matrix converter
Sherif M. Dabour
⇑
, Abd ElWahab Hassan, Essam M. Rashad
Department of Electrical Power and Machines Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 1 August 2013
Received in revised form 12 June 2014
Accepted 16 June 2014
Keywords:
Fivephase matrix converter
Indirect space vector modulation
Fivephase induction motor
a b s t r a c t
Due to their advantages, polyphase (more than threephase) motor drive systems are becoming more
popular and get more applications. This paper introduces the detailed analysis and implementation of
a threetoﬁvephase matrix converter (FPMC) feeding both inductive and ﬁvephase induction motor
(FPIM) loads. The control of this converter is based on an indirect space vector modulation (ISVM)
scheme. It models the converter as two independent stages perform rectiﬁcation and inversion process.
The analysis and simulation model of the converter were carried out. The model was used during
designing of the converter prototype. The implemented converter was based on discrete semiconductors.
The maximum voltage transfer ratio of this converter is about 79%. A FPIM has been designed and imple
mented. A laboratory system was built based upon digital signal processor (DS1104). Simulation and
experimental results are given to conﬁrm the theoretical approach.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Introduction
Nowadays, the interest in polyphase (more than threephase)
motor drive system has been increased due to several advantages
over than of a threephase drive system. These advantages are
inherent to the own structure of the machine, such as reducing
the amplitude and increasing the frequency of torque pulsations
and reducing the rotor harmonic current losses [1,2]. A FPIM drive
system has several salient features that are attractive for industrial
applications [3,4]. The faulttolerant property of a ﬁvephase sys
tem makes it a strong candidate for safety critical applications such
as defense, hospitals, ship propulsions, traction drive and aircraft
applications [5,6]. Although a ﬁvephase system is still not used
in industrial applications, it has high potential of adoption by
industries. Detailed reviews on the development in the area of
multiphase especially FPIM drive are presented in [7–10]. The
required power to such machines was delivered by the polyphase
power converters. A twolevel or multilevel multiphase inverter is
the standard solution [11–14]. However it has the disadvantage of
needing large storage elements. This disadvantage is avoided by
using the matrix converter (MC).
The MC is a direct mphase to nphase converter, was ﬁrstly
investigated as a direct three to threephase converter in [15]
and it steadily growth, pushed by the progress of the power
electronics technology. A signiﬁcant contribution was achieved in
[16] which presented the ﬁrst control algorithm of this converter.
In this algorithm the maximum voltage gain does not exceed 0.5.
An improved control strategy has been proposed in [17] to increase
the voltage gain. It has been raised to 0.866, which was proven to
be a theoretical maximum limit. Indirect modulation of the MC
was introduced by [18]. This method assumes the threephase
MC as a virtual double PWM rectiﬁer and voltage source inverter
without any dc link. With this representation, the carrierbased
PWM and SVM methods of VSI are extended to a MC [19–21]. After
almost three decades of intensive research, the development of MC
has been involved in industrial applications. In 2008, Yaskawa
Company introduces the ﬁrst product of threephase MC. The most
common conﬁguration of the MC discussed in the literature is the
three to threephase, little attention has been aid on the develop
ment of MC with output more than three, except in [22–27].
This paper concerns with the FPMC. It is connects the
threephase power supply with the ﬁvephase load directly. The
advantages of this converter, when compared with the standard
ﬁvephase VSI are the absence of dclink, sinusoidal input and out
put currents, possible power factor control, fourquadrant opera
tion, compact design, regeneration capability and it has no limit
on output frequency. However its disadvantages are reduced max
imum voltage gain (about 79%), many switches needed, increased
complexity of control and sensitivity to input voltage disturbances.
These drawbacks are the same for threephase MC, there are many
published research work to solve such problems [28,29] and it
can be extended to FPMC. In all, the progress of the MC has
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.06.048
01420615/Published by Elsevier Ltd.
⇑
Corresponding author. Tel.: +20 1097228660.
Email addresses: shdabour@yahoo.com (S.M. Dabour), abdelwahab_hassan2@
hotmail.com (A.ElWahab Hassan), emrashad@ieee.org (E.M. Rashad).
Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Electrical Power and Energy Systems
j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j epes
signiﬁcantly improved its performance, rendering it an acceptable
choice for compact and integrated convertermotor drives. This
paper introduces an application of FPMC to a FPIM drive system
using scalar control. The converter modulation strategy is based
on ISVM technique. The motorconverter system has been imple
mented and modeled. Full details of design and implementation
steps of the drive system were introduced. Then, the control tech
nique is compiled to real time system based on DS1104 card.
Finally the simulation and experimental results are given and
discussed.
Fivephase matrix converter topology
The FPMC utilizes 15 switches, as shown in Fig. 1. Each of the
switches depicted is a bidirectional switch (BDS), which are con
nected so that, any of the input phases (A–C) can be connected
to any of the output phases; (a–e) for a given switching. The output
voltages (v
a
À v
e
) are therefore derived directly fromthe input volt
ages (v
A
À v
C
) using the modulation matrix of the switches, S as
follows:
v
a
v
b
v
c
v
d
v
e
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
S
aA
S
aB
S
aC
S
bA
S
bB
S
bC
S
cA
S
cB
S
cC
S
dA
S
dB
S
dC
S
eA
S
eB
S
eC
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
v
A
v
B
v
C
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ð1Þ
Space vector modulation techniques for ﬁvephase matrix
converter
The SVM technique constructs the desired sinusoidal output
voltage by selecting the valid switching states of the converter
and calculating their corresponding ontime durations.
Direct modulation
With the ﬁfteen BDS, the MC has 2
15
(32768) different
switching states. Some of the basic rules must be regarded at any
switching time. These rules are: (1) input phases must never be
shorted and (2) output phases must not be left open, due to the
inductive nature of the load. By investigating these rules, the num
ber of switching states are reduced to 3
5
(243) different switching
combinations. The digital implementation of this technique is
difﬁcult due to large number of the resulting switching vectors.
To avoid this difﬁculty, the ISVM technique has been used. This
technique is based on the indirect modulation of the MC and was
ﬁrstly proposed in [18] for three to threephase MC. In the follow
ing this technique has been extended to the three to ﬁvephase
MC.
Indirect modulation
This method to control the MC actually corresponds to regard it
as a combination of virtual rectiﬁer and inverter stages without
any DCLink as shown in Fig. 2. The rectiﬁer stage has the same
topology of the threephase rectiﬁer with six switches (S
1
À S
6
),
and the Inverter stage has a standard ﬁvephase VSI topology con
sisting of ten switches (S
7
À S
16
). The basic idea of this technique is
to decouple the control of the input current (control of rectiﬁer
stage) and the control of output voltage (control of inverter stage).
This is done by splitting the modulation matrix, S for the converter
into the product of a rectiﬁer transfer function, R and an inverter
transfer function, I as follows;
S ¼ I:R ð2Þ
S
aA
S
aB
S
aC
S
bA
S
bB
S
bC
S
cA
S
cB
S
cC
S
dA
S
dB
S
dC
S
eA
S
eB
S
eC
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
s
7
s
8
s
9
s
10
s
11
s
12
s
13
s
14
s
15
s
16
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Â
s
1
s
3
s
5
s
2
s
4
s
6
_ _
ð3Þ
Space vector rectiﬁer (SVR)
The rectiﬁer switches can have only possible nine allowed
combinations (active vector, I
1
À I
6
and zero vector, I
7
À I
9
) as
represented in Fig. 3. The reference input current vector (I
i
⁄
) is
synthesized by impressing the adjacent switching vectors I
c
and
I
d
with the duty cycles d
c
and d
d
, respectively as follows;
I
Ã
in
¼ d
c
:I
c
þ d
d
:I
d
þ d
oc
:I
o
ð4Þ
Thus, the duty cycles are written as;
d
c
¼ m
c
Á sin p=3 À h
c
ð Þ ð5Þ
d
d
¼ m
c
Á sinðh
c
Þ ð6Þ
The duration of the zerovector is calculated by;
d
oc
¼ 1 À ðd
c
þ d
d
Þ ð7Þ
where h
C
indicates the angle of reference current vector within the
actual hexagon sector, m
C
is the current modulation index and
deﬁnes the desired current transfer ratio such as;
SaA SbA ScA SdA SeA
SaB SbB ScB SdB SeB
SaC SbC ScC SdC SeC
V
A
V
B
V
C
Vb
V
c
V
d
V
e
M
V
a
Input
filter
Switching Matrix
Fig. 1. Fivephase MC topology.
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
Rectifier Stage Inverter Stage
VDC
A
B
C
a
b
c
+

S13
S14
S15
S16
d
e
Ip
In
Fig. 2. Indirect model of ﬁvephase MC.
S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746 741
0 6 m
C
6 1 & m
C
¼
I
Ã
in
I
p
ð8Þ
The virtual average DClink voltage (V
DC
) is calculated by using the
fact that there are no reactive elements in the MC. This means, the
input power ﬂow, the virtual DC power ﬂow and the output power
ﬂow are equal at any instant. Therefore the V
DC
expression as a
function of peak input phasevoltage ð
´
V
IN
Þ, m
c
and input current
displacement angle (u
in
) is;
V
DC
¼
3
2
´
V
IN
m
c
cosðu
in
Þ ð9Þ
Space vector inverter (SVI)
The inverter switches have only thirtytwo allowed (active vec
tors, (V
1
–V
30
) and two zero vector V
0
) as represented in the deca
gon of Fig. 4. The active voltage vectors shown have three levels;
large V
l
¼
4
5
cos
p
5
_ _
V
DC
_ _
, medium V
m
¼
2
5
V
DC
_ _
and small
V
s
¼
4
5
cos
2p
5
_ _
V
DC
_ _
vectors.
The reference voltage vector (V
r
⁄
) is synthesized by impressing
the adjacent voltage vectors V
a
, V
b
and V
0
with the duty cycles
d
a
, d
b
and d
0v
respectively as follows;
V
Ã
r
¼ d
a
:V
a
þ d
b
:V
b
þ d
ov
:V
0
ð10Þ
Thus, the duty cycles are written as;
d
a
¼ m
v
Á sin p=5 À h
v
ð Þ ð11Þ
d
b
¼ m
v
Á sinðh
v
Þ ð12Þ
The duration of the zerovector is calculated by;
d
ov
¼ 1 À ðd
a
þ d
b
Þ ð13Þ
where h
v
indicates the angle of reference voltage vector within the
actual decagon sector, m
v
deﬁnes the desired voltage modulation
index such as;
m
v
¼ V
Ã
r
=½V
l
sinðp=5Þ ð14Þ
From the inverter stage decagon of Fig. 4, the maximum
allowable length of reference vector V
r
⁄
which provides linear mod
ulation (circle inscribed in decagon ðm
v
1:618Þ) is equal to;
V
Ã
r;max
¼ V
l
cos
p
10
_ _
¼ 0:6155V
DC
ð15Þ
Only SVM with large and medium vectors is used ((2L + 2M)
method), it’s based on the proportional subdivision of the time of
application of each vector from outer and intermediate sectors
[12]. The duty cycles obtained are subdivided according to the ratio
of medium and large vector lengths, so that the new duty ratios are
given by;
d
al
¼ d
a
V
l
V
l
þ V
m
d
am
¼ d
a
V
m
V
l
þ V
m
d
bl
¼ d
b
V
l
V
l
þ V
m
d
bm
¼ d
b
V
m
V
l
þ V
m
ð16Þ
This subdivision allocates 61.8% of total active time to the large
vectors and 38.2% to the mediumvectors. The duty ratio of zero vec
tors is now given as;
d
ov
¼ 1 À ðd
al
þ d
am
þ d
bl
þ d
bm
Þ ð17Þ
Owing to the above subdivision, the reference voltage vector in
sector one is synthesized by impressing the adjacent voltage
(2L + 2M) vectors and V
0
with the duty cycles in (16) and (17) as
follows;
V
Ã
r
¼ d
al
:V
al
þ d
am
:V
am
þ ðd
bl
:V
bl
þ d
bm
:V
bm
Þe
j
p
5
þ d
ov
:V
0
ð18Þ
After substituting the duty ratios expressions (16) and (17) into
(18), the output fundamental phase voltage (V
o
⁄
) of the inverter
stage is;
V
Ã
o
¼ V
Ã
r
v
2
l
þv
2
m
V
l
sin
p
5
_ _
ðv
l
þv
m
Þ
sin
p
5
À h
v
_ _
þsin h
v
ð Þe
j
p
5
_ _
e
jxt
ð19Þ
I
1
(a,b)
I
2
(a,c)
I
3
(b,c)
I
4
(b,a)
I
6
(c,b)
I
5
(c,a)
Sector 1
Sector 2 Sector 3
Sector 4
Sector 5
Sector 6
Re
Im
I
in
*
dγIγ
d
δ
I
δ
d
oc
I
o
ia
ib
ic
θc
Fig. 3. Rectiﬁer current hexagon.
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
6
V
7
V
8
V
10
V
11
V
21
V
12
V
22
V
13
V
14
V
15
V
16
V
17
V
18
V
19
V
20
V
23
V
24
V
25
V
26
V
27
V
28
V
29
V
30
V
0
V
r
* dαVα
d
β
V
β
θv
V
9
Fig. 4. The inverter stage decagon.
Table 1
Duty cycles of the ﬁvephase MC.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Rectiﬁer d
c
d
c
d
c
d
c
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
oc
Inverter d
am
d
bm
d
al
d
bl
d
am
d
bm
d
al
d
bl
d
ov
Duty cycle d
cam
d
cbm
d
cal
d
cbl
d
dam
d
dbm
d
dal
d
dbl
d
o
742 S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746
The above expression indicates that the maximum output funda
mental phase voltage (V
o
⁄
 at h
v
= p/10) only 85.41% of the input
reference voltage value (V
r
⁄
). From (15), the maximum achievable
output fundamental voltage can be obtained from the following;
V
Ã
o;max
¼ 0:8541 Â V
l
cos
p
10
_ _
¼ 0:5257V
DC
ð20Þ
To minimize the number of switching, the switching pattern and
the sequence of space vectors for the method utilizing 2L + 2M
space vectors for the ﬁrst sector is as follows;
d
o
4
!
d
am
2
!
d
bl
2
!
d
al
2
!
d
bm
2
!
d
o
2
!
d
bm
2
!
d
al
2
!
d
bl
2
!
d
am
2
!
d
o
4
Combined SVM to modulate the FPMC
The output voltage from SVR and input voltage to SVI are the
same; there will no conﬂict in applying both modulations at the
same time. To assure proper operation of the FPMC, the two mod
ulation strategies must be combined to generate its switching pat
tern. SVR stage has a hexagon while SVI stage has a decagon. In
total, 6 Â 10 combinations can be considered in each sequence.
Also each stage of the converter has different duty cycles based
on (5)–(7), (16), (and) (17). This leads nine combinations for order
ing the time segments corresponding to duty ratios in each switch
ing cycle as shown in Table 1.
Based on the indirect modulation technique [31][32], the max
imum achievable output fundamental voltage V
Ã
o;max
_ _
of the
Table 2
Electrical parameters of the ﬁvephase machine.
Parameter Value Parameter Value
Power (kW) 1.1 R
s
(X) 14
Line voltage (V) 380 V R
r
(X) 4.6
No. of poles 2Pole L
ls
= L
lr
(H) 0.8714
Frequency (Hz) 50 Hz L
m
(H) 0.85
2
3
5
6
1
7
4
Fig. 5. Photograph of the ﬁvephase MC prototype. (1Adjustable power supply, 2
ﬁvephase MC, 3voltage sensor, 4host PC, 5DS1104 – CP, 6ﬁvephase IM, and 7
oscilloscope).
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
200
100
0
100
200
V
a
n
(
V
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
200
100
0
100
200
Time (sec)
V
b
n
(
V
)
Fig. 6. Output phase voltages waveforms at f
o
= 10 Hz. (Upper trace) simulation and
(bottom trace) experimental results.
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
200
100
0
100
200
V
a
b
(
V
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
200
100
0
100
200
Time (sec)
V
b
c
(
V
)
Fig. 7. Output line voltages waveforms at f
o
= 10 Hz. (Upper trace) simulation and
(bottom trace) experimental results.
S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746 743
matrix converter can be determined by equating (9) and (20) as
follows;
´
V
o
¼ 0:5257 Â
3
2
´
V
in
m
c
cosðu
in
Þ ð21Þ
This shows that for unity input displacement factor and unity input
current modulation index, the maximum voltage transfer ratio of
the FPMC equals the value of 78.85%.
Experimental setup
The drive system is experimentally veriﬁed in a test rig based
on 18slots, 2pole threephase IM, whose stator has been
rewound to provide a ﬁvephase IM. Parameters of the machine
have been determined using conventional tests with FPMC supply,
obtaining the values shown in Table 2.
The switching matrix of the FPMC is realized by 15BDS, each is
composed of a diagonal power MOSFET (IRFP460A) and a bridge of
fast recovery diodes (BY229F). This type of BDS has the character
istics of a true ACswitch. It needs only one gatedrive with an iso
lated supply [30]. Therefore, the system demands 15 isolated
supplies and 15 gatedriver circuits. The employed MOSFET has
the following characteristics; voltage blocking capability is 500 V,
current capacity is 20 A, integral freewheeldiode, no clamp circuit
required, low switching losses, and total turn on and turn off times
77 and 168 ns respectively [33]. The fast recovery diodes with
reverse recovery time less than 135 ns. The gate driver circuit is
based on a high speed optocoupler device (6N137) with a typical
50 and 12 ns rise and fall time respectively. Therefore, it is very
suitable for MC applications.
The control system is based on the DS1104 controller. Further
more, it has been implemented using Matlab/Simulink and then,
compiled to real time system. Measurements are obtained using
a digital scope and a current probe (HAMEG HM407 and HZ56).
All experimental results have been obtained with the experimental
rig shown in Fig. 5 using a switching frequency of 1.25 kHz and
sampling time of 200 ls. The reference input current displacement
angle adjusted to zero which achieves maximum available voltage
gain of the converter.
Veriﬁcation results
RLload
To testify the steady state behavior, the output phases (a–e) of
the converter are connected to the passive load (144 Xand 0.25 H).
A small input voltage supply of 100 V/line at 50 Hz is applied.
Figs. 6 and 7 describe the simulated and experimental results of
output phase and line voltages waveforms. It is clear to see that,
the phase angle between the two voltages is 72°. However, Fig. 8
shows the simulated and experimental results of the load and
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Time (sec)
P
h
a
s
e
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
s
(
A
)
Fig. 8. Load currents waveforms at f
o
= 10 Hz. (a) Simulation, (b) experimental
results, and input voltage and current waveforms, (c) simulation and (d) experi
mental results.
i
a
i
b
10 Hz 30 Hz
v
a
v
b
Fig. 9. Experimental waveforms for a step change in frequency from 10 to 30 Hz.
(Upper trace) phase voltages and (bottom trace) phase currents.
744 S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746
the supply currents waveforms. The load currents (Fig. 8a and b)
are near sinusoidal due to the inductive nature of the load.
Fig. 8c shows the simulated supply voltage, ﬁltered (with input ﬁl
ter of 10 lF and 1.5 mH) and unﬁltered input current waveforms.
Because there was no implemented input current ﬁlter, the exper
imental input current waveform (CH2) is pulse width modulated
(Fig. 8d). It is clear that its fundamental component is approxi
mately in phase with the input phase voltage (CH1). This is owed
to adjusting displacement angle to zero. Finally, the developed MC
is tested for a wide range of output frequencies. Also, a step change
of output frequency has been performed. The reference output fre
quency is changed from 10 to 30 Hz while the reference output
voltage is maintained constant. The obtained output phase volt
ages (upper trace) and currents (bottom trace) waveforms experi
mental results are shown in Fig. 9. The voltage and current
waveforms have smooth transition between the two frequencies.
The simulation and experimental results match to a good extent.
This proves the viability of the proposed FPMC.
FPIM drive
Experimental results of FPMC fed IM with scalar control were
obtained for various operating conditions. Fig. 10a (upper trace)
shows the experimental results for motor speed and current vari
ations during startup period with 30 Hz reference frequency. After
attaining steadystate condition, a step change in reference fre
quency from 30 to 20 Hz (i.e. from 1800 to 1200 r/min) is obtained.
The smooth transition from one operating point to the other is
obvious. The employed FPIM is originally of a threephase. It has
been rewounded as a ﬁvephase. Since the stator frame is of 18
slots it was not possible to get perfect balanced ﬁvephase wind
ings. Finally, Fig. 10b (bottom trace) shows the experimental
results for a motor speed reversal. Initially the reference frequency
is set at 30 Hz. Then, the speed is reversed to the same value.
Conclusion
In this paper, the analysis and implementation of FPMC has
been discussed. The control strategy of this converter is based on
ISVM. Due to this strategy the converter was modeled as a combi
nation of threephase rectiﬁer and ﬁvephase inverter. Both recti
ﬁer and inverter are SVM. The maximum obtainable output
voltage is 0.7885 of the input supply voltage. The converter proto
type has been implemented using discrete semiconductors. A pre
liminary test with R–L load has been presented and good results
are obtained. A FPIM was designed and implemented. Experimen
tal results were introduced for the motor drive system at various
operating conditions. The feasibility of the proposed system has
been veriﬁed through simulation and experiments.
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