PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE

ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
SUSTAINABLE
DESIGN
PASSIVE
SYSTEMS
ACTIVE
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS THAT MINIMIZE OR OBVIATE
THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND THE
USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES:
PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEMS
PASSIVE COOLING SYSTEMS
BUILDING ORIENTATION AND
PLACEMENT
USE OF VEGETATION
SYSTEMS THAT USE RENEWABLE ENERGY
THROUGH THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES:
SOLAR PANELS
SOLAR WATER HEATING
WIND TURBINES
HEAT PUMPS
WOOD STOVES
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
PASSIVE
SYSTEMS
VERNACULAR
ARCHITETCURE
PASSIVE
HOUSE
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In the building the addition of the passive solar radiations transmitted
directly through the windows and indirectly through roof or walls and
the interior heat produced by appliances and dwellers, is enough to
balance the building heat loss in winter.
To achive this result you can use active systems as well.
Category of architecture based on
localized needs and construction
materials, relecting local traditions and
inluenced by local culture and climate.
Vernacular architecture tends to evolve
over time to relect the environmental,
cultural, technological, and historical
context in which it exists.
Architetcure without architects.
VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTURE
ARC 3313 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester II 2012
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
VERNACULAR ARCHITETCURE
All building typologies that root in local tradition. They use eficiently local resources and available energy and materials,
so accordingly to climate, site and culture there are speciic typologies. The common basic function is to protect from
weather conditions, instead the shape answers to local climate, techniques and social features.
The shape is usaully studied to answer the climate limit conditions: for istance the Arabic house ansewrs to the daily
temperature range and the strong solar radiation using raw earth bricks covered by white quicklime. And the same typology
was developed in central America by Indios and in Mediterrean area.
To protect from the intense rain in the tropical climate the hut shape was developed using wood, piling structure, wattle
and broad sloped roof made by leaves. The same hut is present in Madagascar, Carabeans and Polynesia.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
RURAL HOUSE, VENETO, ITALY
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
In the Venician area before the Serenissima Republic the typical
house was called CASONE. Simple buildings descended from the
primaveral hut made by raw earth and straw.
The walls are short and thick built in raw earth bricks, instead the sloped
roof has a wood main structure and is covered by marsh reeds.
When Venice became rich, the nobles started to build new typologies
around the island. The tradition developed the RURAL HOUSE made
in cooked bricks and designed to hold animals and harvest.
The big porch is the main design feature: it allows to collect, work,
dry and store the harvest (especially corn) and protects from the hot
or cold climate. It consists of a covered space grounloor that opens
to the ield through many round archs (they are bigger in front of the
house and smaller in front of the stable or the storage).
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
Un secondo elemento di protezione dalla radiazione solare è costituito
dalla pergola in genere di vite sul fronte sud e a volte anche su quello
ovest e est.
The building orientation follows the east-west axis to face the long
facade to the south: this to receive more solar radiation in winter. The
long facade to the north characterizes few little windows to limit the
heat loss.
The porch allows the solar radiation passage inside the building in
winter and stops it in summer. Often to improve the porch function
in summer there’s a PERGOLA in the southern, eastern and western
sides.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
MEDITERREAN HOUSE
The mediterrean house is the typical building we can ind all around the Mediterrean sea, like in Greece, South Italy, Spain
and South France.
The climate in this region is so hot and dry and the vegetation consists of little shrubs, so the wood is not a good material to
build. The main features of this typology are:
• Walls made in raw earth bricks, cooked bricks, stone or tuff.
• 50 cm - 100 cm thick walls accordingly to the construction materials.
• Roof charactecrized by ligh wood structure, more often in bricks and lime.
• Closed volumes, few and little windows.
• There isn’t roof projection, but often there are stairs outside to reach the lat terraced roof.
• Floors in hard court mixed to cooked oil and resin or in clay tiles.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
To avoid the strong solar radiation all year long were developed some features:
• White color for both walls and roofs (sometimes also for the streets, which are more narrow in hot climates) because this
colour relects the 70% of the solar radiations.
• Houses placed around little central courts (patios) and small spaces between the houses: these spaces create big
shadows, often increased by the curtains on the courts. These spaces also keep cool air, especially during the night.
• Presence of fountains inside the patio, whose water evaporate or is squirted on the walls and the curtains to cool.
• Massive walls with few small windows keep the solar radiation outside and the cool air inside.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
MEDITERREAN HOUSE: TRULLO, SOUTH ITALY
These typical mediterrean rural buildings were built originally as seasonal stone structures that, after their use, could be
demolished.
After a while the TRULLI became permanent residential buildings and recently they are built using new technologies as
bricks and concrete.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
The TRULLI work as underground building: the huge massive stone is
usually joint to a big subterraneus basin to collect rainwater used to
decrease of 6-7°C the interior temperature in summer. This allows the
natural ventilation through the dome holes and is improved by the
white color of the exterior surface made in lime.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
The plan is compact and almost square-
shaped, instead the roofs are cone-shaped:
these allow to collect the solar radiation
heat in the domes during the day in winter
to be transmitted during the night inside the
building.
The whole shape of the TRULLO is a mix
between a cube and a cone where the walls
are 1 or 2 m thick. The roos can be called
false-dome, it’s so light and its thickness
decreases from the base to the top, where
usually there is a sphere.
The central space is the living room and
the service spaces are placed around it
in smaller rooms. The interior is really dark
because the only opening is the entrance
door.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
AMERICAN TIPI
The typical american tent made by a wood cone main structure and animals skins sewn together, was developed to be
easly set up and moved along the big prairies.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
A big hole on the top allows the smoke exit, instead the cone-shape allows to resist against strong rain and wind. In winter
a second layer of skin can be placed inside to give more indoor comfort, as well as a barrier made by branches can help
to protect the tent from outside.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
Really sophisticated structure whose walls consist of willow wood foldable wattle. The roof can be dome or cone-shaped
and is made by folded elements joint in a ring in the middle of the dome. Through this ring the smoke from the ire exits and
allows the interior sace natural ventilation.
On the structure leece faric is ixed using ropes: in winter they use 8 fabric layers to protect from cold and strong wind.
MONGOLIAN YURTA
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
To speak about the islamic architecture means to talk about a big group of typologies that answers the particular dry
climate of north Africa, Arabia and middle east Europe. In all these regions the climate is so dry, the temerature range is
so high as well as the average maximum temperature, there’s a strong solar radiation and the winds can transport huge
amount of dust and sand.
The architecture design was developed following tradition, culture, religion and climate answers. The features are:
• building shape
• wall typologies
• interior spaces distribution
• openings
• ventilation and cooling systems
ARABIC HOUSE
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
The whole design is focused around the central square-shaped patio: an empty space where all the rooms face to. Around
the patio often there are porches on one or more sides and one or more stored.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
Court functions:
1. NIGHT: the cool air comes down in the court and goes inside each room that face to it. The lat roof and the thick walls
also improve the cooling system.
2. AFTERNOON: the sun directly heat the walls that face to the court. The air heats and goes up providing for the natural
ventilation. The court works as a chimney. The massive walls and loors protect the interior spaces from the direct solar
radiation.
3. EVENING: the air is so hot and the court loor heats creating a natural air low from the rooms that face to it through the
patio. The last cool air goes out from the rooms in the evening, but also the shadows are longer and quickly the court is
protected from the radiation.
To improve these passive systems they
usually ix a wet curtain on the court
and a fountain in the middle. The patio
loor and the walls on the court are
covered by tiles to preserve the nature
of the structure against the water.
This water system doesn’t work in those
cities, like Algeri, where the air humidity
is so high because the evaporation is
too limited.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
UNDERGROUND ARCHITETCURE
The underground constructions are typical of the dry hot climate and they use the soil constant temperature to have a
better indoor comfort.
The most famous inderground settelment in the mediterrean area are: Cappadocia in Turkey, Mat-Mata in Tunisia and the
typical italian and spanish underground settelments.
This architecture was born not only to answer climate features, but also for social reasons and defence necessities.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
Mat-mara in northern Tunisia consists in houses placed around a big court dig into the rock: this court is the central point of
the spaces distribution. Different rooms face to the court: bedrooms, kitchen and storage.
The particular shape protects from the hot climate, but also from the dusty and sandy desert winds.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
In Italy the best example of this architecture is the city of Matera, whose features are:
• different shapes and different kind of closing system to the exterior
• different orientation of the main facade
• small presence of vegetation and water (opposite of islamic architecture)
• different use of the interior spaces (often humans and animals lived together)
• high termal capacity able to provide the best indoor comfort both in winter and summer
• the door is the only opening to the exterior (low ventilation, low natural light, high humidity)
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
AMERICAN PUEBLOS
In the region where now there are Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, California and Utah the vernacular architecture was
developed to mitigate the dry hot climate by controlling the solar radiation seasonally. These PUEBLOS are designed to
answer the 25°C temperature range.
The building technology is adobe often mixed to straw and covered with a thick raw earth plaster. The 75 cm thick walls
can easly collect heat during the day to use it during the night, when the temprature decreases a lot.
The windows are few and well protected in order to avioid the heat entrance and the light to dazzle at noon.
Mesa Verde in Colorado
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
The house disposition allows the sun entrance inside the canyon in winter to heat each space. The high summer sun can’t
go inside the stone wall, which provides shadows and lower temperatures.
Acoma Pueblo consists in three lines of buildings and the distance between them is designed to allow the sun radiation for
all the houses. In each building the stores are staggered to create terraces on the roof: the section presents steps on the
southern side.
Acoma Pueblo in New Mexico
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
TROPICAL HUT
In the tropical area the climate is hot and humid all year long and the temperature range is limited.
The structures here need to be protected from the solar radiation, but also from the strong rain. The roof becomes the main
feature in the building: so sloped to drain the rain, projected to protect the walls from the rain and the dwellers from the
sun.
Usually they are turned up to be exposed to the cool air and to be protected from animals and soil heat. The wall are
usually light, made by wood, natural ibers, weaveings or wattles: because of the low temperature range they don’t need
massive walls. The wattle allows the natural ventilation, the roof shades the walls and the whole structure.
ARC 3215 _ SUSTAINABLE DESIGN METHODOLOGIES _ Semester I 2012/13
PASSI VE ARCHI TECTURE _ VERNACULAR ARCHI TECTRUE
In the topical areas with the monsonics inluence (Zanzibar, Madagascar, India, Thailandia) the traditional architecture
charcterized massive adobe walls and projected sloped roofs that protect the walls from the rain.
Usually a kind of ventilated roof made by a raw earth lat surface and a layer of natural ibers itted by a wood structure is
the best choice to protect from the rain and dispose the heat.