Republic of the Philippines

SUPREME COURT
Manila
EN BANC
G.R. No. 166401 October 30, 2006
[Formerly G.R. No. 1!"660#6$%
PEOP&E OF T'E P'(&(PP(NES, appellee,
vs.
)&FRE*O +ON, appellant.
D E C I S I O N
T(NG), J.,
To c!itical issues e"e!#e in this case. The $!st !elates to hethe! the Cou!t shoul% a&i!" the conviction of
appellant Alf!e%o Bon 'appellant( fo! si) counts of !ape an% to counts of atte"pte% !ape, the victi"s bein# his
then*"ino! nieces. On that sco!e, e a&i!". ) - co.e/0e.ce t1o021, 3e -re 0lt4m-tely 4m5elle6 to
co.7ro.t - /0et4o. m0c1 bro-6er 4. bot1 co5e -.6 4m5ort. 814le t1e Co0rt 1-6 5re94o0ly
6ecl4.e6 to -c:.o3le62e t1e co.t4t0t4o.-l -bol4t4o. o7 t1e 6e-t1 5e.-lty t1ro021 t1e 1;"$
Co.t4t0t4o.,
+
e no $n% it necessa!, to %ete!"ine hethe! the enact"ent of Republic Act No. -./0
!esulte% in the statuto!, inte!%iction of the %eath penalt,.
The secon% issue a!ises as e a!e co"pelle% to !evie the "a)i"u" te!" of reclusion temporal in the
sentence i"pose% on appellant b, the Cou!t of Appeals fo! the to counts of atte"pte% !ape. The sentence as
p!esc!ibe% b, the appellate cou!t p!io! to the enact"ent of Republic Act No. -./0 hich en%e% the i"position
of the %eath penalt, in the Philippines. The p!o)i"ate conce!n as to appellant is hethe! his penalt, fo!
atte"pte% 1uali$e% !ape, hich un%e! the penal la shoul% be to %e#!ees loe! than that of consu""ate%
1uali$e% !ape, shoul% be co"pute% f!o" %eath o! reclusion perpetua.
2i!st, the antece%ent facts.
I.
Ei#ht '3( Info!"ations
4
e!e $le% ithin the pe!io% f!o" 4+ Au#ust 4555 to 4. 2eb!ua!, 455+ b, the Assistant
P!ovincial P!osecuto! of 6u"aca, 7ue8on a#ainst appellant, cha!#in# hi" ith the !ape of AAA
.
an% BBB,
/
the
%au#hte!s of his ol%e! b!othe!. Appellant as accuse% of !apin# AAA in C!i"inal Case Nos. 03--*6, 0-54*6,
0-50*6, an% 0-53*69 hile he as accuse% of !apin# BBB in C!i"inal Case Nos. 003-*6, 0-5.*6, 0-5:*6, an%
0-5;*6.
:
All these cases e!e consoli%ate% fo! t!ial. The !apes e!e alle#e% to have been co""itte% in seve!al
instances ove! a span of si) '0( ,ea!s.
Both AAA an% BBB testi$e% a#ainst appellant, thei! uncle, an% both i%enti$e% hi" as the "an ho ha% !ape%
the". Du!in# t!ial, thei! !espective bi!th ce!ti$cates an% the "e%ical ce!ti$cates e)ecute% b, the %octo! ho
ph,sicall, e)a"ine% the" e!e ente!e% as %ocu"enta!, evi%ence.
AAA testi$e% that she as onl, si) '0( ,ea!s ol% hen she as $!st "oleste% in +--/ in the house appellant
ha% sha!e% ith he! #!an%"othe!.
0
She !ecounte% that the inci%ent too< place hen she an% appellant e!e
alone in the house. Appellant touche% he! thi#hs an% va#ina, !e"ove% he! clothes an% inse!te% his penis into
he! va#ina. Appellant th!eatene% that she an% he! pa!ents oul% be <ille% shoul% she %isclose the inci%ent to
an,one. She the!eafte! stoppe% sleepin# in the house of he! #!an%"othe!. It as onl, th!ee '.( ,ea!s afte!, in
+--;, that she slept in the sai% house, ,et a#ain she as se)uall, abuse% b, appellant. She as then nine '-(
,ea!s ol%.
;

Page 1 of 21
AAA !ecounte% that at a#e eleven '++( in +---, she as !ape% b, appellant fo! the thi!% ti"e, a#ain at the
house of he! #!an%"othe!.
3
The folloin# ,ea!, hen she as telve '+4(, she as abuse% fo! the fou!th ti"e
b, appellant. This ti"e, she as !ape% in an out%oo! clea!in#
-
afte! havin# been invite% the!e b, appellant to
#et so"e ve#etables. =hile at the clea!in#, appellant fo!ce% he! to lie %on on a #!ass, spot an% t!ie% to inse!t
his penis in he! va#ina. As she c!ie% in pain, appellant alle#e%l, stoppe%.
+5

It as onl, on +4 >une 4555 that she %eci%e% to !eveal to he! "othe!, CCC,
++
the b!utish acts appellant ha%
%one to he!.
+4
?e! "othe! thus $le% a co"plaint a#ainst he! uncle. AAA i%enti$e% appellant in open cou!t an%
p!esente% as %ocu"enta!, evi%ence he! bi!th ce!ti$cate to p!ove that she as bo!n on . Septe"be! +-33.
+.

BBB, on the othe! han%, testi$e% that she as $!st !ape% b, appellant in +--; hen she as ten '+5( ,ea!s ol%,
also at the house appellant sha!e% ith he! #!an%"othe!. =hile alone in the house, appellant po<e% a <nife at
he!, !e"ove% he! clothes an% inse!te% his penis in he! va#ina. Despite the pain she felt, she coul% not !esist
appellant as he as hol%in# a <nife. She %i% not !epo!t the !ape to he! pa!ents out of fea! of appellant@s th!eat
that he oul% <ill he!.
+/
BBB fu!the! testi$e% that in +--3 an% +---, she as !ape% a#ain b, appellant on
seve!al occasions, the !apes occu!!in# un%e! th!eat of a bla%e% eapon, an% !e#a!%less of the ti"e of %a,.
+:

BBB state% that she as last !ape% b, appellant on +: >anua!, 4555.
+0
On that ni#ht, she as sleepin# besi%e
he! siste! AAA in the house of he! #!an%"othe! hen she felt appellant touchin# he! bo%,. She pushe% hi"
aa, but appellant pulle% he! th!ee '.( "ete!s aa, f!o" AAA toa!%s the %oo!. As appellant as hol%in# a
<nife, BBB coul% not "a<e an, noise to ale!t he! siste!. Appellant o!%e!e% he! to !e"ove he! clothes an% fo!ce%
he! to lie %on. Afte! he too< o& his clothes, appellant place% hi"self on top of BBB an% sta,e% the!e fo! th!ee
'.( "inutes A"ovin# up an% %on.A The!eafte!, she put on he! clothes an% !etu!ne% to he!e he! siste! as.
She a%%e% that althou#h it as %a!<, she <ne it as appellant ho ha% "oleste% he! as she as fa"ilia! ith
his s"ell. Since then, she neve! slept in he! #!an%"othe!@s house a#ain.
+;

It as on +/ >une 4555 that BBB %isclose% he! ha!!oin# e)pe!ience to he! "othe!. P!io! to that, hoeve!, she
ha% al!ea%, !eveale% the se)ual abuses she ha% un%e!ent to he! siste! AAA. Bpon lea!nin# of the sa"e, he!
"othe! b!ou#ht he! to the police station an% he! state"ent as ta<en. The!eafte!, she as b!ou#ht to the
hospital to be e)a"ine%. 2u!the!"o!e, BBB e)plaine% that she onl, !epo!te% the abuses %one to he! on +/ >une
4555 o! $ve ':( "onths afte! the last !ape because she as af!ai% of appellant@s th!eat of <illin# he! an% he!
fa"il,.
+3
The thi!% itness fo! the p!osecution as the "othe!, CCC. She testi$e% that she onl, <ne of the abuses %one
on he! %au#hte!s on +: >une 4555. 2ive "onths ea!lie!, CCC beca"e conce!ne% afte! obse!vin# that BBB, on
the p!ete)t of p!epa!in# clothes fo! a #a"e, as pac<in# "o!e than enou#h clothes. She as<e% he! othe!
%au#hte!, DDD, to %i# into the "atte! an% the latte! tol% he! that BBB as plannin# to leave thei! house. Bpon
lea!nin# this, she sent so"ebo%, to !et!ieve BBB. ?oeve!, it as onl, $ve "onths afte! that inci%ent that BBB
con$%e% to he! "othe! that she as !ape% b, appellant. CCC lost no ti"e in !epo!tin# the "atte! to the
autho!ities an% ha% BBB an% AAA e)a"ine% in the hospital. Afte! e)a"ination, it as con$!"e% that BBB as
in%ee% se)uall, "oleste%.
+-

CCC initiall, %i% not tell he! husban% about hat ha% happene% to thei! %au#hte!s because she as af!ai% that
he! husban% "i#ht <ill appellant. It as onl, afte! appellant as a!!este% that she %isclose% such fact to he!
husban%. Afte! the a!!est of appellant, his !elatives beca"e an#!, at CCC, an% he! "othe!*in*la avoi%e%
tal<in# to he! since then.
45

The ph,sician ho e)a"ine% BBB an% AAA also testi$e% fo! the p!osecution. D!. Pu!ita T. Tullas 'D!. Tullas(,
"e%ical o&ice! of 6u"aca Dist!ict ?ospital, testi$e% that she as the one ho e)a"ine% BBB an% AAA, an%
the!eafte!, issue% "e%ical ce!ti$cates fo! each chil%. These "e%ical ce!ti$cates e!e p!esente% in cou!t.
4+

The "e%ical ce!ti$cate of BBB !eveale% that at the ti"e of e)a"ination, the!e e!e no e)te!nal si#n of ph,sical
inCu!, foun% on he! bo%,. ?oeve!, D!. Tullas foun% that the labia majora an% minora of BBB as sli#htl,
#apin#, he! va#inal o!i$ce as a%"ittin# to $n#e!s ithout !esistance an% the!e e!e h,"enal lace!ations at
Ath!ee '.( o@cloc<A an% Aei#ht '3( o@cloc<A hich "i#ht have happene% a lon# ti"e befo!e he! e)a"ination. D!.
Tullas conclu%e% that the!e "i#ht have been se)ual penet!ation cause% b, a "ale se) o!#an fo! seve!al ti"es.
44
AAA@s "e%ical ce!ti$cate state% that at the ti"e of e)a"ination, the!e e!e no e)te!nal ph,sical inCu!ies
appa!ent on he! bo%,. AAA@s labia majora an% minora e!e ell coaptate% an% the h,"en as still intact. On
%i!ect e)a"ination, D!. Tullas sai% that it coul% happen that the h,"en oul% still be intact %espite se)ual
Page 2 of 21
penet!ation ith a pe!son havin# an elastic h,"en. On the othe! han%, hen as<e% on c!oss*e)a"ination, she
state% that the!e as also the possibilit, that no fo!ei#n bo%, touche% the labia of the pu%en%u" of AAA.
4.

Onl, appellant testi$e% fo! his %efense, o&e!in# %enial an% alibi as his %efense. ?e ave!!e% in cou!t that f!o"
+--/ to 4555, he live% in the house of his pa!ents hich as about Athi!t, '.5( a!" st!etchesA aa, f!o" the
house of BBB an% AAA. ?e %enie% havin# !ape% BBB on +: >anua!, 4555 because on sai% %ate he as at the
house of his siste!, to '4( <ilo"ete!s aa, f!o" the house of his pa!ents he!e the !ape occu!!e%, f!o" ++D.5
in the "o!nin# an% sta,e% the!e until ea!l, "o!nin# of the folloin# %a,.
4/

?e o&e!e% a #ene!al %enial of the othe! cha!#es a#ainst hi" b, BBB an% AAA. ?e clai"e% that he sel%o" sa
the to "ino!s. ?e fu!the! asse!te% that p!io! to the institution of the c!i"inal case a#ainst hi" he ha% a
s"ooth !elationship ith his nieces an% the onl, !eason the case as $le% a#ainst hi" as that CCC, his siste!*
in*la an% the "othe! of his nieces, ha!bo!e% ill*feelin#s toa!%s his %ecease% fathe!, ho oul% call CCC
Ala8,A ithin ea!shot of othe! fa"il, "e"be!s.
4:

The RTC convicte% appellant on all ei#ht '3( counts of !ape.
40
The RTC p!onounce% appellant@s %efense of
%enial an% alibi as unconvincin#, citin# Cu!isp!u%ence %ecla!in# %enial an% alibi as int!insicall, ea< %efenses.
The RTC conclu%e% that appellant faile% to cont!ove!t the clea!, can%i% an% st!ai#htfo!a!% testi"onies of his
nieces. It fu!the! consi%e!e% the 1ualif,in# ci!cu"stances of "ino!it, of the victi"s an% the !elationship of the
victi"s an% appellant, the latte! bein# the fo!"e!@s !elative b, consan#uinit, ithin the thi!% %e#!ee.
As the penalt, i"pose% consiste% of ei#ht '3( %eath sentences, the !eco!%s of the case e!e auto"aticall,
elevate% to this Cou!t fo! !evie. ?oeve!, in the afte!"ath of the p!onounce"ent of the Cou!t in People v.
Mateo
4;
the p!esent case as t!ansfe!!e% to the Cou!t of Appeals fo! app!op!iate action an% %isposition.
On 4- Dece"be! 455/, the Cou!t of Appeals a#!ee% ith the !ulin#s of the RTC in !e#a!% to si) '0( of the ei#ht
'3( %eath sentences i"pose% on appellant.
43
The appellate cou!t !atiocinate%, thusD
=e have painsta<in#l, #one ove! the !eco!% of these cases an% $n% no co#ent !eason to %eviate
f!o" the $n%in#s of the t!ial cou!t e)cept in at least to '4( cases. The p!osecution@s case
hich as ancho!e% "ainl, on the testi"onies of p!ivate co"plainants EBBBF an% EAAAF,
%ese!ve full faith an% c!e%it fo! bein# clea!, p!ecise an% st!ai#htfo!a!%. Gi<e the t!ial cou!t,
=e $n% no !eason to %isbelieve the p!ivate co"plainants. It as establishe% ith ce!titu%e that
the accuse% on seve!al occasions se)uall, assaulte% his nieces. The pe!pet!ation of the c!i"es
an% its autho!ship e!e p!ove% b, the victi"s@ can%i% an% unave!in# testi"onies both of
ho" ha% the "isfo!tune of sha!in# the sa"e fate in the han%s of thei! on uncle. The
since!it, of EAAAF as "a%e "o!e evi%ent hen she c!ie% on the itness stan% in obvious
%ist!ess ove! hat thei! uncle ha% %one to he! an% he! siste!.
4-

The Cou!t of Appeals %on#!a%e% the convictions in C!i"inal Case Nos. 0-50 an% 0-53 to atte"pte% !ape. In
these to '4( cases, it as alle#e% that appellant ha% !ape% AAA in +--- an% on ++ >une 4555, !espectivel,.
Acco!%in# to the appellate cou!t, it coul% not $n% evi%ence be,on% !easonable %oubt in those to '4( cases
that appellant ha% acco"plishe% the sli#htest penet!ation of AAA@s va#ina to "a<e hi" liable fo! consu""ate%
!ape. It st!esse% that the!e as not even "o!al ce!taint, that appellant@s penis eve! touche% the labia of the
pu%en%u", 1uotin# po!tions of the t!ansc!ipt of the steno#!aphic notes he!e AAA as as<e% if appellant as
then successful in inse!tin# his penis into he! va#ina an% she anse!e% in the ne#ative.
.5
Acco!%in#l,, the
Cou!t of Appeals !e%uce% the penalties attache% to the to '4( counts of !ape f!o" %eath fo! consu""ate%
1uali$e% !ape to an in%ete!"inate penalt, of ten '+5( ,ea!s of prision mayor, as "ini"u", to seventeen '+;(
,ea!s an% fou! '/( "onths of reclusion temporal, as "a)i"u", fo! atte"pte% !ape.
Appellant, in his Supple"ental B!ief
.+
befo!e this Cou!t, assails the $n%in#s of the Cou!t of Appeals. ?e cites
inconsistencies in the testi"on, of BBB as to hat !eall, t!anspi!e% on +: >anua!, 4555. Pa!ticula!l,, appellant
obse!ves that BBB testi$e% on 0 >une 455+ as to he! !ape on +: >anua!, 4555. BBB, he! siste! an% appellant
ha% been sleepin# si%e b, si%e. ?oeve!, hen BBB a#ain testi$e% on . >ul, 4554, this ti"e she state% that on
that ni#ht, as she an% he! siste! AAA e!e sleepin# in thei! !oo" at thei! pa!ents@ house 'an% not at he!
#!an%"othe!@s(, the accuse% passe% th!ou#h a in%o, ente!e% thei! !oo" an% !ape% he! a#ain.
.4
Appellant
also latches on the inconsistencies in BBB@s testi"on, as to the len#th of the %u!ation of he! !ape on that %a,.
In BBB@s testi"on, on 0 >une 455+, she sai% that appellant as atop he! fo! th!ee '.( "inutes hile in the .
>ul, 4554 hea!in#, BBB state% that the !ape laste% fo! onl, half a "inute.
Page 3 of 21
It "ust be obse!ve% thou#h that BBB as at a ten%e! a#e hen she as !ape% in 455+. Mo!eove!, these
inconsistencies, hich the RTC an% the Cou!t of Appeals %i% not consi%e! "ate!ial, e!e elicite% hile BBB
as testif,in# in open cou!t. Ou! obse!vations in People v. Perez
..
on the app!eciation of alle#e%
inconsistencies in the testi"on, of !ape victi"s ho happen to be "ino!s a!e inst!uctive, thusD
=e note that these alle#e% inconsistencies !efe!, at best, onl, to t!ivial, "ino!, an% insi#ni$cant
%etails. T1ey be-r .o m-ter4-l4ty to t1e comm44o. o7 t1e cr4me o7 r-5e o7 314c1
-cc0e6#-55ell-.t 3- co.94cte6.E
./
F As pointe% out b, the Solicito! 6ene!al in the
Appellee@s B!ief, the see"in# inconsistencies e!e b!ou#ht about b, confusion an% "e!el,
!ep!esent "ino! lapses %u!in# the !ape victi"@s %i!ect e)a"ination an% cannot possibl, a&ect
he! c!e%ibilit,. Mino! lapses a!e to be e)pecte% hen a pe!son is !ecountin# %etails of a
t!au"atic e)pe!ience too painful to !ecall. The !ape victi" as testif,in# in open cou!t, in the
p!esence of st!an#e!s, on an e)t!e"el, inti"ate "atte!, hich, "o!e often than not, is tal<e%
about in hushe% tones. Bn%e! such ci!cu"stances, it is not su!p!isin# that he! na!!ation as
less than lette!*pe!fect.E
.:
F AMo!eove!, the inconsistenc, "a, be att!ibute% to the ell*<non
fact that a cou!t!oo" at"osphe!e can a&ect the accu!ac, of testi"on, an% the "anne! in
hich a itness anse!s 1uestions.AE
.0
F
.;
2u!the!, the public p!osecuto! o&e!e% a convincin# e)planation on h, BBB as confuse% on so"e points of
he! to testi"onies. Pa!ticula!l, in the Me"o!an%u" fo! the People
.3
$le% ith the RTC, the public p!osecuto!
c!e%itabl, e)plaine% the inconsistencies, thusD
EBBBF@s testi"on, on >ul, ., 4554 "i#ht be cont!a%icto!, to he! $!st testi"on, on >une 0, 455+,
ith !espect to the last !ape on >anua!, +:, 4555, as !e#a!%s the place of co""issionHhouse of
he! pa!ents o! house of accuse%9 an% the len#th of ti"e he sta,e% on he! top I . "inutes o!
half*"inute. But she !e"aine% consistent in he! %ecla!ation that on >anua!, +:, 4555, he! uncle
inse!te% his penis into he! va#ina, an% he as "ovin# hile on he! top then she felt so"ethin#
ca"e out f!o" hi". ?e as able to !ape he! because he th!eatene% he! ith a <nife o! bla%e%
eapon. 2u!the!, the $!st she too< the itness stan% on >une 0, 455+, she as "a%e to !ecall
the last !ape, the $!st !ape an% "an, acts of se)ual abuses EsicF a#ainst he!. She as even
confuse% about he! a#e hen she as $!st !ape% b, he! uncle. Afte! she testi$e% on Nove"be!
+/, 455+, fo! the sepa!ate cha!#es of !apes in +--;, +--3 an% +---, she as able to !ecall
"o!e clea!l, the last !ape on >anua!, +:, 4555, hich happene% in he! on house. These note%
%isc!epancies as to the e)act place of co""ission I accuse%@s house o! victi"@s house I is not
an essential ele"ent of the c!i"e of !ape an% both houses a!e situate% in B!#,. Jilla Pa%ua
Ila,a, 6u"aca, 7ue8on, hich is ithin the te!!ito!ial Cu!is%iction of this ?ono!able Cou!t. ) ) )
.-

In a%%ition, e sha!e the loe! cou!t@s %isbelief of appellant@s p!o&e!e% %efenses of %enial an% alibi. These to
%efenses a!e inhe!entl, the ea<est as the, a!e ne#ative %efenses. Me!e %enials of involve"ent in a c!i"e
cannot ta<e p!ece%ence ove! the positive testi"on, of the o&en%e% pa!t,. 2o! alibi to p!ospe!, it is not enou#h
fo! the %efen%ant to p!ove that he as so"ehe!e else hen the c!i"e as co""itte%9 he "ust li<eise
%e"onst!ate that it is ph,sicall, i"possible fo! hi" to have been at the scene of the c!i"e at the ti"e.
/5
In the case at ba!, appellant@s alibi that he as at his siste!@s house ba!el, to '4( <ilo"ete!s aa, hen the
!ape too< place on +: >anua!, 4555 cannot be #iven c!e%ence b, this Cou!t. If e a!e to th!ea% this line of
!easonin#, appellant coul% have easil, left his siste!@s house in the "i%%le of the ni#ht, !ape% BBB, an% then
!etu!ne% to his siste!@s house ithout "uch %i&icult, an% ithout an,bo%, noticin# his absence.
=ell*settle% is the !ule that a cate#o!ical an% positive i%enti$cation of an accuse%, ithout an, shoin# of ill*
"otive on the pa!t of the e,eitness testif,in# on the "atte!, p!evails ove! alibi an% %enial.
/+
The %efenses of
%enial an% alibi %ese!ve scant consi%e!ation hen the p!osecution has st!on#, clea! an% convincin# evi%ence
i%entif,in# appellant as the pe!pet!ato!.
/4
In this case, both BBB an% AAA, "ino!s an% !elatives of appellant,
positivel, i%enti$e% hi" as thei! !apist in open cou!t. The loe! cou!ts foun% no issue %et!actin# f!o" the
c!e%ibilit, of such i%enti$cation.
It is o!th, to note that the alibi p!esente% b, appellant is li"ite% to the +: >anua!, 4555 !ape of BBB. ?e
o&e!s nothin# to counte!act the accusations a#ainst hi" involvin# the seven ';( othe! speci$c acts of !ape
othe! than the ave!"ent that he %i% not <no an,thin# about the alle#ations p!opoun%e% on hi", an
in$nitesi"al %efense consi%e!in# the evi%ence a#ainst hi".
Page 4 of 21
Appellant %oes clai" that the p!esent case as "e!el, institute% because of the #!u%#e of CCC toa!%s his
%ecease% fathe!. It is out!a#eous to even su##est that a "othe! ill subCect he! %au#hte!s to the hu"iliatin#
e)pe!ience of co"in# befo!e the cou!t an% na!!atin# thei! ha!!oin# e)pe!ience Cust because she as ta##e%
b, he! fathe!*in*la as la8,. In a%%ition, CCC@s fathe!*in*la ha% %ie% seve!al ,ea!s befo!e the c!i"inal cha!#es
a#ainst appellant e!e eve! institute%. If CCC t!ul, ante% to !etaliate an% %a"a#e the !eputation of he!
fathe!*in*la, she coul% have %one so hen the latte! as still alive. No "e"be! of a !ape victi"@s fa"il, oul%
%a!e encou!a#e the victi" to publicl, e)pose the %ishono! of the fa"il,, "o!e speci$call, if such accusation is
a#ainst a "e"be! of the fa"il,, unless the c!i"e as in fact co""itte%.
/.

Besi%es, no sane o"an, least of all a chil%, oul% concoct a sto!, of %eKo!ation, allo an e)a"ination of he!
p!ivate pa!ts an% subCect he!self to public t!ial o! !i%icule if she has not in t!uth, been a victi" of !ape an%
i"pelle% to see< Custice fo! the !on# %one to he!. Testi"onies of chil%*victi"s a!e no!"all, #iven full ei#ht
an% c!e%it, since hen a o"an, "o!e so if she is a "ino!, sa,s that she has been !ape%, she sa,s in e&ect all
that is necessa!, to sho that !ape has been co""itte%. Louth an% i""atu!it, a!e #ene!all, ba%#es of t!uth
an% since!it,.
//
The ei#ht of such testi"onies "a, be counte!e% b, ph,sical evi%ence to the cont!a!,, o!
in%ubitable p!oof that the accuse% coul% not have co""itte% the !ape, but in the absence of such
counte!vailin# p!oof, these testi"onies shall be acco!%e% ut"ost value.
The tin a##!avatin# ci!cu"stances of "ino!it, an% !elationship e!e p!ope!l, app!eciate% in this case. The
"ino!it, of the victi"s an% thei! !elationship ith appellant e!e aptl, establishe%
in the loe! cou!t p!ocee%in#s. Not onl, %i% the p!osecution alle#e in the Info!"ations the a#es of the victi"s
hen the, e!e !ape% but the p!osecution also p!esente% the bi!th ce!ti$cates of BBB an% AAA in cou!t as
%ocu"enta!, evi%ence to p!ove that the, e!e both "ino!s hen appellant !ape% the". Appellant, in open
cou!t, also a%"itte% that that he as the uncle of both victi"s bein# the b!othe! of the victi"s@ fathe!, an%
thus, a !elative of the victi"s ithin the thi!% %e#!ee of consan#uinit,.
2u!the!"o!e, the %ela, in !epo!tin# the !epulsive acts of appellant to BBB an% AAA is un%e!stan%abl, Custi$e%,
consi%e!in# that appellant !epeate%l, th!eatene% to <ill the" an% thei! fa"il, shoul% the, %isclose the
inci%ents to an,one. It has been hel% ti"e an% a#ain that %ela, in !evealin# the co""ission of !ape is not an
in%ication of a fab!icate% cha!#e.
/:
Such inti"i%ation "ust be viee% in li#ht of the victi"@s pe!ception an%
Cu%#"ent at the ti"e of the co""ission of the c!i"e an% not b, an, ha!% an% fast !ule. It is enou#h that the
inti"i%ation p!o%uces a fea! that if the victi" %oes not ,iel% to the pe!ve!se i"pulses of the accuse%,
so"ethin# oul% happen to he! at the "o"ent, o! even the!eafte!, as hen she is th!eatene% ith %eath if she
oul% !epo!t the inci%ent.
/0

At the sa"e ti"e, e a#!ee ith the Cou!t of Appeals that the to counts of !ape in C!i"inal Case Nos. 0-50*6
an% 0-53*6 e!e not p!oven be,on% !easonable %oubt, but onl, the to sepa!ate inci%ents of atte"pte% !ape.
It is to be note% that the!e is an atte"pt to co""it !ape hen the o&en%e! co""ences its co""ission %i!ectl,
b, ove!t acts but %oes not pe!fo!" all acts of e)ecution hich shoul% p!o%uce the felon, b, !eason of so"e
cause o! acci%ent othe! than his on spontaneous %esistance.
/;
In C!i"inal Case No. 0-50*6, the !eco!%s sho
that the!e as no penet!ation o! an, in%ication that the penis of appellant touche% the labia of the pu%en%u"
of AAA. This as evi%ent in AAA@s testi"on, at the hea!in# on +; Octobe! 455+, to itD
7 I Do ,ou !e"e"be! of an, unusual inci%ent that happene% to ,ou hen ,ou e!e eleven
,ea!s ol%M
A I Les, Ma". EsicF
7 I =hat as thatM
A I ?e also touche% ", va#ina an% ", othe! p!ivate pa!ts an% he inse!te% also his penis 'into(
", va#ina. EsicF
7 I =as he able to inse!t his penis into ,ou! va#inaM
A I No, Ma". EsicF
7 I =h,M
Page 5 of 21
A I It as painful, Ma". EsicF
) ) ) )
7 I ?o "an, ti"es %i% he t!, to inse!t his penis into ,ou! va#inaM
A I Man, ti"es, Ma".
/3
EsicF
AAA also testi$e% in the sa"e vein in C!i"inal Case No. 0-53*6.
7 I I a" no th!ou#h ith C!i"inal Case No. 0-50*6. In C!i"inal Case No. 0-53*6, also fo!
Rape. =hen as the last ti"e that this se)ual abuse as co""itte% b, ,ou! BncleM
A I >une ++, Ma". EsicF
7 I =hat ,ea!M
A I >une ++, 4555, Ma". EsicF
) ) ) )
7 I =hat %i% ,ou! Bncle %o to ,ou on >une ++, 4555M
A I ?e also !e"ove% ", clothes, Ma". EsicF
7 I An% afte! !e"ovin# ,ou! clothes, hat %i% he %o to ,ouM
A I ?e as t!,in# to inse!t his penis into ", va#ina, Ma". EsicF
) ) ) )
7 I An% hat %i% ,ou feel hen he as t!,in# to inse!t his penis in ,ou! va#inaM
A I Painful, Ma". EsicF
7 I An% hat %i% ,ou %o hen ,ou feel painfulM
A I I c!ie%, Ma". EsicF
7 I =hen ,ou c!ie%, hat %i% ,ou! Bncle %o, if an,M
A I ?e %i% not pu!sue hat he as %oin#, Ma". EsicF
) ) ) )
7 I An% ,ou! Bncle as not able to penet!ate his penis to ,ou! va#inaM
A I No, Ma".
/-
EsicF
In %on#!a%in# the o&ense co""itte% an% conse1uentl, %ec!easin# the penalt,, the CA %ecla!e%D
It is ca!nal <nole%#e, not pain, that is the ele"ent to consu""ate !ape. In%ee% pain "a, be
%e%uce% f!o" the se)ual act but accuse% cannot be convicte% of !ape b, p!esu"in# ca!nal
<nole%#e out of pain. It is ell*settle% that co"plete penet!ation of the penis into the va#ina
is not necessa!, to convict fo! consu""ate% !ape since the sli#htest penet!ation of one into the
othe! ill su&ice. ?oeve!, in People v. Ca"puhan, the te!" Asli#htest penet!ationA as
Page 6 of 21
cla!i$e% to "ean that the!e "ust be su&icient an% convincin# p!oof of the penis in%ee%
touchin# at the ve!, least the labias of the fe"ale o!#an. Me!e epi%e!"al contact beteen the
penis an% the e)te!nal la,e! of the victi"@s va#ina 'the st!o<in# an% the #!a8in# of the "ale
o!#an upon the fe"ale o!#an o! the "ons pubis( cate#o!i8es the c!i"e as atte"pte% !ape o!
acts of lasciviousness. The!e "ust be positive p!oof of even the sli#htest penet!ation, "o!e
accu!atel,, the touchin# of the labias b, the penis, befo!e !ape coul% be %ee"e% consu""ate%.
=e, the!efo!e, ta<e e)ception to the $n%in# of the t!ial cou!t that hen the accuse% as t!,in#
to inse!t his penis into the chil%@s va#ina, the act p!ove% painful to EAAA,F hich "a%e the
accuse% stop f!o" fu!the! e)ecutin# the act. 2!o" the testi"on, of p!ivate co"plainant, EAAAF
in the afo!e*nu"be!e% cases, the p!osecution faile% to %e"onst!ate be,on% an, sha%o of
%oubt that accuse%*appellant@s penis !eache% the labia of the pu%en%u" of AAA@s va#ina. The!e
is no basis then to appl, the !ule that the int!o%uction of the penis into the ape!tu!e of the
fe"ale o!#an 'the!eb, touchin# the labia of the pu%en%u"( al!ea%, consu""ates the case of
!ape. ) ) )
:5

It shoul% be a%%e% that un%e! A!ticle 0 of the Revise% Penal Co%e, the!e is an atte"pt hen the o&en%e!
co""ences the co""ission of a felon, %i!ectl, b, ove!t acts, an% %oes not pe!fo!" all the acts of e)ecution
hich shoul% p!o%uce the felon, b, !eason of so"e cause o! acci%ent othe! than his on spontaneous
%esistance. In the c!i"e of !ape, penet!ation is an essential act of e)ecution to p!o%uce the felon,. Thus, fo!
the!e to be an atte"pte% !ape, the accuse% "ust have co""ence% the act of penet!atin# his se)ual o!#an to
the va#ina of the victi" but fo! so"e cause o! acci%ent othe! than his on spontaneous %esistance, the
penet!ation, hoeve! sli#ht, is not co"plete%.
:+

The Cou!t thus a&i!"s the conclusions of the Cou!t of Appeals that it has been establishe% be,on% !easonable
%oubt that appellant is #uilt, of si) '0( counts of !ape an% to '4( counts of atte"pte% !ape. ?oeve!, in li#ht
of Rep. Act No. -./0, the app!op!iate penalties fo! both c!i"es shoul% be a"en%e%.
II.
=e shall not %ell at len#th on the p!ope! penalt, i"posable on appellant fo! the si) '0( counts of !ape. The
sentence of %eath i"pose% b, the RTC an% a&i!"e% b, the Cou!t of Appeals can no lon#e! be a&i!"e% in vie
of Rep. Act No. -./0, title% AAn Act P!ohibitin# the I"position of Death Penalt, in the Philippines.A Section 4 of
the la "an%ates that in lieu of the %eath penalt,, the penalt, of reclusion perpetua shall be i"pose%.
Co!!espon%in#l,, the Cou!t can no lon#e! uphol% the %eath sentences i"pose% b, loe! cou!ts, but "ust, if the
#uilt of the accuse% is a&i!"e%, i"pose instea% the penalt, of reclusion perpetua, o! life i"p!ison"ent hen
app!op!iate. Since the passa#e of Rep. Act No. -./0, the Cou!t has ha% occasion to e&ectuate such !e%uction
in !ecent cases such as People v. Tubongbanua
:4
an% People v. Cabalquinto.
:.

III.
The 1uestion of hat shoul% be the app!op!iate penalt, fo! the to '4( counts of atte"pte% !ape p!oves to be
the "o!e challen#in# but inte!estin# 1uestion facin# the Cou!t.
The Cou!t of Appeals ha% sentence% appellant, fo! the atte"pte% !ape of AAA, to Aan in%ete!"inate penalt, of
ten '+5( ,ea!s of prision mayor, as "ini"u", to seventeen '+;( ,ea!s an% fou! '/( "onths of reclusion temporal
as "a)i"u",A fo! each count of atte"pte% !ape. The!e is no %oubt as to the vali%it, of this sentence at the ti"e
it as "ete% p!io! to the enact"ent of Rep. Act No. -./0. A!ticle :+ of the Revise% Penal Co%e establishes the
penalt, to be i"pose% upon the p!incipals of an atte"pte% felon,D
ART. :+. ))) H A penalt, loe! b, to %e#!ees than that p!esc!ibe% b, la fo! the
consu""ate% felon, shall be i"pose% upon the p!incipals in an atte"pt to co""it a felon,.
:/

=hat is the penalt, Aloe! b, to %e#!ees than that p!esc!ibe% b, laA fo! atte"pte% !apeM A!ticle 400*B of
the Revise% Penal Co%e, hich inco!po!ates the a"en%"ents int!o%uce% b, Rep. Act No. 3.:., p!esc!ibesD
The %eath penalt, shall also be i"pose% if the c!i"e of !ape is co""itte% ith an, of the
folloin# a##!avatin#N1ualif,in# ci!cu"stancesD
Page 7 of 21
+. =hen the victi" is un%e! ei#hteen '+3( ,ea!s of a#e an% the o&en%e! is a pa!ent, ascen%ant,
step*pa!ent, #ua!%ian, !elative b, consan#uinit, o! a&init, ithin the thi!% civil %e#!ee, o! the
co""on la spouse of the pa!ent of the victi". ) ) )
::

The p!esc!ibe% penalt, fo! the consu""ate% !ape of a victi" %ul, p!oven to have been un%e! ei#hteen ,ea!s of
a#e an% to have been !ape% b, he! uncle, is %eath un%e! A!ticle 400*B of the Revise% Penal Co%e. The
%ete!"ination of the penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than the %eath penalt, entails the application of A!ticles 0+
an% ;+ of the Revise% Penal Co%eD
A!t. 0+. Rules of graduating penalties.H2o! the pu!pose of #!a%uatin# the penalties hich,
acco!%in# to the p!ovisions of A!ticles :5 to :;, inclusive, of this Co%e, a!e to be i"pose% upon
pe!sons #uilt, as p!incipals of an, f!ust!ate% o! atte"pte% felon,, o! as acco"plices o!
accesso!ies, the folloin# !ules shall be obse!ve%D
+. =hen the penalt, p!esc!ibe% fo! the felon, is sin#le an% in%ivisible, the penalt, ne)t loe! in
%e#!ee shall be that i""e%iatel, folloin# that in%ivisible penalt, in the !espective #!a%uate%
scale p!esc!ibe% in A!ticle ;+ of this Co%e.
:0
) ) ) )
A!ticle ;+ of the Revise% Penal Co%e 'A!ticle ;+( a!!ants special attention, c!ucial as it is to ou! %isposition of
this 1uestion. The p!ovision !ea%sD
A!t. ;+. Graduated scales. H In the case in hich the la p!esc!ibes a penalt, loe! o! hi#he!
b, one o! "o!e %e#!ees than anothe! #iven penalt,, the !ules p!esc!ibe% in A!ticle 0+ shall be
obse!ve% in #!a%uatin# such penalt,.
The loe! o! hi#he! penalt, shall be ta<en f!o" the #!a%uate% scale in hich is co"p!ise% the
#iven penalt,D
The cou!ts, in appl,in# such loe! o! hi#he! penalt,, shall obse!ve the folloin# #!a%uate%
scalesD
SCAGE NO. +
1. *e-t1
4. Reclusion perpetua
.. Reclusion temporal
/. Prision mayor
:. Prision correctional
0. rresto mayor
;. !estierro
3. rresto menor
-. Public censu!e
+5. 2ine
:;
) ) ) )
Page 8 of 21
2olloin# the scale p!esc!ibe% in A!ticle ;+, the penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than %eath is reclusion temporal,
hich as the "a)i"u" penalt, i"pose% b, the Cou!t of Appeals on appellant fo! atte"pte% !ape. Reclusion
te"po!al is a penalt, co"p!ise% of th!ee %ivisible pe!io%s, a "ini"u", a "e%iu" an% a "a)i"u".
At the sa"e ti"e, the In%ete!"inate Sentence Ga p!esc!ibes that Athe cou!t shall sentence the accuse% to an
in%ete!"inate sentence, the "a)i"u" te!" of hich shall be that hich, in vie of the atten%in#
ci!cu"stances, coul% be p!ope!l, i"pose% un%e! the !ules of the sai% Co%e, an% the "ini"u" hich shall be
ithin the !an#e of the penalt, ne)t loe! to that p!esc!ibe% b, the Co%e fo! the o&ense.A The pu!pose of the
p!esc!iption of "ini"u" an% "a)i"u" pe!io%s un%e! the In%ete!"inate Sentence Ga is to e&ect the
p!ivile#e #!ante% un%e! the sa"e la, fo! p!isone!s ho have se!ve% the "ini"u" penalt, to be eli#ible fo!
pa!ole pe! the %isc!etion of the Boa!% of In%isc!i"inate Sentence.
:3
Thus, convicts sentence% to su&e! %eath
penalt, o! life*i"p!ison"ent a!e ineli#ible un%e! that la, as a!e pe!sons sentence% to reclusion perpetua, an
in%ivisible penalt, ithout "ini"u" o! "a)i"u" pe!io%s.
:-

?ence, the Cou!t of Appeals sentence% appellant to su&e! the penalt, fo! atte"pte% !ape, ith a "a)i"u"
penalt, ithin the !an#e of reclusion temporal, an% a "ini"u" penalt, ithin the !an#e of the penalt, ne)t
loe!, o! prision mayor. If Rep. Act No. -./0 ha% not been enacte%, the Cou!t oul% have a&i!"e% such
sentence ithout co"plication. ?oeve!, the enact"ent of the la has #iven !ise to the p!oble" conce!nin#
the i"posable penalt,. Appellant as sentence% to a "a)i"u" te!" ithin reclusion temporal since that is the
penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than %eath. =ith the eli"ination of %eath as a penalt,, %oes it follo that appellant
shoul% no be sentence% to a penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than reclusion perpetua, the hi#hest !e"ainin#
penalt, ith the enact"ent of Rep. Act No. -./0M If it so folloe%, appellant oul% be sentence% to prision
mayor in lieu of reclusion temporal.
I".
Obviousl,, ou! !ulin# on the app!op!iate penalt, on appellant fo! atte"pte% !ape ill a&ect not onl, appellant,
but seve!al classes of convicts as ell. Befo!e e p!ocee% ith the %iscussion, the Cou!t $n%s it necessa!, to
"a<e the folloin# 1uali$cation.
P!io! to the enact"ent of Rep. Act No. -./0, the %eath penalt, as i"posable un%e! to %i&e!ent f!a"es of
!efe!ence. This as especiall, "a%e clea! ith the +--. a"en%"ents to the Revise% Penal Co%e th!ou#h Rep.
Act No. ;0:-, o! the Death Penalt, Ga. Bn%e! the Revise% Penal Co%e, as a"en%e%, the %eath penalt, as
p!ovi%e% fo! in to a,s, na"el,D as the "a)i"u" penalt, fo! Areclusion perpetua to %eath,A an% %eath itself
as an auto"atic an% e)clusive penalt,. Death as the auto"atic penalt, as "an%ate% fo! the c!i"es of
1uali$e% b!ibe!, Aif it is the public o&ice! ho as<s o! %e"an%s such #ift o! p!esent9A
05
<i%nappin# o! %etention
Afo! the pu!pose of e)to!tin# !anso" f!o" the victi" o! an, othe! pe!son9A
0+
%est!uctive
a!son he!ein A%eath !esults9A
04
an% !ape 1uali$e% b, an, of the seve!al ci!cu"stances enu"e!ate% un%e! the
la.
On the othe! han%, the penalt, of Areclusion perpetua to %eathA as i"posable on seve!al c!i"es, inclu%in#
"u!%e!,
0.
1uali$e% pi!ac,,
0/
an% t!eason.
0:
The i"position of the %eath penalt, fo! c!i"es punishable b,
Areclusion perpetua to %eathA %epen%e% on the app!eciation of the a##!avatin# an% "iti#atin# ci!cu"stances
#ene!all, outline% in A!ticles +. an% +/ of the Revise% Penal Co%e. Refe!ence to those to p!ovisions as
unnecessa!, if the penalt, i"pose% as %eath, as oppose% to Areclusion perpetua to %eath.A
The!e is no nee% fo! no to %iscuss the e&ects of Rep. Act No. -./0 on the penalties fo! f!ust!ate% an%
atte"pte% felonies hich e!e punishable b, Areclusion perpetua to %eathA if consu""ate%, o! on acco"plices
an% accesso!ies to such felonies. Such situations %o not !elate to the case of appellant, ho as convicte% of
to '4( counts of atte"pte% !ape, hich, if consu""ate%, of cou!se oul% have ca!!ie% p!io! to the enact"ent
of Rep. Act -./0 the penalt, of %eath, an% not Areclusion perpetua to %eath.A
The Cou!t also !eco#ni8es that the #!a%uation of penalties !ec<one% f!o" Areclusion perpetua to %eathA %i&e!s
f!o" that base% on the e)clusive penalt, of %eath. 2o! e)a"ple, it has been hel% that the penalt, to %e#!ees
loe! than Areclusion perpetua to %eathA is prision mayor.
00
In cont!ast, the Cou!t has li<eise hel% that fo!
1uali$e% !ape in the atte"pte% sta#e, Athe penalt, ) ) ) to '4( %e#!ees loe! than the i"posable penalt, of
%eath fo! the o&ense cha!#e% ) ) ) is !eclusion te"po!al.A
0;
In People v. Tolentino#
03
e !ule% that the accuse%,
ho ha% been sentence% to %ie fo! the !ape of his nine '-(*,ea! ol% step%au#hte!, as #uilt, onl, of atte"pte%
!ape. In e)plainin# that Areclusion temporalA as the p!ope! penalt,, the Cou!t, th!ou#h then Chief >ustice
Davi%e, e)plaine%D
Page 9 of 21
Bn%e! A!ticle :+ of the Revise% Penal Co%e, the penalt, fo! an atte"pte% felon, is the Apenalt,
loe! b, to %e#!ees than that p!esc!ibe% b, la fo! the consu""ate% felon,.A In this case,
the penalt, fo! the !ape if it ha% been consu""ate% oul% have been %eath, pu!suant to A!ticle
..: of the Revise% Penal Co%e, as a"en%e% b, R.A. No. ;0:-, since ERT
0-
F as ei#ht ,ea!s ol%
an% TOGENTINO as the co""on*la spouse of ERT@sF "othe!. The last pa!a#!aph the!eof
p!ovi%esD
The %eath penalt, shall also be i"pose% if the c!i"e of !ape is co""itte% ith an, of
the folloin# atten%ant ci!cu"stancesD
+. =hen the victi" is un%e! ei#hteen '+3( ,ea!s of a#e an% the o&en%e! is a pa!ent,
ascen%ant, step*pa!ent, #ua!%ian, !elative b, consan#uinit, o! a&init, ithin the thi!%
civil %e#!ee, o! the co""on*la spouse of the pa!ent of the victi".
) ) ) )
The penalt, in this case shoul% have been !eclusion te"po!al, hich is the penalt, loe! b,
to %e#!ees than %eath. ?oeve!, ith the application of the In%ete!"inate Sentence Ga,
TOGENTINO "a, be sentence% to an in%ete!"inate i"p!ison"ent penalt, hose "ini"u"
shall be ithin the !an#e of p!ision "a,o! an% hose "a)i"u" shall be ithin the !an#e of
!eclusion te"po!al in its "e%iu" pe!io% pu!suant to A!ticle 0/ '+( of the Revise% Penal Co%e.
;5
This %ichoto", !esults f!o" the application of A!ticle 0+ of the Revise% Penal Co%e. Both reclusion perpetua
an% %eath a!e in%ivisible penalties. Bn%e! A!ticle 0+ '4( of the Revise% Penal Co%e, AEFhen the penalt,
p!esc!ibe% fo! the c!i"e is co"pose% of to in%ivisible penalties O the penalt, ne)t loe! in %e#!ee shall be
that i""e%iatel, folloin# the lesse! of the penalties p!esc!ibe% in the !espective #!a%uate% scale.A ?ence, in
passin# sentence on those convicte% of atte"pte% felonies hich a!!ante% the penalt, of A!eclusion pe!petua
to %eathA if consu""ate%, the Cou!t has consistentl, hel% that penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than Areclusion
perpetua to %eathA is prision mayor. In cont!ast, if the penalt, fo! the consu""ate% c!i"e is the sin#le
in%ivisible penalt, of %eath, as as p!esc!ibe% fo! seve!al c!i"es un%e! Rep. Act No. ;0:-, A!ticle 0+'+( of the
Revise% Penal Co%e p!ovi%es that Athe penalt, p!esc!ibe% fo! the felon, is sin#le an% in%ivisible, the penalt,
ne)t loe! in %e#!ee shall be that i""e%iatel, folloin# that in%ivisible penalt, in the !espective #!a%uate%
scale p!esc!ibe% in A!ticle ;+A. Thus, the p!ope! penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than %eath is reclusion temporal.
It is also fo! this !eason that the cont!ove!s, e a!e no a%%!essin# %i% not si"ila!l, a!ise afte! the enact"ent
of the +-3; Constitution, hich p!ohibits the i"position of the %eath penalt, subCect to its subse1uent
!ea%option at the choice of Con#!ess. 6ene!all,, the hi#hest penalt, i"pose% un%e! the Revise% Penal Co%e
as Areclusion perpetua to %eath,A a penalt, co"pose% of to in%ivisible penalties. As a !esult, the Cou!t ha%
no occasion, afte! the passa#e of the +-3; Constitution, to consi%e! the e&ect of the cha!te! on penalties
%on#!a%e% f!o" a sin#le in%ivisible penalt,. It as un%e! Rep. Act No. ;0:-, passe% in +--., that so"e
co""onl, occu!!in# c!i"es, such as 1uali$e% !ape an% <i%nappin# fo! !anso", e!e penali8e% ith the sin#le
in%ivisible penalt, of %eath.
The %iscussion fo! pu!poses of this %ecision ill onl, cente! on c!i"es, such as 1uali$e% !ape as %e$ne% in the
Revise% Penal Co%e, as a"en%e%, fo! hich the i"posable penalt, as %eath alone. Thus, ou! !ulin# ill bea!
no %i!ect e&ect on the sentencin# of acco"plices an% accesso!ies o! pe!sons #uilt, of the atte"pte% o!
f!ust!ate% sta#e of felonies fo! hich the i"posable penalt, as Areclusion perpetua to %eath.A
'e.ce, 4t 1o0l6 be 0.6ertoo6 t1-t -.y re7ere.ce 7ort134t1 to t1e 5e.-lty o7 6e-t1 6oe .ot re7er to
t1e 5e.-lty o7 <reclusion perpetua to 6e-t1.<
".
If the!e as a clea! intent in Rep. Act No. -./0 to %on#!a%e the penalties fo! convicts hose sentences ha%
been #!a%uate% be#innin# f!o" %eath pu!suant to A!ticle ;+, the Cou!t oul% not hesitate to enfo!ce such
%on#!a%in# base% on clea! statuto!, intent. ?oeve!, nothin# in Rep. Act No. -./0 e)p!essl, !efe!s to those
penalties i"pose% on f!ust!ate% o! atte"pte% felonies, o! on accesso!ies an% acco"plices.
Section + of Rep. Act No. -./0 bea!s e)a"inationD
Page 10 of 21
Section +. The i"position of the penalt, of %eath is he!eb, p!ohibite%. Acco!%in#l,, Republic
Act No. Ei#ht Thousan% One ?un%!e% Sevent,*Seven 'R.A. No. 3+;;(, othe!ise <non as the
Act Desi#natin# Death b, Gethal InCection, is he!eb, !epeale%. Republic Act No. Seven
Thousan% Si) ?un%!e% 2ift,*Nine 'R.A. No. ;0:-(, othe!ise <non as the Death Penalt, Ga,
an% all othe! las, e)ecutive o!%e!s an% %ec!ees, insofa! as the, i"pose the %eath penalt, a!e
he!eb, !epeale% o! a"en%e% acco!%in#l,.
If the penalties fo! atte"pte% !ape of a "ino!,
;+
a"on# othe!s, e!e %ee"e% to have been a"en%e% b, vi!tue of
Rep. Act No. -./0, such a"en%"ent can be Custi$e% un%e! the a"bit of the !epealin# clause, hich !ea%s, Aall
othe! las, e)ecutive o!%e!s an% %ec!ees, insofa! as the, i"pose the %eath penalt, a!e he!eb, !epeale% o!
a"en%e% acco!%in#l,.A =hile this clause "a,, #iven its b!ea%th, initiall, i"p!ess as the natu!e of a #ene!al
!epealin# clause, it is in actualit, an e)p!ess !epealin# clause. Section + speci$call, !epeals all las, e)ecutive
o!%e!s an% %ec!ees insofa! as the, i"pose the %eath penalt,, an% not "e!el, such enact"ents hich a!e
inconsistent ith Rep. Act No. -./0.
Section + a!#uabl, p!esents "o!e p!oble"s in that !e#a!% ith its utili8ation of the pa!ticula! ph!ase Ainsofa!
as the, i"pose the %eath penalt,.A =e can ente!tain to schools of thou#ht in const!uin# this p!ovision, both of
the" !oote% in lite!alist inte!p!etations. 2i!st, it can be clai"e% that the p!esent application of the penalties fo!
atte"pte% !ape of a "ino! 'a"on# "an, e)a"ples( %oes not Ai"pose the %eath penalt,,A since none of the
convicts conce!ne% oul% face e)ecution th!ou#h the application of the penalt, fo! atte"pte% !ape. ?ence, the
statuto!, p!ovisions enfo!ce% in %ete!"inin# the penalt, fo! atte"pte% !ape, o! othe! c!i"es not punishable b,
%eath, a!e not a"en%e% b, Rep. Act No. -./0.
On the othe! han%, the ope!ation of the p!ovisions i"posin# the penalt, fo! atte"pte% !ape of a "ino!
necessa!il, calls fo! the application, if not its lite!al i"position, of %eath as a penalt,, in the conte)t of appl,in#
the #!a%uate% scale of penalties un%e! A!ticle ;+ of the Revise% Penal Co%e. If e e!e to const!ue Ai"poseA
as to "ean Aappl,,A then it coul% be a!#ue% that A!ticle ;+ as in%ee% a"en%e% b, Rep. Act No. -./0. Afte! all,
the application of A!ticle ;+ to c!i"es such as atte"pte% !ape of a "ino! call fo! the actual ope!ation of the
%eath penalt, not onl, in theo!,, but as a "eans of %ete!"inin# the p!ope! #!a%uate% penalt,.
On face value, the att!active o!th of the $!stl, o&e!e% line of thin<in# is enhance% b, its innate conse!vatis",
li"itin# as it oul% the e&ects of Rep. Act No. -./0. It also can be un%e!stoo% if conf!onte% ith the option of
e"plo,in# eithe! a libe!al o! a conse!vative const!uction, the!e is a natu!al ten%enc, to e"plo, the
conse!vative "o%e. 2u!the!, the !easonin# is see"in#l, consistent ith that e"plo,e% b, the Cou!t in People v.
Mu$oz,
;4
a %ecision hich ill be tho!ou#hl, anal,8e% in the cou!se of this %iscussion.
If the t!ue intent of Rep. Act No. -./0 as to li"it the e)tent of the Ai"positionA of the %eath penalt, to actual
e)ecutions, this coul% have been acco"plishe% ith "o!e cla!it,. 2o! e)a"ple, ha% Section + !ea% instea%
Ainsofa! as the, sentence an accuse% to %eath,A the!e oul% have been no !oo" fo! %oubt that onl, those
statuto!, p!ovisions callin# fo! actual e)ecutions oul% have been !epeale% o! a"en%e%. The inabilit, of
Con#!ess to shape the !epealin# clause in so speci$c a fashion %oes leave open the 1uestion hethe! Con#!ess
%i% actuall, inten% to li"it the ope!ation of Rep. Act No. -./0 to actual e)ecutions onl,.
But let us fo! no test that p!e"ise b, assu"in# fo! the nonce that the le#islative intent of Rep. Act No. -./0
as to li"it the p!ohibition of the la to the ph,sical i"position of the %eath penalt,, ithout e)ten%in# an,
e&ect to the #!a%uate% scale of penalties un%e! A!ticle ;+ of the Revise% Penal Co%e.
"I.
The!e a!e t!oublin# !esults if e e!e to uphol%, base% on le#islative intent, the inte!p!etation of Rep. Act No.
-./0 that li"its its e&ects onl, to "atte!s !elatin# to the ph,sical i"position of the %eath penalt,.
Illust!ations a!e necessa!,. The eas, %e"onst!ation of ini1uitous !esults is in the case of acco"plices. Bn%e!
A!ticle 40; of the Revise% Penal Co%e, as a"en%e%, <i%nappin# fo! !anso" as punishable b, %eath. Get us sa,
P an% L e!e t!ie% fo! the c!i"e. P as cha!#e% as a p!incipal fo! havin# %i!ectl, pa!ticipate% in the
<i%nappin#. L as cha!#e% as an acco"plice fo! havin# alloe% P to use his house to %etain the victi", even
thou#h L as ab!oa% at the ti"e of the c!i"e an% othe!ise ha% no othe! pa!ticipation the!ein. Both P an% L
e!e convicte% b, $nal Cu%#"ent. Since P coul% no lon#e! be "ete% the %eath penalt,, he is sentence% instea%
to reclusion perpetua. O!%ina!il,, L as an acco"plice shoul% !eceive the penalt, ne)t loe! in %e#!ee, o!
reclusion temporal. Let folloin# the Aconse!vativeA inte!p!etation of Rep. Act No. -./0, the #!a%uation of
penalties !e"ains una&ecte% ith the enact"ent of the ne la. Thus, un%e! A!ticle ;+, hich oul% still ta<e
Page 11 of 21
into account the %eath penalt, ithin the #!a%uate% scale, L, as an acco"plice, oul% be sentence% to
reclusion perpetua, the sa"e penalt, as the p!incipal.
It "i#ht be counte!e% that pa!t of the le#islative intent of Rep. Act No. -./0, b, !etainin# the #!a%uate% scale
of penalties un%e! A!ticle ;+, as to e1uali8e the penalties of p!incipals an% acco"plices fo! c!i"es p!eviousl,
punishable b, %eath. =e %o not %oubt that the le#islatu!e has the theo!etical capabilit, to a"en% the penal la
in such fashion. Let #iven the %!astic e&ects of e1uali8in# the penalties fo! p!incipals an% acco"plices, a step
that !uns cont!a!, to ent!enche% thou#ht in c!i"inal la, one coul% !easonabl, assu"e that a le#islatu!e t!ul,
o!iente% to enact such chan#e oul% have been can%i% enou#h to have e)plicitl, state% such intent in the la
itself. Of cou!se, nothin# in Rep. Act No. -./0, eithe! in the caption o! in the p!ovisions, e)plicates the
intention to e1uali8e the penalties fo! p!incipals an% acco"plices in an, c!i"e at all.
Mo!eove!, it cannot be %enie% that it oul%, at ba!e "ini"u", see" st!an#e that the penalties fo! p!incipals
an% acco"plices a!e e1uali8e% in so"e c!i"es, an% not in othe!s. Get us !etu!n to ou! p!evious e)a"ple of P
an% L, but this ti"e, assu"e that the, e!e cha!#e% fo! si"ple <i%nappin#, ith no 1ualif,in# ci!cu"stance
that oul% have !esulte% in the i"position of the %eath penalt,. Since the c!i"e is not punishable b, %eath,
Rep. Act No. -./0 oul% have no e&ect in the i"position of the penalt, fo! si"ple <i%nappin#. Acco!%in#l,, P
oul% have been sentence% to reclusion perpetua as the p!incipal, hile L oul% have been sentence% to
reclusion temporal as an acco"plice.
Since si"ple <i%nappin# is a co"pa!ativel, li#hte! c!i"e than <i%nappin# fo! !anso", the lesse! penalties a!e
Custi$e%. Since L as "e!el, an acco"plice to the c!i"e of si"ple <i%nappin#, the i"position on hi" of a
li#hte! penalt, than P is in acco!% ith the Revise% Penal Co%e an% establishe% Cu!i%ical an% le#al thou#ht.
Gess Custi$able oul% be the notion that in <i%nappin# fo! !anso", the p!incipal an% the acco"plice oul%
!eceive the sa"e penalt,, hile in si"ple <i%nappin#, the p!incipal su&e!s a hi#he! penalt, than the
acco"plice. 2!an<l,, the!e is no !ational e)planation fo! such a %ispa!it,, an% no le#al Custi$cation othe! than
the !eco#nition that Con#!ess has the poe! to ill it so.
A%"itte%l,, the i"pact of Rep. Act No. -./0 is less %!a"atic in !elation to f!ust!ate% an% atte"pte% felonies
hich e!e punishable b, %eath if consu""ate%. The consu""ate% felon, p!eviousl, punishable b, %eath
oul% no be punishable b, reclusion perpetua. At the sa"e ti"e, the sa"e felon, in its f!ust!ate% sta#e
oul%, un%e! the fo!e#oin# p!e"ise in this section, be penali8e% one %e#!ee loe! f!o" %eath, o! also
reclusion perpetua. It %oes not see" !i#ht, of cou!se, that the sa"e penalt, of reclusion perpetua oul% be
i"pose% on both the consu""ate% an% f!ust!ate% felon,. ?oeve!, the ano"al, oul% be "ainl, in theo!,, as
e !eco#ni8e that those felonies p!eviousl, punishable b, %eath a!e i"p!obable of co""ission in thei!
f!ust!ate% sta#e, unli<e seve!al felonies punishable b, Areclusion perpetua to %eath,A
;.
such as "u!%e!, hich
"a, be f!ust!ate%.
Still, it cannot be %enie% that these felonies p!eviousl, punishable b, %eath a!e capable of co""ission in thei!
atte"pte% sta#es an% that the Revise% Penal Co%e p!ovi%es that the penalt, fo! atte"pte% felonies is Aa
penalt, loe! b, to %e#!ees than that p!esc!ibe% b, la fo! the consu""ate% felon,.A The Cou!t has thus
consistentl, i"pose% reclusion temporal, the penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than %eath, as the "a)i"u" te!" fo!
atte"pte% felonies hich, if consu""ate%, oul% have a!!ante% the %eath penalt,.
;/
If it e!e to be insiste%
that Rep. Act No. -./0 %i% not a&ect at all the penalties fo! atte"pte% felonies, then those foun% #uilt, of the
subCect atte"pte% felonies oul% still be sentence% to reclusion temporal, even thou#h the Apenalt, loe! b,
to %e#!ees than that p!esc!ibe% b, la fo! the consu""ate% felon,A oul% no be prision mayor.
It shoul% be pointe% out that the inte!p!etation of Rep. Act No. -./0 that oul% sanction a penalt, fo! so"e
atte"pte% felonies that is onl, one %e#!ee loe! than the consu""ate% c!i"e oul%, a#ain, be %isha!"onious
an% inconsistent ith the Revise% Penal Co%e an% establishe% thou#ht in c!i"inal la. Conce%in# a#ain that
the le#islatu!e has the %isc!etion to %esi#nate the c!i"inal penalties it sees $t, a !e#i"e that foists a
%i&e!ential theo!etical basis fo! the punish"ent of %i&e!ent atte"pte% felonies !esultin# in %isc!i"inato!,
penalties is not onl, i!!ational but also, to sa, the least, hi#hl, suspect. Consi%e!in# that ph,sical libe!ties a!e
at sta<e, it oul% be a "ost c!uel Co<e if such %isc!i"inato!, e&ects ensue% not f!o" %elibe!ate le#islative ill,
but f!o" ove!si#ht.
"II.
The i"ple"entation of Rep. Act No. -./0 in a a, that leaves e)tant the penalties fo! acco"plices,
accesso!ies, f!ust!ate% an% atte"pte% felonies, clea!l, !esults in illo#ical, ini1uitous an% inconsistent e&ects. In
cont!ast, no si"ila! Kas ensue shoul% e const!ue Rep. Act No. -./0 instea% as not havin# ba!!e% the
Page 12 of 21
application of the %eath penalt, even as a "eans of %ep!eciatin# penalties othe! than %eath. In pa!ticula!, the
ope!ative a"en%"ent that oul% assu!e the inte#!it, of penalties fo! acco"plices, accesso!ies, f!ust!ate% an%
atte"pte% felonies lies in A!ticle ;+, hich !an<s A%eathA at the top of the scale fo! #!a%uate% penalties.
Si"pl, put, the ne#ation of the o!% A%eathA as p!eviousl, insc!ibe% in A!ticle ;+ ill have the e&ect of
app!op!iatel, %on#!a%in# the p!ope! penalties attachin# to acco"plices, accesso!ies, f!ust!ate% an%
atte"pte% felonies to the level consistent ith the !est of ou! penal las. Retu!nin# to ou! p!evious e)a"ples,
L, the convicte% acco"plice in <i%nappin# fo! !anso", oul% no bea! the penalt, of reclusion temporal, the
penalt, one %e#!ee loe! than that the p!incipal P oul% bea! 'reclusion perpetua(. Such sentence oul% be
consistent ith A!ticle :4 of the Revise% Penal Co%e, as ell as A!ticle ;+, as a"en%e%, to !e"ove the
!efe!ence to A%eath.A Mo!eove!, the p!ospect of the acco"plice !eceivin# the sa"e sentence as the p!incipal,
an ano"alous notion ithin ou! penal las, oul% be eli"inate%. Thus, the sa"e stan%a!% oul% p!evail in
sentencin# p!incipals an% acco"plices to the c!i"e of <i%nappin# in !anso", as that p!esc!ibe% to the c!i"e of
si"ple <i%nappin#.
The ha!"oni8ation that oul% !esult if Rep. Act No. -./0 e!e const!ue% as havin# eli"inate% the !efe!ence to
A%eathA in A!ticle ;+ oul% !un ac!oss the boa!% in ou! penal las. Consistent ith A!ticle :+ of the Revise%
Penal Co%e, those convicte% of atte"pte% 1uali$e% !ape oul% !eceive the penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than that
p!esc!ibe% b, la, no Rep. Act No. -./0, fo! 1uali$e% !ape.
The!e a!e p!inciples in statuto!, const!uction that ill sanction, even "an%ate, this Ae)pansiveA inte!p!etation
of Rep. Act No. -./0. The "a)i" interpretare et concordare legibus est optimus interpretandi e"bo%ies the
p!inciple that a statute shoul% be so const!ue% not onl, to be consistent ith itself, but also to ha!"oni8e ith
othe! las on the sa"e subCect "atte!, as to fo!" a co"plete, cohe!ent an% intelli#ible s,ste"Ha unifo!"
s,ste" of Cu!isp!u%ence.
;:
AInte!p!etin# an% ha!"oni8in# las ith las is the best "etho% of inte!p!etation. )
) ) ) This "anne! of const!uction oul% p!ovi%e a co"plete, consistent an% intelli#ible s,ste" to secu!e the
!i#hts of all pe!sons a&ecte% b, %i&e!ent le#islative an% 1uasi*
le#islative acts.A
;0
The!e can be no ha!"on, beteen Rep. Act No. -./0 an% the Revise% Penal Co%e unless the
late! statute is const!ue% as havin# %on#!a%e% those penalties attache% to %eath b, !eason of the #!a%uate%
scale un%e! A!ticle ;+. Onl, in that "anne! ill a clea! an% consistent !ule e"e!#e as to the application of
penalties fo! f!ust!ate% an% atte"pte% felonies, an% fo! accesso!ies an% acco"plices.
It is also a ell*<non !ule of le#al he!"eneutics that penal o! c!i"inal las a!e st!ictl, const!ue% a#ainst the
state an% libe!all, in favo! of the accuse%.
;;
If the lan#ua#e of the la e!e a"bi#uous, the cou!t ill lean
"o!e st!on#l, in favo! of the %efen%ant than it oul% if the statute e!e !e"e%ial, as a "eans of e&ectin#
substantial Custice.
;3
The la is ten%e! in favo! of the !i#hts of an in%ivi%ual.
;-
It is this philosoph, of caution
befo!e the State "a, %ep!ive a pe!son of life o! libe!t, that ani"ates one of the "ost fun%a"ental p!inciples in
ou! Bill of Ri#hts, that eve!, pe!son is p!esu"e% innocent until p!oven #uilt,.
Reso!t to the afo!e"entione% p!inciples in statuto!, const!uction oul% not have been necessa!, ha% Rep. Act
No. -./0 ineluctabl, state% that the !epeal of all las i"posin# the %eath penalt, %i% not en#en%e! the
co!!espon%in# "o%i$cation of penalties othe! than %eath, %epen%ent as these a!e on A%eathA as a "easu!e
un%e! the #!a%uate% scale of penalties un%e! A!ticle ;+. A%"itte%l,, if this e!e in%ee% the intent of Con#!ess,
an% such intent e!e une1uivocall, e)p!esse% in Rep. Act No. -./0, the !esultin# ine1uities an%
inconsistencies e ha% ea!lie! pointe% out oul% have !e"aine%. If that e!e to be the case, e oul% have
ac<nole%#e%, pe!haps tacitl,, that such ine1uities an% inconsistencies fell pa!t of the le#islative intent. It %oes
not spea< ell of a Con#!ess to be %elibe!atel, inconsistent ith, o! i#no!ant of its on p!io! enact"ents. Let
ulti"atel,, Section + of Rep. Act No. -./0 is not e)p!essive of such !ash o! inCu%icious notions, as it is
susceptible to a !ea%in# that oul% ha!"oni8e its e&ects ith the p!ecepts an% p!actices that pe!va%e ou!
#ene!al penal las, an% in a "anne! that %oes not %ef, the clea! ill of Con#!ess.
"III.
One ho oul% li<e to a%vocate that Rep. Act No. -./0 %i% not co!!espon%in#l, a"en% an, of the penalties
othe! than %eath in ou! penal las oul% "ost ce!tainl, invo<e ou! !ulin# in People v. Mu$oz#
35
%eci%e% in
+-3-. The!ein, a %ivi%e% Cou!t !ule% in that the constitutional ba! on the i"position of the %eath penalt, %i%
not enact Aa co!!espon%in# "o%i$cation in the othe! pe!io%s Ein penaltiesFA, the!e bein# no e)p!ession of Asuch
a !e1ui!e"entO in A!ticle III, Section +-'+( of the Constitution o! in%icatEionF the!ein b, at least
Page 13 of 21
clea! an% un"ista<able i"plication.A
3+
In so conclu%in#, the Cou!t "a%e the oft*cite% p!onounce"ent that
the!e as nothin# in the +-3; Constitution Ahich e)p!essl, %ecla!es the abolition of the %eath penalt,.A
34

It is ti"e to !e*e)a"ine Mu$oz an% its continue% viabilit, in li#ht of Rep. Act No. -./0. Mo!e p!ecisel,, oul%
Mu$oz as p!ece%ent %ete! the Cou!t f!o" !ulin# that Rep. Act No. -./0 conse1uentl, %on#!a%e% penalties
othe! than %eathM
It can be !ecalle% that the accuse% in Mu$oz e!e foun% #uilt, of "u!%e!, hich un%e! the Revise% Penal Co%e,
ca!!ie% the penalt, of reclusion temporal in its "a)i"u" pe!io% to %eath. The subCect "u!%e!s the!ein e!e
not atten%e% b, an, "o%if,in# ci!cu"stance, an% thus penali8e% in the penalt,@s "e%iu" te!". >u!isp!u%ence
p!evious to Mu$oz hel% that the p!ope! penalt, in such instances shoul% be Athe hi#he! half of reclusion
temporal "a)i"u",A ith reclusion temporal "a)i"u", %ivi%e% into to halves fo! that pu!pose. Mu$oz
!eCecte% this fo!"ulation, hol%in# instea% that the penalt, shoul% be reclusion perpetua. Toa!%s this
conclusion, the Cou!t "a%e the above*cite% conclusions !elatin# to the constitutional abolition of the %eath
penalt,, an% the cha!te!@s e&ects on the othe! pe!io%s. Si) Custices %issente% f!o" that !ulin#, an% as !ecentl,
as +--;, a "e"be! of the Cou!t felt st!on#l, enou#h to publish a vie u!#in# the !ee)a"ination of Mu$oz.
3.

It oul% be %isin#enuous to consi%e! Mu$oz as %i!ectl, settlin# the 1uestion no befacin# us, as the le#al
p!e"ises behin% Mu$oz a!e %i&e!ent f!o" those in this case. Most pe!tinentl,, Mu$oz in1ui!e% into the e&ects
of the Constitution on the p!ope! penalt, fo! "u!%e!9 hile he!ein, e a!e asce!tainin# the e&ects of Rep. Act
No. -./0 on the p!ope! penalt, fo! atte"pte% 1uali$e% !ape. Muñoz m-y 1-9e 5ro.o0.ce6 t1-t t1e
Co.t4t0t4o. 646 .ot -bol41 t1e 6e-t1 5e.-lty, b0t t1-t 40e .o lo.2er 7-ll 4.to co.46er-t4o.
1ere4., t1e correct /0ery .o3 be4.2 31et1er Co.2re 1- b-..e6 t1e 6e-t1 5e.-lty t1ro021 Re5.
)ct No. ;346. Ot1er34e 7r-me6, Muñoz 6oe .ot 5recl06e t1e Co0rt 7rom co.cl064.2 t1-t 34t1 t1e
e=5re 5ro14b4t4o. o7 t1e 4m5o4t4o. o7 t1e 6e-t1 5e.-lty Co.2re 1- 0.e/049oc-lly b-..e6 t1e
-me.
Mu$oz "a%e ha, ove! the peculia! fo!"ulation of Section +-'+(, A!ticle III, hich p!ovi%e% that AEnFeithe! shall
%eath penalt, be i"pose%, unless, fo! co"pellin# !easons involvin# heinous c!i"es, the Con#!ess he!eafte!
p!ovi%es fo! it.A Mu$oz an% its p!o#enies, have inte!p!ete% that p!ovision as p!ohibitin# the actual i"position
of the %eath penalt,, as oppose% to enactin# an a"en%ato!, la that eli"inates all !efe!ences an% applications
of the %eath penalt, in ou! statutes. It can also be un%e!stoo% an% app!eciate% that at the ti"e Mu$oz as
%eci%e%, it oul% have been pole"ical to foste! an une1uivocal p!onounce"ent that Section +-'+(, A!ticle III
abolishe% the %eath penalt,, since the ve!, p!ovision itself ac<nole%#e% that Con#!ess "a, nonetheless
subse1uentl, p!ovi%e fo! the penalt, Afo! co"pellin# !easons involvin# heinous c!i"es,A as Con#!ess ve!, ell
%i% Cust fou! '/( ,ea!s afte! Mu$oz. No such lan#ua#e e)ists in Rep. Act No. -./0. Of cou!se, the le#islatu!e
has the inhe!ent an% constitutional poe! to enact las p!esc!ibin# penalties fo! c!i"es, an% the Constitution
ill not p!ohibit Con#!ess f!o" !eenactin# the %eath penalt, Afo! co"pellin# !easons involvin# heinous
c!i"es.A Let it as that e)p!ess stipulation in the Constitution that %issua%e% the Cou!t f!o" !eco#ni8in# the
constitutional abolition of the %eath penalt,9 an% the!e is no si"ila! statuto!, e)p!ession in Rep. Act No. -./0,
hich coul% be const!ue% as evocative of intent si"ila! to that of the Constitution.
The %oct!ine in Mu$oz that the constitutional p!ohibition on the i"position of the %eath penalt, %i% not enact a
co!!espon%in# "o%i$cation of othe! penalties is si"ila!l, i!!elevant to this case, hich calls fo! an e)a"ination
as to hethe! such co!!espon%in# "o%i$cations of othe! penalties a!ose as a conse1uence of Rep. Act No.
-./0, an% not the Constitution.
2o! pu!poses of le#al he!"eneutics, the c!itical 1uestion is hethe! Rep. Act No. -./0 inten%e% to %elete the
o!% A%eathA as e)p!essl, p!ovi%e% fo! in the #!a%uate% scale of penalties un%e! A!ticle ;+. Mu$oz %i% not
en#a#e in an analo#ous in1ui!, in !elation to A!ticle ;+ an% the Constitution, fo! hat as !elevant the!ein
as not the #ene!al #!a%uate% scale of penalties, but the !an#e of the penalties fo! "u!%e!. ?e!ein, at ba!e
"ini"u", no p!ovision in Rep. Act No. -./0 p!ovi%es a conte)t ithin hich the concept of A%eath penalt,A
bea!s !etentive le#al e&ect, especiall, in !elation to A!ticle ;+. U.l4:e t1e Co.t4t0t4o., Rep. Act No. -./0
%oes e)p!essl, stipulate the a"en%"ent of all e)tant las insofa! as the, calle% fo! the i"position of the
penalt, of %eath.
The i"p!ession left b, Mu$oz as that the use of the o!% Ai"positionA in the Constitution evince% the
f!a"e!@s intent to !etain the ope!ation of penalties un%e! the Revise% Penal Co%e. In the sa"e vein, one "i#ht
t!, to const!ue the use of Ai"positionA in Rep. Act No. -./0 as a "eans e"plo,e% b, Con#!ess to ensu!e that
the A%eath penalt,A, as applie% in A!ticle ;+, !e"ain e)tant. If the use of Ai"positionA as i"ple"ente% as a
"eans of !etainin# A%eathA un%e! A!ticle ;+, it oul% have been a "ost cu!ious, !oun%about "eans in%ee%. The
Cou!t can tole!ate to a ce!tain %e#!ee the %elibe!ate va#ueness so"eti"es e"plo,e% in le#islation, ,et
Page 14 of 21
constitutional %ue p!ocess %e"an%s a hi#he! %e#!ee of cla!it, hen inf!in#e"ents on life o! libe!t, a!e
inten%e%. =e have !ule%, on %ue p!ocess #!oun%s, as a!bit!a!, an% opp!essive a ta) assesse% on a stan%a!%
cha!acte!i8e% as Anothin# but blathe! in sea!ch of "eanin#.A
3/
In the "atte! of statutes that %ep!ive a pe!son of
ph,sical libe!t,, the %e"an% fo! a clea! stan%a!% in sentencin# is even "o!e e)actin#.
Let in t!uth, the!e is no "ate!ial %i&e!ence beteen Ai"positionA an% Aapplication,A fo! both te!"s e"bo%, the
ope!ation in la of the %eath penalt,. Since A!ticle ;+ %eno"inates A%eathA as an ele"ent in the #!a%uate%
scale of penalties, the!e is no 1uestion that the ope!ation of A!ticle ;+ involves the actual -55l4c-t4o. of the
%eath penalt, as a "eans of %ete!"inin# the e)tent hich a pe!son@s libe!t, is to be %ep!ive%. Since Rep. Act
No. -./0 une1uivocall, ba!s the application of the %eath penalt,, as ell as e)p!essl, !epeals all such statuto!,
p!ovisions !e1ui!in# the application of the %eath penalt,, such e&ect necessa!il, e)ten%s to its !elevance to the
#!a%uate% scale of penalties un%e! A!ticle ;+.
=e cannot $n% basis to conclu%e that Rep. Act No. -./0 inten%e% to !etain the ope!ative e&ects of the %eath
penalt, in the #!a%uation of the othe! penalties in ou! penal las. Munoz cannot enCoin us to a%opt such
conclusion. Rep. Act No. -./0 is not sa%%le% in the sa"e !est!aints app!eciate% b, Mu$oz on Section +-'+(,
A!ticle III. The ve!, Con#!ess e"poe!e% b, the Constitution to !einstate the i"position of the %eath penalt,
once thou#ht it best to %o so, th!ou#h Rep. Act No. ;0:5. =ithin the sa"e !eal" of constitutional %isc!etion,
Con#!ess has !eve!se% itself. It "ust be asse!te% that to%a,, the le#al status of the supp!ession of the %eath
penalt, in the Philippines has neve! been "o!e secu!e than at an, ti"e in ou! political histo!, as a nation.
2olloin# Mu$oz, the sove!ei#n people, th!ou#h the +-3; Constitution, "i#ht not have ille% the abolition of
the %eath penalt, an% instea% place% it un%e! a suspensive con%ition. As such, e a&i!"e% the cha!acte!i8ation
of the %eath penalt, %u!in# the inte!!e#nu" beteen the +-3; Constitution an% its !ei"position th!ou#h la
as bein# Ain a state of hibe!nation.A
3:
No lon#e!. It !eaa<ene% H then it %ie%9 because the sove!ei#n people,
th!ou#h Rep. Act No. -./0, banne% the %eath penalt,. Onl, b, an Act of Con#!ess can it be !ebo!n. Befo!e that
%a,, the consi%e!ation of %eath as a penalt, is be!eft of le#al e&ect, hethe! as a "eans of %ep!ivin# life, o! as
a "eans of %ep!ivin# libe!t,.
Despite ou! p!esent p!onounce"ent on the ban a#ainst of the %eath penalt,, e %o not ac<nole%#e that
Mu$oz lac<e% le#al Custi$cation hen it as %eci%e%9 that its application as p!ece%ent p!io! to Rep. Act No.
-./0 as e!!oneous9 o! that p!evious sentences i"pose% on convicts on the basis of Mu$oz e!e !on#.
Mu$oz p!ope!l, stoo% as the #ove!nin# p!ece%ent in the "atte! of sentences that passe% $nalit, p!io! to Rep.
Act No. -./09 an% the consistent !eliance b, the cou!ts on its %oct!ines ent!enche% its footin# in c!i"inal la
Cu!isp!u%ence.
I%.
Rep. Act No. ;0:-, in the cou!se of !eint!o%ucin# the %eath penalt, in the Philippines, also e&ectivel, classi$e%
the c!i"es liste% the!ein as Aheinous,A ithin constitutional conte"plation. Such !eclassi$cation un%e! Rep.
Act No. ;0:- as acco"panie% b, ce!tain le#al e&ects othe! than the i"position of the %eath penalt,, such as
the inc!ease in i"posable $nes attache% to ce!tain heinous c!i"es.
30
The cate#o!i8ation of ce!tain c!i"es as
AheinousA, constitutin# as it %oes o&icial !eco#nition that so"e c!i"es a!e "o!e o%ious than othe!s, has also
inKuence% this Cou!t in a%Cu%#in# the p!ope! pecunia!, in%e"nities aa!%e% to the victi"s of these c!i"es.
?ence, a #ene!al inclination pe!sists in lev,in# a #!eate! a"ount of %a"a#es on accuse% foun% #uilt, of
heinous c!i"es.
It shoul% be un%e!stoo% that the %eba!!in# of the %eath penalt, th!ou#h Rep. Act No. -./0 %i% not
co!!espon%in#l, %eclassif, those c!i"es p!eviousl, catalo#ue% as AheinousA. The a"en%ato!, e&ects of Rep.
Act No. -./0 e)ten% onl, to the application of the %eath penalt, but not to the %e$nition o! classi$cation of
c!i"es. T!ue, the penalties fo! heinous c!i"es have been %on#!a%e% un%e! the ae#is of the ne la. Still,
hat !e"ains e)tant is the !eco#nition b, la that such c!i"es, b, thei! abho!!ent natu!e, constitute a special
cate#o!, b, the"selves. Acco!%in#l,, Rep. Act No. -./0 %oes not se!ve as basis fo! the !e%uction of civil
in%e"nit, an% othe! %a"a#es that a%he!e to heinous c!i"es.
%.
?avin# p!onounce% the statuto!, %isalloance of the %eath penalt, th!ou#h Rep. Act No. -./0 an% the
co!!espon%in# "o%i$cation of penalties othe! than %eath th!ou#h that statute, e no p!ocee% to %iscuss the
e&ects of these !ulin#s.
Page 15 of 21
As to sentences not ,et han%e% %on, o! a&i!"e% ith $nalit,, the application is i""e%iate. ?encefo!th,
A%eath,A as utili8e% in A!ticle ;+ of the Revise% Penal Co%e, shall no lon#e! fo!" pa!t of the e1uation in the
#!a%uation of penalties. 2o! e)a"ple, in the case of appellant, the %ete!"ination of his penalt, fo! atte"pte%
!ape shall be !ec<one% not f!o" to %e#!ees loe! than %eath, but to %e#!ees loe! than !eclusion pe!petua.
?ence, the "a)i"u" te!" of his penalt, shall no lon#e! be reclusion temporal, as !ule% b, the Cou!t of
Appeals, but instea%, prision mayor.
The!e shoul% be little co"plication if the c!i"e co""itte% as punishable b, the f!ee*stan%in# penalt, of
A%eath,A as utili8e% in Rep. Act No. ;0:-, as oppose% to the !an#e% penalt, of Areclusion perpetua to %eath,A as
often use% in the Revise% Penal Co%e an% othe! penal las. The facts of the p!esent case %o not conce!n the
latte! penalt,, hence ou! !eluctance to avail of an e)ten%e% %iscussion the!eof. ?oeve!, e %i% ea!lie! obse!ve
that both A!eclusion pe!petuaA an% %eath a!e in%ivisible penalties. Bn%e! A!ticle 0+ '4( of the Revise% Penal
Co%e, AEFhen the penalt, p!esc!ibe% fo! the c!i"e is co"pose% of to in%ivisible penalties ) ) ) ) the penalt,
ne)t loe! in %e#!ee shall be that i""e%iatel, folloin# the lesse! of the penalties p!esc!ibe% in the !espective
#!a%uate% scale.A ?ence, as e ea!lie! note%, ou! p!evious !ulin#s that the penalt, to %e#!ees loe! than
Areclusion perpetua to %eathA is prision mayor.
Then the!e is the "atte! of hethe! !et!oactive e&ect shoul% be e)ten%e% to this ne !ulin#, favo!able as it is
to pe!sons p!eviousl, convicte% of c!i"es hich, if consu""ate% o! pa!ticipate% in as a p!incipal, oul% have
a!!ante% the solita!, penalt, of %eath. =e see no choice but to e)ten% the !et!oactive bene$t. A!ticle 44 of
the Revise% Penal Co%e states that AEpFenal las shall have a !et!oactive e&ect insofa! as the, favo! the pe!son
#uilt, of a felon,, ho is not a habitual c!i"inalE
3;
F ) ) ) ) althou#h at the ti"e of the publication of such las a
$nal sentence has been p!onounce% an% the convict is se!vin# the sa"e.A 6iven that e have !ule% that Rep.
Act No. -./0 %on#!a%e% the penalties fo! such c!i"es, the bene$t of A!ticle 44 has to appl,, e)cept as to
those pe!sons %e$ne% as Ahabitual c!i"inalEsF.A In%ee%, Rep. Act No. -./0 e)p!essl, !eco#ni8e% that its
enact"ent oul% have !et!oactive bene$cial e&ects, !efe!!in# as it %i% to Ape!sons ) ) ) hose sentences e!e
!e%uce% to reclusion perpetua b, !eason of this Act.A
33
It cannot be %iscounte% that b, ope!ation of Rep. Act No. -./0 an% A!ticle 44 of the Revise% Penal Co%e, the!e
"a, be convicts p!esentl, se!vin# thei! o!i#inal sentences hose actual se!ve% te!"s e)cee% thei! !e%uce%
sentences. (t 1o0l6 be 0.6ertoo6 t1-t t14 6ec44o. 6oe .ot m-:e o5er-t49e t1e rele-e o7 0c1
co.94ct, e5ec4-lly - t1ere m-y be ot1er re-o. t1-t e=4t 7or t1e4r co.t4.0e6 6ete.t4o.. The!e a!e
!e"e%ies un%e! la that coul% be e"plo,e% to obtain the !elease of such p!isone!s, if a!!ante%. O&ices such
as the Public Atto!ne,@s O&ice an% non*#ove!n"ental o!#ani8ations that f!e1uentl, assist %etainees possess the
capacit, an% acu"en to help i"ple"ent the !elease of such p!isone!s ho a!e so entitle% b, !eason of this
!ulin#.
%I.
=e close b, !etu!nin# to the "atte! of appellant Alf!e%o Bon. B, !eason of Rep. Act No. -./0, he is spa!e% the
%eath sentence, an% entitle% to the co!!espon%in# !e%uction of his penalt, as a conse1uence of the
%on#!a%in# of his o&ense f!o" to '4( counts consu""ate% !ape to to '4( counts of atte"pte% !ape. 2o! the
si) '0( counts of !ape, e %on#!a%e the penalt, of %eath to reclusion perpetua ith no eli#ibilit, fo! pa!ole,
pu!suant to Rep. Act No. -./0. 2o! each of the to '4( counts of atte"pte% !ape, e %on#!a%e b, one %e#!ee
loe! the penalt, i"pose% b, the Cou!t of Appeals. =e hol% that the!e bein# no "iti#atin# o! a##!avatin#
ci!cu"stances, the penalt, of p!ision "a,o! shoul% be i"pose% in it "e%iu" pe!io%. Conse1uentl,, e i"pose
the ne penalt, of to '4( ,ea!s, fou! '/( "onths an% one '+( %a, of prision correccional as "ini"u", to ei#ht
'3( ,ea!s an% one '+( %a, of prision mayor as "a)i"u".
Gastl,, as to %a"a#es, the Cou!t aa!%s AAA P.5,555.55 as civil in%e"nit,, P4:,555.55 as "o!al %a"a#es an%
P+5,555.55 as e)e"pla!, %a"a#es fo! each count of atte"pte% !ape, it bein# the p!evailin# !ate of in%e"nit,
as p!onounce% in the !ecent case of People v. Miranda.
3-
Sepa!atel,, the Cou!t applies p!evailin# Cu!isp!u%ence
-5
in aa!%in# to BBB an% AAA P;:,555.55 as civil
in%e"nit,, P;:,555.55 as "o!al %a"a#es an% P4:,555.55 as e)e"pla!, %a"a#es, fo! each count of
consu""ate% !ape.
=?ERE2ORE, in li#ht of the fo!e#oin#, the Decision of the Cou!t of Appeals is he!eb, A22IRMED =IT?
MODI2ICATION. The Cou!t sentences appellant Alf!e%o >. Bon to the penalt, of reclusion perpetua ith no
possibilit, of pa!ole fo! each of the si) '0( counts of consu""ate% !ape co""itte% a#ainst AAA in C!i"inal
Case Nos. 00--, 0-54, an% a#ainst BBB in C!i"inal Case Nos. 003-, 0-5., 0-5:, an% 0-5;. Appellant is fu!the!
Page 16 of 21
ORDERED to in%e"nif, AAA an% BBB fo! the c!i"e of consu""ate% !ape, in the a"ounts of P:5,555.55 as
civil in%e"nit,, P:5,555.55 as "o!al %a"a#es an% P4:,555.55 as e)e"pla!, %a"a#es fo! each of the".
2o! the to '4( counts of atte"pte% !ape of AAA in C!i"inal Cases No. 0-50 an% 0-53, appellant is he!eb,
SENTENCED to an in%ete!"inate penalt, of to '4( ,ea!s, fou! '/( "onths an% one '+( %a, of prision
correccional as "ini"u", to ei#ht '3( ,ea!s an% one '+( of prision mayor as "a)i"u" fo! each count of
atte"pte% !ape. In a%%ition, appellant is ORDERED to in%e"nif, AAA fo! each of the to '4( counts of
atte"pte% !ape in the a"ounts of P.5,555.55 as civil in%e"nit,, P4:,555.55 as "o!al %a"a#es an% P+5,555.55
as e)e"pla!, %a"a#es.
SO ORDERED.
Panganiban# C.&. 'C(airperson)# Puno# *uisumbing# +nares,-antiago# -andoval,Gutierrez# Carpio# ustria,
Martinez# Corona# Carpio Morales# Callejo# -r.# zcuna# C(ico,.azario# Garcia# and "elasco# &r.# &&.# concu!.
Foot.ote
+
See People v. MuQo8, 6.R. No. .3-0-*;5, - 2eb!ua!, +-3-, +;5 SCRA +5;.
4
Gate! %oc<ete% as C!i"inal Case Nos. 003-*6, 03--*6, 0-54*6, 0-5.*6, 0-5:*6, 0-50*6, 0-5;*
6 an% 0-53*6.
.
Pu!suant to Republic Act No. -404, othe!ise <non as the Anti*Jiolence A#ainst =o"en an%
Thei! Chil%!en Act of 455/, an% its i"ple"entin# !ules, the !eal na"es of the victi"s, as ell
those of thei! i""e%iate fa"il, o! househol% "e"be!s, a!e ithhel% an% $ctitious initials
instea% a!e use% to !ep!esent the", to p!otect thei! p!ivac,. See People v. Cabalquinto, 6.R.
No. +0;0-., +- Septe"be! 4550.
/
I%.
:
The!e a!e ei#ht '3( Info!"ations in all a#ainst appellant, all of the" accusin# hi" of 1uali$e%
!ape, the victi" bein# a "ino! an% a !elative b, consan#uinit, ithin the thi!% civil %e#!ee. =e
a!e not !ep!o%ucin# the" all in full fo! !easons of b!evit,. All ei#ht '3( Info!"ations a!e
#ene!all, st,le% in the sa"e fashion, the va!iables bein# the %ates of the !ape, the eapon use%
in co""ittin# the !ape, the na"es of the victi"s, an% thei! a#es at the ti"e of the !ape.
Othe!ise, the, "o!e o! less co""onl, p!ovi%e as follosD
AThat on o! about '%ate( %a, of '"onth( ',ea!(, in the Municipalit, of 6u"aca, P!ovince
of 7ue8on, Philippines an% ithin the Cu!is%iction of this ?ono!able Cou!t, the sai%
accuse%, a!"e% ith '<itchen <nifeNa bla%e% eaponNa fan <nife(, ith le% %esi#ns, b,
"eans of fo!ce, th!eats an% inti"i%ation, %i% then an% the!e illfull,, unlafull, an%
feloniousl, have ca!nal <nole%#e of one 'AAANBBB(, a "ino!, 'a#e( ,ea!s of a#e,
a#ainst he! ill.
That accuse% Alf!e%o Bon is a !elative b, consan#uinit, ithin the thi!% civil %e#!ee of
victi" 'AAANBBB(A 'Rollo, pp. /*0(.
The Info!"ation in C!i"inal Case No. 003-*6 o"itte% the secon% pa!a#!aph cite%
above, but %i% state that BBB as his niece. I%. at +03.
0
CA !ollo, p. -..
;
I%.
3
I%.
Page 17 of 21
-
Refe!!e% to b, AAA in he! testi"on, as the A<ain#in.A
+5
CA !ollo, p. -..
++
Sup!a note ..
+4
CA !ollo, p. -..
+.
I%.
+/
I%.
+:
I%. at ;:.
+0
I%. at -0.
+;
I%. at -:.
+3
I%.
+-
I%. at -;*-3.
45
I%. at -3.
4+
I%. at --.
44
I%. at -3.
4.
I%. at --.
4/
I%. at +55.
4:
I%.
40
CA !ollo, pp. .+*0.. Decision penne% b, P!esi%in# >u%#e A. Ma1ue%a*Ro"an.
4;
6.R. Nos. +/;0;3*3;, ; >ul, 455/, /.. SCRA 0/5.
43
Rollo, pp. .*4.. Decision penne% b, Associate >ustice M. Del Castillo, an% concu!!e% in b,
Associate >ustices R. B!ane! an% M. De Geon.
4-
I%. at +:.
.5
I%. at +0*+;.
.+
I%. at ..*/-.
.4
Rollo, p. /;9 TSN, . >ul, 4554, p. /.
..
..; Phil. 4// '+--;(.
./
Citin# People v. -agaral# 6.R. Nos. ++4;+/*+:, ; 2eb!ua!, +--;.
.:
Citin# People v. Magaluna, 45: SCRA 400 '+--4(.
Page 18 of 21
.0
Citin# People v. Como, 454 SCRA 455 '+--+( an% People v. -erdan, 4+. SCRA .4- '+--4(.
.;
People v. Perez# sup!a note .. at 4:5*4:+. E"phasis supplie%.
.3
Reco!%s, Jol. I, pp. 44+*4.5.
.-
I%. at 44:*440.
/5
People v. Mana,an, /45 Phil. .:;, .;; '455+( citin# People v. /o0le$a, 6.R. No. +./;;4, >une
44, 45559 People v. 1egaspi et al., 6.R. No. ++;354, Ap!il 4;, 45559 People v. 1lanes# et al., 6.R.
No. ++0-30, 2eb!ua!, /, 45559 People v. Rendoque# et al., 6.R. No. +50434, >anua!, 45, 45559
People v. 2strada, 44 SCRA +++, >anua!, +;, +-03.
/+
People v. -uarez, 6.R. Nos. +:.:;.*;0, +: Ap!il 455:, /:0 SCRA ..., ./- citin# People v.
Intong, 6.R. Nos. +/:5./*.:, : 2eb!ua!, 455/, /44 SCRA +./, +.-.
/4
People v. 1apay, .:3 Phil. :/+, :05 '+--3(.
/.
People v. 2speranza, /:. Phil. :/, ;/*;: '455.( citin# People v. "illraza, 6.R. Nos. +.+3/3*:5,
: Septe"be! 4555, ..- SCRA 000.
//
People v. Guambor, 6.R. No. +:4+3., 44 >anua!, 455/, /45 SCRA 0;;, 034.
/:
People v. Delos Santos, /45 Phil. ::+, :0/ '455+(
/0
I%.
/;
Revise% Penal Co%e, A!t. 0.
/3
TSN, +; Octobe! 455+, p. 0.
/-
I%. at ;*-.
:5
CA !ollo, pp. +;*+3. Citin# People v. Bal#os, .4. SCRA .;..
:+
Perez v. Court of ppeals, /.+ Phil. ;33, ;-. '4554(.
:4
6.R. No. +;+4;+, .+ Au#ust 4550.
:.
Sup!a note ..
:/
Revise% Penal Co%e, A!t. :4.
::
See Revise% Penal Co%e, A!t. 400*B.
:0
See Revise% Penal Co%e, A!t. 0+.
:;
See Revise% Penal Co%e, A!t. ;+.
:3
See Rep. Act /+5. '+--(, Sec. :.
:-
See Sepa!ate Opinion, >. Tin#a, People v. Tubon#banua, sup!a note :4.
05
See Rep. Act No. ;0:- '+--.(, Sec. /.
0+
See Rep. Act No. ;0:-, '+--.(, Sec. 3.
Page 19 of 21
04
See Rep. Act No. ;0:- '+--.(, Sec. +5.
0.
See Rep. Act No. ;0:- '+--.(, Sec. 0.
0/
See Rep. Act No. ;0:- '+--.(, Sec. ..
0:
See Rep. Act No. ;0:- '+--.(, Sec. 4.
00
See People v. -ala, .;5 Phil. .4., .0; '+---(.
0;
People v. 3rancisco, 6.R. Nos. +.:45+*54, +: Ma!ch 455+, .:/ SCRA /;:, /-+.
03
.0; Phil. ;:: '+---(.
0-
-upra note ..
;5
People v. Tolentino, sup!a note 03 at ;0:, ;0;. See also, e.g., People v. Campu(an, .3: Phil.
-+4 '4555(, he!e the Cou!t state%D AThe penalt, fo! atte"pte% !ape is to '4( %e#!ees loe!
than the i"posable penalt, of %eath fo! the o&ense cha!#e%, hich is statuto!, !ape of a "ino!
belo seven ';( ,ea!s. To '4( %e#!ees loe! is reclusion temporal, the !an#e of hich is
telve '+4( ,ea!s an% one '+( %a, to tent, '45( ,ea!s. ) ) )9A I%. at -4;.
;+
2o! pu!poses of the succee%in# aca%e"ic %iscussion, Aatte"pte% !ape of a "ino!A !efe!s to
the atte"pte% !ape of a "ino! hich if consu""ate%, oul% be subCect to the %eath penalt,,
pu!suant to A!ticle 400*B of the Revise% Penal Co%e, as a"en%e%. In othe! o!%s, the so*calle%
1uali$e% !ape. It shoul% be un%e!stoo% that not all !apes, even of "ino!s, e!e auto"aticall,
cove!e% b, the %eath penalt,, hich as i"posable if an, of the a##!avatin#N1ualif,in#
ci!cu"stances enu"e!ate% in A!ticle 400*B e!e p!esent. It oul% of cou!se be futile, in
%iscussin# the e&ect of the la abolishin# the %eath penalt,, if the above*%iscussion also
applies to those !apes hich e!e not cove!e% b, the %eath penalt,. In appellant@s case, he
oul% have been liable fo! the %eath penalt, fo! the !ape of a victi" un%e! ei#hteen '+3( ,ea!s
of a#e, ho happene% to be a !elative b, consan#uinit, o! a&init, ithin the thi!% civil %e#!ee.
See Revise% Penal Co%e, A!t. 400*B, pa!. '+(.
;4
Sup!a note +.
;.
See e.#., People v. 4rita, 6.R. No. 33;4/, . Ap!il +--5, +-/ SCRA +5:, ++:, he!ein the
Cou!t !eco#ni8e% Ait is ha!%l, conceivable ho the f!ust!ate% sta#e in !ape can eve! be
co""itte%.A ?oeve!, an e)ception "a, lie in theo!, as to 1uali$e% a!son, consi%e!in# that the
Cou!t !eco#ni8e% the $lin# of f!ust!ate% a!son in People v. Jal%es, .- Phil. 4/5, 4/. '+-+3(.
;/
See People v. 3rancisco, sup!a note 0;9 People v. Tolentino, sup!a note 039 People v.
Campu(an, sup!a note 03. See also People v. Mariano, /45 Phil. ;4;, ;/. '455+(, People v.
*uarre, /4; Phil. /44, /.- '4554(9 People v. Mendoza, 6.R. Nos. +:4:3- R +:4;:3, 4/ Octobe!
455., /+/ SCRA /0+, /;+9 People v. Miranda, 6.R. No. +0-5;3, +5 Ma!ch 4550, /3/ SCRA :::,
:0-.
;:
See e.g.# Corona v. Court of ppeals# 6.R. No. -;.:0, Septe"be! .5, +--4, 4+/ SCRA .;3,
.-49 1oyola Grand "illas /omeo5ners ssociation v. /on. Court of ppeals, ./4 Phil. 0:+, 00;
'+--;(9 M>CI v. Cou!t of Appeals, .05 Phil. .35*.3+ '+--3(.
;0
"alencia v. Court of ppeals, //- Phil. ;++, ;40 '455.(.
;;
See R. A#palo, Statuto!, Const!uction '.!% e%., +--:(, p. 440, citin# Cu!isp!u%ence.
;3
See i%. at 44;.
;-
I%.
Page 20 of 21
35
Sup!a note +.
3+
Sup!a note + at +4..
34
Sup!a note + at +4+. See e.#., People v. de la Cruz, 6.R. No. +55.30, ++ Dece"be! +--4, 4+0
SCRA /;0, /34*/3/9 People v. migo, .44 Phil. /5, :5 '+--0(9 People v. rtiaga, 6.R. No.
++:03-, .5 >une +--;, 4;/ SCRA 03:, 0-/9 People v. *uiboyen, .0- Phil. :3-, 050 '+---(.
3.
AIn People v. Mu$oz, +;5 SCRA +5;, 2eb!ua!, -, +-3-, the Cou!t, p!io! to the enact"ent an%
e&ectivit, of RA ;0:-, !ule% b, a vote of -*0 '>. C!u8, ponente, C.>. 2e!nan, >>. 6utie!!e8, >!.,
2eliciano, 6anca,co, Pa%illa, Bi%in, 6!iQo*A1uino an% Me%ial%ea, concu!!in#( that the %eath
penalt, as not abolishe% but onl, p!ohibite% f!o" bein# i"pose%. But see also the pe!suasive
Dissentin# Opinion of M"e. >ustice A"eu!$na Melencio*?e!!e!a 'Coine% b, >>. Na!vasa, Pa!as,
Sa!"iento, Co!tes an% Re#ala%o( ho conten%e% that the Constitution totall, abolishe% the
%eath penalt, an% !e"ove% it f!o" the statute boo<s. People v. Mu$oz !eve!se% the ea!lie!
AabolitionA %oct!ine unifo!"l, hel% in People v. 6ava!!a, No. G*.;0;., +:: SCRA .4;, Octobe!
.5, +-3;, 'pe! C.>. Lap(9 People v. Masang6ay, NO. G*;./0+, +:: SCRA ++., Octobe! 4;, +-3;,
'pe! &. Melencio*?e!!e!a( an% People v. tencio, Nos. G*0;;4+*44, +:0 SCRA 4/4, Dece"be!
+5, +-3; 'pe! C.>. Na!vasa(. It is ti"e that these cases a!e !evisite% b, this Cou!t.A See footnote
no. :, Sepa!ate Opinion, People v. 2c(egaray, ..: Phil. ./., .-4 '+--;(.
3/
+amane v. 7 1epanto Condominium Corporation, 6.R. No. +:/--., 4: Octobe! 455:, /;/
SCRA 4:3, 43+.
3:
See People v. Gulpe, 6.R. No. +40345, .5 Ma!ch 455/, /40 SCRA /:0, /:3.
30
See e.#., Section +. of Rep. Act No. ;0:-, a"en%in# Section / of the Dan#e!ous D!u#s Act of
+-;4.
3;
As %e$ne% in Rule 0, A!ticle 04 of the Revise% Penal Co%e.
33
See Rep. Act No. ;0:-, Sec. ..
3-
6.R. No. +0-5;3, +5 Ma!ch 4550, /3/ SCRA :::, :0-*:;5.
-5
See, e.#., People v. 7uiachon, 6.R. No. +;54.0, .+ Au#ust 4550.
Page 21 of 21