# MS1015-TUT6-1

Q1
(a) The room-temperature electrical conductivity of a silicon
specimen is 10
3
(Ω-m)-1. The hole concentration is known to
be 1.0x10
23
m
-3
. Using the electron and hole mobilities for
silicon in Table 18.2, compute the electron concentration.
(b) On the basis of the result in part (a), is the specimen intrinsic,
n-type extrinsic, or p-type extrinsic? Why?
MS1015-TUT6-2
A1
(a) In this problem, for a Si specimen, we are given p and σ, while µ
h
and µ
e
are included in Table 18.2. In order to solve for n we must use Equation
(18.13), which, after rearrangement, leads to
| |
| |
h
e
p e
n
e
σ µ
µ

=
( )( )( )
( )( )
3 1 23 3 19 2
19 2
21 3
10 ( ) 1.0 10 1.602 10 0.05 /
1.602 10 0.14 /
8.9 10
m x m x C m Vs
x C m Vs
x m
− − −

Ω − −
=
=
(b) This material is p-type extrinsic since p (1.0 x 10
23
m
-3
) is greater
than n (8.9 x 10
21
m
-3
).
MS1015-TUT6-3
Germanium to which 10
24
m
-3
As atoms have been added is an extrinsic
semiconductor at room temperature, and virtually all the As atoms may
be thought of as being ionized (i.e., one charge carrier exists for each
As atom).
(a) Is this material n-type or p-type?
(b) Calculate the electrical conductivity of this material, assuming electron
and hole mobilities of 0.1 and 0.05 m
2
/V-s, respectively.
Q2
MS1015-TUT6-4
A2
(a) This germanium material to which has been added 10
24
m
-3
As atoms is n-
type since As is a donor in Ge. (Arsenic is from group VA of the periodic table--
Ge is from group IVA.)
b) Since this material is n-type extrinsic, Equation (18.16) is valid.
Furthermore, each As atom will donate a single electron, or the electron
concentration is equal to the As concentration since all of the As atoms are
ionized at room temperature; that is n = 10
24
m
-3
, and, as given in the
problem statement, µ
e
= 0.1 m
2
/V-s. Thus
( )( )( )
( )
24 3 19 2
1
4
| |
10 1.602 10 0.1 /
1.6 10
e
n e
m x C m Vs
x m
σ µ
− −

=
=
= Ω −
MS1015-TUT6-5
At room temperature the electrical conductivity and the electron mobility for
copper are 6.0x10
7
(Ω-m
)-1
and 0.0030 m
2
/V-s, respectively.
(a) Compute the number of free electrons per cubic meter for copper at room
temperature.
(b) If temperature is increased to 150°C, how would you expect the electrical
conductivity to vary (increase or decrease)? Explain.
Q3
MS1015-TUT6-6
A3
(a) The number of free electrons per cubic meter for copper at room
temperature may be computed using Equation (18.8) as
n=
σ
e µ
e
=
6.0 x 10
7
(Ω −m)
−1
1.602 x 10
−19
C
( )
0.0030 m
2
/ V- s
( )
=1.25 x10
29
m
-3
(b) If the temperature is increased to 150°C, the electrical conductivity of
copper will be decreased, due to the increased thermal vibration of the
atoms, which serves as scattering centres of electrons and thus reduces
the electron mobility. The number of conducting electrons in metals is not
affected too much by temperature.
MS1015-TUT6-7
Q4
Consider a parallel-plate capacitor having an area of 6.45 x 10
-4
m
2
and a plate separation of 2 x 10
-3
m across which a potential of 10 V
is applied. If a material having a dielectric constant of 6.0 is
positioned within the region between the plates, compute :
A.the capacitance
B.magnitude of charge stored on each plate
C.dielectric displacement D
D.the polarization
MS1015-TUT6-8
A4
A
C
l
ε
=
r
o
ε
ε
ε
=
( )
( )
12 11
6 8.85 10 / 5.31 10 /
r o
x F m x F m ε ε ε
− −
= = =
( )
4 2
11
3
11
6.45 10
5.31 10 /
2 10
1.71 10
A x m
C x F m
l x m
x F
ε

 
= =
 
 
=
(A) Capacitance is calculated using Equation
However, the permittivity e of the dielectric medium must first be
determined from Equation
Thus, the capacitance is
Q
C
V
=
( )
( )
11 10
1.71 10 10 1.71 10 Q CV x F V x C
− −
= = =
(B) from equation
Q can be determined as
MS1015-TUT6-9
(C) Dielectric displacement defined as
( )
11
3
7 2
10
5.31 10 /
2 10
2.66 10 /
V V
D x F m
l x m
x C m
ε ε

 
= =
 
 
=
E =
o
D P ε = E +
( )
( )( )
12
7 2
3
7 2
8.85 10 / 10
2.66 10 /
2 10
2.22 10 /
o o
V
P= D D
l
x F m V
x C m
x m
x C m
ε ε

− −
 
  = −
 
 
=
E =
(D) Polarization defined in
So
A4