Siemens

Training Center
for Communication
Networks
Overload Handling
Objectives
The participant is able to
− explain the overload control mechanisms
Contents
1 Introduction
2 Timer Control of Overload Reduction
3 Overload Detection and Counter Measures
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Siemens
Training Center
for Communication
Networks
3 " 2 A31!1"#1$!%"#&"1"$'3(
Siemens
Training Center
for Communication
Networks
1 Introduction
The aim of the overload control mechanism is to preserve the tra)c"handlin*
capabilities of the mobile base station s+stem ,-../ under adverse conditions0
1ith the term overload it is meant that part of the total load o2ered in excess of the
tra)c processin* capacit+ of the -..0
The overload control mechanism is implemented in the -.C and consists of tra)c
detection mechanism and defensive action ma3ers0
Trafc detection mechanism consists of 4overload messa*es5 comin* either from the
various parts of the net6or3 ,-T. and7or M.C/ of from the -.C itself ,overload
detection/0
Defensive actions aimed at reducin* both mobile ori*inatin* ,MOC/ and7or mobile
terminatin* ,MTC/ calls ,overload handler/8 the strate*+ is here presented and follo6s
the 9.M recommendation !0!0
GSM rec !"! *ives the follo6in* de:nition of the *eneral overload handlin* strate*+;
<The overload causin* tra)c is reduced in several timer *uarded steps until the overload
is prevented0 Other6ise= if for some time no overload is indicated= the tra)c is increased
a*ain in timin* steps until full load has been resumed>0
The time"out values of the timers= number of steps= amount and t+pe of tra)c reduced
in each step= overload reco*nition and threshold parameters are all considered
im#lementation de#endent and have not been speci:ed0
?ssentiall+ there are t6o methods to reduce overload;
• reducin* the mobile terminatin* tra)c b+ discardin* pa*in* messa*es=
• reducin* the mobile ori*inatin* tra)c b+ barrin* the access to speci:c cells0
Access barrin* is done usin* the access classes speci:ed b+ 9.M ,refer to 9.M !0!/0
There are 1 access classes ,000%/ related to normal subscribers0 The access class to
6hich a subscriber belon*s is derived from his IM.I0 @urthermore= there are ( classes
,110001(/ assi*ned to special hi*h priorit+ subscribers ,e0*0 police= ABMC operator= 000/0
The bit 1 ,?C/ indicates 6hether emer*enc+ calls are allo6ed in the cell for all
subscribers or onl+ the special ones0
To reduce overload in moderate 6a+= incomin* tra)c is not completel+ reDected= but
reduced b+ several steps of escalation controlled b+ t6o timers0
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Siemens
Training Center
for Communication
Networks
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Training Center
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Networks
$ Timer Control of Overload %eduction
1hen *ettin* informed on an overload situation in a -T.= in the M.C or in the -.C itself=
the -.C performs the :rst step for tra)c reduction and starts t6o timers T1$ and T1!
6ith T1! E T1$0
Durin* run time of T1$ all overload messa*es 6ith the same cause as the initialiFin*
messa*e are i*nored in order not to reduce the tra)c too rapidl+0
If the overload situation is still present after expir+ of T1$= but durin* runtime of T1!= the
next step of tra)c reduction is initiated and T1$ and T1! are started a*ain0 This step b+
step reduction of tra)c is maintained until the maximum reduction is obtained arrivin*
at the last step0
If time T1! expires ,i0e0 no overload messa*e is received/= the -.C increases the tra)c
b+ one step ,i0e0 stops the tra)c reduction measure of the last step/ and restarts timer
T1!0 This increment 6ill continue until full load has been resumed0
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Siemens
Training Center
for Communication
Networks
T18
2. step of load
reduction
1. step of load
reduction
restart T18
increase traffic
by one step
increase traffic
to full load
restart timers
start timers
BSC NE
overload
T17
overload (inored!
overload
overload (inored!
@i*0 1
The t6o timer T1$= T1! are administered in the obDect -.C= pac3a*e -.CT;
Came ran*e Gnit Meanin*
-.CT1$ HunitE" 000 2(&
Default; 2 half
sec0
IJB@.?C"2K
half seconds
:ve seconds
started 6hen an overload messa*e is
detected= durin* runtime of T1$
overload messa*es are i*nored0
-.CT1! HunitE" 000 2(&
Default; ' half
sec0
IJB@.?C"'K
half seconds
:ve seconds
.tarted in case of overload= de:nes the
observation time for overload0
@i*0 2
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Siemens
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& Overload Detection and Counter Measures
'TS Overload Handling
• no TCJ available → call reDected ,in future release; Lueuin* and directed retr+= i0e0
servin* the call b+ a suitable nei*hbor cell/
• no .DCCJ available

reDection b+ immediate assi*nment reDect messa*e= ne6
access is barred for a certain time ,timer T3122/
• A9CJ overload ,i0e0 -. is not able to for6ard immediate assi*nment or immediate
assi*nment reDect messa*es/0
→ 1st step; -.C barrs the :rst half of access classes of that cell
→ 2nd step; -.C barrs the second half of access classes of that cell
• ACJ overload; ACJ overload is detected 6hen the free bu2er space in the -T. for
pa*in* messa*es is Fero or belo6 a threshold ,*iven b+ the parameter
,CCCJMBOADMTJR?.J//0 Then the -.C is periodicall+ ,period *iven b+ parameter
CCCJMBOADMICDMA?RIOD/ informed on the current load on the ACJ0 The reaction of
the -.C is
→ pa*in*s for the concerned -T. are discarded and the M.C is noti:ed0
'SC Overload Handling
-.C overload is detected 6hen
• the Tx bu2ers of the CC.$ lin3s are con*ested
• the percenta*e of bus+ ,level 3/ re*isters to handle incomin* call reLuests is above a
threshold ,%N/
• The real time processor load of the telephon+ processor TDAC is above a certain
threshold set b+ the OOM parameter OPB.TTJR0 .endin* of overload messa*es is
stopped 6hen the load is belo6 a second parameter OPB?CTJR 6ith OPB?CTJR H
OPB.TTJR0
1hen -.C overload is detected= the follo6in* steps for tra)c reduction are performed
→ 1st step; the -.C barrs the :rst half of access classes in a *roup of cells
2nd step; the -.C barrs all access classes in that *roup of cells
3rd step; -.C performs step 1 and 2 for the next *roup of cells
&th step; 000 ,and so on till the overload situation disappears/
1ithin the tra)c reduction al*orithm= a round robin mechanism is used0 This means if
for counteractin* one overload situation= cells 1 to & had been barred and the overload
ends= the & cells are unbarred0 If an overload situation occurs a*ain= the overload
handler starts barrin* from the (th cell and not from the :rst one0
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Siemens
Training Center
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MSC Overload Handling
M.C overload is detected b+ the M.C itself0 The -.C is informed b+ an overload
indication messa*es 6ith cause <processor overload>0 The M.C reduces pa*in* load b+
its o6n and therefore the -.C reduces onl+ mobile ori*inatin* tra)c b+ means of barrin*
access classes ,in the same 6a+ as for -.C overload/0
(arameters for Overload Handling)
S#eci*cation
+ame
Object,
(ac-age
D' +ame %ange Meaning
T3122 -.C7
-.C-
T3122 0002((
sec
Timer to barr a ne6 access for a certain
time after unsuccessful access ,e0*0 no
.DCCJ available/
?CM-.CMOPB
MJACD
-.C7
-.C-
-.COPBJ TRG?=
@AB.?
Qa* to enable7disable -.C overload
handlin*
?CMM.CMOPB
MJACD
-.C7
-.C-
M.COPBJ TRG?=
@AB.?
Qa* to enable7disable M.C overload
handlin*
?CM-T.MOPB
MJACD
-.C7
-.C-
-T.OPBJ TRG?=
@AB.?
Qa* to enable7disable -T. overload
handlin*
OPBM.TART
MTJR?.J
-.C7
-.C-
OPB.TTJR $000
1
threshold for TDAC processor ,in -.C/
overload detection; 1 R 1 N
OPBM?CD
MTJR?.J
-.C7
-.C-
OPB?CTJR $000
1
threshold for TDAC processor ,in -.C/
belo6 6hich the sendin* of overload
messa*es is stopped; 1 R 1 N
CCCJMBOAD
MTJR?.J
-T.7
-T.-
TCCCJBDI 0001
N
CCCJ load threshold= if this threshold is
exceeded the -T. informs the -.C
usin* the CCCJ load indication
messa*e
CCCJMBOAD
MICDMA?RIOD
-T.7
-T.-
ACCCJBDI 0002((
sec
period for sendin* the CCCJ load
indication messa*e from -T. to -.C
@i*0 3
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