Analysis and implementation of space vector modulated five-phase

matrix converter
Sherif M. Dabour

, Abd El-Wahab Hassan, Essam M. Rashad
Department of Electrical Power and Machines Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 1 August 2013
Received in revised form 12 June 2014
Accepted 16 June 2014
Keywords:
Five-phase matrix converter
Indirect space vector modulation
Five-phase induction motor
a b s t r a c t
Due to their advantages, poly-phase (more than three-phase) motor drive systems are becoming more
popular and get more applications. This paper introduces the detailed analysis and implementation of
a three-to-five-phase matrix converter (FPMC) feeding both inductive and five-phase induction motor
(FPIM) loads. The control of this converter is based on an indirect space vector modulation (ISVM)
scheme. It models the converter as two independent stages perform rectification and inversion process.
The analysis and simulation model of the converter were carried out. The model was used during
designing of the converter prototype. The implemented converter was based on discrete semiconductors.
The maximum voltage transfer ratio of this converter is about 79%. A FPIM has been designed and imple-
mented. A laboratory system was built based upon digital signal processor (DS1104). Simulation and
experimental results are given to confirm the theoretical approach.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Introduction
Nowadays, the interest in poly-phase (more than three-phase)
motor drive system has been increased due to several advantages
over than of a three-phase drive system. These advantages are
inherent to the own structure of the machine, such as reducing
the amplitude and increasing the frequency of torque pulsations
and reducing the rotor harmonic current losses [1,2]. A FPIM drive
system has several salient features that are attractive for industrial
applications [3,4]. The fault-tolerant property of a five-phase sys-
tem makes it a strong candidate for safety critical applications such
as defense, hospitals, ship propulsions, traction drive and aircraft
applications [5,6]. Although a five-phase system is still not used
in industrial applications, it has high potential of adoption by
industries. Detailed reviews on the development in the area of
multiphase especially FPIM drive are presented in [7–10]. The
required power to such machines was delivered by the poly-phase
power converters. A two-level or multilevel multiphase inverter is
the standard solution [11–14]. However it has the disadvantage of
needing large storage elements. This disadvantage is avoided by
using the matrix converter (MC).
The MC is a direct m-phase to n-phase converter, was firstly
investigated as a direct three- to three-phase converter in [15]
and it steadily growth, pushed by the progress of the power
electronics technology. A significant contribution was achieved in
[16] which presented the first control algorithm of this converter.
In this algorithm the maximum voltage gain does not exceed 0.5.
An improved control strategy has been proposed in [17] to increase
the voltage gain. It has been raised to 0.866, which was proven to
be a theoretical maximum limit. Indirect modulation of the MC
was introduced by [18]. This method assumes the three-phase
MC as a virtual double PWM rectifier and voltage source inverter
without any dc link. With this representation, the carrier-based
PWM and SVM methods of VSI are extended to a MC [19–21]. After
almost three decades of intensive research, the development of MC
has been involved in industrial applications. In 2008, Yaskawa
Company introduces the first product of three-phase MC. The most
common configuration of the MC discussed in the literature is the
three- to three-phase, little attention has been aid on the develop-
ment of MC with output more than three, except in [22–27].
This paper concerns with the FPMC. It is connects the
three-phase power supply with the five-phase load directly. The
advantages of this converter, when compared with the standard
five-phase VSI are the absence of dc-link, sinusoidal input and out-
put currents, possible power factor control, four-quadrant opera-
tion, compact design, regeneration capability and it has no limit
on output frequency. However its disadvantages are reduced max-
imum voltage gain (about 79%), many switches needed, increased
complexity of control and sensitivity to input voltage disturbances.
These drawbacks are the same for three-phase MC, there are many
published research work to solve such problems [28,29] and it
can be extended to FPMC. In all, the progress of the MC has
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.06.048
0142-0615/Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +20 1097228660.
E-mail addresses: shdabour@yahoo.com (S.M. Dabour), abdelwahab_hassan2@
hotmail.com (A.El-Wahab Hassan), emrashad@ieee.org (E.M. Rashad).
Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Electrical Power and Energy Systems
j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j epes
significantly improved its performance, rendering it an acceptable
choice for compact and integrated converter-motor drives. This
paper introduces an application of FPMC to a FPIM drive system
using scalar control. The converter modulation strategy is based
on ISVM technique. The motor-converter system has been imple-
mented and modeled. Full details of design and implementation
steps of the drive system were introduced. Then, the control tech-
nique is compiled to real time system based on DS1104 card.
Finally the simulation and experimental results are given and
discussed.
Five-phase matrix converter topology
The FPMC utilizes 15 switches, as shown in Fig. 1. Each of the
switches depicted is a bidirectional switch (BDS), which are con-
nected so that, any of the input phases (A–C) can be connected
to any of the output phases; (a–e) for a given switching. The output
voltages (v
a
À v
e
) are therefore derived directly fromthe input volt-
ages (v
A
À v
C
) using the modulation matrix of the switches, S as
follows:
v
a
v
b
v
c
v
d
v
e
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
S
aA
S
aB
S
aC
S
bA
S
bB
S
bC
S
cA
S
cB
S
cC
S
dA
S
dB
S
dC
S
eA
S
eB
S
eC
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
v
A
v
B
v
C
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ ð1Þ
Space vector modulation techniques for five-phase matrix-
converter
The SVM technique constructs the desired sinusoidal output
voltage by selecting the valid switching states of the converter
and calculating their corresponding on-time durations.
Direct modulation
With the fifteen BDS, the MC has 2
15
(32768) different
switching states. Some of the basic rules must be regarded at any
switching time. These rules are: (1) input phases must never be
shorted and (2) output phases must not be left open, due to the
inductive nature of the load. By investigating these rules, the num-
ber of switching states are reduced to 3
5
(243) different switching
combinations. The digital implementation of this technique is
difficult due to large number of the resulting switching vectors.
To avoid this difficulty, the ISVM technique has been used. This
technique is based on the indirect modulation of the MC and was
firstly proposed in [18] for three- to three-phase MC. In the follow-
ing this technique has been extended to the three- to five-phase
MC.
Indirect modulation
This method to control the MC actually corresponds to regard it
as a combination of virtual rectifier and inverter stages without
any DC-Link as shown in Fig. 2. The rectifier stage has the same
topology of the three-phase rectifier with six switches (S
1
À S
6
),
and the Inverter stage has a standard five-phase VSI topology con-
sisting of ten switches (S
7
À S
16
). The basic idea of this technique is
to decouple the control of the input current (control of rectifier
stage) and the control of output voltage (control of inverter stage).
This is done by splitting the modulation matrix, S for the converter
into the product of a rectifier transfer function, R and an inverter
transfer function, I as follows;
S ¼ I:R ð2Þ
S
aA
S
aB
S
aC
S
bA
S
bB
S
bC
S
cA
S
cB
S
cC
S
dA
S
dB
S
dC
S
eA
S
eB
S
eC
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¼
s
7
s
8
s
9
s
10
s
11
s
12
s
13
s
14
s
15
s
16
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Â
s
1
s
3
s
5
s
2
s
4
s
6
_ _
ð3Þ
Space vector rectifier (SVR)
The rectifier switches can have only possible nine allowed
combinations (active vector, I
1
À I
6
and zero vector, I
7
À I
9
) as
represented in Fig. 3. The reference input current vector (I
i

) is
synthesized by impressing the adjacent switching vectors I
c
and
I
d
with the duty cycles d
c
and d
d
, respectively as follows;
I
Ã
in
¼ d
c
:I
c
þ d
d
:I
d
þ d
oc
:I
o
ð4Þ
Thus, the duty cycles are written as;
d
c
¼ m
c
Á sin p=3 À h
c
ð Þ ð5Þ
d
d
¼ m
c
Á sinðh
c
Þ ð6Þ
The duration of the zero-vector is calculated by;
d
oc
¼ 1 À ðd
c
þ d
d
Þ ð7Þ
where h
C
indicates the angle of reference current vector within the
actual hexagon sector, m
C
is the current modulation index and
defines the desired current transfer ratio such as;
SaA SbA ScA SdA SeA
SaB SbB ScB SdB SeB
SaC SbC ScC SdC SeC
V
A
V
B
V
C
Vb
V
c
V
d
V
e
M
V
a
Input
filter
Switching Matrix
Fig. 1. Five-phase MC topology.
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
S11
S12
Rectifier Stage Inverter Stage
VDC
A
B
C
a
b
c
+
-
S13
S14
S15
S16
d
e
Ip
In
Fig. 2. Indirect model of five-phase MC.
S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746 741
0 6 m
C
6 1 & m
C
¼
I
Ã
in
I
p
ð8Þ
The virtual average DC-link voltage (V
DC
) is calculated by using the
fact that there are no reactive elements in the MC. This means, the
input power flow, the virtual DC power flow and the output power
flow are equal at any instant. Therefore the V
DC
expression as a
function of peak input phase-voltage ð
´
V
IN
Þ, m
c
and input current
displacement angle (u
in
) is;
V
DC
¼
3
2
´
V
IN
m
c
cosðu
in
Þ ð9Þ
Space vector inverter (SVI)
The inverter switches have only thirty-two allowed (active vec-
tors, (V
1
–V
30
) and two zero vector V
0
) as represented in the deca-
gon of Fig. 4. The active voltage vectors shown have three levels;
large V
l
¼
4
5
cos
p
5
_ _
V
DC
_ _
, medium V
m
¼
2
5
V
DC
_ _
and small
V
s
¼
4
5
cos
2p
5
_ _
V
DC
_ _
vectors.
The reference voltage vector (V
r

) is synthesized by impressing
the adjacent voltage vectors V
a
, V
b
and V
0
with the duty cycles
d
a
, d
b
and d
0v
respectively as follows;
V
Ã
r
¼ d
a
:V
a
þ d
b
:V
b
þ d
ov
:V
0
ð10Þ
Thus, the duty cycles are written as;
d
a
¼ m
v
Á sin p=5 À h
v
ð Þ ð11Þ
d
b
¼ m
v
Á sinðh
v
Þ ð12Þ
The duration of the zero-vector is calculated by;
d
ov
¼ 1 À ðd
a
þ d
b
Þ ð13Þ
where h
v
indicates the angle of reference voltage vector within the
actual decagon sector, m
v
defines the desired voltage modulation
index such as;
m
v
¼ V
Ã
r
=½V
l
sinðp=5ފ ð14Þ
From the inverter stage decagon of Fig. 4, the maximum
allowable length of reference vector V
r

which provides linear mod-
ulation (circle inscribed in decagon ðm
v
1:618Þ) is equal to;
V
Ã
r;max
¼ V
l
cos
p
10
_ _
¼ 0:6155V
DC
ð15Þ
Only SVM with large and medium vectors is used ((2L + 2M)
method), it’s based on the proportional sub-division of the time of
application of each vector from outer and intermediate sectors
[12]. The duty cycles obtained are sub-divided according to the ratio
of medium and large vector lengths, so that the new duty ratios are
given by;
d
al
¼ d
a
V
l
V
l
þ V
m
d
am
¼ d
a
V
m
V
l
þ V
m
d
bl
¼ d
b
V
l
V
l
þ V
m
d
bm
¼ d
b
V
m
V
l
þ V
m
ð16Þ
This sub-division allocates 61.8% of total active time to the large
vectors and 38.2% to the mediumvectors. The duty ratio of zero vec-
tors is now given as;
d
ov
¼ 1 À ðd
al
þ d
am
þ d
bl
þ d
bm
Þ ð17Þ
Owing to the above sub-division, the reference voltage vector in
sector one is synthesized by impressing the adjacent voltage
(2L + 2M) vectors and V
0
with the duty cycles in (16) and (17) as
follows;
V
Ã
r
¼ d
al
:V
al
þ d
am
:V
am
þ ðd
bl
:V
bl
þ d
bm
:V
bm
Þe
j
p
5
þ d
ov
:V
0
ð18Þ
After substituting the duty ratios expressions (16) and (17) into
(18), the output fundamental phase voltage (V
o

) of the inverter
stage is;
V
Ã
o
¼ V
Ã
r
v
2
l
þv
2
m
V
l
sin
p
5
_ _
ðv
l
þv
m
Þ
sin
p
5
À h
v
_ _
þsin h
v
ð Þe
j
p
5
_ _
e
jxt
ð19Þ
I
1
(a,b)
I
2
(a,c)
I
3
(b,c)
I
4
(b,a)
I
6
(c,b)
I
5
(c,a)
Sector 1
Sector 2 Sector 3
Sector 4
Sector 5
Sector 6
Re
Im
I
in
*
dγIγ
d
δ
I
δ
d
oc
I
o
ia
ib
ic
θc
Fig. 3. Rectifier current hexagon.
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
6
V
7
V
8
V
10
V
11
V
21
V
12
V
22
V
13
V
14
V
15
V
16
V
17
V
18
V
19
V
20
V
23
V
24
V
25
V
26
V
27
V
28
V
29
V
30
V
0
V
r
* dαVα
d
β
V
β
θv
V
9
Fig. 4. The inverter stage decagon.
Table 1
Duty cycles of the five-phase MC.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Rectifier d
c
d
c
d
c
d
c
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
oc
Inverter d
am
d
bm
d
al
d
bl
d
am
d
bm
d
al
d
bl
d
ov
Duty cycle d
cam
d
cbm
d
cal
d
cbl
d
dam
d
dbm
d
dal
d
dbl
d
o
742 S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746
The above expression indicates that the maximum output funda-
mental phase voltage (|V
o

| at h
v
= p/10) only 85.41% of the input
reference voltage value (V
r

). From (15), the maximum achievable
output fundamental voltage can be obtained from the following;
V
Ã
o;max
¼ 0:8541 Â V
l
cos
p
10
_ _
¼ 0:5257V
DC
ð20Þ
To minimize the number of switching, the switching pattern and
the sequence of space vectors for the method utilizing 2L + 2M
space vectors for the first sector is as follows;
d
o
4
!
d
am
2
!
d
bl
2
!
d
al
2
!
d
bm
2
!
d
o
2
!
d
bm
2
!
d
al
2
!
d
bl
2
!
d
am
2
!
d
o
4
Combined SVM to modulate the FPMC
The output voltage from SVR and input voltage to SVI are the
same; there will no conflict in applying both modulations at the
same time. To assure proper operation of the FPMC, the two mod-
ulation strategies must be combined to generate its switching pat-
tern. SVR stage has a hexagon while SVI stage has a decagon. In
total, 6 Â 10 combinations can be considered in each sequence.
Also each stage of the converter has different duty cycles based
on (5)–(7), (16), (and) (17). This leads nine combinations for order-
ing the time segments corresponding to duty ratios in each switch-
ing cycle as shown in Table 1.
Based on the indirect modulation technique [31]-[32], the max-
imum achievable output fundamental voltage V
Ã
o;max
_ _
of the
Table 2
Electrical parameters of the five-phase machine.
Parameter Value Parameter Value
Power (kW) 1.1 R
s
(X) 14
Line voltage (V) 380 V R
r
(X) 4.6
No. of poles 2-Pole L
ls
= L
lr
(H) 0.8714
Frequency (Hz) 50 Hz L
m
(H) 0.85
2
3
5
6
1
7
4
Fig. 5. Photograph of the five-phase MC prototype. (1-Adjustable power supply, 2-
five-phase MC, 3-voltage sensor, 4-host PC, 5-DS1104 – CP, 6-five-phase IM, and 7-
oscilloscope).
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
-200
-100
0
100
200
V
a
n

(
V
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
-200
-100
0
100
200
Time (sec)
V
b
n

(
V
)
Fig. 6. Output phase voltages waveforms at f
o
= 10 Hz. (Upper trace) simulation and
(bottom trace) experimental results.
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
-200
-100
0
100
200
V
a
b

(
V
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
-200
-100
0
100
200
Time (sec)
V
b
c

(
V
)
Fig. 7. Output line voltages waveforms at f
o
= 10 Hz. (Upper trace) simulation and
(bottom trace) experimental results.
S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746 743
matrix converter can be determined by equating (9) and (20) as
follows;
´
V
o
¼ 0:5257 Â
3
2
´
V
in
m
c
cosðu
in
Þ ð21Þ
This shows that for unity input displacement factor and unity input
current modulation index, the maximum voltage transfer ratio of
the FPMC equals the value of 78.85%.
Experimental setup
The drive system is experimentally verified in a test rig based
on 18-slots, 2-pole three-phase IM, whose stator has been
rewound to provide a five-phase IM. Parameters of the machine
have been determined using conventional tests with FPMC supply,
obtaining the values shown in Table 2.
The switching matrix of the FPMC is realized by 15-BDS, each is
composed of a diagonal power MOSFET (IRFP460A) and a bridge of
fast recovery diodes (BY229F). This type of BDS has the character-
istics of a true AC-switch. It needs only one gate-drive with an iso-
lated supply [30]. Therefore, the system demands 15 isolated
supplies and 15 gate-driver circuits. The employed MOSFET has
the following characteristics; voltage blocking capability is 500 V,
current capacity is 20 A, integral freewheel-diode, no clamp circuit
required, low switching losses, and total turn on and turn off times
77 and 168 ns respectively [33]. The fast recovery diodes with
reverse recovery time less than 135 ns. The gate driver circuit is
based on a high speed optocoupler device (6N137) with a typical
50 and 12 ns rise and fall time respectively. Therefore, it is very
suitable for MC applications.
The control system is based on the DS1104 controller. Further-
more, it has been implemented using Matlab/Simulink and then,
compiled to real time system. Measurements are obtained using
a digital scope and a current probe (HAMEG HM-407 and HZ-56).
All experimental results have been obtained with the experimental
rig shown in Fig. 5 using a switching frequency of 1.25 kHz and
sampling time of 200 ls. The reference input current displacement
angle adjusted to zero which achieves maximum available voltage
gain of the converter.
Verification results
RL-load
To testify the steady state behavior, the output phases (a–e) of
the converter are connected to the passive load (144 Xand 0.25 H).
A small input voltage supply of 100 V/line at 50 Hz is applied.
Figs. 6 and 7 describe the simulated and experimental results of
output phase and line voltages waveforms. It is clear to see that,
the phase angle between the two voltages is 72°. However, Fig. 8
shows the simulated and experimental results of the load and
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Time (sec)
P
h
a
s
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
s


(
A
)
Fig. 8. Load currents waveforms at f
o
= 10 Hz. (a) Simulation, (b) experimental
results, and input voltage and current waveforms, (c) simulation and (d) experi-
mental results.
i
a
i
b
10 Hz 30 Hz
v
a
v
b
Fig. 9. Experimental waveforms for a step change in frequency from 10 to 30 Hz.
(Upper trace) phase voltages and (bottom trace) phase currents.
744 S.M. Dabour et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 63 (2014) 740–746
the supply currents waveforms. The load currents (Fig. 8a and b)
are near sinusoidal due to the inductive nature of the load.
Fig. 8c shows the simulated supply voltage, filtered (with input fil-
ter of 10 lF and 1.5 mH) and unfiltered input current waveforms.
Because there was no implemented input current filter, the exper-
imental input current waveform (CH-2) is pulse width modulated
(Fig. 8d). It is clear that its fundamental component is approxi-
mately in phase with the input phase voltage (CH-1). This is owed
to adjusting displacement angle to zero. Finally, the developed MC
is tested for a wide range of output frequencies. Also, a step change
of output frequency has been performed. The reference output fre-
quency is changed from 10 to 30 Hz while the reference output
voltage is maintained constant. The obtained output phase volt-
ages (upper trace) and currents (bottom trace) waveforms experi-
mental results are shown in Fig. 9. The voltage and current
waveforms have smooth transition between the two frequencies.
The simulation and experimental results match to a good extent.
This proves the viability of the proposed FPMC.
FPIM drive
Experimental results of FPMC fed IM with scalar control were
obtained for various operating conditions. Fig. 10a (upper trace)
shows the experimental results for motor speed and current vari-
ations during startup period with 30 Hz reference frequency. After
attaining steady-state condition, a step change in reference fre-
quency from 30 to 20 Hz (i.e. from 1800 to 1200 r/min) is obtained.
The smooth transition from one operating point to the other is
obvious. The employed FPIM is originally of a three-phase. It has
been re-wounded as a five-phase. Since the stator frame is of 18
slots it was not possible to get perfect balanced five-phase wind-
ings. Finally, Fig. 10b (bottom trace) shows the experimental
results for a motor speed reversal. Initially the reference frequency
is set at 30 Hz. Then, the speed is reversed to the same value.
Conclusion
In this paper, the analysis and implementation of FPMC has
been discussed. The control strategy of this converter is based on
ISVM. Due to this strategy the converter was modeled as a combi-
nation of three-phase rectifier and five-phase inverter. Both recti-
fier and inverter are SVM. The maximum obtainable output
voltage is 0.7885 of the input supply voltage. The converter proto-
type has been implemented using discrete semiconductors. A pre-
liminary test with R–L load has been presented and good results
are obtained. A FPIM was designed and implemented. Experimen-
tal results were introduced for the motor drive system at various
operating conditions. The feasibility of the proposed system has
been verified through simulation and experiments.
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