A Journal of Literature,
Culture and Literary
ISSN 1847-7755

University of adar
!"### adar

#!" !## 5#5
PAST ISSUES / Number 5 / Literary Transati!n / Ana B" #ern$n%e&'(uerra '
Transatin) Cuture* Pr!bems+ Strate)ies an% Pra,ti,a Reaities
Ana B" #ern$n%e&'(uerra ' Transatin) Cuture* Pr!bems+
Strate)ies an% Pra,ti,a Reaities
Abstract: Translatin( literary te)ts $an *e +uite a $,allen(in( tas-, sin$e te)ts are nor.ally *ound in
a s/e$ifi$ lan(ua(e and $ulture and, t,us, dis/lay .any lin(uisti$ /e$uliarities, as 0ell as so$ial and
$ultural as/e$ts of our lives' 1ne of t,e .ain /ro*le.s a translator $an fa$e arises fro. t,e fa$t t,at
so.e ter.s are so dee/ly rooted in t,eir sour$e $ulture, t,at t,ey are s/e$ifi$ and e)$lusive to t,e
$ulture t,at /rodu$ed t,e. and t,at, t,erefore, t,ey ,ave no e+uivalent in t,e tar(et $ulture, *e it
*e$ause t,ey are un-no0n, or *e$ause t,ey are not yet $odified in t,e tar(et lan(ua(e' T,e ai. of t,is
/a/er is to revise t,e literature dealin( 0it, t,e .ost i./ortant ty/olo(ies and $lassifi$ations
/ro/osed as re(ards $ultural ter.s, and to s,o0 t,e .ain translation /ro$edures and strate(ies t,at
$an *e e./loyed in order to over$o.e t,e diffi$ulties and /ro*le.s involved in translatin( differen$es
*et0een $ultures' T,e /a/er 0ill also s,o0 t,e results of an e./iri$al study *ased on t,e translation
of 4 /assa(es of literary te)ts 0,i$, rely on .any $ultural as/e$ts' T,is study involved 23 students
attendin( a $ourse on 4n(lis,-S/anis, translation, and a total of 4# $ultural ter.s 0ere sele$ted in
order to see t,e a$tual /ro*le.s found 0,en translatin( $ulture and t,e different translation
strate(ies used to solve t,e.'
Keywords: translation, $ulture, strate(ies, students'

Literary te)ts dis/lay .any lin(uisti$ /e$uliarities, as 0ell as so$ial and $ultural as/e$ts of our lives
and, t,us, 0e $an assert t,at literary translation is one of t,e .ain 0ays of $o..uni$ation a$ross
$ultures' Translatin( literary te)ts, ,o0ever, is not an easy tas-, sin$e it $ertainly /oses .any
/ro*le.s for t,e translator' 1ne of t,e /ro*le.s a translator $an fa$e arises fro. t,e fa$t t,at so.e
0ords or /,rases denotin( o*&e$ts, fa$ts, /,eno.ena, et$''' are so dee/ly rooted in t,eir sour$e $ulture
5SC6 and so s/e$ifi$ 5and /er,a/s e)$lusive or uni+ue6 to t,e $ulture t,at /rodu$ed t,e. t,at t,ey
,ave no e+uivalent in t,e tar(et $ulture 5TC6, *e it *e$ause t,ey are un-no0n, or *e$ause t,ey are not
yet $odified in t,e tar(et lan(ua(e 5TL6' 7,en dis$ussin( t,e /ro*le.s of $orres/onden$e in
translation, 8differen$es *et0een $ultures .ay $ause .ore severe $o./li$ations for t,e translator
t,an do differen$es in lan(ua(e stru$ture8 5Nida 1"#6' 9oreover, several t,eorists, su$, as Santoyo,
:ar$;a <e*ra and <ifen(, a.on(st ot,ers, su//ort untranslatability 0,en 0e fa$e te)ts 0it, ter.s
0,i$, are so $ulture-*ound and $ulture-s/e$ifi$ as to defy translation 5$f' =ern>nde? :uerra, 8T,e
issue8 416'
In all $ases, 0,en $ultural differen$es e)ist *et0een t,e t0o lan(ua(es, it is e)tre.ely diffi$ult to
a$,ieve a su$$essful transfer, if not i./ossi*le 50,atever t,e $o./eten$e of t,e translator in t,e t0o
lan(ua(es involved6' And even t,e sli(,test variation fro. t,e sour$e lan(ua(e 5SL6 $ultural ter. $an
*e ta-en as an a$t of su*version a(ainst t,e $ulture it re/resents' Literary translation itself $an even *e
re(arded as an a$t of su*version, or a .eans of /rovidin( an alternative or su*-version of reality' As
Levine affir.s, 8t,e literary translator $an *e $onsidered a su*versive s$ri*e8 576' In t,e sa.e line of
t,ou(,t, 0,en tal-in( a*out t,e tas- of translatin( literature, Silver states@ 8I understand su*version
as at t,e $ore of t,e translation /ro&e$t itself8 5Silver 56'
T,e ai. of t,e /resent /a/er is t0ofold@ 516 to revise t,e literature dealin( 0it, t,e .ain ty/olo(ies
and $lassifi$ations /ro/osed as re(ards $ultural ter.s, and 5!6 to s,o0 t,e .ain translation
/ro$edures and strate(ies t,at $an *e e./loyed in order to solve t,e /ro*le.s involved in translatin(
differen$es *et0een $ultures'
T,is /a/er 0ill also /resent t,e results o*tained in a study *ased on t,e translation of 4 /assa(es of
te)ts t,at relied on $ultural as/e$ts' T,e study involved 23 students attendin( a $ourse on 4n(lis,-
S/anis, translation, and a total of 4# $ultural ter.s 0ere sele$ted so as to analyse t,e different
translation strate(ies used *y students 0,en translatin( t,e.'

1. Cultural terms
9any s$,olars a(ree 0it, t,e fa$t t,at lan(ua(e is an e)/ression of $ulture and individuality of its
s/ea-ers and ,ave, ,en$e, dee/ly e)a.ined $ultural ter.s, as 0ell as t,e /ro*le.s involved in t,eir
translation 0,en t,ere is a la$- of e+uivalen$e *et0een t0o lan(ua(es and $ultures 5Aade, Aut?, Nord,
Ba*ad>n, and Cenuti, for e)a./le6'
Cla-,ov and =lorin see. to ,ave *een t,e first ones to $oin t,e ter. realia to refer to $ultural
ele.ents, and t,e ter. ,as no0 *een (enerali?ed and is fre+uently used to refer to o*&e$ts, $usto.s,
,a*its, and ot,er $ultural and .aterial as/e$ts t,at ,ave an i./a$t in s,a/in( a $ertain lan(ua(e
5Cerd> 9assD !486'
Sin$e t,en, .any $lassifi$ations and ta)ono.ies for su$, $ultural as/e$ts ,ave *een offered 5Ea-er,
Aatan, 9ayoral, 9olina, Ne0.ar-, Cla-,ov y =lorin, et$'6' =ollo0in( Nida and a//lyin( t,e $on$e/t
of $ulture to t,e tas- of translation, Ne0.ar- 5!16 /uts fort, ,is $lassifi$ation of forei(n $ultural
0ords, esta*lis,in( five $ate(ories@
a' 4$olo(y 5flora, fauna, 0inds, $li.ate, et$'6@ Hoy hace ‘poniente' en ‘Levante' $ould *e an e)a./le in
*' 9aterial $ulture 5food, $lot,es, ,ouses, to0ns, trans/ort6@ Aquel de la ‘boina' acaba de comprar
$' So$ial $ulture 50or- and leisure6@ No puedo quedarme para ver ‘quemar las Fallas' porque
mañana empiezan las ‘oposiciones''
d' 1r(ani?ations, $usto.s, a$tivities, /ro$edures or $on$e/ts 50,i$, in$lude artisti$, reli(ious,
/oliti$al and ad.inistrative su*$ate(ories6@ Me voy al ‘!"' a ver qu# ayudas recibo en la compra'
e' :estures and ,a*its@ $%uedamos a tomar un ‘chisme' despu#s de ‘misa'&
Aatan 5176 also /rovides a $o./re,ensive vie0 of ,o0 $ulture reveals itself at ea$, of t,e follo0in(
lo(i$al levels@
a' 4nviron.ent 5in$ludin( $li.ate, ,ousin(, food, et$'6@ e)e./lifyin( ter.s in t,e S/anis, $ulture
are poniente' barraca' (aralaes' paella, et$'
*' Ee,aviour 5a$tions and 0ays of *e,avin( in $ertain $ultures6@ (reetin( so.eone 0it, t0o -isses
instead of s,a-in( ,ands, for e)a./le, is +uite $o..on in S/ain'
$' Ca/a*ilities, strate(ies and s-ills used to $o..uni$ate 5in$ludin( non-ver*al $o..uni$ation,
rituals, et$'6@)ponme una cerveza* is a ty/i$al for.ula in S/anis, to order a drin-, *ut usin( t,e
i./erative 0ould not *e a//ro/riate in 4n(lis, and a /ossi*le translation $ould *e +ould , please
have a beer&
d' Calues of t,e so$iety and its ,ierar$,y@ -llos creen que son me.ores por ser ‘payos''
e' Eeliefs@ Hoy es ‘domin/o de !amos''
f' Identity@ Acaban de derribar otro ‘edi(icio (ranquista''

Au 521-286, redu$es ,is ta)ono.y to t,e four (eneri$ ty/es /ro/osed *y 9olina@
a' 4nviron.ent, in$ludin( e$olo(y, /la$e na.es, et$'@ La zona del ‘0ierzo', for e)a./le'
*' Cultural ,erita(e 5reli(ious *eliefs, ,istori$al events, $,ara$ters, festivities, fol-lore, ,ousin(,
o*&e$ts, et$'6@ 1n alto porcenta.e de españoles tiene una ‘se/unda residencia'.
$' So$ial $ulture 5$onventions, *eliefs, ,a*its, so$ial or(ani?ations, et$'6@ 2amos de ‘tapeo''
d' Lin(uisti$ $ulture 5fi)ed e)/ressions, idio.s, insults, et$'6@ ‘)Anda ya*'' eres un ‘capullo''

=inally, =ern>nde? :uerra 58Tradi$ionalis.o8 1"26 des$ri*es four .a&or ty/es of realia, 0,i$, $an
turn translation into a very diffi$ult /ro$ess'
a' :eo(ra/,i$ and et,no(ra/,i$ ter.s@ Albu(era' /orrilla... 5in S/anis,6, or 3he 4quare Mile'
coc5ney...5in 4n(lis,6'
*' 7ords or e)/ressions referrin( to fol-lore, traditions and .yt,olo(y@ 3oro embolado' romer6a'
peña' tracas' entierro de la sardina' rociero... +eilidh' +hristmas stoc5in/' touchdo7n' ta/...
$' Na.es of everyday o*&e$ts, a$tions and events 5su$, as food and drin-s, $lot,es, ,ousin(, tools,
/u*li$ trans/ort, dan$es and (a.es, units of .easure.ent, .oney, et$'6@ A/ua de 2alencia' buñuelos'
paella' mi/as' mantilla' barraca... +hristmas puddin/' cotta/e pie' happy hour' miles' earmu((s...
d' So$ial and ,istori$al ter.s denotin( territorial ad.inistrative units or divisionsF de/art.ents,
/rofessions, titles, ran-s, (reetin(s and treat.entsF institutions, /atrioti$ and reli(ious or(anisationsF
et$'@ oposiciones' 8iputaci9n provincial' /uardia civil' pata ne/ra' caudillo... sophomore' A:level;s<'
4alvation Army' +hristie's' =M+A...
Aut,ors su$, as Ea-er 5!16, 9ayoral 5736, Nord 55!"-5!76, Santoyo 58Tradu$$iDn8 14"6, and 9ar$o
Eorillo 5-l (il!25-!#86 offer si.ilar $lassifi$ations, e./,asi?in( lo$al $olour, .anneris.s, $ultural
and te./oral distan$e *et0een t0o lin(uisti$ $o..unities, et$' and re$o(nisin(, .ore or less
e)/li$itly, t,e fo$us on do.inant $ultures, t,e inevita*ility of loss, or even t,e i./ossi*ility of
translatin( t,ese ter.s@
it is -no0n t,at a /erfe$t translation of $ulturally-*ound te)ts is i./ossi*le' T,e translation fo$usin(
on t,e /ur/ose of t,e SL te)t 0ritin( is, ,o0ever, al0ays /ossi*le' T,is $an *e /roven 0it, t,e
translation of so .any literary 0or-s into ot,er lan(ua(es 5Gariyanto6'
It is true t,at translatin( realia or $ultural ter.s, su$, as t,e ty/es .entioned a*ove, $auses .any
translation diffi$ulties, *ut t,is does not .ean t,at t,ey $annot *e translated' In fa$t, alon( t,e lines
of so.e translation s$,olars, /arti$ularly t,ose of t,e Lei/?i( s$,ool 5Aade, JH(er, Neu*ert6, all
lan(ua(es $an say 5or are $a/a*le of sayin(6 t,e sa.e t,in(sF *ut, as a rule, all of t,e. say it in a
different 0ay' Indeed, s,ould t0o lan(ua(es say it in t,e sa.e 0ay, t,en 0e 0ould not *e s/ea-in( of
t0o lan(ua(es, *ut of one and t,e sa.e lan(ua(e' T,e translator $an ,ave re$ourse to several devi$es
for solvin( t,e /ro*le. of *rid(in( t,e (a/ a$ross $ultures, /rovidin( t,at sI,e is $ulturally a0are of
t,ose differen$es' SI,e $an rely on various /ro$edures, te$,ni+ues or strate(ies to deal 0it, su$,
translation /ro*le.s' T,e follo0in( translations into S/anis, of 3aste this +hristmas puddin/, for
e)a./le, $ould illustrate it@
Eorro0in(@ Jrue*a este +hristmas puddin/'
Ada/tation@ Jrue*a este turrDn'
4)/lanation@ Jrue*a este dul$e navideKo ,e$,o de frutas $onfitadas y $oKa$'
:eneralisation@ Jrue*a este dul$e'
Literal translation@ Jrue*a este /ud;n de Navidad'
Bedu$tion@ Jrue*a esto'
T,e translator $an $oin or *orro0 t,e ter. fro. t,e SL into t,e TL, or ada/t it to suit t,e TC 5LturrDnM
or Lros$Dn de BeyesM6' It is also /ossi*le to e)/lain t,e $on$e/tual differen$es in a footnote or in t,e
te)t itself 5Ldul$e navideKo ,e$,o de frutas $onfitadas y $oKa$ or /astel t;/i$o de In(laterraM6, and so
on' It is u/ to t,e translator to $,oose t,e .ost suita*le 0ay to render it in t,e TL, and for t,e TC,
de/endin( on t,e ai., t,e ti.e availa*le, t,e /otential readers, et$' of t,e translation'

2. Translation procedures and strategies
A$$ordin( to Arin(s 5!3"-!756 or LNrs$,er 573-816, a.on( ot,ers, translation strate(ies are usually
defined as t,e /ro$edures leadin( to t,e o/ti.al solution of a translation /ro*le.' T,e /ro$edures or
strate(ies *ased on $o./arative stylisti$s 5Cinay y Oar*elnet, 9al*lan$, Intravaia and S$avPe6, also
used *y ot,er s$,olars 5C>?+ue? Ayora, Ne0.ar-, '''6, or t,e te$,ni+ues su((ested *y Ei*le translators
5Nida, Nida and Ta*er, 9ar(ot6, intended to /ro/ose a .etalan(ua(e and to $atalo(ue /ossi*le
solutions in t,e tas- of translation' Su$, /ro$edures ,ave *een so.eti.es $riti$i?ed, a.on( ot,er
reasons *e$ause t,ere is even a la$- of $onsensus as to 0,at na.e s,ould *e (iven to t,ese $ate(ories
5/ro$edures, te$,ni+ues, strate(ies or .et,ods are often interrelated and used as synony.s6' Na.in(
/ro*le.s o$$ur *e$ause t,e /ro$edures so.eti.es overla/, t,ey only $atalo(ue differen$es in ter.s of
lan(ua(e and not usa(e, and t,ey fo$us on translation results rat,er t,an on t,e translation /ro$ess'
T,ere ,ave *een, ,o0ever, several atte./ts to differentiate /ro$edures fro. strate(ies, 0,i$, are
.ore related to t,e translation /ro$ess 5Gurtado "36' In any $ase, t,e /ro$edures or strate(ies t,at are
usually .entioned in a$ade.i$ /u*li$ations serve *ot, to analyse and $atalo(ue translation
e+uivalen$e and to i./rove t,e a$+uisition of translation $o./eten$e, sin$e -no0in( and $o./arin(
t,e. is definitively ne$essary to o*tain an ade+uate translation'
1ne of t,e leadin( ta)ono.ies, and $ertainly t,e *est -no0n, is t,at of Cinay and Oal*ernet' T,e
seven *asi$ translation /ro$edures are, a$$ordin( to t,e., ada/tation, $al+ue, e+uivalen$e,
.odulation, *orro0in(, literal translation and trans/ositionF alt,ou(, t,ey also refer to
$o./ensation, e)/ansion and $ontra$tion' 1t,er aut,ors ,ave refor.ulated and added ne0
/ro$edures, or *ro-en do0n t,e afore.entioned ones into distin$t su*$ate(ories' A.on( t,e 0ell
-no0n refor.ulations 0e s,ould .ention t,e one /ro/osed *y C>?+ue? Ayora 5!51-"8"6, for e)a./le,
0,o distin(uis,es *et0een 5i6 o*li+ue translation /ro$edures 5ada/tation, a./lifi$ation,
$o./ensation, e+uivalen$e, e)/li$itation, .odulation, o.ission and trans/osition6 and 5ii6 dire$t
.et,ods 5$al+ue, loan and literal translation6' Gurtado 5"3-"76 e)/ands t,e list 0it, strate(ies t,at
a$$ount for solutions of te)tual nature@ e)tension, a./lifi$ation, $o./ression, dis$ursive $reation,
des$ri/tion, (eneralisation, /arti$ularisation, redu$tion, /aralin(uisti$ or lin(uisti$ su*stitution, and
It is also 0ort, .entionin( t,at so.e studies fo$us only on s/e$ifi$ translation /ro$edures t,at s,ould
*e used 0,en dealin( 0it, $ultural ele.ents' T,is is t,e $ase 0it, :raedler 5"6, 0,o $ites four@ 5i6
.a-in( u/ a ne0 0ord, 5ii6 e)/lainin( t,e .eanin( of t,e SL e)/ression in lieu of translatin( it, 5iii6
/reservin( t,e SL ter. inta$t, and 5iv6 re/la$in( it usin( any ter. in t,e TL t,at ,as t,e sa.e
8relevan$e8 as t,e SL ter.' Garvey 5!-36 also /ro/oses four 0ays@ 5i6 fun$tional e+uivalen$e, usin( a
ter. 0it, t,e sa.e 8fun$tion8, 5ii6 for.al or lin(uisti$ e+uivalen$e, or 0ord *y 0ord translation, 5iii6
trans$ri/tion or *orro0in(, 0,i$, .ay in$lude notes, and 5iv6 des$ri/tive or self-e)/lanatory
translation' 9ur OueKas 574-726 la*elled ,er translation /ro$edures as 516 TL $ultural $o(nateF 5!6 SL
$ultural and lin(uisti$ *orro0in(F 5"6 SL $ultural *orro0in( /lus e)/lanationF 546 re/la$e.ent of SL
$ultural referent *y e)/lanationF 556 TL $ultural referent su//ressionF and 536 literal translation of TL
$ultural referent' =inally, 9ar$o Eorillo 58Les tQ$ni+ues8 1"86, $onsiderin( t,e intervention of t,e
translator and ,is a//roa$, to t,e TC as a $ontinuu., /ro/oses t,e follo0in( si) /ro$edures@ 5i6 /ure
or naturalised loan, 5ii6 literal translation, 5iii6 neutralisation 5des$ri/tion, (eneralisation or
/arti$ularisation6, 5iv6 a./lifi$ation or $o./ression, 5v6 intra$ultural ada/tation, and 5vi6
inter$ultural ada/tation'
T,e afore.entioned /ro$edures 0ill no0 *e *riefly des$ri*ed and illustrated, in al/,a*eti$al order'
2.1. Adaptation
Ada/tation is used in t,ose $ases in 0,i$, t,e ty/e of situation *ein( referred to *y t,e SL .essa(e is
un-no0n in t,e TC and translators $reate a ne0 situation t,at $an *e des$ri*ed as situational
e+uivalen$e 5Cinay and Oar*elnet 5!-5"6' T,us, it $an *e understood as 0,at ot,er aut,ors ,ave
$alled $ultural, dyna.i$ or fun$tional e+uivalen$e 5$f' !'7'6' It a$tually refers to a SL $ultural ele.ent
t,at is re/la$ed *y anot,er ter. in t,e TC' T,is 0ould a//ly, for e)a./le, to +hristmas puddin/' and
its /ossi*le translation into LturrDnM .entioned a*ove'
T,ere are situations in 0,i$, ada/tation see.s, to so.e e)tent, ne$essary@ in advertisin( slo(ans, or
$,ildrenMs stories, for e)a./le' In ot,er $ases t,ere are $ertain $onventions, .ore or less (enerali?ed,
as re(ards ada/ted translations of forei(n $ultural ele.ents in t,e TL' T,is a//lies, for instan$e, to
0ei(,ts and .easures, .usi$al notation, (enerally a$$e/ted titles of literary 0or-s or (eo(ra/,i$al
na.es, et$' T,e *asi$ (oal of t,e translator 0,en tryin( to Lada/tM t,e translation is to ,ave a si.ilar
effe$t on t,e TL readers, Ldo.esti$atin(M, in a 0ay, t,e $ultural ter.s'
2.2. Borrowing
Eorro0in( a ter. is ta-in( a 0ord or e)/ression strai(,t fro. anot,er lan(ua(e, 0it,out translation'
T,e /ro$edure is nor.ally used 0,en a ter. does not e)ist in t,e TC, or 0,en t,e translator tries to
(et so.e stylisti$ or e)oti$ effe$t' It $an *e 8/ure8, if t,ere is no $,an(e of any -ind in t,e forei(n ter.
5*ro-er, $,i/, $lo0n, feelin(, sto/, et$'6, or 8naturali?ed8, if t,e 0ord ,as so.e $,an(e in t,e s/ellin(,
and /er,a/s so.e .or/,olo(i$al or /,oneti$ ada/tation 5as in dis5ette R Ldis+ueteM, (ormat R
Lfor.atearM, indent R LindentarM, reset R LresetearM, et$'6'
So.e aut,ors /refer t,e ter.s (orei/n 7ord' (orei/nism' An/licism' >ermanism, ''' 0,en referrin( to
/ure *orro0in(s 5t,at ,ave not *een fully assi.ilated into t,e TL syste.6, and use *orro0in(s or
loans 0,en t,e 0ords are naturalised in t,e TL, t,e differen$e *ein( 0,en t,e ter. ,as *een
in$or/orated and ,o0 it ,as *een ada/ted to t,e TL 5Torre 246' In any $ase, *orro0in(s are one of t,e
.ain 0ays of enri$,in( a lan(ua(e, as t,e S/anis, 0riter Una.uno indi$ated as re(ards literary
translation@ 8.eter /ala*ras nuevas, ,aya o no ,aya otras +ue las ree./la$en, es .eter nuevos
.ati$es de ideas8 5$f' Loren?o6' And, as far as 4n(lis, is $on$erned, 7a(ner states t,at it is 8t,e only
lan(ua(e 0,ose ele.ents are seventy-five /er$ent of forei(n ori(in8 5$f' =ernande? 5146' 7,en
translatin( te)ts 0it, a (reat a.ount of $ultural ter.s, ,o0ever, 0e s,ould *e $autious 5:ar$;a <e*ra
"4#6, unless 0e 0ant to .aintain a $ertain lo$al $olour or e)oti$is.'
2.3. Calque
Cal+ue $ould *e des$ri*ed as a literal translation 5eit,er le)i$al or stru$tural6 of a forei(n 0ord or
/,rase' It $ould a$tually *e $onsidered a s/e$ial ty/e of loan or *orro0in(, sin$e t,e translator
*orro0s t,e SL e)/ression or stru$ture and t,en transfers it in a literal translation 5Cinay and
Oar*elnet 476, as in t,e $ase of shoc5ed RL$,o$adoM, stressed R LestresadoM, et$'
T,e differen$e *et0een loanI*orro0in( and $al+ue is t,at t,e for.er i.itates t,e .or/,olo(y,
si(nifi$ation and /,oneti$s of t,e forei(n 0ord or /,rase, 0,ile t,e latter only i.itates t,e
.or/,olo(i$al s$,e.e and t,e si(nifi$ation of t,at ter., *ut not its /ronun$iation' In t,e $ase
of (ootball, for e)a./le, usin( t,e sa.e ter. in S/anis, 0ould *e a /ure *orro0in(F t,e
0ord (?tbol 0ould *e a naturalised *orro0in(, and balompi# a $al+ue'
A$$ordin( to Santoyo 53eor6a 2"6, $al+ue is not only an a$$e/ta*le for. of translation, it is stri$t and
$orre$t translation, sin$e it is *uilt 0it, si(nifi$ants of t,e SL' :ar$;a <e*ra 5""56 also $onsiders t,at it
leads to a (ood translation and t,at it $an $ertainly $ontri*ute to enri$, t,e TL 50,ereas *orro0in(s
are not really translation /ro$edures, *ut (ivin( u/ in t,e translation tas-6'
2.4. Compensation
T,e ai. of $o./ensation is to *alan$e t,e se.anti$ losses t,at translation involves 5eit,er in t,e
$ontent of t,e .essa(e or its stylisti$ effe$ts6' Co./ensation introdu$es a SL ele.ent of infor.ation
or stylisti$ effe$t in anot,er /la$e in t,e TL te)t *e$ause it $annot *e refle$ted in t,e sa.e /la$e as in
t,e SL@ t,e translation of diale$ts, irony, /oliteness values, et$' In t,e $ase of S/anis,-4n(lis,
translation, 0e $ould .ention, for e)a./le, t,e fa.iliarity or for.ality of 8tS8 and 8usted8' Eot,
0ords are translated into 4n(lis, as 8you8, so t,e translator 0ill ,ave to e)/ress de(rees of for.ality
in different 0ays, .ay*e $o./ensatin( *y usin( ot,er 4n(lis, 0ords of t,e for.al and infor.al
re(isters, in order to /reserve t,e sa.e level of for.ality'
2.5. Compression / reduction / condensation / omission
T,ese four ter.s are o//osed to t,e ones .entioned in se$tion !'8' In all of t,e. t,e translator
synt,esi?es or su//resses a SL infor.ation ite. in t,e TL te)t, .ainly 0,en t,at infor.ation is
$onsidered unne$essary 5C>?+ue? Ayora "526 *e$ause t,e $ultural ter. does not /erfor. a relevant
fun$tion or .ay even .islead t,e reader'
Co./ressionIredu$tionI$ondensationIo.ission of infor.ation is not $o..on 0,en translatin(
$ultural ter.s and, 0,en it o$$urs, it is usually to avoid re/etitions, .isleadin( infor.ation, or la$- of
2.6. Description
As t,e ter. itself indi$ates, a ter. or e)/ression is re/la$ed *y a des$ri/tion of its for. or fun$tion' It
$ould, t,us, *e re(arded as a sort of /ara/,rase, or even as an a./lifi$ation or e)/lanation 5$f' !'8'6 of
a SL ter., as in t,e S/anis, translation of He's a +oc5ney R L4s de la /arte este de Londres, de la
/arte .>s /o*reM'
2.7. qui!alence
A$$ordin( to Cinay and Oal*ernet, e+uivalen$e refers to a strate(y t,at des$ri*es t,e sa.e situation
*y usin( $o./letely different stylisti$ or stru$tural .et,ods for /rodu$in( e+uivalent te)ts 5Cinay and
Oal*ernet 5!6' T,is *asi$ally .eans t,at t,e translator uses a ter. or e)/ression re$o(nised as an
esta*lis,ed e+uivalent in t,e TL' It is si.ilar to ada/tation 5$f' !'1'6 and to .odulation 5$f' !'11'6 in
t,at it e)/resses t,e sa.e situation in a different 0ay 5C>?+ue? Ayora "!!6, .ainly in $ases of idio.s
and for.ulai$ lan(ua(e, as in >od bless you R LTSaludUM, Holy co7* R LT9adre .;aUM, =ou must be
.o5in/* R LTNi ,a*larUM, "nly the /ood die youn/ R L9ala ,ier*a nun$a .uereM'
2.". #plicitation / e#pansion / ampli$ication / di$$usion
T,ese ter.s are in o//osition to t,e ones .entioned in se$tion !'5' 4)/li$itation .eans t,at 0e
e)/ress in t,e TL so.et,in( t,at is i./li$it in t,e $onte)t of t,e SL 5C>?+ue? Ayora "426, or t,at 0e
introdu$e details t,at are not e)/ressed in t,e SL, su$, as .ore infor.ation, translatorMs notes, or
e)/li$ative /ara/,rasin(, as in ,!A R LLa or(ani?a$iDn terrorista IBAM'
In t,e ot,er t,ree $ases, t,ose of e)/ansion 5Cinay and Oar*elnet 1846, a./lifi$ation 5Ca?+ue? Ayora
1"76 and diffusion 59alone 456, t,e translator uses, in t,e TL, .ore 0ords t,an in t,e SL to e)/ress
t,e sa.e idea'
4)a./les of t,ese /ro$edures $ould *e t,e follo0in( ones@ +o((ee brea5 R Ldes$anso /ara to.ar
$afPM, 3he man ne@t door R Lel ,o.*re +ue vive 5en la /uerta de6 al ladoM, 4uccess(ul (ishermen 7ent
bac5 home R Llos /es$adores +ue ,a*;an tenido P)ito volvieron a $asaM'
2.%. &enerali'ation
7it, t,is /ro$edure, in o//osition to /arti$ularisation, t,e translator uses ,y/erny.s or .ore (eneral
or neutral ter.s, nor.ally for stylisti$ reasons, or to avoid unne$essary re/etitions or a.*i(uity, as in
t,e $ase of Aohn has a beauti(ul do/ R LJuan tiene un ,er.oso animalM'
2.1(. )iteral translation
Literal translation, or 0ord *y 0ord, o$$urs 0,en a SL 0ord or /,rase is translated into a TL 0ord or
/,rase, 0it,out 0orryin( a*out style, *ut ada/tin( t,e te)t to t,e TL synta$ti$ rules, 0it, .ini.al
ad&ust.ents, so t,at it sounds *ot, $orre$t and idio.ati$ 50ord order, fun$tional 0ords, et$'6' In
Cinay and Oal*ernetMs 0ords 5486, it is t,e dire$t transfer of a SL te)t into a (ra..ati$ally and
idio.ati$ally a//ro/riate TL te)t in 0,i$, t,e translatorsM tas- is li.ited to o*servin( t,e ad,eren$e
to t,e lin(uisti$ servitudes of t,e TL'
An e)a./le of literal translation $ould *e Aohn loves Mary R LJuan a.a a 9ar;aM, in 0,i$, t,e
/re/osition LaM ,as *een added *e$ause it is a re+uire.ent for dire$t o*&e$ts denotin( a /erson'
2.11. *odulation
9odulation $onsists of usin( a /,rase t,at is different in t,e SL and TL to $onvey t,e sa.e idea
5Cinay and Oal*ernet 516' In ot,er 0ords, t,ere is a $,an(e in t,e /oint of vie0, fo$us, /ers/e$tive or
$ate(ory of t,ou(,t in relation to t,e SL, as in Neither head nor tail R Lni /ies ni $a*e?aM, 8on't /et so
e@cited R Ltran+uil;?ateM, '''
It is si.ilar to trans/osition and, so.eti.es, ne$essary in order to avoid la$- of fluen$y or e)oti$is.
in t,e translation'
2.12. +articularisation
Jarti$ularisation is in o//osition to (eneralisation 5$f' !'2'6' It refers to t,e /ro$edure in 0,i$, t,e
translator uses in t,e TL ,y/ony.s or .ore /re$ise or $on$rete ter.s, as in 4he's a /reat person R
L4s una .u&er .aravillosaM, in 0,i$, /arti$ularisation disa.*i(uates 0,et,er L/ersonM is .ale or
fe.ale, sin$e t,ere is no translation of Ls,eM in t,is $ase'
2.13. ,u-stitution .linguistic/paralinguistic0
A$$ordin( to Gurtado 5"36, lin(uisti$-/aralin(uisti$ su*stitution is t,e translation /ro$edure in 0,i$,
lin(uisti$ ele.ents are re/la$ed *y /aralin(uisti$ ele.ents 5intonation, (estures, et$'6 or vi$e versa, as
in "h' 7hat a shame*' 0,i$, $ould /er,a/s *e translated as LTVuP /enaU- di&o sor/rendidaM, or to
translate t,e Ara* (esture of /uttin( your ,and on your ,eart as LT,an- youM'
2.14. 1ransposition
T,is /ro$edure involves $,an(in( a (ra..ati$al $ate(ory or re/la$in( one /art of t,e s/ee$, for
anot,er, 0it,out $,an(in( t,e .eanin( of t,e .essa(e 5Cinay and Oal*ernet 5#6' T,e follo0in(
translations are ty/es of trans/osition@ 3his computer is out o( order R L4ste ordenador no
fun$ionaM, , 5noc5ed him do7n R LLe derri*P de un (ol/eM, , touched a (ootbra5e R L=renPM''' 5t,is last
e)a./le also in$ludes a redu$tion6'
:ra..ati$al trans/ositions, 0it, a//ro/riate .or/,olo(i$al and synta$ti$ ad&ust.ents, are +uite
fre+uent in order to o*tain a translation t,at sounds as if it ,ad *een ori(inally 0ritten in t,e TL'
2.15. 2ariation
=inally, variation is a /ro$edure in 0,i$, t,e translator $,an(es ele.ents t,at affe$t several as/e$ts of
lin(uisti$ variation@ $,an(es in tone, style, so$ial diale$t, (eo(ra/,i$al diale$t ''' 5Gurtado "76, as in t,e
$ase of , ain't no (ool R LNo soy nin(Sn tontoM, or in =ep' and it's dirt cheap R LS;, y se lo de&o .uy
*aratoM, in 0,i$, t,e re(ister used in t,e TL is $o./letely different'
3. Practical realities: strategies used to translate cultural terms
$onsiders t,at t,e strate(ies used *y a translator are s-ills and /ro$edures t,at /ro.ote t,e
a$+uisition and use of infor.ation, and .ay *e asso$iated *ot, 0it, t,e /rodu$t 5t,e translated te)t6,
as 0ell as 0it, t,e /ro$ess of translation itself, 0,ose strate(ies 8are a set of 5loosely for.ulated6 rules
or /rin$i/les 0,i$, a translator uses to rea$, t,e (oals deter.ined *y t,e translatin( situation8 and
$an *e (lo*al or lo$al strate(ies@ 8(lo*al strate(ies refer to (eneral /rin$i/les and .odes of a$tion and
lo$al strate(ies refer to s/e$ifi$ a$tivities in relation to t,e translatorMs /ro*le.-solvin( and de$ision-
.a-in(8 5JHHs-elHinen 136' T,e fifteen /ro$edures .entioned in t,e /revious se$tion are, a$$ordin( to
.any e)/erts, t,e .ain translation strate(ies t,at $ould *e used 0,en dealin( 0it, /ro*le.s t,at
students $an fa$e in translatin( te)ts' 9alone 5!6, for e)a./le, indi$ates t,at su$, strate(ies or
/ro$edures 80ill serve eit,er as tools for t,e study of $o./leted translation 5t,e analyti$ .ode6, or as
,el/.ates in t,e a$t of translation 5t,e o/erative .ode68' And JHHs-elHinen
3.1. mpirical stud3
T,e follo0in( /a(es s,o0 t,e results of a study $arried out to analyse t,e strate(ies t,at 23 students
e./loyed 0,en translatin( $ultural ter.s fro. 4n(lis, into S/anis, and vi$e versa' Students 0ere in
t,eir t,ird year of a Jro(ra..e in 4n(lis, Studies at t,e Universitat Jau.e I of CastellDn 5S/ain6,
and t,e $ourse t,ey 0ere ta-in( 0as-n/lish:4panish translation ,, 50,i$, fo$used on t,e translation
of literary te)ts6' All of t,e. 0ere S/anis, and t,eir level of 4n(lis, 0as $ertainly advan$ed' 9ost of
t,e. 58"'"W6 ,ad also stayed in t,e UA at least one a$ade.i$ ter. 5as 4ras.us students6, so one $an
indeed assu.e t,at t,ey 0ere suffi$iently fa.iliar 0it, t,e $ultural ter.s used for t,is study' T,e
analysis fo$used on t,e translation of fra(.ents of four literary te)ts 5t0o in S/anis, and t0o in
4n(lis,6, all of t,e. in$ludin( a lar(e nu.*er of $ultural ter.s' In ea$, of t,e four fra(.ents, a total
of 4# $ultural ter.s 0ere sele$ted, 0,i$, are outlined *elo0@
T1' 3he (ood o( (iction 50ritten *y A' Lan(6' In t,is /oe. 11 $ultural ter.s 0ere identified@
516 1f S$ottMs or Ains0ort,Ms 8venison /asty8
5!6 Eeefstea- /uddin(
5"6 9ade *y But, To $,eer To. Jin$,
546 :a*riel Carden
556 In Era$e*rid(e Gall
536 T,e C,rist.as roast
576 =ruits fro. t,e :o*lin 9ar-et :arden
586 Cu/s of tea 0ere ever *re0ed
526 Li-e Sairey :a./Ms-t,e dear old sinnerX
51#6 Li-e t,at for S,ortMs and CodlinMs dinnerX
5116 To use t,e =ot,erin(ayMs o0n di$tion -Jendennis ate, t,e love-si$- *oyX
T!' 3he Lon/est Aourney 5novel *y 4'9' =orster6' Students ,ad to translate nine $ultural /,rases
sele$ted fro. t,e fra(.ent@
516 Sa0ston S$,ool
5!6 It 0as t,en a tiny (ra..ar-s$,ool
5"6 T,e City Co./any 0,o (overned it
546 Innu.era*le residen$es, deta$,ed and se.i-deta$,ed
556 T,e *is,o/s, li-e t,e stars fro. a Bo.an $andle
536 It dro//ed t,e /refi) 8:ra..ar8
576 T,e 8Co..er$ial S$,ool8
586 It ,ad not t,e (ra$ious anti+uity of 4ton or 7in$,ester, nor, on t,e ot,er ,and, ,ad it a $ons$ious
/oli$y li-e Lan$in(, 7ellin(ton
526 T,e avera(e 4n(lis,.an
T"' 8e )viva 4an Ferm6n* a )obre de m6* 5narrative story *y =' 4r*iti a*al?a6, in 0,i$, 1# allusions
to fol-lore 0ere $,osen@ 516 4l $,u/ina?o del 3 de &ulio
5!6 4l ini$io de los sanfer.ines
5"6 4ntonando el LJo*re de .;M
546 Oe a,; +ue .u$,os /a./loneses, al rit.o de LUno de enero, dos de fe*rero'''M
556 Casa Consistorial
536 Al /aso de la /ro$esiDn de San =er.;n, .ientras al(Sn t)istulari o &otero dedi$a al(una /ie?a al
576 Sin .Ssi$a no ,a*r;a sanfer.ines y sin 9anuel Turrillas al(uien tendr;a +ue inventarla de nuevo
586 4n sanfer.ines ta.*iPn suenan el t)istu, la (aita, las fanfarres y .ultitud de (ru/os,
526 A$udir diaria.ente a la $orrida sin ser afi$ionado
51#6 Al(unos tras/asan la *arrera del des.adre /ara instalarse en la i.*e$ilidad $uando a(arran a los
toros en el en$ierro
T4' La romer6a 5s,ort story 0ritten *y C'J' Cela, 0,o 0as a0arded t,e 1282 No*el Jri?e in
Literature6' T,e fra(.ents students ,ad to translate in$luded t,ese 1# $ultural ter.s@
516 La ro.er;a era .uy tradi$ional
5!6 Ir todos &untos a .erendar
5"6 Los /re/araron de do.in(o
546 Una revista taurina
556 Una /erra (orda
536 To.aron de /ri.er /lato fa*ada asturiana
576 Un tenderete de ros+uillas
586 TJues estar;a *uenoU
526 YCon esos *>r*arosX TNi ,a*larU Son todos una /artida de $afres
51#6 A lo ,e$,o, /e$,o@ a+uello ya no ten;a re.edio y, ade.>s, a *urro .uerto, $e*ada al ra*o
T,e different /ro$edures 5des$ri*ed in se$tion !6 used *y t,e students to translate t,ese $ultural ter.s
0ere analysed' 1f $ourse, translation /ro$edures and strate(ies 0ere e)/lained in detail and
e)e./lified in advan$e in several le$tures of a t,eoreti$al and /ra$ti$al nature'

3.2. 4esults
Table 1 s,o0s t,e results o*tained in t,e translation of $ultural ter.s fro. 4n(lis, into S/anis,'

Procedure T1 T2 Total (%)
Adaptation 262 205 467 24.32%
Borrowing 233 117 350 18.23%
Calque 15 23 38 1.98%
Copen!ation 2 21 23 1.20%
Copre!!ion 9 41 50 2.60%
"e!#ription 271 152 423 22.03%
$qui%alen#e 120 114 234 12.18%
$&pli#itation 67 79 146 7.60%
'enerali(ation 4 1 5 0.26%
)iteral tran!lation 54 64 118 6.14%
+odulation 0 14 14 0.73%
,arti#ulari(ation 3 8 11 0.57%
-u.!titution 0 0 0 0%
/ran!po!ition 16 25 41 2.13%
0ariation 0 0 0 0%
Total 1056 864 1920 100%

1a-le 1. -n/lish-4panish translation o( cultural terms.
As $an *e noti$ed, students used t,e /ro$edures of ada/tation 5!4'"!W6, des$ri/tion 5!!'#"W6 and
*orro0in( 518'!"W6 .u$, .ore often t,an t,e rest' 4a$, of t,ese t,ree /ro$edures is illustrated in t,e
follo0in( translations@
5a6 '''$u/s of tea 0ere ever *re0ed R ''' L/re/ara*an $afPM'
5*6 t,e C,rist.as roast R Lla $ena de Navidad t;/i$a en :ran EretaKaM'
5$6 ,t dropped the pre(i@ B>rammarB''' R LJerdiD el /refi&o >rammarM'

In t,e $ase of ada/tations, students ,ave o/ted for ter.s in t,e TL 0,ose fun$tion is si.ilar to t,at of
t,e SL ter., and ,ave ada/ted t,e. to t,e TC, as in 5a6 a*ove' In t,e $ase of des$ri/tions, students
so.eti.es /ara/,rased t,e .eanin( of t,e $ultural lin(uisti$ e)/ression, /ro*a*ly ,avin( in .ind to
/rodu$e a TL te)t t,at reads .ore fluently' 9ore t,an ,alf of t,e des$ri/tions used *y t,e students,
,o0ever, 0ere in footnotes or translatorMs notes, as $an *e a//re$iated *elo0' =ootnotes $an indeed
,el/ readers to understand t,e SC *ut, 0,en t,e translation is s/rin-led 0it, .any footnotes, t,e end
/rodu$t .ay not a//eal to t,e $o..on reader@

Note@ To. y But, Jin$, son /ersona&es de la novela Martin +huzzle7it, es$rita /or C,arles Oi$-ens'
Note on +ommercial 4chool@ 0it, t,e ai. of trainin( *oys for t,e $ivil servi$e, t,e ar.y, t,e 0orld of
$o..er$e and university'
As re(ards *orro0in(s, it is 0ort, .entionin( t,at in .ost $ases studentsM translations 0ere $ertainly
Lforei(ni?in(M 5Cenuti !4#6 and t,e end /rodu$t did not see. natural and $o,erent at all, as in t,e
follo0in( translation@
4l 8venison /asty,8 de S$ott o Ains0ort, Z'''[ 4l bee(stea5 puddin/ ,e$,o /or But,'
T,eir $,oi$e $ould, ,o0ever, *e &ustified in so.e translations, as stated *y 9ayoral, 0,o ar(ues t,at,
de/endin( on t,e ai. and t,e /otential readers of t,e translation, SL $ultural features $an *e
/ri.arily /reserved due to stylisti$ reasons, 0,ereas transfor.in( and ada/tin( t,e. to t,e TC ai.s
at o*tainin( a fluent dis$ourse and ensurin( easy reada*ility 5886'
Students also .ade re$ourse, +uite often, to ot,er t,ree /ro$edures@ e+uivalen$e 51!'18W6,
e)/lanation 57'3#W6 and literal translation 53'14W6' Si(nifi$ant e)a./les $ould *e@
5a6 0ee(stea5 puddin/ R Lel le$,a?oM'
5*6 ,t had not the /racious antiquity o( -ton or Cinchester' nor' on the other hand' had it a
conscious policy li5e Lancin/' Cellin/ton''' R LSa0ston no ten;a la no*le anti(\edad de fa.osas
institu$iones $o.o 4ton o 7in$,ester, ni, /or otra /arte, la orienta$iDn /ro(resiva de Lan$in(,
7ellin(ton y otras institu$iones .odernasM'
5$6 4a7ston 4chool had been (ounded by''' R LS0aston S$,ool ,a*;a sido fundada /orM'''
Instan$es of $o./ression 5!'3#W6 0ere used, nor.ally, to o.it ele.ents t,at 0ere /ro*le.ati$, i'e'
not translatin( t,e ter.@
,t 7as then a tiny /rammar:school''' - L4ra enton$es un /e+ueKo $ole(ioM'''
T,e use of $o./ensations 51'!#W6 and (enerali?ations 5#'!3W6 0as sur/risin(ly lo0' Gere is one of
t,e $ases of (eneralisation@
To use t,e =ot,erin(ayMs o0n di$tion R Jara utili?ar la /ro/ia di$$iDn del lu(ar'

Co./arin( *ot, te)ts, it is 0ort, notin( t,e (reater a.ount of *orro0in(s and des$ri/tions used
0,en translatin( te)t 1, /ro*a*ly 0it, t,e intention of .aintainin( t,e ty/i$al and /er,a/s e)oti$
na.es 5in t,e $ase of *orro0in(s6, or to e)/lain Eritis, dis,es and all t,e referen$es to Oi$-ensian
$,ara$ters as 0ell as t,e literary 0or-s t,at a//ear in t,e /oe.'
Table 2. s,o0s t,e /ro$edures used to translate t,e !# $ultural ter.s fro. S/anis, into 4n(lis,'

Procedure T3 T4 Total (%)
Adaptation 98 79 177 9.21%
Borrowing 403 318 721 37.55%
Calque 0 0 0 0%
Copen!ation 0 14 14 0.72%
Copre!!ion 87 46 133 6.92%
"e!#ription 226 320 546 28.43%
$qui%alen#e 82 110 192 10%
$&pli#itation 46 26 72 3.75%
'enerali(ation 15 8 23 1.19%
)iteral tran!lation 3 24 27 1.4%
+odulation 0 1 1 0.05%
,arti#ulari(ation 0 0 0 0%
-u.!titution 0 0 0 0%
/ran!po!ition 0 14 14 0.72%
0ariation 0 0 0 0%
Total 960 960 1920 100%

1a-le 2. 4panish--n/lish translation o( cultural terms.
T,e /ro$edures 0it, a ,i(,er rate of use 0ere *orro0in(s 5"7'55W6 and des$ri/tions 5!8'4"W6, as
illustrated in t,e ne)t e)a./les@
5a6 -l inicio de los san(ermines''' R Lt,e start of t,e san(ermines'''M'
5*6 La romer6a era muy tradicional R LT,e romer6a 0as very tradi$ionalM'
5$6 -l chupinazo del D de .ulio R LT,e chupinazo 5*urst of fire0or-s6 of t,e 3t, JulyM'
5d6 '''los prepararon de domin/o R L'''dressed t,e. very smart' as in their 4unday bestM'
In so.e o$$asions, ,o0ever, none of t,e t0o /ro$edures see.ed a//ro/riate@
5a6 '''ir todos .untos a merendar'''R Lto (o all to(et,er to merendarM'''
5*6 compr9 el peri9dico de la tarde anterior y una revista taurina... R L,e *ou(,t t,e /revious
evenin(Ms ne0s/a/er and a *ull-fi(,tin( .a(a?ine, 0,i$, is very ty/i$al for t,ose 0,o li-e
In t,e first e)a./le, t,e *orro0in( $ould /er,a/s *e avoided, usin( so.e si.ilar ter. in 4n(lis,, as
La /i$ni$M, La .id-afternoon sna$-M or even Lso.et,in( to eatM' T,e sa.e $an *e said for t,e des$ri/tion
or e)/li$itation in t,e se$ond e)a./le, 0,i$, see.s totally unne$essary'
As in t,e $ase of 4n(lis,-S/anis, translation, students 0ere also /rone to resort to e+uivalen$e 51#W6,
ada/tation 57'!1W6, $o./ression 53'2!W6 and e)/li$itation 5"'75W6, as $an *e o*served *elo0@
5a6 a lo hecho' pechoE aquello ya no ten6a remedio y' ademFs' a burro muerto' cebada al rabo R LitMs
no use $ryin( over s/ilt .il-@ t,ere 0as not,in( t,ey $ould do a*out it and, *esides, itMs no (ood *ein(
0ise after t,e eventM'
5*6 '''asciende por encima de la +asa +onsistorial anunciando el inicio de la (iesta''' R L'''rises u/
over t,e to0n ,all announ$in( t,e start of t,e feast'''M
5$6 -n san(ermines tambi#n suenan el t@istu' la /aita' las (an(arres y multitud de /rupos R
LOurin( san(erminesyou 0ill also ,ear ot,er ty/es of .usi$ and a .ultitude of (rou/s of all ty/es and
5d6 '''se pas9 el resto de la mañana apretFndole una perra /orda contra la picadura R Ls,e 0as t,e
rest of t,e .ornin( /ressin( a 8/erra (orda8, a $oin t,at e)isted in S/ain in t,ose days, on t,e stin(M'
None of t,e students used t,e /ro$edure of $al+ue, /arti$ularisation, su*stitution or variation, and
only one of t,e students used .odulation@
3ambi#n nos cansamos los demFs y nos a/uantamos. )ues estar6a bueno* R L7eMre (ettin( tired too
and 0eMre /uttin( u/ 0it, it' T,atMs not (oodUM
A su..ary and $o./arison of t,e /ro$edures follo0ed *y t,e 23 students is /resented in =i(ure 1'
T,e *la$- $olu.ns indi$ate t,e /ro$edures used 0,en translatin( fro. 4n(lis, into S/anis, and t,e
values s/e$ified in t,e s,ado0ed $olu.ns $orres/ond to t,e ter.s translated into 4n(lis,'
Fi/ure G. "verall results o( the procedures used.
T,e fre+uent use of ada/tations 5in 4n(lis,-S/anis, translation6 and *orro0in(s 5in S/anis,-4n(lis,
translation6 is evident' In t,e $ase of ada/tation, 0,i$, is /ro*a*ly t,e strate(y t,at su*verts t,e
ori(inal .ore t,an t,e ot,ers, t,is ,i(, use .ay *e due to learnersM (reater a0areness of t,e SL
$ulture, 0,i$, .a-es it easier for t,e. to find $ultural e+uivalents' In t,e $ase of *orro0in(s, t,e
reasons for /reservin( t,e SC ter.s in t,eir translations $ould *e t,e diffi$ulties involved in *a$-
translation 5or translation into a forei(n lan(ua(e6F *ut 0e $an also /er$eive an atte./t to ,i(,li(,t
t,e $onventions of t,e SC as different fro. t,ose of t,e TC, or even as so.e sort of .aintenan$e of t,e
SC and resistan$e a(ainst t,e do.inant TC'
Besults also s,o0 so.e /referen$e for des$ri/tions' It see.s t,at, 0,en fa$in( $ulture-s/e$ifi$ ter.s,
students do really -no0 0,at t,ey i./ly or denote, *ut $annot al0ays find an e+uivalent ter. in t,e
TL, so t,ey tend to des$ri*e it' As re(ards e+uivalen$e, $o./ression, e)/li$itation and literal
translation, t,ere are no +uantitatively si(nifi$ant differen$es in t,e strate(ies used for t,e translation
of te)ts into t,e native lan(ua(e and for t,e translation into t,eir forei(n lan(ua(e' T,e s.all
/er$enta(e of use of t,e ot,er /ro$edures 5$al+ue, $o./ensation, (enerali?ation, .odulation,
/arti$ulari?ation, su*stitution, trans/osition and variation6 $ould /er,a/s *e e)/lained *y t,e fa$t
t,at not all strate(ies $an *e e+ually a//lied to $ulture ter.s'
Still, it is i./ortant to /oint out t,at t,e use of t,ese translation /ro$edures or strate(ies s,ould not
*e vie0ed in isolation, and t,at t,ey need to *e /ut into $onte)t' Also, one $annot $onsider so.e
/ro$edures as *etter or .ore a//ro/riate t,an ot,ers, sin$e t,eir use de/ends on t,e ai. of t,e
translation, t,e translatorMs atte./t to su*vert or .aintain t,e SC, t,e /otential readers, t,e $ultural
distan$e *et0een t,e SL and t,e TL, et$'
=inally, t,ou(, it does not follo0 dire$tly fro. t,e +uantitative results /resented in t,e /revious
/ara(ra/,s, referen$e s,ould *e .ade to t,e fa$t t,at in .any instan$es t,ere 0as not .u$,
$o,eren$e in t,e translation .et,od used *y t,e students' T,ey translated several $ultural ter.s
,avin( re$ourse, in t,e sa.e te)t, to ada/tations or $ultural e+uivalents, as 0ell as *orro0in(s, t,us
$o.*inin( indis$ri.inately a forei(ni?in( and a do.esti$atin( a//roa$,' In so.e ot,er o$$asions,
one $ould also dis$ern t,at students see.ed to fo$us only on translation /ro*le.s 5t,e $ultural ter.s
t,at ,ad no e+uivalent in t,e TL6, and not on t,e te)t as a 0,ole and t,e $o,eren$e it s,ould ,ave'

4. Conclusion
T,e /resent /a/er ,as first .ade a +ui$- referen$e to so.e t,eoreti$al as/e$ts $on$ernin( $ultural
ter.s, .ainly to t,e .ost i./ortant ty/olo(ies and $lassifi$ations /ro/osed, as 0ell as t,e translation
/ro$edures or strate(ies t,at $an *e used to translate t,ese ter.s'
Oes/ite t,e fa$t t,at translators ,ave *een $arryin( out t,eir tas- for .ore t,an t0o t,ousand years,
so.e s$,olars 5Santoyo, :ar$;a <e*ra, <ifen(, et$'6 $onsider t,at, in so.e $ases, translation is
i./ossi*le, *asi$ally 0,en one ,as to translate /oeti$ te)ts or t,ose of a $ultural nature' 1f $ourse,
0,en 8(a/s8 *et0een t0o lan(ua(es and $ultures e)ist, to a$,ieve a /erfe$t transfer 0ill *e very
diffi$ult, and $ultural (a/s $ertainly see. to /rove t,e /ro*le.ati$ nature of translation' <et,
a$$ordin( to Aade 52"6, fro. t,e lin(uisti$ and $o..uni$ative /ers/e$tives, everyt,in( $on$eiva*le
*y t,e ,u.an .ind .ust *e $a/a*le of *ein( e)/ressed in any lan(ua(e' And, sin$e anyt,in( t,at $an
*e said in one lan(ua(e $an *e e)/ressed in anot,er 5Nida and Ta*er 46, 0e $an infer t,at everyt,in(
$an *e translated fro. any (iven lan(ua(e into any ot,er lan(ua(e' T,erefore, t,e translation of any
te)t is o*&e$tively /ossi*le, even if t,ere are different $odifi$ations, ,istori$ally $onditioned, resultin(
fro. t,e fa$t t,at not all s/ee$, $o..unities are at t,e sa.e sta(e of evolution 5Aade 2"6'
To over$o.e t,e diffi$ulties and /ro*le.s t,at $ultural ele.ents /ose, t,e translator $an use a 0ide
ran(e of strate(ies, su$, as t,e ones synt,esi?ed in se$tion !' 9any translation s$,olars $onsider t,e.
/ivotal in t,e translation /ro$ess, *ut t,ese strate(ies are not t,e universal /ana$ea and studies on
translation strate(ies and /ro$edures ,ave *een so.eti.es $riti$ised' So.e aut,ors 5C,u+uet and
Jallard 1#, Aelly 1"", Larose 18, et$'6 $riti$ise t,e nature of t,ese /ro$edures, indi$atin( t,at
*orro0in(s and $al+ues, for instan$e, are not really translation /ro$edures, 0,ile ot,ers 5es/e$ially
ada/tation6 are *eyond t,e li.its of translation, or t,at t,ere is no $lear *oundary *et0een t,e.'
Jro$edures ,ave also *een $riti$ised ar(uin( t,at -no0in( t,e. is not useful for t,e translator and
t,at studies on t,e several ty/es of strate(ies or /ro$edures are .ere la*els used to desi(nate 0,at
translators do intuitively and 0,at t,ey ,ave done for $enturies, *efore lin(uists (ave t,ose
/ro$edures a na.e 5Aelly 1556' Understandin( and -no0in( 0,en to a//ly su$, /ro$edures, ,o0ever,
$an *e very ,el/ful and .et,odolo(i$ally useful for students 5Gurtado 4"-446'
T,is /a/er ,as also s,o0n t,e results of an e./iri$al study, in 0,i$, 23 students translated $ulture-
*ound literary te)ts, in order to find out t,e /ro*le.s t,ey fa$ed in translatin( 4# $ultural ter.s and
t,e strate(ies used to solve t,e.' Translatin( $ulture-s/e$ifi$ $on$e/ts see.s indeed a very
$,allen(in( tas- and t,e $,oi$e of $ertain strate(ies $an reveal eit,er t,e 8su*versiveness8 of t,e
translator 5leadin( to a do.esti$ation of t,e SL te)t in t,e TC, translatin( in a fluent and invisi*le
style so as to .ini.i?e t,e forei(nness of t,e te)t6, or t,e resistan$e and .aintenan$e of t,e SC
5leadin( to forei(ni?ation, .aintainin( t,e do.inant $ultural values of t,e SL and t,e ideolo(i$al
do.inan$e of t,e SC6' In t,is study, results s,o0 a $lear /referen$e for *orro0in(s, des$ri/tions and
ada/tations 5*ot, in dire$t and *a$- translation6, so one $an say t,at t,is ty/ifies, to a (reater or lesser
e)tent, studentsM *ot, su*version and /reservation of SC ele.ents'
In so.e o$$asions students s,ould also try, /er,a/s, to ,ave so.e 8freedo.8 0,en translatin( t,ese
$ultural ele.ents, sin$e t,eir .ain /ro*le.s 0ere *asi$ally t,at t,ey eit,er 516 fo$used /ri.arily on
t,e $ultural ele.ents and not on t,e lan(ua(e and t,e style of t,e te)t, &ust tryin( to Lada/tM t,e SL
$ulture to t,e TL $ulture, or 5!6 t,ey fo$used .ainly on lan(ua(e and style, /reservin( ele.ents of t,e
ori(inal $ulture and not renderin( t,e .essa(e a$$urately 5Cenuti !4#6' A *alan$e *et0een
do.esti$atin( and forei(ni?in( t,e TL te)t 0ould *e t,e .ost a//ro/riate, t,ou(,, in line 0it, Levine,
0e $an say t,at, to a $ertain e)tent, 8a translation .ust su*vert t,e ori(inal8 $onsiderin( 80,at is lost
and $an *e (ained in $rossin( t,e lan(ua(e *arrier8 5Levine 8"6'
1f $ourse, t,e results o*tained ,ere $annot *e e)tra/olated, sin$e t,ey 0ould /ro*a*ly ,ave *een
different if 0e ,ad analysed a lar(er nu.*er of literary translations, a lar(er nu.*er of students, a
(reater variety of te)ts, or even if .ore lan(ua(es and $ultures ,ad *een involved' It 0ould ,ave *een
e+ually interestin( to $o./are studentsM translations 0it, t,e ones $arried out *y reno0ned
translators, *ut t,at $ertainly e)$eeds t,e s$o/e of t,is /a/er'

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Ju*lis, Oate@
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