American Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems

2013; 2(3): 88-93
Published online June 30, 2013 (http://www.sciencepublishin!oup.co"/#/epes)
doi: 10.11$%8/#.epes.20130203.1%


Simulation of non linear adaptive observer for sensorless
induction motor control
Benheniche Abdelhak
1, 2
, Bensaker Bachir
2
1
&lect!otechnic'l (ep'!t"ent, )ouloud )'""e!i *i+i-,u+ou -ni.e!sit/
2
&lect!onic (ep'!t"ent, 0'd#i )o1ht'! 2nn'b' -ni.e!sit/
Email address:
benheniche200$3/'hoo.4!(0. 2bdelh'1), bens'1e!5b'chi!3/'hoo.4!(0. 0'chi!)
To cite this article:
0enheniche 2bdelh'1, 0ens'1e! 0'chi!. 6i"ul'tion o4 7on 8ine'! 2d'pti.e ,bse!.e! 4o! 6enso!less 9nduction )oto! :ont!ol, American
Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems. ;ol. 2, 7o. 3, 2013, pp. 88-93. doi: 10.11$%8/#.epes.20130203.1%

Abstract: *his p'pe! p!esents ' "odel !e4e!ence 'd'pti.e s/ste" b'sed senso!less induction "oto! d!i.e. 9n this sche"e,
'n 'd'pti.e 4ull o!de! 4lu< obse!.e! is used. *he si"ul'tion !esult show th't with the l'!e P9 'in 4o! the 'd'pti.e sche"e,
the con.e!ence 4o! the speed esti"'tion is 4'st 'nd .e!/ well, howe.e! hihe! h'!"onics 'nd noises '!e included in the
esti"'ted speed. -su'll/ noises c'used b/ in.e!te!. 6i"ul'tion !esults show th't p!oposed sche"e c'n esti"'te the "oto!
speed unde! .'!ious 'd'pti.e P9 'ins 'nd esti"'ted speed c'n !epl'ce to "e'su!ed speed in senso!less induction "oto!.
Keywords: 9nduction )oto!, 6enso!less :ont!ol, Pole Pl'ce"ent, )=26 6peed &sti"'tion, 8/'puno. >unction
1. Introduction
*h!ee ph'se induction "oto! is widel/ used in "'n/
indust!ies, "'inl/ due to its !iidness, "'inten'nce 4!ee
ope!'tion, 'nd !el'ti.el/ low cost. 9n cont!'st to the
co""ut'tion dc "oto!, it c'n be used in '!essi.e o!
.ol'tile en.i!on"ents since the!e '!e no !is1s o4 co!!osion
o! sp'!1s. ?owe.e!, induction "oto! constitute '
theo!etic'll/ ch'llenin cont!ol p!oble" since the
d/n'"ic'l s/ste" is non line'!, the elect!ic'l !oto! .'!i'ble
'!e not "e'su!'ble, 'nd the ph/sic'l p'!'"ete!s '!e "ost
o4ten i"p!ecisel/ 1nown@1-2-3-$A.
)'chine "odel b'sed "ethods o4 speed esti"'tion h'.e
4ound ' !e't inte!est '"on di44e!ent speed esti"'tion
"ethods 4o! thei! si"plicit/. *he/ include di44e!ent
"ethods such 's 8uenbe!e! obse!.e! (8,)@10-13A, )odel
=e4e!ence 2d'pti.e 6/ste" ()=26)@1-2-%-10-1BA;
2d'pti.e >lu< ,bse!.e! (2>,)@2-12-1%-1$A; 6lidin )ode
,bse!.e! (6),)@1C-18A 2!ti4ici'l 9ntellience *echniDues
(29)@19-20-21A; 'nd E'l"'n >ile! (E>)@22-23A.)'chine
"odel-b'sed "ethods '!e ch'!'cte!i+ed b/ thei! si"plicit/
'nd ood pe!4o!"'nce 't hih 'nd "ediu" speeds.
?owe.e! 't low speeds, the/ '!e p!oble"'tic. *he "'in
li"it'tions '!ise 4!o" inst'bilit/ p!oble"s 'ssoci'ted with
"ost speed esti"'tion sche"es 't low speeds due to the
ch'ne o4 "'chine p'!'"ete!s.
2d'pti.e 4lu< obse!.e! is one o4 the "'chine "odel
b'sed "ethods o4 speed esti"'tion o4 senso!less induction
"oto! d!i.e. P'!'"ete!s .'!i'tions, low speed ope!'tion
'nd the di44icult/ encounte!ed in the desin in the 4eedb'c1
'in 'nd the 'd'pt'tion "ech'nis" '!e the "ost c!uci'l
'spects '44ectin the 'ccu!'c/ 'nd st'bilit/ o4 this "ethod.
*his unst'ble !eion o4 2>, c'n be !educed b/ p!ope!
desin o4 both the obse!.e! 4eedb'c1 'in 'nd 'd'pti.e l'w
usin se.e!'l techniDues. . 9nst'bilit/ p!oble"s o4 low
speed !eene!'ti.e "ode o4 !educed-o!de! obse!.e!s 'nd
thei! !e"edies h'.e been p!oposed in@2%A.
)'n/ !ese'!ches h'.e been de.oted to /ieldin bette!
speed esti"'tion o4 senso!less induction "oto! d!i.es usin
2>,. ?owe.e!, the!e is ' well 1nown unst'ble !eion
encounte!ed 't low speeds. ,ne o4 the techniDues to stud/
the st'bilit/ 'n'l/sis o4 the speed esti"'tion 'nd si"pli4/
the st!uctu!e o4 the senso!less cont!ol s/ste" b/ "e'ns o4
the usin =outhF?u!wit+ c!ite!ion@12A.,! usin 8/'puno.
theo!/@13A. 6t'bilit/ 'n'l/sis o4 both !oto! speed 'nd st'to!
!esist'nce esti"'to!s 4o! st'ble 2>,@8A 'nd in the
!eene!'ti.e "ode 't low speeds h's been p!esented in@9-
11A.'nd p'!'llel speed 'nd st'to! !esist'nce esti"'tion
'lo!ith" b'sed on ' slidin "ode cu!!ent obse!.e! which
co"bines .'!i'ble st!uctu!e cont!ol 'nd Popo.Gs h/pe!
st'bilit/ theo!ies@CA.
9t is well 1nown 4!o" cont!ol theo!/ th't ' st'te esti"'to!,
c'lled 'lso st'te obse!.e!, is ' d/n'"ic s/ste" th't is
d!i.en b/ the input-output o4 the conside!ed s/ste",
esti"'te 's/"ptotic'll/ its un-"e'su!'ble st'te .'!i'ble. 9t
uses 'n 'd'pti.e "ech'nis" in.ol.in 's input, the e!!o!
2"e!ic'n Jou!n'l o4 &lect!ic'l Powe! 'nd &ne!/ 6/ste"s 2013; 2(3): 88-93 89

between the "e'su!ed 'nd esti"'ted output .'lue o4 the
s/ste". 9t is ' Hso4tw'!e senso!I th't pl'/s 'n i"po!t'nt
!ole in the esti"'tion o4 the un-"e'su!'ble st'te .'!i'bles
th't '!e essenti'l not onl/ in the senso!less cont!ol
techniDues.
2s 'u !esult, the d!i.e h's ' wide! 'd#ust'ble speed !'ne
'nd c'n be ope!'ted 't .e!/ low speed. *his p'pe! p!esents
the si"ul'tion !esults o4 the p!oposed sche"e which h's
been i"pl'nted on ' 0.CBEJ induction "oto! d!i.e!. *he
s/ste"'tic o4 this p'pe! consist o4 si< sections. 6ection 1
desc!ibes the o.e!.iew o4 the obse!.'tion 'nd cont!ol
s/ste" st!uctu!e o4 induction "oto! unde! studies. 6ection
2 discusses with the "odel o4 'd'pti.e 4lu< obse!.e!; the
"odel !e4e!ence 'd'pti.e s/ste" is p!esented in section 3
while section % desc!ibes the 'd'pti.e sche"e 4o! speed
esti"'tion. 6ection B depicts the si"ul'tion !esults o4 the
desined induction "oto! cont!ol. >in'll/, section $ i.es
the conclusion o4 this p'pe!.
2. Mathematical Models or Induction
Motor and Ada!ti"e #lu$ %bser"er
2.1. Dynamic Model of Induction Motor
>o! 'n induction "oto!, i4 the st'to! cu!!ent i
s
'nd !oto!
4lu< ø
r
'!e selected 's the st'te .'!i'bles eDu'tions c'n be
e<p!essed 's (1) in the st'tion'!/ !e4e!ence 4!'"e@2A
d
dt
_
i
s
ø
¡
_ = _
A
11
A
12
A
21
A
22
_ _
i
s
ø
¡
_ +j
B
1
u
[ :
s
(1)
i
s
= Cx (2)
Jhe!e
i
s
= |i
ds
i
qs
]
1
is st'to! cu!!ent
ø
¡
= |ø

ø

]
1
is !oto! 4lu<
:
s
= |
:
ds
:
qs]
1
is st'to! .olt'e
x = |i
s
ø
¡
]
1

A
11
= -_
R
s
oI
s
+
1 - o

¡
_ I = o
¡11
I
A
12
=
I
m
oI
s
I
¡
_
1
¡
¡
I -æ
¡
[_ = o
¡12
I + o
ì12
[
A
21
= _
I
m
¡
¡
] I = o
¡21
I
A
22
= _
1
¡
¡
] I + æ
¡
[
B
1
=
1
oI
s
I , C = |I u]
o = 1 -
L
m
2
L
s
L
r
9s the induct'nce le'1'e coe44icient
I = j
1 u
u 1
[ onJ [ = j
u -1
1 u
[
Jhe!e R
s
, R
¡
'nd I
s
, I
¡
'!e st'to! 'nd !oto! !esist'nces
'nd sel4 induct'nces ,!especti.el/, I
m
is "utu'l induct'nce,
¡
¡
is the !oto! ti"e const'nt
L
r
R
r
'nd æ
¡
is elect!ic'l "oto!
'nul'! speed.
*he elect!o"ech'nic'l eDu'tion o4 induction "oto! is
i.en b/
I
c
=
3
2
P
2
L
m
L
r


i
qs
- ø

i
ds
) (3)
&. Model 'eerence Ada!ti"e (ystem
*he "odel !e4e!ence 'd'pti.e s/ste" ()=26) is one o4
the "'#o! 'pp!o'ches 4o! 'd'pti.e cont!ol@%A@$A. *he "odel
!e4e!ence 'd'pti.e s/ste" ()=26) is one o4 "'n/
p!o"isin techniDues e"plo/ed in 'd'pti.e cont!ol. 2"on
.'!ious t/pes o4 'd'pti.e s/ste" con4iu!'tion, )=26 is
i"po!t'nt since it le'ds to !el'ti.el/ e's/-to-i"ple"ent
s/ste"s with hih speed o4 'd'pt'tion 4o! ' wide !'ne o4
'pplic'tions. *heo!etic'll/ )=26 co"putes ' desi!ed st'te
(c'lled 's the 4unction'l c'ndid'te) usin two di44e!ent
"odels (i.e. !e4e!ence 'nd 'd#ust'ble "odels). *he e!!o!
between the two "odels is used to esti"'te 'n un1nown
p'!'"ete! (he!e speed is the un1nown p'!'"ete!). 2
condition to 4o!" the )=26 is th't the 'd#ust'ble "odel
should onl/ depend on the un1nown p'!'"ete!. ?e!e, the
!e4e!ence "odel is independent o4 !oto! speed, whe!e's the
'd#ust'ble "odel is dependent on the s'"e. *he e!!o! sin'l
is 4ed to the 'd'pt'tion "ech'nis". *he output o4 the
'd'pt'tion "ech'nis" is the esti"'ted Du'ntit/ ( æ¯
¡cst
),
which is used 4o! the tunin in 'd#ust'ble "odel 'nd 'lso
4o! 4eedb'c1. *he st'bilit/ o4 such closed loop esti"'to! is
'chie.ed th!ouh Popo.Gs ?/pe! st'bilit/ c!ite!ion@1-2A.
6e.e!'l othe! 'pp!o'ches such 's .'!i'ble st!uctu!e-
b'sed techniDue, p'ssi.it/ b'sed techniDue, etc. '!e 'lso
!epo!ted to esti"'te the speed o4 ' P)6) d!i.e. *he "o!e
!ecent 'pp!o'ch b'sed on 2!ti4ici'l 9ntellience (29) '!e the
2!ti4ici'l 7eu!'l 7etwo!1s (277)@21A 'nd >u++/ 8oic@22A
4o! speed esti"'tion. 0ut, the 29-b'sed "ethods !eDui!e
hue "e"o!/ 'nd in.ol.e co"put'tion'l co"ple<it/.
,ut o4 'll the techniDues discussed so 4'!, )=26 is
widel/ 'ccepted 4o! speed esti"'tion due to its si"plicit/
'nd ood st'bilit/. 2lso the "ethod does not !eDui!e 'n/
e<t!' h'!dwi!e o! sin'l in#ection o! hue "e"o!/ li1e
&E> o! &8,.

Figure 1. Basic configuration of a parallel adaptive system.
90 0enheniche 2bdelh'1 et al.: 6i"ul'tion o4 7on 8ine'! 2d'pti.e ,bse!.e! 4o!
6enso!less 9nduction )oto! :ont!ol 9nduction )oto! :ont!ol
2.2. Adaptive Flux Observer
*he 2P>, 4lu< obse!.e! c'n be w!itten 's 4ellows@1A:
d
dt
t
s
= A
`
11
t
s
+A
`
12
ø
´
¡
+B:
s
+ 0(t
s
- i
s
) (%)
d
dt
ø
´
¡
= A
`
21
t
s
+A
22
ø
´
¡
(B)
Jhe!e i
s
'nd v
s
'!e "e'su!ed .'lues o4 st'to! cu!!ent
.ecto! 'nd st'to! .olt'e .ecto!, !especti.el/, G is the 4ull
o!de! obse!.e! 'in "'t!i< which is 'lso dete!"ined to
"'1e (3) st'ble 'nd HK Hdenote the esti"'ted .'lues. *he
obse!.e! is the closed loop s/ste", which is obt'ined b/
d!i.in esti"'ted "odel o4 the induction "oto! b/ the
!esidu'l o4 the cu!!ent "e'su!e"ent, e
is
.
c
ìs
= i
s
-t
s
($)
*he esti"'tion o4 st'to! cu!!ents is conducted b/ '
closed loop obse!.e! with@%L2A 4eedb'c1 'in "'t!i< M 's
in (3), whe!e's the esti"'tion o4 the !oto! 4lu<es is c'!!ied
out b/ 'n open loop obse!.e! o4 (%) without the 4lu< e!!o!.
*he!e4o!e, the !e'l 'nd esti"'ted !oto! 4lu<es '!e 'ssu"ed
the s'"e.
ø
¡
= ø
´
¡
(C)
*he obse!.e! 'in "'t!i< is chosen 's:
0 = j
g
1
g
2
-g
2
g
1

g
3
g
4
-g
4
g
3
[
1
(8)
Jhe!e the obse!.e! 'in "'t!i< M is c'lcul'ted b'sed on
the pole pl'ce"ent techniDue. *he selection o4 the obse!.e!
poles is ' co"p!o"ise between the !'pidit/ o4 e!!o!
!esponses 'nd the sensiti.it/ to distu!b'nces 'nd
"e'su!e"ent noises. 9n p!'ctice, the eien-.'lues o4 the
obse!.e! '!e selected to be ne'ti.e, so th't the st'te o4 the
obse!.e! will con.e!e to the st'te o4 the obse!.ed s/ste",
'nd the/ '!e chosen to be so"ewh't "o!e ne'ti.e th'n the
eien-.'lues o4 the obse!.ed s/ste" so th't con.e!ence is
4'ste! th'n othe! s/ste" e44ects. 0'sed on the 'bo.e
"entioned c!ite!i' the 'utho! chose@1A,
g
1
= (k -1)(o
¡11
+ o
¡22
) (9)
g
2
= (k - 1)o
ì11
(10)
g
3
= (k
2
- 1)(co
¡11
+ o
¡21
) -c(k -1)(o
r11
+o
r22
)(11)
g
4
= c(k - 1)o
ì22
(12)
c = oI
s
I
¡
I
m
/ (13)
). Ada!ti"e (cheme or (!eed
Estimation
:onside! the 8/'puno. 4unction c'ndid'te@9A:
I = I
1
+ I
2
(1%)
I
1
= c
1
c I
2
=
c
n
2
x
(1B)
Jith (z > u) , is the positi.e const'nt ensu!in the
positi.e de4initeness o4 I
2
'nd which will be tuned in (19)
to i"p!o.e obse!.e! d/n'"ics. c
o
= æ
¡
- æ¯
¡
'nd
c
1
= |i
sd
- t
sd
i
sq
- t
sq
u u] 0ec'use we supposed
th't ø
¡
= ø
´
¡

*he de!i.'ti.es o4 this l/'puno. c'ndid'te 4unction in
thus:
JI
Jt
= c
1
|(A - 0C)
1
+ (A -0C)]c

-2(æ
¡
- æ¯
¡
) jK(c
ìsd
ø
´
¡q
- c
ìsq
ø
´
¡d
) -
1
x
d
dt
æ¯
¡
[ (1$)
c
1
|(A - 0C)
1
+(A - 0C)]c < -µ (1C)
Jith µ = eI
n
'nd e > u
*he st'bilit/ o4 'd'pti.e obse!.e! h's p!o.ed i4 we
!espect two conditions 's 4ollows:
*he eien-.'lue o4 the obse!.e! '!e selected to h'.e
ne'ti.e !e'l p'!ts so th't the st'tes o4 the obse!.e! will
con.e!e to the desi!ed st'tes o4 the obse!.ed s/ste". *he
te!" in 4'cto! o4 (æ
¡
- æ¯
¡
)in the eDu'tion (1$) "ust be
+e!o. *he e<p!ession o4 the de!i.'ti.e o4 esti"'ted speed
beco"es then:
K(c
ìsd
ø
´
¡q
- c
ìsq
ø
´
¡d
) -
1
x
d
dt
æ¯
¡
= u (18)
d
dt
æ¯
¡
= zK(c
ìsd
ø
´
¡q
-c
ìsq
ø
´
¡d
) (19)
?owe.e! this 'd'pti.e l'w o4 the speed
æ¯
¡
= K
ì
] (c
ìsd
ø
´
¡q
-c
ìsq
ø
´
¡d
)Jt
t
0
(20)
?'s obt'ined 4o! the s't'to!iDue 4!'"e his d/n'"ic h's
'd#usted b/ K
i
(4inite positi.e const'nt). >o! 'u"ented the
d/n'"ic o4 this obse!.e! du!in the t!'nsito!/ ph'se o4
!oto! speed, we esti" the speed b/ l'!e P9 !eul'to!; we
'dded ' supple"ent'!/ te!" p!opo!tion'l o4 e!!o!. *hen
æ¯
¡
= K
p
(c
ìsd
ø
´
¡q
- c
ìsq
ø
´
¡d
)
+ K
ì
] (c
ìsd
ø
´
¡q
- c
ìsq
ø
´
¡d
)Jt
t
0
(21)
Jhe!e K
p
'nd K
ì
'!e 'd'pti.e 'ins 4o! speed esti"'to!.
2n identi4ic'tion s/ste" 4o! speed is shown in >i.2, which
is const!ucted 4!o" ' line'! ti"e-in.'!i'nt 4o!w'!d bloc1
'nd ' nonline'! ti"e-.'!/in 4eedb'c1 bloc1.
*. (imulation 'esults
*he b'sic con4iu!'tion o4 speed esti"'tion o4 senso!less
induction "oto! d!i.e is shown in 4iu!e (2).this
con4iu!'tion will be used 4o! both si"ul'tions. 2ll
!e4e!ence o! co""'nd p!eset .'lues '!e subsc!ipted with '
H N H in the di'!'".9) speed will be esti"'ted b/ (21) 'nd
will be co"p'!ed with the !e4e!ence speed in o!de! to c!e'te
the e!!o! speed. *he p!oposed 4ull o!de! 4lu< obse!.e! 4o!
induction "oto! st'tes esti"'tions h's been de.eloped 'nd
2"e!ic'n Jou!n'l o4 &lect!ic'l Powe! 'nd &ne!/ 6/ste"s 2013; 2(3): 88-93 91

'pplied in the di!ect 4ield o!iented cont!ol o4 induction
"oto!.

Figure 2. Speed adaptive observer
Table 1. Induction motor parameters
(ymbol +uantity ,. -alues
P' Powe! ,.CBEJ
> 6uppl/ 4!eDuenc/ B0?O
P 7u"be! o4 p'i! poles 2
; 6uppl/ .olt'e 220;
R
s
6t'to! !esist'nce 100
R
¡
=oto! !esist'nce $.30
I
s
6t'to! induct'nce 0.%$%2?
I
¡
=oto! induct'nce 0.%$12?
I
m
)utu'l induct'nce 0.%212?
æ
¡
=oto! 'nul'! .elocit/ 1BC!d/s
J 9ne!ti' coe44icient 0.02E
2
/s
¡ >!iction coe44icient 07.s/!d

Figure . Bloc diagram of sensorless I! drive

Figure !. "eference# measured and observed rotor angular velocity $very
low speed%

Figure ". Speed estimation error

Figure #. "eference measured and observed rotor angular velocity during
step c&ange of speed reference from'()*)()+*, $very low and -ero speed%

Figure $. Speed estimation error

i
s

æ¯
r
= K
p
(c
isJ

>
G_
− B
]_

>
G2
9 + S

` 8B
]2

>
G_
− B
]_

>
G2
92R
R
0

`
A(%:
G
)
C
G
M
B
U
e
i

]
%:
G


>
G

Current measured

Vector rotator
a
inverter
1/L
FOC
Full order
observer
Speed
estimator
IM
"
b
c

"
R
c

[∅
>
G
<
]
]
PI

G
c
d
e
G

%:
G

%
G

["
]
]
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 .5
!1
0
1
2

"
5
#
Time (s)
R
o
t
o
r

a
n
g
u
l
a
i
r
e

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
r
d
/
s
)
$eference
$eal
Estimated
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
-3
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
Time (s)
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

e
r
r
o
r

(
r
d
/
s
)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
!#
!"
!2
0
2
"
#
Time (s)
R
o
t
o
r

a
n
g
u
l
a
r

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
r
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s
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$eference
$eal
Estimated
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
!1.#
!1."
!1.2
!1
!0.%
!0.#
!0."
!0.2
0
0.2
Time (s)
E
s
t
i
m
a
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d

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92 0enheniche 2bdelh'1 et al.: 6i"ul'tion o4 7on 8ine'! 2d'pti.e ,bse!.e! 4o!
6enso!less 9nduction )oto! :ont!ol 9nduction )oto! :ont!ol
9n 4i.%-B show the beh'.io! o4 9) speed esti"'tion 'nd
esti"'tion e!!o! whe!e the induction "oto! !ot'tes 't '
const'nt .e!/ low speed (B !d/s), the obse!.ed speed 'lso
con.e!e to !e'l speed 't the ti"e (0.8s 4o! B !d/s) .these
4iu!es show th't with l'!e P9 'in 4o! 'd'pti.e sche"e,
the con.e!ence 4o! speed esti"'tion is 4'st.
9n 4i.$-C show the beh'.io! o4 9) speed esti"'tion 'nd
esti"'tion e!!o! unde! .'!ious co""'nd speed , whe!e the
co""'nd speed is 4i!st set 't ' +e!o speed (0 !d/s), 't (0.CBs)
the !e4e!ence speed is ch'ned to (B !d/s) (.e!/ low
speed),.'t (1s) the !e4e!ence speed is ch'ned to (0!d/s)
(+e!o speed),4in'll/ 't (2.2Bs) the co""'nd speed is
ch'ned to (-B!d/s) .the p!oposed obse!.e! con4!ont no
p!oble" in the low speed !eion. >u!the!"o!e the
'lo!ith" o4 speed identi4ic'tion sche"e is ch'!'cte!i+ed
b/ thei! si"plicit/ 'nd s"'ll co"put'tion ti"e.
.. /onclusion
*his p'pe! p!esents ' )=26-b'sed 'd'pti.e 4ull-o!de!
obse!.e! (2>>,) senso!less induction "oto! d!i.e. *his
"ethod h's been 'pplied to ' di!ect 4ield-o!iented induction
"oto! cont!ol without speed senso!. *he si"ul'tion !esults
de"onst!'ted th't with P9 'ins 4o! the 'd'pti.e !eul'to!s,
the con.e!ence 4o! the speed esti"'tion is 4'st 'nd well.
*he p!oposed obse!.e! c'n wo!1 'ccu!'tel/ 't .e!/ low
speed !eion.

'eerences
@1A ?. ). Eo#'b'di, 8. :h'n, H:o"p'!'ti.e stud/ o4 pole
pl'ce"ent "ethod in 'd'pti.e 4lu< obse!.e!sP cont!ol
eninee!in p!'ctice 13 (200B) @C%9-CBCA
@2A ?. ). Eo#'b'di, H6i"ul'tion 'nd e<pe!i"ent'l studies o4
"odel !e4e!ence 'd'pti.e s/ste" 4o! senso!less induction
"oto! d!i.eP, 6i"ul'tion )odelin P!'ctice 'nd *heo!/ 13
(200B) @%B1-%$%A
@3A ?. Eubot', E. )'tsuse, *. 7'1'no, H (6P-b'sed speed
'd'pti.e 4lu< obse!.e! o4 induction "oto!P, 9&&& *!'ns. 9nd.
2ppl. 29 (1993) @3%%-3%8A
@%A (. P. )'!cetic, 6. 7. ;u1's'.ic, H 6peed-6enso!less 2:
(!i.e Jith the =oto! *i"e :onst'nt P'!'"ete! -pd'teP,
9&&& *!'ns on indust!i'l elect!onics, ;,8. B%,7,. B,
,ctobe! 200C.
@BA J. 0o1e!, P6t'te o4 the 2!t o4 9nduction )oto! :ont!olP,
9&&&, 6h'shidh'! )'th'p'ti -ni.e!sit/
Pete!bo!n,J'!bu!e! 6t!. 100 (-33098 Pede!bo!n, Me!"'n/
(200C).). 2le
@$A &. 8eEsono 'nd P!'tiEto, H2d'pti.e 6peed :ont!ol o4
9nduction )oto! Jith (6P 9"ple"ent'tionP, *he 30th
2nnu'l :on4e!ence o4 the 9&&& indust!i'l elect!onics
societ/,7o.e"be! 2-$, 200%,0us'n, Eo!i'Q
@CA ). 6. O'1i, ).Eh'te!, ?. R'sin, 6.6. 6ho1!'ll', H;e!/ low
speed 'nd +e!o speed esti"'tions o4 senso!less induction
"oto! d!i.esP, &lect!ic Powe! 6/ste"s =ese'!ch 80 (2010)
1%3-1B1.:ontents lists '.'il'ble 't 6cience(i!ect.
@8A ). 6. O'1i, H2 st'ble 'd'pti.e 4lu< obse!.e! 4o! ' .e!/ low
speed-senso!less induction "oto! d!i.es insensiti.e to st'to!
!esist'nce .'!i'tionsP, 2in 6h'"s &ninee!in Jou!n'l (2011)
2, 11-20 P!oduction 'nd hostin b/ &lse.ie!.
@9A O'1/ )6. 6t'bilit/ 'n'l/sis o4 si"ult'neous esti"'tion o4
speed 'nd st'to! !esist'nce 4o! speed-senso!less induction
"oto! d!i.es. 9n: P!oceedins o4 13th 9nte!n'tion'l )iddle-
&'st Powe! 6/ste"s :on4e!ence ()&P:,7G2010), :'i!o
-ni.e!sit/, &/pt, 2010. p. 3$%FC0.
@10A 2. P'l'duu, 0. ?. :howdhu!/,P6enso!less cont!ol o4
in.e!te!-4ed induction "oto! d!i.esP, &lect!ic Powe!
6/ste"s =ese'!ch CC (200C) $19-$29.
@11A 2. 0ouhenn', :. :h'ine, 7. 0ensi'li, &. &tien, H(esin o4
speed 'd'pt'tion l'w in senso!less cont!ol o4 induction
"oto! in !eene!'tin "odeP, 6i"ul'tion )odilin P!'ctice
'nd *heo!/ 1B (200C) 8%C-8$3.
@12A Eubot' ?, 6'to 9, *'"u!' R, )'tsuse E, ,ht' ?, ?o!i R.
=eene!'tin-"ode low-speed ope!'tion o4 senso!less
induction "oto! d!i.e with 'd'pti.e obse!.e!. 9&&& *!'ns
9nd 2ppl 2002;38(%):1081F$.
@13A ).Juili, E.J'!!'/, R.Eoub'', ).0ouss'1, H8enbe!e! st'te
obse!.e! 4o! speed senso!less 96>,: induction "oto!
d!i.esP, &lect!ic Powe! 6/ste"s =ese'!ch 89 (2012) 139-
1%C.
@1%A 6uw'n1'win 6, 6'nwonw'nich 6. (esin st!'te/ o4 'n
'd'pti.e 4ull-o!de! obse!.e! 4o! speed-senso!less induction-
"oto! d!i.es-t!'c1in pe!4o!"'nce 'nd st'bili+'tion. 9&&&
*!'ns 9nd &lect!on 200$;B3(1):9$F119
@1BA Eow'ls1' *,, (/b1ows1i ). 6t'to!-cu!!ent-b'sed )=26
esti"'to! 4o! ' wide !'ne speed-senso!less induction-"oto!
d!i.e. 9&&& *!'ns 9nd &lect!on 2010;BC(%):129$F308
@1$A &tien &, :h'ine :, 0ensi'li 7. ,n the st'bilit/ o4 4ull
'd'pti.e obse!.e! 4o! induction "oto! in !eene!'tin "ode.
9&&& *!'ns 9nd &lect!on 10;BC(B):1B99F$08
@1CA 6.).Ei", J.R.?'n, 6.J.Ei",P(esin o4 ' new 'd'pti.e
slidin "ode obse!.e! 4o! senso!less induction "oto! d!i.eP,
&lect!ic Powe! 6/ste"s =ese'!ch C0 (200%) 1$-22.
@18A 7.9n'nc.P2 !obust slidin "ode 4lu< 'nd speed obse!.e! 4o!
speed senso!less cont!ol o4 'n idi!ect 4ield o!iented
induction "oto! d!i.esP P, &lect!ic Powe! 6/ste"s =ese'!ch
CC (200C) 1$81-1$88.
@19A 6oll/ '!/+';2h"ed 7 2bdell'h, Oul1e4leeEh'lidin,
Oul1'!ni'n 8oubis, H2d'pti.e speed esti"'tion o4 induction
"oto! b'sed on neu!'l netwo!1 in.e!se cont!olP'd.'nced in
cont!ol eninee!in 'nd in4o!"'tion science,p!ocedi'
eninee!in 1B(2011)%188-%193
@20A ?'s'n 2. Rouse4N, )'n'l 2. J'hb' H2d'pti.e 4u++/ "i"o
cont!ol o4 induction "oto!sP &<pe!t 6/ste"s with
2pplic'tions 3$ (2009) %1C1F%1CB
@21A 0h'!'t 0hush'n, )'dhusud'n 6inh, P!e" P!'1'sh
HPe!4o!"'nce 2n'l/sis o4 >ield ,!iented 9nduction )oto!
usin >u++/ P9 'nd >u++/ 8oic b'sed )odel =e4e!ence
2d'pti.e :ont!olP, 9nte!n'tion'l Jou!n'l o4 :o"pute!
2pplic'tions (09CB F 888C) ;olu"e 1CF 7o.%, )'!ch 2011
@22A 6'lo"Sn :hT.e+ ;elT+Due+, =ubUn 2le#os 'lo"'!es,
2l4!edo 7'.' 6eu!' H6peed &sti"'tion 4o! 'n 9nduction
)oto! -sin the &<tended E'l"'n >ilte!P, P!oceedins o4
2"e!ic'n Jou!n'l o4 &lect!ic'l Powe! 'nd &ne!/ 6/ste"s 2013; 2(3): 88-93 93

the 1%th 9nte!n'tion'l :on4e!ence on &lect!onics,
:o""unic'tions 'nd :o"pute!s (:,79&8&:,)PG0%) 0-
C$9B-20C%-L/0% V 20.00 W 200% 9&&&
@23A 2"e!ico ;icente 8eite, =ui &ste.es 2!'u#o, , 'nd
(i'"'ntino >!eit's H2 7ew 2pp!o'ch 4o! 6peed &sti"'tion
in 9nduction )oto! (!i.es 0'sed on ' =educed-,!de!
&<tended E'l"'n >ilte!P 0-C803-830%-%/0%/V20.00 :0200%
9&&&
@2%A ?'!ne4o!s 8. H9nst'bilit/ pheno"en' 'nd !e"edies in
senso!less indi!ect 4ield o!iented cont!olP. 9&&& *!'ns
Powe! &lect!on 2000;1B(%):C33F%3.