MS1015-TUT1-1

MS1015
Tutorial 1 Solutions
MS1015-TUT1-2
The net potential energy between two adjacent ions, E
N
, may be
represented by the sum of Equations 2.8 and 2.9 in the textbook; that is,
N
n
A B
E
r r
= − +
(2.11)
Calculate the bonding energy E
0
in terms of the parameters A, B,
and n using the following procedure:
1. Differentiate E
N
with respect to r, and then set the resulting
expression equal to zero, since the curve of E
N
versus r is a
minimum at E
O
.
2.Solve for r in terms of A, B, and n, which yields r
0
, the equilibrium
interionic spacing.
3. Determine the expression for E
O
by substitution of r
O
into Equation
(2.11)
(Question 2.13 in the textbook)
Q1.
MS1015-TUT1-3
Differentiation yields:
N
n
A B
E
r r
= − +
( ) ( ) 1 1 1
0
N
n
dE A nB
dr
r r
+ +
= − =
A1
2 1
0
n
o o
A nB
r r
+
− = Solving for r = r
o
( )
1
1 n
o
A
r
nB

 
=
 
 
MS1015-TUT1-4
substitute r
o
into original equation (2.11) and solve for E
o
.
o
n
o o
A B
E
r r
= − +
( ) ( )
1
1 1
o
n
n n
A B
E
A A
nB nB
− −
= − +
   
   
   
( )
1
1 n
o
A
r
nB

 
=
 
 
MS1015-TUT1-5
What type(s) of bonding would be expected for each of the following
materials:
brass (a copper-zinc alloy)
rubber
barium sulfide (BaS)
solid xenon
bronze
nylon
aluminium phosphide (AIP)
(Question 2.22 in the textbook)
Q2.
MS1015-TUT1-6
A2
For brass, the bonding is metallic since it is a metal alloy.
For rubber, the bonding is covalent with some van der Waals. (Rubber is composed
primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms.)
For BaS, the bonding is predominantly ionic (but with some covalent character) on
the basis of the relative positions of Ba and S in the periodic table.
For solid xenon, the bonding is van der Waals since xenon is an inert gas.
For bronze, the bonding is metallic since it is a metal alloy (composed of copper and
tin).
For nylon, the bonding is covalent with perhaps some van der Waals. (Nylon is
composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen.)
For AlP the bonding is predominantly covalent (but with some ionic character) on the
basis of the relative positions of Al and P in the periodic table.
MS1015-TUT1-7
If the atomic radius of aluminium is 0.143 nm, calculate the volume
of its unit cell in cubic meters.
(Question 3.3 in the textbook)
Q3
MS1015-TUT1-8
A3
( )
( )
( )
( )
3
3 3
3
9 29 3
2 2 16 2
16 0.143 x 10 2 6.62x10
FCC
Al
V a r r
V m
− −
= = =
= =
Aluminum has a FCC crystal structure.
The FCC unit cell volume can be computed from
using the given r = 0.143 nm,
MS1015-TUT1-9
Iron has a BCC crystal structure, an atomic radius of 0.124 nm,
and an atomic weight of 55.85 g/mol. Compute and compare its
theoretical density with the experimental value found inside the
front cover of the textbook. (Question 3.8 in the textbook)
Q4
MS1015-TUT1-10
A4
Theoretical density ρ is defined (eq.3.5) as :
C A
nA
V N
ρ =
for BCC, n=2 and
3
3
4
3
BCC
r
V a
 
= =
 
 
( ) ( )
( )( )
3
7
3
23
2 55.85
Thus,
4 0.124 x 10
6.023 x 10
3
atoms g
unitcell mol
cm atoms
unitcell mol
ρ

=
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
= 7.90 g/cm
3
.
(expt value given in textbook = 7.87 g/cm
3
)