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Fundamentals of Radio Network Planning
Objectives
The participant is able to
− explain the basic steps during radio network planning
Contents
1 Mobile Radio Network Planning Tasks
1.1 Collection of Basic Planning Data
1. Terrain Data !c"uisition
1.# Coarse Co$erage Prediction
1.% Network Con&guration
1.' (ite (election
1.) *ield Measure+ents
1., Tool Tuning
1.- Network Design
1.. Data Base /ngineering
1.10 Perfor+ance /$aluation and 1pti+i2ation
Repetition
# Radio 3a$e Propagation
#.1 Path 4oss
#. (hadowing 5 4ong Ter+ *ading
#.# Multi Path Propagation 5 (hort Ter+ *ading
#.% Maxi+u+ Path 4oss and 4ink Budget
% Cellular Networks and *re"uenc6 !llocation
' Tra7c Models
) /xercises
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Objectives of Radio Network Planning
To provide service
to +an6 subscribers with high ser$ice "ualit6 at low costs
Capacit6 for a tra7c +odel
− ser$ice t6pes
− call rate
− +obilit6
9ualit6 of ser$ice
− low blocking
− low wait ti+e
− high speech "ualit6
− low call drop rate
/7cienc6
− low nu+ber of B( sites
− high fre"uenc6 re5use
Boundary conditions
Pysics! fre"uenc6 spectru+: radio propagation → co$erage ; fre"uenc6 planning
"ystem! recei$er characteristics: trans+it power
channel configuration
cell design & network structure
link quality improvement
focal point of this course !
algorithms and parameter setting
*ig. 1
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!s shown in the &gure below: the +ain topic of this course is ad<ust+ent of s6ste+
para+eters for the (ie+ens Base (tation (6ste+ =(B(> as part of the radio network
planning process.
Before going into the details of the s6ste+ features and control para+eters: this
introduction chapter su++ari2es so+e basics on radio network planning?
@n the &rst and second section of this chapter the steps within the radio network
planning process are explained. @n sections # 5 ' si+ple +odels concerning radio
propagation: fre"uenc6 re5use and teletra7c are presented.
!s each +odel the6 are onl6 an approxi+ation of realit6. Ne$ertheless
• the6 reAect the +ain ph6sical eBects:
• the6 help to understand the +eaning of para+eters and the wa6 of working the
algorith+s:
• the6 allow to esti+ate para+eter $alues.
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# $obile Radio Network Planning Tasks
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The +obile radio network is the connecting ele+ent between the +obile telephone
users and the &xed network.
@n this network the base transceiver station e%uipment =BT(/> is the direct interface
to the subscriber. @t has to +ake radio co++unication channels a$ailable to the users
and to care for a satisfactor6 signal "ualit6 within a certain area around the base station.
This area +a6 be split into diBerent sectors =cells> which belong to one BT(/.
Planning a +obile radio network is a co+plex task: because radio propagation along the
earth surface is sub+itted to +an6 inAuences due to the local en$iron+ent. *urther+ore
the perfor+ance re"uire+ents to a radio network co$er a wide &eld of applications
which depend on the operators potentialities and goals. To respond to all these sub<ects:
it is necessar6 to obser$e a certain se"uence of tasks.
The &rst step is to get knowledge about the custo+ersCoperators ob<ecti$es and
resources =basic planning data>. 1n this basis it is possible to esti+ate the si2e of the
pro<ect and to establish a coarse no+inal cell plan.
Then it is necessar6 to install a digital terrain data base into a planning tool which
contains topo5graphical and +orphological infor+ation about the planning region. This
digital +ap per+its to +ake +ore accurate predictions about the radio signal
propagation as co+pared to the &rst rough esti+ation: and to create a +ore realistic cell
structure: including the reco++endable geographical positions of the base stations
e"uip+ent=coarse coverage prediction>.
The network ele+ents de&ned up to this +o+ent ha$e been found on a +ore or less
theoretical basis. Now it has to be checked if the en$isaged radio site locations +a6
reall6 be kept. ! site sur$e6 ca+paign in accordance with the custo+er: who is
responsible for the site ac"uisition: +ust clarif6 all proble+s concerning the
infrastructure and technical as well as &nancial issues of the BT(/ i+ple+entation.
@nside a tolerable search area the opti+u+ site +eeting all these issues has to be
selected.
This site selection should also take into account particular properties of the area: e.g.
big obstacles which are not recogni2able in the digital +aps.
Field measurements: to be carried out in t6pical and in co+plex areas +ust gi$e
detailed infor+ations about the radio characteristics of the planning region. The
+easure+ent results will then help to align the radio prediction tool for the actual t6pe
of land usage =tool tuning>.
Now: &xed site positions and an area5adapted tool being a$ailable: it is possible to start
the detailed radio planning. The &nal network design has to care for both su7cient
co$erage and proper radio fre"uenc6 assign+ent in respecting the tra7c load and the
interference re"uire+ents.
The last planning step is the generation of a set of control parameters: necessar6 to
+aintain a co++unication while a subscriber is +o$ing around. These para+eters ha$e
to co+pl6 with the existing cell structure and the needs to handle the tra7c load
expected in each cell.
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!fter co++issioning of the network: the perfor+ance +ust be checked b6 the network
operator b6 e$aluation of statistical data collected in the operation and +aintenance
center. (ituations of congestion or fre"uent call re<ections +a6 be treated b6
+odi&cation of the pertinent control para+eters and lead to an optimi&ed network.
The indi$idual planning steps are considered +ore closel6 in the following sections.
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#'# Collection of Basic Planning (ata
The re"uire+ents of the network operator concerning tra7c load and ser$ice area
extension are basic data for the design of a +obile network . ! coarse network structure
co+pl6ing with these re"uire+ents can be created on this basis.
Two funda+ental cell t6pes are possibleD their properties +a6 be deter+ined
a> b6 the +axi+u+ radio range of the in$ol$ed transcei$er stations and +obile
ter+inalsD the range is li+ited b6 the a$ailable trans+it power and the noise &gure of
the recei$ers. This t6pe is called a noise li+ited cellD it is t6pical for rural regions.
b> or it +a6 be deter+ined b6 the li+ited tra7c capacit6 of a cell in the case of high
subscriber concentration. This leads to the i+ple+entation of s+all cells: +ainl6 in
urban areas where interference will beco+e the +a<or proble+.
The result of this &rst planning step is a rough esti+ate of the network structure: called a
no+inal cell plan: which gi$es knowledge about the nu+ber of radio stations: their
re"uired technical e"uip+ent and their approxi+ate geographical positions. Thus
allowing to assess the +onetar6 $olu+e of the pro<ect.
#') Terrain (ata *c%uisition
Mobile co++unication occurs in a natural en$iron+ent. The radio signal propagation is
highl6 aBected b6 the existing terrain properties like hills: forests: towns etc. Therefore
the real +apping data +ust be taken into account b6 the planning tool.
The signal le$el encountered b6 a subscriber in the street is inAuenced b6 absorbing:
screening: reAecting and diBracting eBects of the surrounding ob<ects and along the
radio path.
To +ake realistic signal le$el predictions: the propagation +odels i+ple+ented in the
prediction tool +ust be fed with the rele$ant terrain data.
! $er6 i+portant factor for correct +odeling is the +orphographic classi&cation of an
area ?
• building heights and densit6 of built up areas =+etropolitan: urban: suburban: $illage:
industrial: residential> or forest: parks: open areas: water etc.
The screening b6 hills which +a6 aBect the co$erage of a ser$ice area +ust be +ade
e$ident b6 consideration of the terrain pro&le =height contour lines>.
The procure+ent of digital +aps with these infor+ations +a6 be rather expensi$e. The
prediction accurac6 is directl6 related to the si2e of area ele+ents =resolution> and to the
reliabilit6 of these infor+ation =obsolescence of +apsE>
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#'+ Coarse Coverage Prediction
1n the basis of the digital terrain data base and b6 using standard propagation +odels:
which ha$e been preselected to &t for special terrain t6pes: it is possible to +ake &eld
strength predictions without ha$ing a $er6 detailed knowledge of the particular local
conditions.
B6 $ariation and +odi&cation of the site positions and antenna orientations: co$erage
predictions of rather good "ualit6 +a6 be attained.
Fet: the de&niti$e site locations are sub<ect to a later scheduled site selection process in
accordance and b6 cooperation with the custo+er.
The particular local characteristics +ust be introduced later b6 co+prehensi$e sur$e6
+easure+ents. These +easure+ents will be used to upgrade the propagation +odels.
#', Network Con-guration
The results of the Gcoarse predictionG steps will allow to de&ne the radio network
con&guration and the la6out of indi$idual base stations.
! &rst fre"uenc6 allocation plan +a6 also be deri$ed fro+ these predictions. The result
+ight alread6 be a well functioning network. But it is still based on assu+ptions. The
actual i+pact of the natural en$iron+ent +ust be considered in the following steps.
Ne$ertheless: the Gcoarse planningG results will help to better assess the special details
brought in b6 the real situation.
@n designing the radio network one has to keep in +ind the re"uire+ents e+erging fro+
an increasing subscriber nu+ber. ! +ultiple phase i+ple+entation plan has to go$ern
the network con&guration concepts.
@n the initial phase a relati$el6 low nu+ber of users has to be carried. 1n the other hand
co+plete co$erage of the ser$ice area has to be pro$ided fro+ the beginning. /xisting
sites of the &rst i+ple+entation phase +ust be useable in later phases. @ncreasing
subscriber nu+bers =s6non6+ous with increasing interference tendenc6E> should be
responded b6 co+pletion of the existing TR85e"uip+ent and b6 addition of new sites.
This +eans recon&guration of the existing cell patterns and fre"uenc6 reassign+ent.
The planner should anticipate the future subscriber repartitions and concentrations fro+
the beginning: in creating cell structures capable to respond to future needs. @ncreasing
interference proble+s arising with higher site densit6 +a6 be o$erco+e b6 downtilting
of directional antennas initiall6 +ounted for +axi+u+ signal range: as now the radio
cell areas will be s+aller.
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#'. "ite "election
The site positions found in the coarse planning process on a theoretical basis: +ust now
be $eri&ed in a <oint ca+paign: called site sur$e6: between the custo+er and the radio
network planner. !ll site candidates within a tolerable search area around the theoretical
site positions +ust be checked.
This check includes the a$ailabilit6 of electric power and of data trans+ission lines.
The +ost i+portant topic is the possibilit6 to install the antennas in a suitable height
abo$e the roofs or abo$e ground.
/n$iron+ental inAuences =screening obstacles: reAectors> ha$e also to be regarded. The
best &tting site should be selected.
!nother i+portant task of this ca+paign is to declare a certain nu+ber of the radio sites
be suitable to ser$e as Hsur$e6 sitesG. This +eans that radio &eld +easure+ents shall be
done with these stations as trans+itters. The resulting +easure+ents will be used for
the align+ent of radio propagation +odels.
The en$iron+ent of the sur$e6 sites should be t6pical for a considerable nu+ber of other
radio sites.
#'/ Field $easurements
Digital terrain data bases =DTDB> as deri$ed fro+ topographical +aps or satellite
pictures do not contain all details and particularities of the existing en$iron+ent.
/speciall6 in fast de$eloping urban areas +aps cannot keep pace with realit6 and thus
reAect an obsolete status. Ieeping +aps on this "ualit6 le$el would be $er6 expensi$e.
The characteristics of built up 2ones and $egetation areas with respect to radio
propagation diBer in a wide range if we regard diBerent countries. /$en cli+atic
conditions +a6 inAuence the signal le$el. Inowledge about this speci&c beha$ior +ust
be ac"uired b6 +easure+ents.
The sur$e6 +easure+ents ha$e to be carried out in t6pical areas. /$aluation of these
+easure+ents will result in +odels that can be applied in co+parable areas as well.
(pecial +easure+ents +ust be carried out in $er6 co+plex topographical regions where
standardi2ed propagation +odels will fail. The resulting +odels are $alid exclusi$el6 for
this +easure+ent 2one.
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#'0 Tool Tuning
The +easure+ent results ha$e to be co+pared with the predictions of pro$en standard
+odels. The standard para+eters will be slightl6 +odi&ed to achie$e +ini+u+
discrepancies with the +easure+ents: i.e. to keep the +ean error and r+s5error as low
as possible. !s the signal le$el is sub<ect to statistical $ariations which cannot be
predicted: the r+s5error will ne$er be 2ero.
The reliabilit6 of the created +odels increases with the nu+ber of +easure+ent runs
that can be exploited.
The new speci&c +odel +a6 also be applied in other base stations located in si+ilar
en$iron+ent.
#'1 Network (esign
The area5speci&c +odels are the basis for the &nal planning steps. The detailed network
design has to care for
• a suitable signal le$el throughout the planning area
• su7cient tra7c capacit6 according to the operators re"uire+ents
• assign+ent of the pertinent nu+ber of R*5carriers to all cells
su7cient decoupling of fre"uenc6 reuse cells to respect the interference re"uire+ents
for co5channels and ad<acent channels.
Moreo$er: attention has to be pa6ed to an opti+i2ed hando$er scenario in hea$6 tra7c
2ones.
The detailed planning process co++its the &nal structure of the radio network and the
con&guration of the base stations.
The capacit6 of digital data links connecting the radio stations to the &xed network
ele+ents +a6 now be de&ned.
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#'2 (ata Base 3ngineering
! cellular network is a li$ing s6ste+ with +o$ing subscribers. The ser$ice +ust be
+aintained while +obiles change radio cells and superior organi2ation units: called
location areas. !ll control para+eters: necessar6 to support this task: ha$e to be
ad+inistered and super$ised in central data bases.
There is a per+anent signaling infor+ation exchange between +obiles: base stations
and control centers.
This signaling co++unication occurs on prede&ned ti+e slots: called control channels
which are assigned to one of the R*5carriers of each radio cell.
@+portant control infor+ations for each radio cell are ?
• cell identi&cation within the network
• control carrier fre"uenc6
• potential neighbor cells
• +ini+u+ recei$ed signal le$el
• +axi+u+ trans+it power of a +obile
• power reduction factor to perfor+ power control
• power +argin for hando$er to neighbor cells
#'#4 Performance 3valuation and Optimi&ation
Regular perfor+ance checks +ust be carried out after co++issioning of the network.
These checks co+prise the e$aluation of statistical data collected in the Goperations and
+aintenance centerG =1MC> as well as +easure+ents b6 +eans of test +obile stations
to explore e.g. hando$er e$ents under realistic conditionsD unwanted hando$er +a6 lead
to tra7c congestions in certain cells: or +a6 drain oB tra7c fro+ other cells.
Detection of +ultipath propagation proble+s caused b6 big reAecting ob<ects is also
sub<ect to +easure+ents.
!nother goal of these checks is to in$estigate the real tra7c load and its distribution: as
subscriber beha$ior in a li$ing s6ste+ will not necessaril6 reAect the original
assu+ptions of the operatorD assu+ed hot tra7c spots +a6 ha$e been changed or
shifted after a couple of 6ears.
Careful e$aluation of the +easure+ent data will help to opti+i2e the network
perfor+ance b6 +odi&cation of the s6ste+ para+eters. !s the nu+ber of subscribers
will nor+all6 increase in course of ti+e: super$ision and control of these para+eters
should beco+e a per+anent +aintenance procedure.
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) Repetition
$obile Radio Network Planning Tasks
• Collection of basic planning data
• Terrain data ac"uisition
• Coarse co$erage prediction
• Network con&guration
• (ite selection and &eld +easure+ents
• Tool tuning
• Network design
• Data base engineering
• Perfor+ance e$aluation and opti+i2ation
Collection of basic planning data
• Custo+er +ust de&ne basic network perfor+ance goals ?
• (i2e of ser$ice area and area t6pes
• Tra7c load and distribution
• Mobile classes and ser$ice "ualit6
• *uture de$elop+ent =forecast>
• !$ailable R* 5 bandwidth
The resulting no+inal cell plan is a &rst planning approach
• to deter+ine the re"uired nu+ber of radio stations
• to &gure out the approxi+ate e"uip+ent con&guration
• to get an idea of the &nancial $olu+e of the pro<ect
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Terrain data ac%uisition
Topographical and +orphographical properties of the planning region +ust be co+piled
in a digital data base for further processing
Contents of the digital terrain data base DTDB ?
• Jeight pro&le = topograph6 >
• 4and co$erage and usage = +orphograph6 >
Possible sources ?
• (canning of topographic +aps
• Processed satellite pictures or air pictures
Coarse coverage prediction
! coarse co$erage prediction based on the no+inal cell plan and on the digital terrain
data base ?
• using standard propagation +odels
• using standard antenna t6pes
Results ?
• Keographical distribution of the radio signal le$el
• Coarse cell structure
• No+inal position of the radio sites and antenna orientation
• (earch areas for &nal site positions
• Inowledge about the attainable degree of signal "ualit6
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Network con-guration
@nternal con&guration of indi$idual radio station ?
• /"uip+ent to be installed
Con&guration of the radio network = network structure > ?
• Nu+ber of base station controllers B(C
• Nu+ber of location areas
• De&nition of data lines between the network ele+ents
"ite selection and -eld measurements
• (election of de&niti$e radio site locations
• Radio +easure+ents in t6pical areas
• Radio +easure+ents in co+plex topographical regions
Tool tuning
• Radio +easure+ents are exploited to adapt standard propagation +odels to speci&c
en$iron+ental conditions
• Resulting +odels +a6 be applied in si+ilar en$iron+ent
• or are restricted to the special +easure+ent area
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Network design
The &nal radio planning is perfor+ed b6 +eans of the area 5 adapted +odels
Planning goals?
• (u7cient signal le$el throughout the planning region
• (u7cient tra7c capacit6 according to subscriber distribution
• !ssign+ent of radio carriers to all cells
• 4ow interference le$el for co5channels and ad<acent channels
• De&nition of neighbor cells
(ata base engineering
Control and +aintenance of the radio network re"uires para+eters for
• @denti&cation of ser$ing cell and neighbor cells : i.e.?
− cell identit6
− location area
− color code
• Cell 5 allocated control5 and tra7c carriers
• Maxi+u+ trans+it power le$el
• Mini+u+ recei$e signal le$el
• Power +argin for hando$er to each neighbor cell
Performance evaluation and optimi&ation
• B6 anal62ing statistical data fro+ +aintenance center
• Measure+ents perfor+ed b6 a test +obile station roa+ing about the operating radio
network
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+ Radio 5ave Propagation
There are three +ain co+ponents of radio propagation which are discussed in the next
section?
• +ean path loss =loss due to the distance between M(5B(>:
• shadowing =long ter+ fading>:
• +ulti path propagation → short ter+ =Ra6leigh> fading.
+'# Pat 6oss
(tandard path loss +odels are of the for+?
4
+
LdBMN ! O B log d Lk+M
where 4
+
is the +ean propagation path loss between the base station =B(> and the
+obile station =M(> at a distance d.
!? unit loss at 1 k+:
B? propagation index or loss per decade.
The propagation coe7cients ! and B depend upon?
• the trans+it fre"uenc6:
• the M( and B( antenna heights:
• the topograph6 and +orpholog6 of the propagation area.
/xa+ples are?
#' Free space loss!
4
0
N #.% O 0 log f LMJ2M O 0 log d Lk+M
or +ore i+portant propagation in real en$iron+ent 5 the fa+ous Jata +odel?
)' 7ata model
The Jata +odel describes the +ean propagation eBects for large cells and distances d P
1 I+. *or urban en$iron+ent one has?
! N )..'' O ).1) log f 5 1#.- log J
b
5 a=J
+
>
B N %%.. 5 ).'' log J
b
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*re"uenc6? f LMh2M 1'0...1000 5Mh2
B( antenna height? J
b
L+M #0...00 +
M( antenna height?J
+
L+M a=J
+
> N 0 for J
+
N 1.' +
/xa+ple? J
+
N 1.' + J
b
N '0 + fN.00 Mh2
→ ! N 1#.# B N ##.-
Pat 6oss for 6argeCells 8 7ata $odel 9:"$ 244;
B( height '0 +
M( height 1.' +
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
10
1!0
1"0
190
200
210
220
1 10 100
Cell radius [km]
P
a
t
h

L
o
s
s

[
d
B
]
#r$an
#r$an %ndoor
&u$ur$an
'ural (quasi open)
'ural (open)
*ig.
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*or other en$iron+ents =suburban: rural5"uasi5open> the path loss per decade re+ains
the sa+e: but the unit loss is reduced b6 a certain a+ount. The free space loss and the
Jata +odel are illustrated in the &gure abo$e.
Models of this t6pe are ade"uate for esti+ating the recei$ed le$el for large cells.
Jowe$er for a real network planning: re&ne+ents of the +odel and adaptations of
para+eters to +orphological and topographical data and to +easure+ent $alues are
necessar6 =refer to section 1>.
The s+aller the cells: the +ore i+portant are the details of e.g. the building structure
within the cell.
+') "adowing 8 6ong Term Fading
@n larger cells where the B( antenna is installed abo$e the roof top le$el: details of the
en$iron+ent near the M( are responsible for a $ariation of the recei$ed le$el around the
+ean le$el calculated b6 the +odels discussed abo$e.
Qsuall6 this $ariation of le$el 5 caused b6 obstacles near the M( =e.g. buildings or trees> 5
is described b6 the statistical +odel: i.e. the total path loss 4
tot
is gi$en b6 the +ean
HdistanceG path loss plus a rando+ shadowing
4
tot
LdBM N 4
+
O (
(R0? free line of sight:
(P0? strong shadowing b6 e.g. a high building near the M(.
( has a Kaussian distribution =see &gure below> with +ean $alue 0 and a standard
de$iation s which t6picall6 lies in the range s N %...10 dB.
5# 5
# 51 1 0
0.1
0.
0.#
0.'
0.%
(hadowing (Cs LdBM
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*ig. # Kaussian distribution of (hadowing (
The length scale for $ariation of the long ter+ fading is in the range ' ... 100 +: i.e. the
t6pical si2e of shadowing obstacles.
+'+ $ulti Pat Propagation 8 "ort Term Fading
The superposition of se$eral reAected wa$es arri$ing at the recei$er on diBerent paths
and therefore with diBerent a+plitudes and phases causes peaks =constructi$e
superposition> and deep fading dips = destructi$e superposition> of the recei$ed le$el.
The length scale for $ariation =e.g. peak to peak> is gi$en b6 the half of the trans+ission
wa$e length: i.e. about 1' c+ for K(M.00 or ,.' c+ for DC(1-00. !n exa+ple for the
$ariation of the recei$ed le$el due to short ter+ fading is shown in the &gure below.
! co+parison with the length scale for shadowing explains the na+es for these fading
t6pes.
The statistics of the Ra6leigh fading is described in the following wa6?
Consider the recei$ed le$el due the path loss and long ter+ fading which is called local
+ean? 4
41C
LdB+M. The recei$ed local +ean power is then gi$en b6
P
loc
L+3M N 10
4l1CC10
Qsing this for+ula the probabilit6 densit6 function for the recei$ed power P is gi$en b6?
f=P> N 1CP
loc
S exp=5PCP
loc
>
which +eans that the probabilit6 function for the signal a+plitude P N !

is gi$en b6 a
Ra6leigh distribution.
Qsing these for+ulas and so+e +athe+atics: one can calculate the probabilit6 that the
recei$ed le$el 4 =aBected b6 Ra6leigh fading> is x dB below the local +ean le$el 4
loc
?
Prob =4 5 4
loc
R x dB> N 1 5 exp = 5 10
xC10
>
3<ample!
x N # dB
x N 0 dB
x N 5# dB
x N 5) dB
x N 510 dB
x N 50 dB
Prob N -):' T
Prob N )#:0 T
Prob N #.:' T
Prob N :0 T
Prob N .:' T
Prob N 1:0 T
Changing the trans+ission fre"uenc6 and therefore the wa$e length: changes the
position of Ra6leigh peaks and dips. This +eans that at a gi$en position: the recei$ed
le$el aBected b6 Ra6leigh fading in general diBers for diBerent trans+ission fre"uencies.
The higher the fre"uenc6 diBerence the lower is the correlation for the recei$e signal for
the diBerent fre"uencies. The coherence bandwidth B
coh
is de&ned as the fre"uenc6
diBerence at which this correlation has decreased to 0.'. The coherence bandwidth
depends upon the spread of arri$al ti+es of the diBerent +ulti path co+ponents of the
recei$ed signal. This spread is called dela6 spread ∆T?
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Coerence Bandwidt and (elay "pread
B
T
coh
·
1
π∆
i.e. the higher the dela6 spread the lower is the coherence bandwidth.
The dela6 spread depends upon the propagation en$iron+ent. T6pical $alues are?
• 10 Us for hill6 terrain =corresponding to path length between diBerence of # k+>.
• 0.1 ... 1 Us for urban area =corresponding to path length between diBerence of #0 ...
#00 +>.
Ieeping in +ind that a Ra6leigh fading dip of +ore than 10 dB occurs with a probabilit6
of 10 T: +easures should be pro$ided to co+bat Ra6leigh fading?
$eans to combat Rayleig fading!
• !$eraging of Ra6leigh fading o$er speech fra+es =interlea$ing of - bursts>
5 Fre%uency 7opping
spacing between fre"uencies in hopping se"uence PP coherence bandwidth
5 $otion =speed $>
/xa+ple? $N'0 k+Ch: distance between bursts N TDM! fra+e length T N %.) +s
→ distance between M( positions at subse"uent bursts D N ).% c+
→ distance for - burstsV - S D ∼ '0 c+ P # S wa$elength
• Co+bining of signals recei$ed at positions of +utuall6 uncorrelated fading
5 *ntenna (iversity
spacing between R8 antennas PP half wa$elength
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*ig. %
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"ort Term Fading
*ig. '
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+', $a<imum Pat 6oss and 6ink Budget
The +axi+u+ radius of a cell depends on the +axi+u+ possible path loss between
trans+itter and recei$er: i.e. upon the diBerence between the +axi+u+ output power
le$el /@RP =e+itted isotropic radiation power> at the trans+itter antenna and the
re"uired input power le$el =R@P4> at the recei$er antenna.
Output BT"!
/@RP
BT(
N Power !+pli&er 1utput 5 Co+biner 4oss 5 Downlink Cable 4oss O !ntenna Kain
Power *mpli-er Output! ' 3att N %% dB+ =K(M.00>
=higher power a+pli&er output power in further BT( $ersions>
Combiner 6oss
Co+biner T6pe 1?1 ?1 %?1
Duplexer ., dB ., dB '.. dB
J6brid Co+biner .0 dB '. dB -.% dB
*ig. )
The ratio x?1 denotes the nu+ber of carriers which are co+bined. @n the case of h6brid
co+biners the signals are fed to 1 trans+itter antenna. @n the case of duplexers the
signals are fed to antennas =on air co+bining> which are used for trans+ission as well
as for reception.
Qsing these antennas for reception: a two branch =+axi+u+ ratio> antenna di$ersit6
co+bining can be reali2ed. This +eans that 5 using Duplexers 5 two antennas per cell are
needed: whereas when using J6brid Co+biners and appl6ing !ntenna Di$ersit6 two
recei$e plus one trans+it antenna is needed.
(ownlink *ntenna Cable 6oss! # dB =exa+ple>
*ntenna :ain =exa+ple>? 1) dB =t6pical $alue for )0
0
half power bea+ width antenna>
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Output $"!
*or the M( there is no need co+bining diBerent carriersD and the cable loss and antenna
gain reduce to 2ero. The /@RP depends upon the power class of the M( speci&ed in K(M
Rec 0'.0'?
Power Class =K(M 0'.0'> Max. 1utput Power
=K(M.00>
Max. 1utput Power
=DC(1-00>
1 55 1 3att N #0 dB+
- 3att N #. dB+ 0.'3 N % dB+
# ' 3att N #, dB+ % 3att N #) dB+
% 3att N ## dB+
' 0.- 3attN . dB+
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*ig. ,
=nput BT"!
The re"uired input power le$el R@P4 at the BT( antenna is gi$en b6
R@P4
BT(
N
Recei$er (ensiti$it6 4e$el 5 !ntenna Di$ersit6 Kain O Qplink Cable 4oss 5 !ntenna
Kain
Recei$er (ensiti$it6 4e$el R 5 10% dB+
The recei$er sensiti$it6 le$el is de&ned in K(M Rec. 0'.0' for scenarios where short ter+
Ra6leigh fading is =at least> partl6 a$eraged either b6 +otion or b6 fre"uenc6 hopping.
The recei$er sensiti$it6 le$el has been +easured to be better than re"uired b6 K(M Rec.
0'.0'.
*ntenna (iversity :ain! % dB =for a t6pical scenario>.
The gain which can be achie$ed b6 antenna di$ersit6 strongl6 depends upon the
propagation en$iron+ent: the $elocit6 of the +obile and on whether fre"uenc6 hopping
is applied or not.
*or a t6pical urban en$iron+ent: a +obile speed of # k+Ch and fre"uenc6 hopping
applied the antenna di$ersit6 gain is about % dB.
>plink Cable 6oss # dB without tower +ounted prea+pli&er R8!M1D
0 dB with tower +ounted prea+pli&er R8!M1D
The =uplink> cable loss fro+ the antenna to the recei$er input can be co+pensated using
a tower +ounted a+pli&er called R8!M1D.
@t should be noted that this prea+pli&er cannot be used together with on air co+bining
=Duplexers>.
*ntenna :ain =exa+ple>? 1) dB =t6pical $alue for )0
0

half power bea+ width antenna>
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=nput $"!
!#01-1581,-.5800%5015,)#' 1 5 ,
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*or the M( there is neither antenna gain nor antenna di$ersit6 gain. Cable losses can be
neglected. Therefore the re"uired input power le$el at the M( antenna is gi$en b6 the
M( recei$er li+it sensiti$it6 as speci&ed b6 K(M 0'.0'?
• 10% dB+ for class and # =K(M.00>:
• 10 dB+ for class % and ' =K(M.00>:
• 100 dB+ for class 1 and =DC(1-00>
$a<imum allowed pat loss 96ink Budget;
downlink 4
d
LdBM N /@RP
BT(
5 R@P4
M(
uplink 4
u
LdBM N /@RP
M(
5 R@P4
BT(
3<ample!
Duplexers ?1? → no R8!M1D: uplink cable loss N # dB
M( of Power Class #? → /@RP
M(
N #, dB+
!ntenna Di$ersit6 Kain? % dB
→ 4
u
LdBM N #, dB+ 5 =5 10% dB+ 5 1) dBi O # dB 5 % dB> N 1'- dB
→ 4
d
LdBM N %% dB+ 5 # dB 5 # dB O 1) dBi 5 =5 10% dB+> N 1'- dB
i.e. there is a s6++etric link budget for uplink and downlink.
− Re"uire+ent? !rea Co$erage Probabilit6? .0 T ←→Co$erage Probabilit6 at Cell Border?
,' T
− (tandard De$iation of (hadowing? sN ) dB → ,' T $alue of (hadowing? (
,'T
N % dB
− allowed loss 4 5 (
,'T
N 1'% dB
→ 4
+
N 4 5 (
,'T
N 1'% dB
Path loss +odel =Jata>? 4
+
LdBM N 1#.# O ##., log d Lk+M
→ Cell Radius? d
+ax
N10
=1'%51#.#>C##.,
N -.1' k+
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3<ample )!
Designing a radio cell for +ainl6 M( of Power Class % =instead of power class #>: the
following $alues for link budget are obtained?
4
u
LdBM N 1'% dB
4
d
LdBM N 1') dB
To obtain a s6++etric link budget: the power a+pli&er output power of the BT( has to
be reduced b6 dB. This is done using the 1;M para+eter B(VT8P3RVR/D?
1b<ect DB Na+e Range Meaning
TR8 P3RR/D 0: 1: ...) S dB Reduction of BT( power a+pli&er
output
*ig. -
Reducing the BT( output power has the ad$antage that less downlink interference is
caused b6 this cell.
@f there are also so+e +obiles of Power Class and # within the cell designed for
+obiles of Power Class %: their +axi+u+ trans+it power has to be li+ited for a link
budget balance. This is the reason behind the following para+eters?
(peci&cation Na+e DB Na+eC 1b<ect Range Meaning
M(VT8P3RVM!8 M(T8PM!8 C BT(5B ...1'
K(M
0...1' DC(
S dB
Maxi+u+ T8P3R a M( is
allowed to use on a
dedicated channel =TCJ or
(DCCJ> in the ser$ing cell
K(M? N #. dB+: 1' N 1#
dB+
DC(? 0 N #0 dB+: 1' N 0
dB+
PC(? 0 N #0 dB+: 1' N 0
dB+
#0 N ## dB+: #1 N #
dB+
M(VT8P3RVM!8VCCJ M(T8PM!8CJ C BT(5C 0...#1
S dB
Maxi+u+ T8P3R a M( is
allowed to use on the uplink
co++on control channel
=Rando+ !ccess Channel:
R!CJ> in the ser$ing cell?
K(M? 0 N %# dB+:1. N '
dB+
DC(? 0 N #0 dB+: 1' N 0
dB+
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*ig. .
!nother eBect illustrated b6 this exa+ple is the following?
(ince there is a balanced link budget 4
u
LdBM N 4
d
LdBM: but a diBerence of the recei$er
sensiti$it6 le$el for the M( and BT( of dB: there is diBerence between the +ean
downlink and uplink recei$ed le$el R84/W of about dB?
R84/WVD4 5 R84/WVQ4 ∼ dB.
The conse"uence is that le$el threshold for e.g. the hando$er algorith+ ha$e to be set
dB higher for the downlink than for the uplink.
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!#01-1581,-.5800%5015,)#' 1 5 #1
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, Cellular Networks and Fre%uency *llocation
1ne i+portant characteristic of cellular networks is the re5use of fre"uencies in diBerent
cells. B6 re5using fre"uencies: a high capacit6 can be achie$ed. Jowe$er: the re5use
distance has to be high enough: so that the interference caused b6 subscribers using the
sa+e fre"uenc6 =or an ad<acent fre"uenc6> in another cell is su7cientl6 low.
Cell Radius R
Re5use
Ditance D
M(
Carrier
Co5channel
Re5use
Cells
@nterferer
*ig. 10
To guarantee an appropriate speech "ualit6: the carrier5to5interference5power5ratio C@R
has to exceed a certain threshold C@R
+in
which is . dB for the K(M (6ste+ =K(M Rec.
0'.0'>.
taking the situation of the exa+ple abo$e and a path loss +odel 4 N ! O B log d: one
has
CC@
tot
L3attM N C C =@
1
O ... O @
N@
> ∼ C C =N
@
S @
1
> N
@
? nu+ber of interferes
or in dB
CC@
tot
LdBM N CLdBM 5 @
tot
LdBM ∼ B log D 5 B log R 5 10 log N
@
N B log DCR 5 10 log N
@
P C@R
+in
O 4T*M =xT>
B6 introducing the long ter+ fading +argin 4T*M =xT> for a re"uired co$erage probabilit6
of xT: the eBect of shadowing is taken into account.
*or ho+ogeneous hexagonal networks fre"uencies can be allocated to cells in a
s6++etric wa6. De&ning the cluster si2e I as group of cells in which each fre"uenc6 is
used exactl6 once: the following relations between Cluster (i2e: Cell Radius and Re5use
Distance are obtained.
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Fre%uency Re8use and Cluster "i&e
m
n
R
r
(
(
*ig. 11
1uter Cell Radius 5 R
@nner Cell Radius 5 r = 0.5 x 3 x R
Re5use Distance 5 D = R x 3 x (n m nm)
2 2
+ +
D
R
= 3 x K
Cluster (i2e? Kroup of cells in which each fre"uenc6 is used
exatl6 once
K = (n + m + nm)
2 2
n, m= 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
K = 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12 16 19 , , , ...
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@nserting the for+ula for the cluster si2e into the for+ula for the +ini+u+ C@R one
obtains?
0.' S B log # I P C@R
+in
O 4T*M =xT> O 10 log N
@
which gi$es a lower bound for the cluster si2e which can be used.
*or a gi$en cluster si2e I and total nu+ber of fre"uencies N
tot
: the nu+ber of
fre"uencies per cell N
cell
is gi$en b6?
N
cell
N N
tot
CI
i.e. the capacit6 of a cell can be increased b6 reducing the cluster si2e.
! reduction of cluster si2e can be achie$ed b6
• reducing the nu+ber of interferers → (ectorisation.
• reducing the interference fro+ co5channel cells → Power Control: Discontinued
Trans+ission: ...
/xa+ples for sectori2ed network structure are shown in the &gures below. Methods for
interference reduction are discussed in chapter ).
1b$iousl6 a real network does not ha$e such a regular hexagonal structure and
fre"uenc6 allocation is perfor+ed b6 planning tools using co+plex algorith+s for
opti+i2ing the C@R in each cell.
The ob<ecti$e is to achie$e a high +ean $alue of fre"uencies per cell RN
cell
P. The ratio
RIP N N
tot
CN
cell
can $iewed as the +ean cluster si2e in such an inho+ogeneous en$iron+ent.
The capacit6 of the radio network depends upon the a$ailable nu+ber N of radio
channels per area * =e.g. * N 1 k+

>.
*
+
* ,
*
+
-.+ ,
*
/
,
1
+ 0 *
-.+ ,
*
/
,
1
-1
cell
23& tot
23&
tot
· · ·
N
BT(
? nu+ber of BT(
C!? cell area
CP*? channel per fre"uencies
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1+nicells 5 Cluster ,
5
3
4
7
6
2

5
3
4
7
6
2

5
3
4
7
6
2

5
3
4
7
6
2

5
3
4
7
6
2

5
3
4
7
6
2

5
3
4
7
6
2

*ig. 1 /xa+ple for ho+ogeneous fre"uenc6 allocation
!#01-1581,-.5800%5015,)#' 1 5 #'
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#5(ector Clo$erleaf 5 Cluster # x #
1a
1$ 1c
2a
2$ 2c
3a
3$ 3c
1a
1$ 1c
2a
2$ 2c
3a
3$ 3c
1a
1$ 1c
2a
2$ 2c
3a
3$ 3c
1a
1$ 1c
2a
2$ 2c
3a
3$ 3c
1a
1$ 1c
2a
2$ 2c
3a
3$ 3c
1a
1$ 1c
2a
2$ 2c
3a
3$ 3c
1a
1$ 1c
2a
2$ 2c
3a
3$ 3c
*ig. 1# /xa+ple for ho+ogeneous fre"uenc6 allocation
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. Tra?c $odels
! tra7c +odel reAects the beha$ior of the subscribers: as their +obilit6: the +ean call
rate or call duration. @t is needed e.g. for calculating the re"uired total nu+ber of
channels within a cell and how to split the+ between tra7c and control channels.
These tra7c +odel infor+ation is alwa6s a +ixture between &eld obser$ations in si+iliar
networks and arbitrar6 assu+ptions.
Tra7c data are $ariable in ti+e: therefore statistical characteri2ation is used.
The goal of planning is to +anage tra7c e$en in bus6 hour.
@n +obile networks we ha$e to e$aluate two +ain factors?
• user +obilit6
• co++unications
Qser +obilit6?
The user +o$es with a $elocit6 $.
*or exa+ple the hando$er and location update rates depend on this $elocit6.
Co++unications?
The nu+ber of subscriber in a cell: the tra7c per subscriber has to be considered.
*urther+ore: one needs infor+ation the +ean call duration: the +ean call cell rate =or
bus6 hour call atte+pt BJC!>. separatel6 for +obile originating calls =M1C> and +obile
ter+inating calls =MTC>.
!#01-1581,-.5800%5015,)#' 1 5 #,
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!n exa+ple for a tra7c +odel is gi$en in the table below?
nu+ber of call atte+pts =M1COMTC> per subscriber per hour 1:1
percentage of M1C '- T
percentage of XengagedY in the case of an M1C 1.:- T
duration of TCJ occupation in the engaged case #s
no answer fro+ a person called b6 M1C 1%:% T
+ean TCJ occupation for this case #0 s
percentage of successful M1C )':- T
+ean ti+e for ringing =M1C> 1' s
percentage of MTC % T
no paging response #:' T
duration of TCJ occupation in this case 0 s
no answer fro+ a +obile subscriber 1#:'T
+eans TCJ occupation &r this case #0 s
successful MTC '%:0 T
+ean ti+e for ringing =MTC> ' s
+ean call duration =M1CCMTC> 11' s
+ean TCJ occupation call atte+pt -# s
TCJ load per subscriber 0:0' /rl
ti+e for M1CCMTC setup signaling on (DCCJ =authentications: ...> # s
ti+e for a location update ' s
nu+ber of location update per subscriber per hour :
resulting (DDCCJ load per subscriber =no TCJ "ueuing applied> 0:00% /rl
*ig. 1% (tandard tra7c +odel for K(M
The for+ula for calculating the load on the respecti$e dedicated channel are gi$en on
the next page.
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6oad on (edicated Cannels
(DCCJ load L/rlM? (QB(CR S ==MTCVPRVph O M1CVph> S TV(/TQP O 4QVph S TV4Q
O @M(@Vph S TV@M(@ O (M(Vph S TV(M(>
TCJ load L/rlM? (QB(CR S =MTCVPRVph O M1CVph> S TVC!44
(QB(CR? nu+ber of subscribers within the cell
MTCVPRVph? +obile ter+inating calls per subscriber per hour with paging response
M1CVph? +obile ter+inating calls per subscriber per hour
4QVph? location updates per subscriber per hour
@M(@Vph? @M(@ attachCdetach per subscriber per hour
(M(Vph short +essage ser$ice per hour
TV(/TQP? +ean ti+e LsecM for call setup signaling on (DCCJ
TV4Q? +ean ti+e LsecM for location update signaling
TV@M(@? +ean ti+e LsecM for @M(@ attachCdetach signaling on (DCCJ
TV(M(? +ean ti+e LsecM for short +essage ser$ice
TVCall? +ean TCJ occupation ti+e per call
*ig. 1'
*or the $alues of the tra7c +odel abo$e one has
TCJ load per subscriber? ' +/rl
(DCCJ load per subscriber? % +/rl
!#01-1581,-.5800%5015,)#' 1 5 #.
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n p N 1 T p N # T p N ' T p N , T n p N 1 T p N # T p N ' T p N , T
1

#
%
'
)
,
-
.
10
11
1
1#
1%
1'
1)
1,
1-
1.
0
1

#
%
'
)
,
-
.
#0
#1
#
##
#%
#'
#)
#,
#-
#.
%0
%1
%
%#
%%
%'
%)
%,
%-
%.
'0
0.01
0.1'
0.%)
0.-,
1.#)
1..1
.'0
#.1#
#.,-
%.%)
'.1)
'.--
).)1
,.#'
-.11
-.--
..)'
10.%%
11.#
1.0#
1.-%
1#.)'
1%.%,
1'..
1).1#
1)..)
1,.-0
1-.)%
1..%.
0.#%
1.1.
.0'
..1
#.,,
%.)%
'.'1
).#-
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-.1#
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#0.,,
#1.))
#.'%
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.'%
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'.'#
).##
,.1%
,..,
-.-0
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10.'1
11.#,
1.%
1#.11
1%.00
1%.-.
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1..#.
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