other.
 Distillation is a method of separating liquids from solutions or of purifying one liquid. It involves
boiling the material and condensing the resulting vapour back to a liquid in a different part of the
 If a mixture of a volatile liquid with non-volatile impurities (solid or liquid) is distilled, the distillate
is pure liquid.
 If a mixture of two or more liquids of comparable volatility (similar boiling points) is distilled, the
distillate is generally richer in the more volatile liquid. Basically, the lower boiling point, the easier
evaporated and thus more of this component is achieved in distillation.

Sieving separates solids of different particle sizes through filtering them through meshes of different sizes
in order to get rid of gangue.
Froth flotation separates minerals form gangue using bubbling activity where the lighter minerals will float
to the top and leave the gangue at the bottom which is heavier to sediment.
Another method of separating solids from liquids is filtration, where the coarse particles in the liquids are
not able to pass through the fine pores in the filter paper. Separating the insoluble substances from the
soluble ones i.e. sand in water
Evaporation + Distillation used to separate a mixture by difference of boiling points, boiling off the low
component whilst leaving the high. Generally the water is boiled off to leave the solid.
Distillation separates liquids on the physical property of varying boiling points, the process is incomplete
and distillate is only marginally richer in the more volatile component, which are lower boiling points.
Fractional Distillation targets different boiling points gases or liquids; it boils the volatile substances and
categorizes them to specifically extract a certain liquid.
Gas mixtures are generally separated by using either differences in boiling points or differences in
solubilities in liquids such as water.

Separation Method:

Property used in the Separation:
Sieving Particle size

(evaporating or boiling)
Liquid has a much lower boiling point than the solid

Big difference in boiling points
Fractional Distillation Significant but small difference in boiling points


One substance a solid, the other a liquid or solution

Adding a solvent then Filtration

One substance is soluble in the chosen solvent, while the others are

Separation Funnel Components are immiscible liquids

Describe situations in which Gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists.
To carry out complete gravimetric analysis on a sample we need to determine the mass of each component
present in the mixture. Two special terms are used:
Qualitative Analysis refers to what is in the mixture refers.
Quantative Analysis to how much of each component is present in a substance.
Some useful applications of gravimetric analysis include:
 Determining the composition of soil in a particular location to see if its suitable for growing a
certain crop
 Determining the amounts of a particular substance present in water or air to decide how polluted
the samples are
 To decide whether a particular commercial mixture being sold has the same percentage
composition as a similar mixture being marketed by a rival company.
 Deciding whether a newly discovered mineral deposit contains a sufficiently high percentage of the
required compound to make its extraction from that deposit economically viable.

Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of it existing as an
uncombined element.
Basically, the more reactive an element is the less chance there is of finding it in the Earth as an
uncombined element because most elements are chemically reactive: that is when they come into contact
with certain other elements they react to form compounds.
Apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced into the laboratory.
Covalent Molecular:
 Compounds formed between non-metals
 Form discrete groups of atoms (molecules)
1. Element furthest down the group of further to the left is first
2. When only two elements are present, the ending is –ide.
3. When there are two or more atoms of one type prefixes are used.
Mono – carbon monoxide CO
Di- carbon dioxide CO
Tri- sulphur trioxide SO
Tetra- carbon tetrachloride CCl
Penta- phosphorous pentachloride PCL
Hexa- Sulphur hexafluoride SF
4. Hydrogen compounds – With metals the metal is named first. NaH = sodium hydride.
With non-metals: hydrogen first = H
S hydrogen sulphide.
5. The prefix mono- is not used for the first named element. ( The minimal number of prefixes needed
to name the compound unambiguously is used)
6. When the prefixes end in an ’a’ or an ‘o’ and the name of the second element begins with a vowel
(e.g. Oxide) the ‘a’ or the ‘o’ is usually dropped.
7. E.G. Cl
O = dichlorine monoxide
= Dinitrogen Tetroxide
8. Binary acids e.g. HCl are shown to be aqueous with the prefix ‘hydro’ and the suffix ‘ic’ with the
word acid.

Covalent Network Compounds:
 No simple molecules, but a 3dimensional array (network crystal) of atoms
 The formula shows the ration of atoms in the crystal lattice.
E.g. SiO
: for every SI there are 2 O atoms. The formula is the empirical formula.
Ionic Compounds:
 Oppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction to form a 3-D crystal lattice. The
ionic bond is the attraction between ions.
 The formula shows the relative number of metal and non-metal ions present (empirical formula).
 The metal is written first.
 The non –metal is named by adding the ‘ide’ suffix to the non-metals stem
E.g. calcium chloride CaCl

 When a metal has two or more valencies this is indicated by a roman numeral in brackets after the
metals name.
E.g. copper (I) oxide CuO
Copper (II) oxide Cu
Mercury (II) oxide HgO
Mercury (I) oxide Hg
Iron (II) chloride FeCl
Iron (III) chloride FeCl
Naming Carbon compounds with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists.

1930 – Rules for Name carbon compounds.
 Meth = 1
 Eth = 2
 Prop = 3
 But = 4
 Pent = 5
 Hex = 6
 Hept = 7
 Oct = 8
 Non = 9
 Dec = 10

- Suffix = “-ane”
- Single bonds between Carbon atoms.
- General Formula: C

- E.g. C
= Butane
- CH
– CH
– CH
– CH

- Suffix = “-ene”
- A double bond present between 2 Carbon atoms
- General Formula: C

- Hexene : C

- 2 – Hexene: CH
– CH = CH – CH
– CH
– CH

- The number before hexene or whichever ever Alkenes signify where the double bond is present.
- Forms one triple bond
- General formula: C

- Pentyne: C

- 1 – Pentyne: CH Ξ C – CH
– CH
– CH

Classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical properties.
Metals are elements which:
 Are solids at room temperature
 Have shiny or lustrous appearance
 Are good conductors of electricity
 Are malleable (able to be rolled into sheets) and ductile (able to be drawn into wires)
 Most other elements are called non-metals
Non-Metals are elements which:
 Poor electrical conductivity

Functional Group:


General formula: C
+ OH

Hydroxy or Hydroxyl group

-C = O

Carboxylic acid group
(always on end carbon)


Fluoro-  Halogen atoms

-C = O

 Good heat insulators
 Dull lustre
 Brittle and non-ductile and non-malleable
 Generally colourless
 Low density and low tensile strength
Some anomalies include mercury who has a shiny appearance and is a good conductor of electricity except
is it a liquid. Yet we choose to classify this as a metal because of what it resembles more. Carbon in the
graphite form is a fair conductor of electricity and is a solid, yet we classify this as a non-metal because yet
again it closely resembles the qualities of a non-metal.
Properties and Uses:
While metals show a wide range of properties such as melting point, conductivity, tensile strength and
hardness, the commonly used ones such as iron, aluminium, copper, zinc, chromium and nickel have
reasonably high melting pints and except copper are fairly hard. This makes them perfect for industrial and
mechanical usages for building cars, planes, trains and machinery.
Non-metals display an even wider range of melting points, at room temperature some are gases, some are
liquids and even solids. A property all non-metals have in common are their low tensile strength, other than
that everything else varies from element to element. Common uses include:
 Carbon as graphite for lubricant and use in ‘lead’ pencils
 Carbon as diamond used in jewellery because of high refractive index and transparency and
dispersive power, also aesthetic appeal. And used in drill tips because of its high melting point and
 Gaseous chlorine as an industrial bleach, for disinfecting public swimming pools and making
plastics such as PVC
Physical States of the Elements:
Out of the 92 naturally occurring elements, at room temperature:
 only two are liquids – mercury and bromide
 Eleven are gases: oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon,
 The rest are solids


Describe qualitatively the energy levels of the Electrons in Atoms.
In subsequent models of atoms, electrons are considered to exist in the energy levels or shells so to speak.
The shells are numbered from the inner parts of the atom outwards (n= 1, 2, 3) and the maximum number
of electrons that can occupy each shell is determined by the formula: 2n

The outer shell in each atom is called the Valence shell; the maximum number of electrons in this shell is
eight. The pattern of arrangement of electrons is the electron configuration. When determining electron
configuration one must apply:
- Electrons are placed in the lowest energy shells (closet the nucleus) first.
- As each level is filled, the next energy level starts to fill.
The octet in the valence shell (exception of helium with 2 electrons) confers stability; other less table atoms
can achieve the octet by gaining/losing electrons. Atoms and Ions with the same electron configuration are
said to be isoelectronic.
The valence shells are as follows:
He = 2
Ne = 2.8
Ar = 2.8.8
Kr =
Xe =
Rn =
Describe atoms in terms of Mass Number and Atomic Number:
Atomic Number = the number of protons in the nucleus. (Z)
Mass Number – the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. (A)
Therefore, neutrons equal the Mass number minus the Atomic number. (A) – (Z) = Neutrons
Thus, an element is a pure substance where all atoms have the same atomic number (Z).
Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic number (Z) but different mass numbers (A), meaning they have a
different amount of neutrons.
Describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons.
There are two ways in which atoms can obtain noble gas configurations:
1. By outright transfer of electrons from one atom to another to form what is called ionic bonding.
2. By sharing electrons between pairs of atoms ‘considering’ that it ‘owns’ all the shared electrons;
this is called covalent bonding.
Alkali metals all have similar chemical properties because they all tend to lose on electron to obtain the
electronic configuration of the nearby noble gas.
Halogens have similar chemical properties with themselves as well, but they tend to gain one electron to
obtain that electronic configuration.

Thus, Ionic bonding is the gaining or losing of electrons to achieve an electronic configuration like the noble
When a neutral atom loses one electron is become positively charges: we call this positive ion cation.
When a neutral atom gains an electron it becomes negatively charged: we call this negative ion anion.
Note that within ionic compounds there are no discrete molecules- just an infinite array of positive and
negative ions.
Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding which involved the outright transfer of electrons from one
atom to another. The bonding consists of electrostatic attraction between the positive and negative ions
formed by this transfer of electrons.
Elements that can attain noble gas configurations by losing or gaining one or two electrons commonly form
ions. This means that we can use the Periodic Table to predict which elements will form ions – generally
those which are only one or two elements away from the noble gas.
Through the implementation of the Periodic Table, we may understand why some elements have the same
characteristics as neighbouring elements, whilst some don’t.
Group 1 metals all tend to lose one electron and therefore form singly charged positive ions
Group 2 metals tend to lose two electrons and therefore form double charge positive ions.
Group 7 elements (non-metals) tend to gain one electron and therefore they form singly charged negative
Group 6 elements (non-metals) tend to gain two electrons and thus form doubly charged negative ions.
However whilst groups 1 and 2 only form ionic compounds with the exception of beryllium, groups 6 and 7
may also form covalent compounds.
Apply the Periodic Table to predict the covalent bonds formed by atoms of metals and non-metals.
Covalent bonding occurs when both of the elements forming the compound need to gain electrons to
attain noble gas configurations, elements in the centre and to the right of the Periodic Table tend to form
covalent compounds. Elements such as carbon, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorous, oxygen, sulfuret, fluorine,
chlorine (though the last four commonly form ionic compounds also) usually form covalent compounds.
The number of covalent bonds an atom forms is the number of electrons that atom needs to gain to
acquire a noble gas configuration- one for hydrogen and chlorine, two for oxygen and three for nitrogen
and four for carbon, though carbon is a special case.
The position of an element in the Periodic Table tells us how many electrons the atom needs to gain to
attain a noble gas configuration and so it tells us how many covalent bonds the atom will form.
Apply Lewis electron dot structures to show the formation if ions and the electron sharing in some simple
- Electron dot diagrams show valence electrons only
- They show bonding between atoms and the transfer of electrons
- No distinction made between electrons of different atoms.
Formation of ions must include parenthesis which show the newly formed ions:
Na (1 dot) + Cl (7 dots) ----------> [Na]
+ [Cl]

(Cl has full 8 dots whilst Na has lost one hence the positive and negative charges)
Mg (2 dots) + 2 Cl (7 dots) -------------> [Mg]
+ 2[Cl]

(Magnesium has to lose 2 electrons, hence it’s
value; so it gives each Chlorine atom one, and both parties
achieve the noble gas configuration through this.)
Mg(2 dots) + O (6 dots) --------------> [Mg]
+ [O]

(In this case, the Mg has yet again lost 2 but this time only to one atom, and hence Oxygen’s
signifying it has gained 2 electrons from magnesium.)
Simple Molecules:
= H. + H. ----> H: H
O = H. + H. +
----> H:
: H


= N (5 dots) + H. + H. + H. ----> H:
= C (4 dots) + 4 Cl (7 dots) ---->??
In order to do harder examples you must know certain simple mathematics, there are 4 Chlorines and one
Carbon, the Carbon has 4 dots, and each chlorine has 1 dot, hence you must think how can carbon bond 4?
It gets surrounded by 4 chlorines and hence CCl
is created.
Molecules with multiple covalent bonds:
= O (6 dots) + O (6 dots) ----> in this case a double bond has to be incorporated because just sharing one
electron won’t achieve the noble gas configuration. However when they share 2 each, they both are
allowed to ‘have’ their shared electrons for themselves, thus each oxygen atom has 8 electrons 
= N( 5 dots) + N (5 dots) ---> even after a double bond, sometimes triple bonds may occur, this is when a
double bond just doesn’t work. When nitrogen atoms share electrons they must reach the electronic
configuration of 8, they each have 5 so mathematically they must already share 1 because each atom must
contribute at least 1 into the bond. In this manner, Nitrogen has to share 3 electrons with each other
combining to make 5 + 3 = 8. Bingo 
The rest are basic mathematical knowledge!
Describe Molecules as particles which can move independently of each other.
A molecule is a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds, these are covalent bonds
where each atom involved in the bond contributes an electron to the shared pair. When bonded the shared
pair of electrons occupy a volume of space that surrounds both the nuclei, and even though the strong
covalent bonds bind the atoms together within each molecule, their discrete energy levels allow them to
move about independently in their volume of shared electrons.
Distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble gases) and molecules with more than one
Elements can be diatomic (I
, Br
, Cl
) or polyatomic (P
, S
); the noble gases are all monatomic gases,
meaning their molecules exist as single atoms. You must know the strict definition of a molecule:
A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that can have a separate existence, and can move around
independently of other particles. That is, inert gases have “molecules” of just one atom. Hydrogen has
“diatomic” molecules and Lattice structures (ionic or covalent network) are not molecules.
Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons.
All covalent substances are held together by covalent bonds that is, atoms sharing pairs of electrons. In a
covalent bond, both atoms contribute one electron to the shared pair. In dative or co-coordinative covalent
bonds both the electrons in the shared pair is supplied by the one atom. E.g. CO, NH
In molecular covalent, the intramolecular bonding is covalent, but the intermolecular bondings are weak
intermolecular forces. When a molecular substance is melted, the intermolecular forces are broken only.
Since these forces are weak, the energy required to break them is not great, so the melting and boiling
points are relatively low. The molecules do not have an overall charge.
In network covalent substances such as silicon carbide (SiC), silicon dioxide (SiO
), diamond (C) and silicon
(Si) strong covalent bonds extend throughout the 3 dimensional lattice. Much energy is needed to break
these bonds, so their melting points and boiling points are very high. The lattice is made of atoms.
Construct formulae for compounds formed from:
- Ions
- Atoms sharing electrons
+ 2H
O -----> 2h
+ SO

(lots of ions form, this means this is a conductor and is a strong electrolyte)

HCl + H
O -- H
+ Cl

(another example)
------> Na
(aq) or (s)
+ ℮
(showing the ionization of sodium)
------> Mg
+ 2℮
--------> Al
+ 3℮ the compound overall is neutral
Non-Metals: Shows the ratio of binding
+ 2℮ -------> S
ions in the crystal lattice
2 (g)
+ 2℮ ------> 2Cl

Reaction forming Ionic Substance:
+ S
--------> MgS

+ Cl
2 (g)
--------> MgCl
2 (S)


Identify the differences between physical and chemical change in forms of rearrangement of particles.
Physical changes are changes in physical properties. Physical properties include odour, colour, taste,
hardness, density, malleability, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, melting point, boiling point
and solubility. The physical changes are usually very easy to reverse, such as melting ice and re-freezing it.
There is no change in the composition of a substance. Generally relatively small amounts of energy are
absorbed or released.
E.g. Iron is a grey solid, with metallic lustre, fairly soft when pure, malleable, ductile, good electrical and
thermal conductor and has high melting point – all of these are physical properties.
Chemical change occurs when new substances with new compositions formed. This involves large
quantities of energy being absorbed or released, generally in the form of heat, light or electricity. These
changes are quite hard to reverse, such as re combining H
and O
with a high temperature spark.
E.g. Combustion of fuels or decomposition
-----> Na
+ ½ O
+ ½ H

Chemical properties are those that related to the ability of a substance to form a new substance. That is
reactions with oxygen, water, acids and bases or specific reactions with other substances.
Irons chemical properties include:
 Reacts slowly with moist air to form rust
 If finely divided will burn in oxygen when heated
 Reacts with steam and dilute acids to form hydrogen
Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference
between physical and chemical change.
When we boil water, the H
O liquid becomes H
O gas, and it is still in its elemental form, only there is a
change of state. Thus the intermolecular forces here are broken and this requires less energy than to break
the intramolecular bonds. – requires energy input (heat)
When we put water through electrolysis, it decomposes into its constituent elements, the strong covalent
bonds within the molecule must be overcome thus the intramolecular forces are broken; and new covalent
bonds between ‘H’ and ‘O’ must be formed. This requires more energy than boiling supplied by electrolysis.
Boiling water does not alter the actual particles (molecules): it just separates them from one another: the
water vapour contains the same water molecules as the liquid did. Electrolysis actually breaks the particles
up (water molecules broken up and hydrogen and oxygen (H
and O
) molecules formed)
Identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed
during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in
everyday life.
Causes decomposition of some silver salts – the light energy is absorbed and decomposes the salts. Also,
light energy can be absorbed in photosynthesis to produce glucose:
+ 6H
O ----light chlorophyll--> C
+ 6O
Light energy can also cause the decomposition of some compounds for example silver salts such as silver
chloride decompose when exposed to light to produce silver metal. The use of silver bromide in black and
white photographic film is dependent upon this decomposition reaction.

Thermal heat can decompose many compounds - this is a chemical change.
-----> CuO + CO

-----> CaO + CO
(limestone turned into lime and carbon dioxide.)
The process of electrolysis greatly increased our ability to extract metals from their ores. Metals such as
aluminium and sodium can only be extracted from their ores in this way. For example water can be
decomposed into the elements of hydrogen and oxygen if an electric current is passed through it.
Common everyday uses:
Decomposition reactions, such as air bags in motor cars, sodium azide are decomposed to sodium and
nitrogen gas (by igniting it with a detonating cap)
Calcium carbonate is decomposed by heating it to make lime, cements and glass.
Direct combination reactions are also common, when the rusting of iron and steel (to form iron (III) oxide
from the direct combination of iron with oxygen.)
The burning of coke (carbon) releases much heat energy that we utilize in many different ways.
Lightning which creates such a localised high temperature that nitrogen the oxygen gases combine to form
gaseous nitric oxide, NO. This same combination reaction also occurs in the combustion chamber of cars
and this nitric oxide along with nitrogen dioxide. NO
, to which it is partly converted, is one of the major
pollutants produced by cars.
Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the
strength of the attraction, or bond, between them.

In covalent bonds the shared bonding electrons are simultaneously attracted to the nuclei of both bonded
atoms. It is this simultaneous electrostatic attraction of both nuclei for the shared electrons that
constitutes the covalent bond. To separate atoms joined by a covalent bond requires considerable
quantities of energy. This is sometimes referred to as the bond energy.
When compounds are decomposed into their constituent elements, large quantities of energy are usually
required. This is because the decomposition reaction involved breaking strong covalent or ionic bonds
within these substances. On the other hand, changes or state such as liquid water to steam require much
smaller quantities of energy. This process only involves breaking weak intermolecular forces between
The stronger the chemical bonding in compound results in more energy required to break the compound
into its elements. Alternatively, the stronger the chemical bonding in a compound more energy is released
when the compound is formed from its elements.
Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures.
Physical properties are those that can be determined without changing the chemical composition of the
substance. Chemical properties are those that relate to the ability of a substance to form new substances.
Elements and compounds are all pure substances. Each element and each compound has its own unique
properties which are characteristic and do NOT vary. For example, pure water has a fixed melting point,
boiling point, density, acidity, conductivity, etc. It is these unique properties which allow us to recognise
and identify water, and every other substance.
Minerals are not pure/ the properties of mixtures are usually a ‘blend’ of the properties of its parts, and
vary according to its exact composition. For example salt water, has properties of both salt and water and
its density, boiling point and taste vary according to the proportions of each mixture
Substance: Chemical Properties: Physical Properties:
*Burns in oxygen to produce soot. *Variable Colour
*Burns in oxygen to produce CH
and H
*Less dense in water
*Volatile – vapours easily
*Decomposable into H
+ O
*Liquid at room temperature
Natural gas:
*Reacts with oxygen to produce
+ H
*Gas at room temperature and

Six bottles contain sodium chloride, oxygen, copper (II) sulphate, water, iron and sulphur. What physical
properties would be used to identify each one?
 Sodium Chloride – generally known as salt, see by salty taste and white colour.
 Oxygen – is a gas at room temperature -
 Copper (II) Sulphate – is a blue solution in room temperature – colour
 Water – generally no taste and obviously recognisable
 Iron – is a metal, lustrous shiny and has electrical conductivity
 Sulphur – is a grainy yellow texture, very fine power. – Colour, texture, density.
Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or covalent
All substances are made of atoms, ions or molecules. The way these particles are arranged in the substance
is the structure. This depends on:
 The nature of the particles.
 The forces holding the particles together.
The substance is a solid:
Melting Point-
The substance is covalent molecular substance. The conductivity of solid and molten state is non-
Not a covalent molecular substance-

Conductivity of the High melting point substance –
Conducting substance with high melting point:
The substance is metallic, with high melting point and conducts electricity in the solid state.
Non-conducting with high melting point:
The substance is not covalent molecular or metallic.

Conductivity of molten state-
Conducting in the molten state, with high melting point and does not conduct in solid state:
This substance is Ionic
Non-conducting in the molten state, with high melting point that does not conduct in the solid state:
This substance is of covalent network or covalent lattice.

Distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds.
Metallic bonding is the bonding between metals, usually a lot of positive metal ions surrounding by a sea of
delocalised electrons.
Ionic bonding is the taking and giving of electrons between a non-metal and metal in order to achieve the
noble gas electronic configuration. This is gained through electrostatic attraction of positive and negative.
Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons from two non-metals which simultaneously gives both
substances a noble gas configuration. This is gained through electron attraction to opposite substances

Describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons.
Covalent lattice solids or more simple covalent lattices are solids in which the covalent bonding extends
indefinitely throughout the whole crystals. This is also generally known as covalent network  Metals
consist of an orderly three-dimensional array of positive ions held together by a mobile ‘sea’ of delocalised
electrons. The valence electrons break away from their atoms, leaving behind positive ions. These free
electrons, called delocalised because they no longer belong to particular atoms, move randomly through
the lattice and, by being shared by numerous positive ions, provide the chemical bonding which holds the
crystal together.
Metals can be bent, rolled into sheets and drawn into rods and wires. These processes are possible because
when the orderly array of positive ions is sheared, the mobile electrons are able to adjust to the new
arrangement of positive ions and again stabilise the whole assembly of positive ions.
Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions.
With ionic compounds, you don’t just get one atom reacting with another. In real situations there are
billions of atoms. After all the ions have formed, each positive ion is attracted to every nearby negative one
and vice versa. The result is that you don’t just get pairs of opposite ions, but huge repeating, 3 dimensional
lattices of positive and negative ions all electro-statically attracted to one another. In the solid state an
ionic compound forms a crystal, which is a huge array of billions of ions in a lattice.
Explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula.
The chemical formula for an ionic compound is always in the empirical form because for any ionic
compound formula, it only shows the ratio in which the ions are a part of, not the actual numbers that are
present. Such formulae that give ratio by atoms of elements in a compound rather than the actual numbers
of atoms in a molecule are called empirical formula. Formulae for ionic compounds are therefore always
empirical because there are no molecules.

Identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices.
Covalent Molecules:
O – Water H
, Cl
, O
and N
are diatomic gases.
– Ammonia Br
is a diatomic liquid.

– Hydrogen Chloride I
is a diatomic solid.
Phosphorus and Sulphur exist as covalent P
and S
covalent molecules respectively.
Covalent Lattices:
Carbon exists as diamond which is a three-dimensional lattice and as graphite which is a two dimensional
lattice. The semi-metals B, Si, Ge, As, Sb and Te closely approximate covalent lattice though their bonding
electrons are not as firmly localised as in diamond.
Many substances in the lithosphere are covalent lattices:
 Sand and quartz as silicon dioxide
 Some gemstones are silicon dioxide with traces of impurities which provide the colour, while others
are silicates which are covalent lattices with some ionic bits incorporated. (Emerald, aquamarine,
topaz and garnet.)
 Mica, talc and asbestos are also silicate lattices
 Clays and zeolites are alumina-silicate lattices, again with some ionic portions.
Explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of ionic,
covalent molecular and covalent network substances.
Types of solids and
their properties:
Molecular Solids: Metallic: Ionic: Covalent Network:
Melting and
Boiling points:

Low Variable High High

No Yes
As solid: NO
As liquid/molten:
Hardness and/or

Variable hardness;
malleable and
Hard and Brittle Hard and Brittle
Forces holding
particles in the
Delocalised sea of
(metallic bonding)
Covalent bonding
throughout the
Network Covalent:
Property: Reason:
Non-Conductors when solid or molten

Electrons bonded (Graphite is an exception to this
Very high melting and boiling points

Strong covalent bonding throughout the lattice

Strong covalent bonding extending in three
dimensions throughout the lattice giving a rigid
Brittle Distortion breaks covalent bonds

Chemically inert Stable Structure

Insoluble in water and most other solvents

Bonding is very strong

Covalent Molecular:

Property: Reason:
Low melting and boiling points

Weak intermolecular bonding
Non-conductors of electricity in solid or molten

Few react with solvent that they dissolve in to form
solutions that are electrolytes.
E.g. HCl, H

Most dissolve in water to remain as neutral
They form solids that are quite soft and have a waxy

Weak intermolecular forces.