# Example from Chapter 5, Ozisik, M.N., 1980.”Heat Conduction” John Wiley and Sons.

Duhamel’s Theorem
Example (1)
A semi infinite solid is initially at zero temperature. For time t > 0 the boundary
surface at x = 0 is kept at temperature f (t). Obtain an expression for the temperature distribution
T(x,t) in the solid for times t > 0.
Solution: The mathematical formulation of this problem is given as

The auxiliary problem is taken as

Then the solution of the problem (1-1) is given in term of the solution of the problem (1-2) by
the Duhamel’s theorem (1-3 ) as:

The solution of the auxiliary problem (1-2) is obtainable from the solution T(x,t) given
by equation

(

)
by the relation and setting the equation(1-4) T
0
=1. Thus we obtain
(

) (

)

√ ⁄

Then

*

+
Introducing equation (1-6) into equation (1-3) the solution of the problem (1-1) becomes

*

+
This result can be put into a different form by defining a new variable as

Introducing equation (1-8) into equation (1-7), we obtain

(

)

√ ⁄

We now consider a special case of solution (1-9); if the surface temperature is a periodic function
of time in the form

The solution (1-9) becomes

*(

) +

√ ⁄

Or

*(

) +

*(

) +
√ ⁄

The first definite integral can be evaluated, then

* (

)

+ * (

)

+

*(

) +
√ ⁄

Here the second term on the right represents the transients that die away as t , and the first
term represent the steady oscillation of temperature in the medium after the transient have
passed.
Example (2)
A slab, is initially at zero temperature. For times t > 0 the boundary at the surfaces at
x = 0 and x = L are kept at temperatures f
1
(t) and f
2
(t) , respectively. Obtain an expression for the
temperature distribution T(x,t) in the slab for times t > 0.
Solution:
The mathematical formulation of this problem is given as

The auxiliary problem is taken as

Where

are considered independent of time. The solution of the auxiliary
problem (2-2) is obtainable from

[

]

by setting in equation (2-3)

[

]

[

]

Then

[

]

[

]
And by Duhamel’s theorem

the solution of problem (2-1) is given as

Introducing equation (2-5) into equation (2-7) we obtain

Where

⁄ . This solution seems to vanish at x = 0 and x = L, instead of converging to
the boundary condition function f
1
(t) and f
2
(t) at these locations. The reason for this is that the
term associated with the boundary-condition functions are in the form of Fourier series that are
not uniformly convergent at these locations. This difficulty can be alleviated by integrating
equation (2-8) by parts and replacing such series by their equivalent closed-form expression as
now described.
We write equation (2-8) in the form

Where

The integral terms is evaluated by parts as

(

)

, [

]

-

*

+
Equation (2-11) is introduced into equation (2-8)

*

+

*

+

Closed form expression can readily be obtained for the first two series on the right hand side of
the equation (2-12) as:

Introducing equation (2-13) into equation (2-12), the solution becomes
(

)

*

+

*

+

This solution given in this form clearly shows that at x = 0 and x = L this solution reduces to f
1
(t)
and f
2
(t), respectively.

Example (3)
A solid cylinder is initially at zero temperature. For times t > 0 boundary surfaces at
r = b is kept at temperatures T = f(t), which varies with time. Obtain an expression for the
temperature distribution T(r, t) in the cylinder for time t > 0
Solution:
The mathematical formulation of this problem is given as

The auxiliary problem is taken as

The solution of the problem (3-1) can be written in the term of the solution of the auxiliary
problem (3-2) by Duhamel’s theorem as

If is the solution of the problem for a solid cylinder , initially at temperature
unity and for times t > 0, the boundary surface at r = b is kept at zero temperature, then the
solution for is obtainable from the solution (3-4)

by setting T
0
=1 in that equation ; we find

Where

are positive roots of

The solution of the auxiliary problem (3-2) is obtainable from the solution
given by equation (3-5) as

Introducing equation (3-6) into equation (3-3) , the solution of the problem (3-1) becomes

Where

are the roots of

The solution for the T(r, t) given by equation (3-7) does not explicitly show that
. This result can be expressed in alternative form by integrating integral term by
parts as has been done in the previous example (2). We obtain:

*

+

We note that the solution (3-5) for t=0 should be equal to the initial temperature
thus:

Which gives the desired closed-form expression for the first series on the right hand side of
equation (3-8). Then the solution (3-8) is written as

*

+

The solution given in this form clearly shows that T(r, t) = f(t) at r = b.
Example (4)
A solid cylinder is initially at zero temperature. For times t > 0 heat is generated in
the solid at rate of g(t) per unit volume and boundary surfaces at the surfaces at r = b is kept at
zero temperature. Obtain an expression for the temperature distribution T(r, t) in the cylinder for
times t > 0
Solution:
The mathematical formulation of this problem is given as

The auxiliary problem is taken as

The the solution of the problem (4-1) is related to the solution of the auxiliary problem (4-2) by
Duhamel’s theorem as

The solution auxiliary problem (4-2) is obtainable from equation (4-4) by setting g
0
=1 and
F(r)=0; we find

Where

are the positive roots of

Introducing equation (4-5) into (4-3) we obtain