1 565- 1 660

Who were
From England

Struggled for
years to purify
the church of

Who were the Puritans?
 Believed in original sin, the consequence of sin, and
that men sinning was inevitable because of Adam
and Eve’s sin

 Belief that hard work leads them to virtue

 Feared the wrath of God and His divine providence
in their lives, both physical and eternal

Martin Luther- Believed men are inherently evil and
God is omnipotent

John Calvin who believed in predestination- belief
that your afterlife has already been determined
before birth

Why did the Puritans seek permanent
settlement in the Colonies?
 Many suffered from physical religious persecution
 Physical mutilation- noses slit, ears cut, burnings
 Thrown in Jail
 Freedom to practice religion
 Sought to simplify and purify the church
 Model directly after God’s word
 Create “New Eden”- Theocracy
 No intermediary between the individual and God

Characteristics of Puritan Literature
 Diaries and histories were important because they
were records of workings of God
 Saw direct connections between biblical events and
their own lives
● Written in plain style- way of writing that
emphasizes simple sentences and the use of every
day words from common speech

Puritan Core Beliefs
 T -- total depravity. This doesn't mean people are as bad as they can be.
It means that sin is in every part of one's being, including the mind and
will, so that a man cannot save himself.

 U -- unconditional election. God chooses to save people
unconditionally; that is, they are not chosen on the basis of their own

 L -- limited atonement. The sacrifice of Christ on the cross was for the
purpose of saving the elect.

 I -- irresistible grace. When God has chosen to save someone, He will.

 P -- perseverance of the saints. Those people God chooses cannot lose
their salvation; they will continue to believe. If they fall away, it will be
only for a time.

1 650- 1 800
The Age of Reason
Other Names
 Revolutionary Era- ideals centered around gaining
independence from mother country Britain

 Age of Enlightenment- advances in politics and

 Rationalism- value rational thought and logic over
superstition and religion

Characteristics of Rationalism
 Valued Scientific Method
 America no longer a New Eden or Jerusalem
 America now a New Rome or Athens
 Concerned with developing new national identity
 Mostly Deists- God is a watchmaker
 Believed people to be inherently good.
 Tabula Rasa- Blank Slate

Genres/Styles of Writing

 Political pamphlets
 Essays
 speeches
 documents

Instructive in values; highly ornate writing style

Major Writers
Benjamin Franklin
 Autobiography and Poor Richard’s Almanac
 Symbol of success gained by hard work and common sense
 Known for his aphorisms (short sayings with a message)
 “Haste makes waste”
 “God helps those who help themselves”
Thomas Jefferson
 “Declaration of Independence”
 Considered the finest writer of the era
 “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created

Major Writers
Thomas Paine
 “The American Crisis” helped propel us into war
 Remains a model of effective propaganda.
 “These are the times that try men’s souls.”
Phyllis Wheatley
 Enslaved African became one of the finest American poets of her day.
 Wrote “To His Excellency, General Washington”
Patrick Henry
 “Speech in the Virginia Convention”
 Urged armed resistance to English and fed the spirit of revolution.

Greek Terms Syntax
 Ethos- appeal to

 Logos- appeal to logic

 Pathos- appeal to

 Kairos- sense of urgency
 Repetition of an idea
using the same words.
 “The war is inevitable – and let
it come! I repeat it, sir, let it
come!” (Henry 103).
 Restatement of an idea
using different words.
 “We have petitioned; we have
remonstrated; we have
supplicated; we have prostrated
ourselves before the
throne”(Henry 102).

Power of Persuasion: Rhetorical Devices
Syntax (continued…)
 Parallelism – repeated use of grammatical structure
“We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have
supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the
throne”(Henry 102).
(Note the order of the parts of speech –
pronoun, helping verb, past tense verb).
 Rhetorical questions – questions with obvious
answers meant to engage audience emotionally.
“Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and
reconciliation?” (Henry 102).


Persuasive Writing Exam
DATE: September 24, 2014