Suitability of various substrates for cultivation of

Pleurotus pulmonarius in Konkan Region of
Pramod Borkar
, Anila Doshi
, and Makarand Joshi

1, 3 Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra
2 MPAU , Udaip!r, "a#asthan
$orrespondin% A!thor& P. '. Borkar, Department o( Plant Patholo%y, $olle%e
o( A%ri)!lt!re, Dapoli, Maharashtra *1+,12. -mail&
Mild tropical humid climate persists in Konkan region throughout the
year within a range of 23 3!
C# This climate is conduci$e for the commercial
culti$ation of oyster mushroom# %ocally a$aila&le su&strates such as paddy
straw' arecanut husk' coconut husk' &anana pseudostem' groundnut shells'
sugarcane &agasse and wheat straw alone and in com&ination with rice &ran and
wheat &ran were used# Ma(imum &iological efficiency of P. pulmonarius was
recorded on paddy straw )*+#3",- followed &y wheat straw )*.# !3 ,-# /n case
of supplemented su&strates' the ma(imum &iological efficiency of the mushroom
was recorded on paddy straw supplemented with wheat &ran )0!#.",-# This was
followed &y paddy straw supplemented with rice &ran )02#+3,- and wheat straw
supplemented with wheat &ran )02#2+-#
Key words1 Pleurotus pulmonarius, su&strates' Konkan' &iological efficiency
he a.ility o( m!shrooms to %ro0 on a%ri)!lt!ral 0astes in less area makes an
attra)ti1e proposition (or in)ome %eneration. he added ad1anta%e is in impro1ement
in dietary 1al!es leadin% to sol!tion o( maln!trition, a.atement o( poll!tion and
di1ersi(i)ation o( a%ri)!lt!re. he nat!ral ad1anta%es (or oyster m!shroom )!lti1ation
in 2ndia are the presen)e o( seasonal 1ariations ena.lin% the )!lti1ation o( di((erent
spe)ies !nder nat!ral )onditions in the (orm o( relay )roppin% in di((erent seasons and
a.!ndan)e and easy as 0ell as )heap a1aila.ility o( 1ariety o( a%ro 0astes. Mild
tropi)al h!mid )limate persists in Konkan re%ion thro!%ho!t the year 0ithin a ran%e o(
23 3 3+
$. his )limate is )ond!)i1e (or the )ommer)ial )!lti1ation o( oyster
Materials and methods1
Se1en lo)ally a1aila.le s!.strates 1i5. paddy stra0, are)an!t h!sk, %ro!ndn!t
shells, s!%ar)ane .a%asse, )o)on!t h!sk, .anana pse!do stem, and 0heat stra0 0ere
!sed to assess the .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y o( P. pulmonarius on these s!.strates. Paddy
stra0, 0heat stra0 and s!%ar)ane .a%asse 0ere )!t into +36)m pie)es. Are)a n!t h!sk,
)o)on!t h!sk and %ro!ndn!t shells 0ere )r!shed 0ith a )ha(( )!tter. 7ne k% 8!antity o(
ea)h s!.strate 0as 0ei%hed separately on an ele)troni) .alan)e. All the s!.strates 0ere
soaked o1erni%ht in (resh tap 0ater. -9)ess 0ater in the s!.strates 0as drained o(( .y
pla)in% the s!.strates on a )lean, )emented plat(orm 0ith desira.le slope. All the
s!.strates 0ere immersed in hot 0ater :643;4< $= (or 2 hrs. A(ter 2 hrs the e9)ess
0ater 0as drained o(( and the s!.strates 0ere allo0ed to )ool at room temperat!re. he
moist!re )ontent o( the hot 0ater treated s!.strates 0as aro!nd ,4 to ,2 per )ent. he
s!.strates 0ere then spa0ned / 2 per )ent on 0et 0ei%ht .asis and (illed in
polypropylene .a%s o( si5e, +3 > 3+ )m so as to make )ylindri)al m!shroom .eds.
hree repli)ations 0ere maintained (or ea)h s!.strate. hese .a%s 0ere then per(orated
.y makin% a.o!t 2+334 pinholes on all sides in)l!din% top and .ottom. M!shroom .eds
th!s prepared 0ere then trans(erred to iron shel1es in spa0n r!n room. $omplete
darkness and 2+?2
$ temperat!re 0as maintained in this room till )ompletion o(
my)elial r!n. Beds 0ith )ompletely )oloni5ed s!.strate 0ere trans(erred to the han%in%
.am.oo shel1es in )roppin% room and then the plasti) )o1er 0as remo1ed. he
h!midity in the )roppin% room 0as maintained 0ithin a ran%e o( 6436+ per )ent 0ith
the help o( mist .lo0ers 0hi)h 0ere r!n (or +314 min!tes, *3+ times a day. he
e9periment 0as laid in $ompletely "andomi5ed Desi%n. hree repli)ations 0ere
maintained per treatment.
2n )ase o( s!pplemented s!.strates, ea)h s!.strate 0as separately s!pplemented
0ith 4.+ per )ent ri)e .ran and 0heat .ran on 0et 0ei%ht .asis o( the s!.strate. he
0ei%hed 8!antities o( s!pplements 0ere mi9ed thoro!%hly, 0ith the s!.strate. hree
repli)ations 0ere maintained per treatment in $"D.
Results and 2iscussion1
3ffect of Su&strates on &iological efficiency of P. pulmonarius
2t is o.ser1ed (rom a.le 1, that the minim!m )oloni5ation period 0as re)orded
in .anana pse!dostem s!.strate :1* days= (ollo0ed .y paddy stra0 : 24 days=and
0heat stra0 :21=respe)ti1ely. hey 0ere (ollo0ed .y s!%ar)ane .a%asse :22 days=,
are)a n!t h!sk and %ro!ndn!t shells :2@ days=, and )o)on!t h!sk:3+ days=. -arly
emer%en)e o( pin heads 0as re)orded in paddy stra0 and 0heat stra0 :* days=
(ollo0ed .y are)an!t h!sk, %ro!ndn!t shells, s!%ar)ane .a%asse and .anana
pse!dostem :@ days=. Delayed pin head (ormation 0as re)orded only in )o)on!t h!sk
0here pin heads appeared +4 days a(ter spa0nin%.
2n all the s!.strates, ma9im!m yield 0as o.tained (rom the (irst har1est. he
loose te9t!re o( .anana pse!dostem mi%ht .e the reason (or speedy )oloni5ation.
So(tenin% o( the s!.strate 0as o.ser1ed in all the other s!.strates a(ter soakin% in )old
0ater (ollo0ed .y hot 0ater treatment .!t the )o)on!t h!sk (i.res remained hard and
to!%h. his may .e d!e the presen)e o( more amo!nt o( li%nin in )o)on!t (i.res. he
Pleurotus spe)ies are a.le to %ro0 on a 0ide spe)tr!m o( lin%o3)ell!losi) 0aste
material d!e to their a.ility to se)rete an array o( de%radin% en5ymes. he a)ti1ity
these en5ymes 1ary a))ordin% to the )omposition o( the s!.strate and the spe)ies or
strain o( the m!shroom :Perisamy and Aatara#an, 244*=. Ma9im!m .iolo%i)al
e((i)ien)y :,@.34 B= o( P. pulmonarius 0as re)orded on paddy (ollo0ed .y 0heat
stra0 : ,*.+3=.hese res!lts are in )on(ormity 0ith those reported .y earlier 0orkers
:Ca5arika,1;;6,Dhan% et al., 2442 and Kimen#! et al. 244;=. 'eetha and
Si1aprakasam :1;;6= reported that the paddy stra0 !sed (or )!lti1ation o( Pleurotus
spe)ies sho0ed hi%her red!)tion in )ell!lose )ontent indi)atin% the pre(eren)e o( the
m!shrooms to the s!.strates ri)h in )ell!lose. Both paddy and 0heat stra0 )ontain
%ood amo!nt o( )ell!lose .!t perhaps the amo!nt li%nin in 0heat stra0 is more than
that in paddy stra0. he reason (or lo0 .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y in are)a n!t s!.strate
may .e attri.!ted to the li%nin )ontent o( the s!.strate. ho!%h the .iolo%i)al
e((i)ien)y 0as less as )ompared to stra0 s!.strates, this s!.strate needs to tried more
n! o( times (or this m!shroom as the .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y is nearly +4 per )ent.
'ro!ndn!t shell s!.strate 0as the poorest per(ormer amon% the , s!.strates !nder
st!dy. 2t re)orded only 1*.*, per )ent .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y. Ci%h moist!re holdin%
)apa)ity o( this s!.strate res!lted in less a1aila.ility o( (ree air in the s!.strate d!rin%
spa0n r!n. his !ltimately had ad1erse e((e)t on s!.strate )oloni5ation and (r!it .ody
(ormation. he present (indin%s are in )on)!rren)e 0ith the res!lts o( Mane et al.
:244,= and Veena and Sa1al%i :1;;1=.
he .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y in s!%ar)ane .a%asse 0as nearly si9ty per )ent and it
pro1ed to .e a .etter s!.strate (or )!lti1ation o( the m!shroom !nder st!dy. 28!.al et
al., 244+, also reported similar res!lts. $o)on!t h!sk 0as si%ni(i)antly s!perior to
%ro!ndn!t shells .!t in(erior to other s!.strates. Perisamy and Aatara#an: 244*=
reported that some strains o( P. djamor 0ere )a.le o( de%radin% the li%nin polymers in
)o)on!t )oir and there(ore re)orded .etter yield on )o)on!t )oir pith s!.strate 0hile
others (ailed to do so. Banana pse!dostem ranked (i(th in terms o( .iolo%i)al
e((i)ien)y. his s!.strate )ontains more amo!nt 0ater than dry matter. he lo0 yield
on this s!.strate may .e attri.!ted to ma9im!m !tili5ation o( a1aila.le n!trients
d!rin% )oloni5ation.
3ffect of su&strate supplementation on &iological efficiency of P. pulmonarius
he ma9im!m .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y o( the m!shroom 0as re)orded on paddy
stra0 s!pplemented 0ith 0heat .ran :6+.*4B= 0hi)h 0as (ollo0ed .y paddy stra0
s!pplemented 0ith ri)e .ran :62.@3B= and 0heat stra0 s!pplemented 0ith 0heat .ran
:62.2@=. Eatter t0o treatments 0ere statisti)ally at par 0ith ea)h other. Amon% the
remainin% treatments, in treatment the

0here 0heat stra0 0as s!pplemented 0ith
ri)e .ran, the .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y 0as nearly 64 per )ent. his 0as (ollo0ed .y
s!%ar)ane .a%asse. he .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y on s!%ar)ane .a%asse s!pplemented 0ith
0heat .ran and ri)e .ran 0as @3.43 and @1.4@ respe)ti1ely. Both these treatments
0ere statisti)ally at par 0ith ea)h other. he .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y o( are)an!t h!sk
0ith 0heat .ran s!pplementation 0as +1.,4 per )ent and 0ith ri)e .ran it 0as *;.23
per )ent and the di((eren)e amon% these t0o treatments 0as statisti)ally si%ni(i)ant.
Biolo%i)al e((i)ien)y on .anana pse!dostem s!pplemented 0ith 0heat .ran and
ri)e .ran 0as 3,.64 and 3,.,4 per )ent respe)ti1ely and .oth these treatments 0ere
statisti)ally at par. Moreo1er, the .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y on )o)on!t h!sk s!pplemented
0ith .oth the s!pplements 0as statisti)ally at par. S!pplementation o( %ro!nd n!t
shells 0ith .oth the s!pplements did not yield m!shrooms. his indi)ated that the
s!pplementation 0as not e((e)ti1e in )ase o( this s!.strate. Se1en o( the 1* treatments,
re)orded more than +4 per )ent .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y and 0heat .ran s!pplementation
re)orded hi%her yield than ri)e .ran. ho!%h, .oth s!pplements 0ere ine((e)ti1e 0ith
%ro!ndn!t shell s!.strate.
$oloni5ation period in all the s!pplemented s!.strates 0as less as )ompared to
that re8!ired to )oloni5e the same s!.strate 0itho!t s!pplementation. Biolo%i)al
e((i)ien)y on all the s!pplanted s!.strates e9)ept %ro!ndn!t shells 0as more than on
non3s!pplemented s!.strates. Ma9im!m .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y 0as re)orded in paddy
stra0 s!pplemented 0ith 0heat .ran (ollo0ed .y paddy stra0 s!pplemented 0ith ri)e
.ran and 0heat stra0 s!pplemented 0ith 0heat .ran. Similar res!lts 0ere reported .y
many 0orkers :Khare et al., 244,F "!h!l Amin et al., 244, and Patil et al., 2414=.
'ro!nd n!t shell s!.strate retains more amo!nt o( moist!re 0hi)h res!lts in poor
my)elial r!n. D!e to in)orporation o( s!pplements in this s!.strate, the .ed 0as so
)ompa)t that there 0as 1ery little s)ope (or proli(eration o( m!shroom my)eli!m. his
)ondition did not allo0 the primary my)eli!m to (orm tertiary my)eli!m 0hi)h
a%%re%ates to (orm (r!it .odies o( m!shroom (!n%i.
Biolo%i)al e((i)ien)y in paddy stra0 s!pplemented 0ith 0heat .ran 0as nearly
@.+ per )ent more than that in sole paddy stra0. his indi)ates that protein ri)h
s!pplements s!)h as 0heat and ri)e .ran ha1e positi1e e((e)t on )oloni5ation and
.iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y o( oyster m!shrooms. 2t )an .e )on)l!ded on the .asis o( the
res!lts o( present st!dy that, in)orporation proper s!pplements not only red!)e the
)oloni5ation period .!t also in)reases the .iolo%i)al e((i)ien)y o( P. pulmonarius
Ta&le 41 3ffect of Su&strates on &iological efficiency of P. pulmonarius.
Treatments Spawn
run 6eriod
6addy straw 24 * ,@3.44 ,@.34
Arecanut 9usk 2@ @ *,@.33 *,.@3
:roundnut shells 2@ @ 1**.@, 1*.*,
Sugarcane &agasse 22 @ +;3.33 +;.33
Coconut husk 3+ 1+ 24;.@, 24.;,
Banana pseudostem 1* @ 3,*.33 3,.*3
;heat straw 21 * ,*+.33 ,*.+3
C2 at ! , 33#<.
C2 at 4, .*#44
C= , .#4"

Ta&le 21 3ffect of su&strate supplementation on &iological efficiency of P.
Treatments Spawn run
6> RB 1, + 62@.33 62.@3
6> ;B 1@ + 6+*.44 6+.*4
A> RB 22 , *;2.33 *;.23
A> ;B 24 + +1,.44 +1.,4
:> RB 2* 3 4 4
:> ;B 2* 3 4 4
S> RB 24 , @14.@, @1.4,
S> ;B 1; @ @34.33 @3.43
C> RB 31 13 214.44 21.44
C> ;B 34 12 211.44 21.14
B> RB 11 + 3,,.44 3,.,4
B> ;B 11 * 3,6.44 3,.64
; > RB 1, * ,;;.@, ,;.;,
;> ;B 1, + 622.@, 62.2,
C2 at !, 4.#4+
C2 at 4 , 4<#44
C= 4#*+

1. 'eetha, D. and K. Si1aprakasam,1;;6. -n5yme and Sporophore Prod!)tion
Potential o( 7yster M!shroom :P. spp.=. Mushroom Res. *:1=& 3;3*2.
2. Ca5arika, D. K., 1;66. -((e)t o( s!.strates and s!pplements on yield o( oyster
m!shroom :Pleurotus sajor-caju=. Mushroom Res. * :1=& *,3*6.
3. Khare, K.B.F J.M. M!t!k!F 7.S, A)h0ania and D. 7. 7taye, 244,. St!dies on
7yster M!shroom Prod!)tion and -)onomi) Pro(ita.ility in Kenya. Mushroom
Research 4+:2=&@;3,*.
*. Kimen#!, J. G., '.7.M. 7dero, -.G. M!tit!, P.M. Ga)hira, ".D. Aarla and
G.M. M!ir!. 244;. S!ita.ility o( Eo)ally A1aila.le S!.strates (or 7yster
M!shroom :Pleurotus ostreatus= $!lti1ation in Kenya. Asian J. Plant
+. Mane, V.P.F S. S. Patil, A.A. Syed and M.M.V. Bai%, 244,. Bio3)onser1ation o(
Eo0 H!ality li%no)ell!si) A%ri)!lt!ral Gaste into -di.le Protein .y Pleurotus
sajor-caju :Ir.= Sin%er. J. Zhegiang Univ.Sci.B.0 :14=&,*+3,+1.
@. Patil, K.K.F ".V. K!lkarni and '!pta D.A., 2411. -nhan)in% Jield and
Biolo%i)al -((i)ien)y in 7yster M!shroom .y S!pplementation. Acad. J. Plant
Sci. .:2=& *13**.
,. Perisamy, K. and K. Aatara#an, 244*. "ole o( Ei%no)ell!losi) -n5ymes D!rin%
Basidiomata Prod!)tion .y Pleurotus djamor 1ar. roseus. Indian J. Biotechnol.
3& +,,3+63.
6. "!h!l Amin S.M.F A. $. SarkerF A. Khair and A. Alam, 244,. Dete)tion o(
Ao1el S!pplements o( Paddy stra0 S!.strate on 7yster M!shroom $!lti1ation.
Bangladesh J. Mushroom 4:2=& 3333,.
;. Veena S.V. and V.P.Sa1al%i, 1;;1. St!dies on $!lti1ation o( 7yster M!shroom
on Di((erent Iarm S!.strates in Karnataka.!mp.hir!ananthap!ram,Kerala pp.14;3112.
14. Dhan% ".F >. Ei and J. '. Iadel, 2442.7yster M!shroom $!lti1ation 0ith "i)e
and Gheat Stra0. Bioresource "echnolog! 02:3=&2,,326*.