A

con
adv
tech
lim
(SV
pro
rati
disc
SVM
exp
of t
con
var
adj
imp
of
the

of n
disa
suc
con
wit
ind
imp
197
cha
A
Impr
Vecto
Abstract - The
nventional AC/
vantages it offe
hnique is com
mited to 86.6%.
VM) strategy by
oposed in this p
io. The theor
cussed in deta
M and the pr
perimental resu
the proposed m

Index Terms -
nverter, Harmon
C-AC pow
constant fre
riable frequenc
ustable speed
provements in
AC/AC conve
re are two kind
• DC-Link
• Direct A

Figure

AC-DC-AC
needing large s
advantage is a
ch as cycloc
nverter is prefe
th cycloconver
direct. The d
plemented usin
The matrix c
76 by Gyugyi
angers. That pa
DC link (AC-
Voltage
Source
Inverter
C
S
I
A
rovem
or Mo
Sh
shda
matrix conver
/AC power ele
ers. However, th
mplex. Moreove
A modification
y using harmon
paper in order
retical analysis
ails and model
oposed modific
ults are presente
ethod.
- AC/AC power
nic injection, Sp
I. INTRO
wer converters
equency supply
cy output requ
d drive (AS
power semico
erter have eme
ds of AC-AC c
k converters (A
AC-AC convert

e 1: AC-AC Powe
converter with
storage elemen
avoided by us
onverters and
erable due to f
rters [2, 3]. M
direct matrix
ng direct or ind
converter techn
[4] under the n
aper introduces
AC/AC to
-DC-AC)
Current
Source
Inverter
Cyc
ment of
dulate
heriff M. Dab
abour@yahoo
Department
Faculty
rter (MC) is a
ectronic conver
he matrix conv
er, its voltage
n of the space v
nic injection pr
to increase the
s of the prop
ed. A compari
cation is given
ed. The results
r conversion, th
pace Vector Mo
ODUCTION
transform c
y into a variab
uired for many
SD) systems.
onductor switc
erged. As sho
converter topol
AC-DC-AC)
ters
er Converter Topol
h DC-Link has
nts (capacitor o
sing direct AC
d matrix con
frequency limi
MC topologies
converter (
direct modulati
nology was fir
name of static
s only the conv
opologies
Direct AC/AC C
cloconverter
Di
f Voltag
ed Thre
bour
o.com
of Electrical
y of Engineer
an alternative f
rters due to t
verter modulati
transfer ratio
vector modulati
rinciples has be
e voltage trans
posed method
ison between t
n. Simulation a
show the valid
hree-phase mat
odulation
constant volta
ble voltage w
y applications,
. Due to t
ches, many typ
own in Figure
logies [1]:
logies
the disadvanta
or inductor). Th
C-AC converte
nverters. Mat
itation associat
s are direct a
(DMC) can
on techniques.
rstly proposed
power frequen
verter theory a
Converters
MC
irect Indirect
ge Tra
ee-Pha
E
Power and M
ring, Tanta Un
for
the
ion
is
ion
een
fer
is
the
and
dity
trix
age
with
as
the
pes
1,

age
his
ers
rix
ted
and
be

in
ncy
and
applica
where
control
maximu
Ventur
voltage
proven
(1989),
[7]. Th
offers t
a sinus
various
convert
In th
transfer
princip
Simulin
based o
have be
in orde
The thr
switch
phases
phases
With
differen
applyin
time:
• Th
• Th
ansfer R
ase Ma
Essam M. Ra
emrashad
Machines Engi
niversity, Egy
ations. A signif
Venturini pub
l algorithm o
um voltage tra
ini proposed
e transfer ratio
to be a theor
, SVM scheme
he space vect
the full theore
soidal input cu
s strategies h
ter voltage tran
his paper, a pro
r ratio is in
le. This metho
nk. Then the a
on DS1104 dS
een compared
r to check the v
II. THRE
ree-phase matr
(BDS). They
(A, B, and C
(a, b, and c) as
h the nine bi-di
nt switch states
ng different sw
he input phases
he output phase
Figure 2: Three
VA
VB
VC
Sij
N
Ratio o
atrix C
shad, SMIEEE
d@ieee.org
ineering,
ypt
ficant contribu
blished a paper
f the convert
ansfer ratio do
an improved
o has been rai
retical maximu
e was introduce
tor modulation
etical voltage t
urrent with adju
have been su
nsfer ratio [8-1
oposed method
ntroduced. It
od has been im
algorithm is co
SPACE GmbH
to their corres
validity of the
EE-PHASE MAT
rix converter co
are connected
C) can be swit
s shown in Figu
irectional switc
s. Two constra
witching states
s must never be
es must never b
e-phase Matrix con
Cf
Lf
Input Filter
of Spa
Conver
EE
ution was achie
r which presen
ter [5]. In th
esn’t exceed 5
control strate
ised to 86.6%
um limit. In th
ed by Huber an
n of the matr
transfer ratio in
ustable phase
uggested to i
0].
d for increasing
uses harmon
mplemented u
ompiled to real
card. Experim
sponding simu
proposed meth
TRIX CONVERT
onsists of nine
d so that any
tched to any o
ure 2.
ches, the MC c
ains must be re
s to MC at an
e shorted.
be opened.
nverter topology.
SaA SbA
SaB SbB
SaC SbC
a
R
L
Switching
ace
rter
eved in 1980
nted the first
his algorithm
50%. In 1989
egy [6]. The
%, which was
he same year
nd Borojevic
rix converter
n addition to
angle. Later,
increase the
g the voltage
nic injection
using Matlab/
l time system
mental results
ulation results
hod.
TER
bidirectional
of the input
of the output
can assume 2
9

egarded when
ny switching

A ScA
B ScB
C ScC
b c
n
g Matrix

Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’12), Alexandria University, Egypt,
December 23-25, 2012, Paper ID 232, pp 581-586.

Due to the constraints mentioned above, the switching
states reduce to 3
3
or 27 different switching combinations for
connecting output phases to input phases. Consequently, it is
necessary that one and only one switch per column is closed at
each instant.
III. SPACE VECTOR MODULATION OF THE MC
The space vector modulation (SVM) technique constructs the
desired sinusoidal output three-phase voltage by selecting the
valid switching states of a matrix converter and calculating
their corresponding on-time durations.
For the analysis of a balanced three phase system, the
instantaneous space vector representation can be utilized
according to the following transformation.
I
o
=
2
3
(:
ub
+o. :
bc
+o
2
. :
cu
) = |:
o
|c
]u
c
(1)
where, o
o
are the desired angle of output voltage, and a is a
complex factor defined as: o = c
]2n¡3

Direct Space Vector Modulation
The Direct space vectors of output voltages are calculated for
each switching case of the 27 allowed. The resulted switching
vectors have 6 rotating switching vectors with fixed
magnitude and variable angle, when implementing SVM
technique, these vectors are not used. In addition, 18 active
switching vectors with fixed angle and variable magnitude.
Moreover, 3 Zero vectors magnitude. Figure 3 shows the
graphical representation of all the output voltage space
vectors.
The implementation of this technique is difficult due to the
presence of different six switching state vectors for each sector
in addition to three-zero vectors. To avoid this difficulty, the
indirect modulation technique has been used.
Indirect Modulation
This technique is based on a hypothetical indirect conversion
of the MC and was firstly proposed by [7]. This conversion
makes use of a virtual rectifier and inverter without DC-link as
shown in Figure (4). A virtual rectifier controls the input
current, and a virtual inverter regulates the output voltage.
Each type of control is equivalent to the SVM method via an
ordinary rectifier/inverter [11-12].

Figure 3: Output voltage space vectors


Figure 4: Indirect Three-phase Matrix converter topology.
A. Space Vector Rectifier (SVR)
The rectifier has to generate a DC-voltage from the three input
voltages. At the same time the rectifier algorithm has to assure
the input currents to be sinusoidal. The rectifier part of the
equivalent model in Figure 4 can be assumed to a standalone
current source rectifier. The switches, S1-S6 can have only
nine allowed combinations to avoid an open circuit at the dc
link terminals. The nine combinations can be divided into six
nonzero input currents which are active vector I
1
-I
6
and three
zero input currents which are zero vector I
o
. Figure 5 shows
current space vector.
The reference input current vector (I
i
*) is synthesized by
impressing the adjacent switching vectors I

and I
δ
with the
duty cycles d

and d
δ
, respectively. If the input currents are
considered constant during a short switching interval T
S
, the
reference vector can be expressed by the current-time product
sum of the adjacent active vectors.

I
ì
-
= J
y
. I
y
+J
6
. I
6
+J
oc
. I
o
(2)

Thus, the duty cycles d

, d
δ
and d
oc
are calculated as follows:

J
y
= m
c
. sin(n S ⁄ -0
c
)
J
6
= m
c
. sin (0
c
) (3)
J
oc
= 1 -(J
y
-J
6
)

where, θ
C
indicates the angle of the reference current vector
within the actual hexagon sector. The m
C
is the current
modulation index and defines such as follows:

u ¸ m
c
¸ 1, m
c
= I
ì
-
I
ÐC
⁄ (4)


Figure 3: Rectifier current hexagon
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
Rectifier Stage Inverter Stage
VDC
A
B
C
a
b
c
+
-
Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’12), Alexandria University, Egypt,
December 23-25, 2012, Paper ID 232, pp 581-586.

B. Space Vector Inverter (SVI)

Consider the inverter part of the equivalent model in Figure 4
as a standalone VSI supplied by a dc voltage source. The
inverter switches, S
7
- S
12
can have only eight allowed
combinations to avoid a short circuit through three half
bridges. The eight combinations can be divided into six
nonzero output voltages which are active vector V1 - V6 and
two zero output voltages which are zero vector Vz. The
discrete seven space vectors can be configured as a hexagon in
a complex plane shown in Figure 6 and an arbitrary V
o
within
the hexagon can be synthesized by a vector sum out of seven
discrete output voltage switching state vectors, V
0
- V
7
.
The reference voltage vector (V
o
*
) is synthesized by
impressing the adjacent active vectors V
α
and V

with the duty
cycles d
α
and d

, respectively. If the output voltages are
considered constant during a short switching interval T
S
, the
reference vector can be expressed by the voltage-time product
sum of the adjacent active vectors
I
o
-
= J
u
. I
u
+J
[
. I
[
+J

. I
o
(5)
Thus, the duty cycles d
α
, d

, and d
ov
are calculated by:
J
u
= m
¡
. sin(n S ⁄ -0
¡
)
J
[
= m
¡
. sin (0
¡
) (6)
J

= 1 -(J
u
-J
[
)
where, θ
v
indicates the angle of the reference voltage vector
within the actual hexagon sector. The m
v
is the voltage
modulation index and defines such as follows:
m
¡
= √SI
o,mux
I
ÐC
, (7)
where V
o,max
is the desired output line voltage.
IV. INDIRECT SVM FOR MATRIX CONVERTERS
To assure proper operation of the MC, both SVR and SVI as
described before must be combining to generate the switching
pattern for the converter. The current modulation index m
C
is
often fixed to unity and the voltage modulation index m
V
is
variable according to a required overall voltage transfer gain.
The desired output voltage, when the input current
modulation index m
C
is unity is s follows:
I
o
=
√3
2
I
ìn
m
¡
cos (ç
ìn
) (8)

This shows that for unity displacement factor, the
maximum voltage transfer ratio equals the value of √3/2.
V. PROPOSED HARMONIC INJECTION CONTROL OF SVM-MC
The principle of harmonic injection (HI) is suggested in order
to increase the voltage transfer ratio. In this method, a certain
amount of third harmonic component is injected in the
sinusoidal reference voltage (V
r
) of SVI. This process results
in a saddle reference waveform. The resulting modulating
signal v
r
is given by:
:
¡
= A
1
sinæt +A
3
sinSæt (9)
It was found that to avoid exceeding 1-p.u magnitude; A
1

and A
3
are to be 1.15-p.u and 0.19-p.u respectively [13]. The
resulting waveforms of the three-phase reference voltages
become three saddle waves as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 6: Inverter voltage hexagon


Figure 7: Waveforms of the three-phase reference vectors
Harmonic Injection Control of SVI stage
The possible switching states and the relevant voltage space
vectors of the inverter stage are the same as of conventional
method. The discrete seven space-vectors can be configured in
the output voltage hexagon as shown in Figure 8. Due to the
3
rd
harmonic injection, the maximum amplitude of the
proposed reference vector, V
o
HI*
max
can be extended to over
modulation region, which touches the radius of outer circle of
the hexagon, as shown in Figure 8. The modified reference
voltage vector V
o
HI*
within the first sector of the voltage
hexagon can be synthesized by impressing the adjacent active
vectors V
α
and V

with the duty cycles d
αHI
and d
HI

respectively as follows:
V
O
HI*
= d
αHI
·V
α
+ d
HI
·V

+ d
oHI
·V
z
(10)
The duty cycles are calculated as follows:
J
uHI
=
2
√3
m
¡
. sin[
n
3
-0
¡
¸

J
[HI
=
2
√3
m
¡
. sin (0
¡
) (11)
J
zHI
=
1
z
1
s
= 1 -(J
u
-J
[
)


Figure 8: Voltage hexagon of SVI using 3
rd
harmonic control
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
Angle (Deg.)
V 1 (100 )
V2(110 ) V3(010)
V4(011)
V5(001) V6(101 )
Vo*
V0
V 1 (100 )
V2(110 ) V3(010)
V4(011)
V5(001) V6(101 )
Vo*
V0
v
r

(
p
.
u
)

Overmodulation
region
Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’12), Alexandria University, Egypt,
December 23-25, 2012, Paper ID 232, pp 581-586.

The output voltages are modulated according to the duty
cycle of the modified space vectors. The desired output
voltage, when the input current modulation index m
c
is unity is
as follows:
I
o
= I
ìn
m
¡
cos (ç
ìn
) (12)
This shows that for unity input displacement factor, the
maximum voltage transfer ratio is unity.
VI. SIMULATION RESULTS
In order to verify the proposed harmonic injection (HI) control
of SVM method, the converter has been modeled and
simulated for a passive R-L load. Table 1 shows the adopted
model and simulation parameters for the proposed technique.
TABLE 1: PARAMETERS OF THE IMPLEMENTED MC PLATFORM

Source voltage 100 V Load 144Ω and 0.25H
Input frequency 50Hz Sampling time 2µsec
Output frequency 5Hz Switching frequency 2 kHz

Conventional Space Vector Modulation Simulation Results
Figure 9 shows the output line voltage waveform V
ab
of 5 Hz
frequency. It is clear that, the output voltage waveform is
generated by chops of the 50 Hz input line voltages.


Figure 9: Output line voltage of SVM-MC at f
o
= 5Hz. Waveforms (Upper
trace) and Spectrum analysis (Bottom trace).


Figure 10: Three-phase output currents of SVM-MC. Waveforms (Upper
trace) and Spectrum analysis (Bottom trace).
From the spectrum analysis of the output line voltage, it
can be seen that, the fundamental component of the line
voltage is 0.87p.u and the dominant harmonic order is 400
which correspond to the switching frequency (400×5 = 2
kHz). The three-phase output current waveform is shown in
Figure 10. It has a near sinusoidal shape due to the filtering
effect of load inductance.

Proposed Control Method Simulation Results


Figure 11 shows the output line voltage V
ab
waveform and
spectrum analysis of the harmonic injection control of space
vector modulated matrix converter. From the spectrum
analysis, it is observed that, the peak value of the fundamental
component of the output line voltage is 100 V. Thus, the
maximum voltage transfer ratio of this proposed technique is
unity. Figure 12 shows the three-phase output current
waveforms and spectrum analysis of the proposed HI control
method. The THD of the output current is increased to 0.0462
compared to that of SVM method which has 0.0295.
Therefore, the simulation results are in agreement with the
theoretical analysis. But the total harmonic distortion of the
output current and the lowest order harmonics are increased.


Figure 11: Output line voltage of HI-SVM MC at f
o
= 5Hz. Waveforms
(Upper trace) and Spectrum analysis (Bottom trace).


Figure 12: The HI-SVM output currents. Waveforms (Upper trace) and
Spectrum analysis (Bottom trace).
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-200
-100
0
100
200
Time (sec)
V
a
b

(
V
o
l
t
)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
20
40
60
80
Order of Harmonic
(
V
)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Time (sec)
(
A
)
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
X: 1
Y: 0.3672
Order of Harmonic
(
A
)
X: 5
Y: 0.003577
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-200
-100
0
100
200
Time (sec)
V
a
b

(
V
o
l
t
)
0 100 200 300 400 500
20
40
60
80
100
Order of Harmonic
(
V
)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Time (sec)
(
A
)
0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
X: 1
Y: 0.3866
Order of Harmonic
(
A
)
X: 5
Y: 0.01834
Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’12), Alexandria University, Egypt,
December 23-25, 2012, Paper ID 232, pp 581-586.

VII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
A 5.5-kW matrix-converter prototype has been built to testify
the control strategies proposed previously, and the photograph
of the prototype is shown in Figure 13 [11]. A small input
voltage supply of 100 Volts/line at 50 Hz is applied to the
input of MC through an autotransformer. The modulation
techniques are adjusted to create unity input displacement
factor.
Figure 14 shows the output line voltage waveforms and
spectrum analysis of the conventional space vector modulated
matrix converter when the output frequency is 5 Hz. The
spectrum shows fundamental voltage amplitude of 77.5V (at 5
Hz). The difference between the measured value (77.5V) and
the reference value of the line voltage (86.6V) is due to a
voltage drops on the semiconductor elements. Moreover, the
employed DSP (DS1104) capabilities limit sampling time to
200µsec, which may cause losing some voltage intervals. This
effect has been checked using simulation program. Figure 15
shows the effect of varying sampling time on rms value of
fundamental component of the output voltage. The amplitude
spectrum also shows dominant harmonics components around
switching frequency 1 kHz.


Figure 13: Prototype of three phase matrix converter


Figure 14: Output line voltage of 5 Hz. Waveforms (Upper trace) and
Spectrum analysis (Bottom trace).

Figure 15: Effects on the voltage transfer ratio according to sample time

Figure 16 shows the output phase current waveforms and
spectrum analysis at 5Hz output frequency using a current
probe of 1A/100mV. The output current spectrum analysis has
a near sinusoidal waveform with significant 7
th
and 11
th

harmonic components.
The performance of the three-phase matrix converter based
on HI-SVM control method has been experimentally checked.
The reference output voltage is modeled as given by Equation
(9). Figure 17 shows the experiment waveforms of the output
line voltage and current in this proposed method.
Figure 18 shows the spectral analysis of the output voltage
and current. The line voltage spectrum shows a voltage
fundamental component (at 5Hz frequency) of 93.4V, i.e.
0.934 voltage transfer ratio. Theoretically this ratio equal 1.
The difference is owed to the previously explained reasons
(i.e. switches voltage drop and sampling time limitation).
From the output current spectral analysis, the 5
th
harmonic
component appears where amplitude of 7
th
and 11
th
harmonic
components are increased.





Figure 16: Output current of 5 Hz. Waveforms (Upper trace) and Spectrum
analysis (Bottom trace).
50 100 150 200
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
Sampling Time (uS)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

r
a
t
i
o

(
%
)
(
1
5
.
5
V
/
d
i
v
)

(
6
0
m
A
/
d
i
v
)

Switching
matrix
Clamp
circuit
Interface
board
From
dSPACE CP
(125Hz/div)
(25Hz/div)
Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’12), Alexandria University, Egypt,
December 23-25, 2012, Paper ID 232, pp 581-586.



Figure 17: Output line voltage (CH-I) and current (CH-II) waveforms for 5Hz
of HI-SVM method



Figure 18: Spectral analysis of output line voltage (upper trace) and of output
current (down trace) of HI-SVM method
VIII. CONCLUSION
In this paper a proposed method to increasing the voltage
transfer ratio of the three-phase matrix converter is introduced.
This method based on harmonic injection control of space-
vector modulation. The analysis of this method has been
introduced and an improvement in the voltage transfer ratio of
the three-phase matrix converter has been achieved. The
voltage transfer ratio has been increased by 15%. The new
value for the voltage transfer ratio is near 100% whilst, the
total harmonic distortion of the output current and the lowest
order harmonics are increased. This technique has been
confirmed with simulation and experimental results.

REFERENCES

[1] Hong-Hee Lee, Nguyen H.M. and Tae-Won Chun, “New Direct-SVM
Method for Matrix Converter with Main Input Power
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th
Annual
Conference of IEEE, 2008.
[2] M. H. Bierhoff and F. W. Fuchs, “Pulse Width Modulation for Current
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nd
IEEE
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th
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Denki Gakkai Ronbunshi, Vol. 127-D, No. 8, August 2007, pp. 858–865
[11] S. M. Dabour and E. M. Rashad, “Analysis And Implementation Of
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[12] E. M. Rashad and S. M. Dabour “A Novel Five-Phase Matrix Converter
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[13] Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and
Applications”, 3rd ed. USA: Prentice Hall, 2004.


Sheriff Mousa Dabour was born in Tanta, Egypt in 1978.
He has graduated from Zagazig University, Egypt on
2002. He joined as a lecturer at the Erteqaa training
Center of the General Organization for Technical
Education and Vocational Training in Riyadh, KSA from
2003 to 2009. In 2009 he has joined Faculty of
Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt, and then he
obtained his MSc degree in 2012 from Tanta University,
Egypt. He is currently working towards the Ph.D. degree. His research
interests lie in the area of power electronics and electric motor drives.

Essam Eddin M. Rashad (M’96–SM’02) was born in
Shebin El-Kom, Egypt in 1960. He has graduated from
Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Egypt on
1983. Then he obtained his MSc and PhD degrees in
Electrical Engineering from Alexandria University, Egypt
on 1987 and 1992 respectively. He has worked as an
offshore maintenance engineer in Belayim Petroleum
Company from 1985 to 1990. In 1992 he has joined
Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt, where he is currently a
Professor and Vice Dean for Education and Student affairs. His research
interests include electrical machine analysis, electrical drives, power
electronics and renewable energy. Prof. Rashad is an IEEE senior member
since 2002.
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Proceedings of the IEEE 15th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’12), Alexandria University, Egypt,
December 23-25, 2012, Paper ID 232, pp 581-586.