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**Facultad de Ciencias Naturales
**

Departamento de Matemáticas

1

Syllabus Math 3023 First Semester 2014-2015

Author: Mark Dugopolski Text: Precalculus Publisher: Pearson

LESSON SECTION TOPICS Exercises

1-4

HO Statement Calculus, Proof, Sets, Venn

Diagrams

See Below

5-6 B.1,HO Real Numbers HO,Pg.842:1-10,31-38,55-58,65-68,70-74.

7-10 B.1,1.1,1.2

Absolute Value, Linear Equations in One

Variable, Absolute Value Equations in One

Variable, Applications

Pg.8:15-20.37-48,70-80.Pg.

19:19-22,31-40,45-50,60-78.

11-13 1.8,3.6

Linear Inequalities, Absolute Value Inequalities,

Rational Inequalities, Applications

Pg.90:15-20,60-70,77-84,91-96.Pg.

262:95-100,115-122.

Exam I September 19, 2014

14-16

1.3

Cartesian Coordinate System, Distance

Formula, Mid Point Formula, Lines

Pg.34:20-25,68-72.

17-20

1.3,1.4,1.7,3.1,10.

1

Circles, Quadratics, Linear Equations in

TwoVariables, Parabolas

Pg.34:35-40,50-55,63,65,70-75.Pg.

48:27-34,35-40,49-52,70-72,75-80.Pg.

76:81-91.Pg:

195:10-15,22-25,30-35,41-52,65-70,80-85,89.

Pg.702:43-45,51-55,60-65.

21-24 2.1 - 2.3

Functions, Graphs of Relations and Funcs,

Famaily of Functions,Transformations,

Symmetry

Pg.113:18-20,23-26,32-38,43-51,60-72.Pg.

126:35-40,50-55,60-65,70-75.Pg.

142:20-25,30-32,35-40,50-55,65-70,90-93,104

.

25-27 2.4 - 2.6

Operations with Functions, Inverse Functions,

Constructing Functions

Pg.

152:10-20,25-35,40-45,52-58,65-70,73-78.Pg.

166:49,51-55,60-65,70-75,81-84.Pg.

175:15-25,35-40,41-45.

Exam II October 15, 2014

28-30 3.4 - 3.6

Miscellaneous Equations, Graphs of

Polynomial Functions, Rational Functions and

Inequalities

Pg.231:15-25,55-62,65-75(real solutions

only).Pg.244:85-95(use sign charts only).Pg.

260:20-30,35-52.

If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail. – Abraham Maslow

1

*

A Quick Synopsis of the Statement Calculus

1. A statement is a declarative sentence that is true or false but not both.

2. A simple statement is a statement that has one subject, one predicate, and is not the combination of other

statements through the use of connectives like “not”, “and”, “or”, “if-then”, and “if and only if”.

3. A compound statement is a statement which consists of a number of simple statements joined together with one or more

connectives.

4. A logical form is a symbolic representation of a statement, called a formula, that consists of statement variables and

logical connectives, such as etc. and , that symbolize statements and the connectives “not”, “and”, “or”, “if-then”, and

“if and only if”, respectively.

5. Truth tables provide the semantics of formulas that determine which formulas are contingent, tautological or

contradictory. They also serve as a mechanism to determine when two formulas are equivalent. In particular, they illustrate

the relationships that exist among an implication, its contrapositive, its converse and its inverse .

6. An argument is a sequence of statements called the premises and a final statement called the conclusion.

7. An argument form is a sequence of logical forms called the premises and a final logical form called the conclusion. Every

argument has a corresponding argument form.

8. An argument form is valid if it is impossible to have an interpretation of the given logical forms in such a way as to make

each of the premises true and the conclusion false. Otherwise the argument form is invalid. An argument is valid if its

corresponding argument form is valid. Truth tables also provide a mechanism to determine if an argument is valid.

9. Proof in mathematics.

Exercise Set 1: Underline each simple statement once and each connective twice.

Exercise Set 2: Determine the logical form of the following statements.

(1) If symbolizes Thor won the first battle and symbolizes Thor won the second battle, determine the logical form

of the following statements in figure 3.

31-33 11.1,11.2

Sequences, Series, Arithmetic Sequences,

Arithmetic Series

Pg.

747:10-15,23-25,30-32,37-45,62-65,70-75,82-

88,90-93.Pg.

755:5-10,20-28,37-40,45-48,60-70.

34-36 11.3 Geometric Sequences, Geometric Series Pg.767:5-10,23-30,45-52,53-63,67-70,76.

Exam III December 1, 2014

37-39 11.4,11.5 Counting, Permutations Pg.774:9-14,15-20,40-45,44-48,50-52.

40-43 11.5

Combinations, Lbeling n, Pascal’s Triangle,

Binomial Theorem

Pg.784:5-10,20-25,30-35,40-46.

44-45 11.7 Mathematical Induction Pg.802:10-12,15-20,25-45.

(1) Spiderman is a superhero and he cannot fly. (6) It is not the case that is rational.

(2) The square of an integer is odd if and only if the

integer is odd.

(7) The real number is not the zero of any polynomial with

integer coefficients.

(3) Spiderman is not a superhero. (8) Thor is a superhero or he can fly.

(4) If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal. (5) If Socrates is not mortal, then Socrates is a god.

(5) If is irrational, then cannot be written as a

repeating decimal.

(9) If I study hard, then I will receive an excellent grade in

this course.

Statements Logical Form

(a) Thor won both battles.

Figure 3

(2) If symbolizes The superhero is Spiderman, symbolizes The superhero will battle evil, and symbolizes The

superhero will wed Jane Watson, determine the logical form of the following compound statement.

If the superhero is Spiderman, then the superhero will either battle evil and will not wed Jane Watson or the

superhero will not battle evil and will wed Jane Watson.

(3) You will receive an A if you work hard and the sun shines, or you work hard and it rains.

(4) The only superhero who thinks that “with great power there must also come great responsibility” is Spiderman.

(5) The only superhero that battles evil and his own angst of human uncertainty is Spiderman.

(6) The real number is not the zero of any polynomial with integer coefficients.

(7) A thought is a great truth if and only if the thought is applicable to all men and all times.

(8) The natural number 4 is even or is rational.

(9) He is a lawyer only if he hasn't been disbarred. It's not the case that he has not been disbarred. Therefore he is

not a lawyer.

Exercise Set 3: Determine the validity of the following arguments.

(1)

Symbolize the argument. Let symbolize Spiderman is a superhero and symbolize Spiderman battles evil, everywhere in

our argument. Then the argument form of this argument is exhibited in Figure 16a.

(b) Thor only won the first battle.

(c) Thor won at least one battle.

(d) Thor won exactly one battle.

(e) Thor wins the first battle only if he

wins the second battle.

(f) If Thor wins the first battle, then he

loses the second battle.

(g) Thor won at most one battle.

(h) Thor lost both battles.

(i) Thor lost at least one battle.

(j) Thor lost exactly one battle.

(k) Thor lost at most one battle.

!

2

If Spiderman is a superhero, then Spiderman battles evil.

Spiderman is a superhero.

Spiderman battles evil.

!

Construct an implication in which the hypothesis is the conjunction of the premises and the consequent is the argument

conclusion.

Construct a truth table of this implication to determine if the last column consists of only .

(2)

(3)

(4) A more difficult argument. Symbolize each simple statement using the first letter of each underlined word as a

mnemonic for the simple statement that contains that word.

Either logic is difficult or not many students like it. If mathematics is easy, then logic is not

difficult. Therefore, if many students like logic, then mathematics is not easy.

(5) This baby is illogical. If this baby can manage a crocodile, then it is not despised. If this

baby is illogical, then it is despised. Therefore, this baby cannot manage a crocodile.

(6) If there are no government subsidies of agriculture, then there are government controls of

agriculture. If there are government controls of agriculture, there is no agricultural depression.

There is either an agricultural depression or overproduction. As a matter of fact, there is no

overproduction. Therefore, there are government subsidies of agriculture.

Fundamentals

Set Theory

Definition: A set is an undefined concept that represents our intuitive understanding of a collection or aggregate of designated

elements or members. It is a many that is a one.

We will usually use upper case letters such as to denote sets. On the other hand, we will usually use lower case letters such

as to denote members of a set. We have an undefined binary relation between elements and sets that is denoted by

If all fruit are seedless, then some fruit is seedless.

All fruit are seedless.

Some fruit is seedless.

!

If Garfield is a dog, then Garfield is a cat.

Garfield is cat.

Garfield is a dog.

!

etc. , , B A

etc. , , y x

We read this “ is a member of the set ”. In axiomatic set theory, there is no distinction between sets and elements. All objects are

sets.

Creating Sets:

There are two basic ways to create sets.

Listing the elements:

ℕ is the infinite set of natural numbers.

is the infinite set of even natural numbers.

is the infinite set of odd natural numbers.

is the infinite set of integers.

is the singleton set that contains the element .

is the empty set, which is also denoted by Æ.

is the same set as . A set never contains duplicates .

Using Set Builder Notation:

ℕ | ℕ | ( ℕ)(

N | ℕ | ( ℕ)(

! N | ℕ | ( ℕ)( ℕ)

" R | ℝ| ( )( )

Can a “set” be too big? Yes, it can. Russell’s Paradox shows why.

Russell’s Paradox:

Consider the “set” . Most sets are not members of themselves. Therefore, this “set” must be extraordinarily large.

Now,

Case I: Suppose . Then, must have the property that defines it. That is, .

Case II: Suppose . Then, has the property that defines it. So, .

In summary, we have shown that . This is indeed a paradox. What is wrong? Put simply, is too large, and, thus,

cannot be a set. This means you cannot use the set builder notation indiscriminately. The elements that are being collected using set

builder notation must come from a known set. We will always assume that our elements are coming from some universal set .

Thus, in general, given any predicate , , we may build the following set

x A

{ } ! , 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 =

{ } ! , 10 , 8 , 6 , 4 , 2 =

{ } ! , 11 , 9 , 7 , 5 , 3 , 1 =

{ } ! ! , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , ! ! ! ! ! =

a

{ } a

{x =

!

} even is x {x =

!

! "y y x 2 = } )

{x =

!

} odd is x {x =

!

! "y 1 2 ! = y x } )

{x =

!

} prime is x {x =

!

! "y

! "z

( ( ! " = # $ z y x x 2 )) ( ) 1 1 = ! = z y

{ ! = x } l rationa a is x {x =

!

! "y

! "z

( } ) ( 0 y z x z = ! " #

{ } x x x A ! = |

A A! A A A!

A A! A A A!

A A A A ! " # A

U

( ) x P

U x !

Set Relations:

Definition: If and are sets, ‘ is a subset of ’ is the name of the relation defined by

This says that every element of is an element of . If is a subset of , then is a superset of . Every set is a subset of

itself.

Exercises:

(1) Which set has the greater cardinality

,

N or E?

2 3

(2) Show that Q has the same cardinality as N.

(3) Show that the empty set Æ is a subset of every set.

(4) Show that

(5) Decide, among the following sets, which are subsets of which.

(a) R|

(b)

(c)

(d)

(6) List all the subsets of the set .

(7) In each of the following, determine whether the statement is true or false. If it is true, prove it. If it is false, disprove it with

an example, called a counterexample.

(a) If and , then .

(b) If and , then .

(c) If and , then .

(d) If and , then .

(e) If and , then .

(f) If and , then .

Definition: If and are sets, ‘ is equal to ’ is the name of the relation defined by

( ) { } x P U x A | ! =

A B A B

B A !

( )( ) ( ) ( ) B x A x x B A ! " ! # $ = $ %

def

A B A B B A

C A C B B A ! " ! # !

{ ! = x A } 0 12 8

2

= + ! x x

{ } 6 , 4 , 2 = B

{ } ! , 8 , 6 , 4 , 2 = C

{} 6 = D

{ } 1 , 0 , 1 !

A x ! B A! B x !

B A ! C B! C A!

( ) B A ! ¬

C B !

( ) C A ! ¬

( ) B A ! ¬ ( ) C B ! ¬ ( ) C A ! ¬

A x !

( ) B A ! ¬

B x !

B A ! B x ! A x !

A B A B B A =

( ) ( )

def

A B B A B A ! " ! # = # =

The cardinality of a set is the number of elements in it.

2

Using set theory, we can develop a theory of infinite sets. This is due the mathematician Georg Cantor (1845-1918).

3

Definition: If and are sets, ‘ is a proper subset of ’ is the name of the relation defined by

Set Operations:

Definition: If and are subsets of ‘ union ’ is the name of the set defined by

Exercises:

(8) Prove that

(9) Prove that

Definition: If and are subsets of ‘ intersect ’ is the name of the set defined by

Examples:

(1) If and , then .

(2) If and , then .

(3) If Im denote the set of imaginary numbers, then R Im Æ.

Definition: If is a subset of the ‘complement of in ’ is the name of the set defined by

Definition: If and are subsets of the ‘relative complement of in ’ is the name of the set defined by

Definition: If is a subset of the “power set of ” is the name of the set defined by

Exercises:

(10) Prove DeMorgan’s Laws for sets:

A B A B B A !

( ) ( ) B

def

! " # $ = $ % A B A B A

A B

, U

A B B A!

( ) ( ) { } B x A x U x B A ! " ! ! # = # $ |

def

B B A B A = ! " #

A B A B A = ! " #

A B

, U

A B B A!

( ) ( ) { } B x A x U x B A ! " ! ! # = # $ |

def

{ } 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = A { } 5 , 4 , 3 = B { } 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = !B A

{ } 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = A { } 5 , 4 , 3 = B { } 4 , 3 = !B A

!

=

A

, U

A U A!

{ } A x U x A ! " # = # $ |

def

A B

, U

B A B A!

( ) ( ) { } B x A x U x B A ! " # # $ = $ % |

def

A

, U

A

(a)

(b)

(11) If , determine .

(12) If and , find .

Theorem: The rational numbers are countable

Theorem: The real numbers are uncountable

( ) B A B A ! " ! =

!

#

( ) B A B A ! " ! =

!

#

{ } , , , d c b a A =

{ } , 21 , 18 , 15 , 12 , 9 , 6 , 3 ! = A { } ! , 35 , 30 , 25 , 20 , 15 , 10 , 5 = B

B A!

Proof: In particular, we claim that the unit interval is uncoutable. We prove this by contradiction. Assume that is

countable. So, we can list these numbers, in binary, as illustrated above. But, then, we can produce a number that is not in our list, as

shown above.

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