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Q1

To what temperature must a cylindrical rod of tungsten 15..025 mm in

diameter and a plate of 1025 steel having a circular hole 15.000 mm in

diameter have to be heated for the rod to just fit into the hole? Assume that

the initial temperature is 25°C.

MS1015-TUT7-2

A1

This problem asks for us to determine the temperature to which a cylindrical rod

of tungsten 15.025 mm in diameter must be heated in order for it of just fit into a

15.000 mm diameter circular hole in a plate of 1025 steel (which, of course, is

also heated), assuming that the initial temperature is 25°C. This requires the use

of Equation (19.3a), which is applied to the diameters of both the rod and hole.

That is

d

f

−d

o

d

o

= α

l

T

f

− T

o

( )

Solving this expression for df yields

d

f

= d

o

1+ α

l

T

f

− T

o

( )

Now all we need do is to establish expressions for d

f

(steel) and d

f

(W), set

them equal to one another, and solve for T

f

. According to Table 19.1, αl(steel)

= 12.0 x 10

-6

(°C)

-1

and αl(W) = 4.5 x 10-6 (°C)

-1

. Thus

d

f

(steel) = d

f

(W)

Now solving for T

f

gives (T

f

-25) = 222.4°C

Thus T

f

= 247.4 °C

( ) ( )

{ }

( ) ( ) ( )

{ }

( )

1 1

6 6

15.000 1 12.0 10 25 15.025 1 4.5 10 25

f f

mm x C T C mm x C T C

− −

− −

+ ° − ° = + ° − °

MS1015-TUT7-3

(a) The thermal conductivity of a single-crystal specimen is slightly greater than

a polycrystalline one of the same material. Why is this so?

(b) The thermal conductivity of a plain carbon steel is greater than for a stainless

steel. Why is this so?

Q2

MS1015-TUT7-4

(a) The thermal conductivity of a single crystal is greater than a polycrystalline

specimen of the same material because both phonons and free electrons are

scattered at grain boundaries, thus decreasing the efficiency of thermal

transport

(b) The thermal conductivity of a plain carbon steel is greater than that for a

stainless steel because the stainless steel has a much higher concentration of

alloying elements. Atoms of these alloying elements serve as scattering

centers for the free electrons that are involved in the thermal transport

process.

A2

MS1015-TUT7-5

Explain why repeatedly dropping a permanent magnet on the floor will cause it

to become demagnetized?

(b) Briefly explain why the magnitude of the saturation magnetization

decreases with increasing temperature for ferromagnetic materials, and

why ferromagnetic behaviour ceases above the Curie temperature. ?

Q3

MS1015-TUT7-6

A3

(a) Repeatedly dropping a permanent magnet on the floor will cause it to

become demagnetized because the jarring will cause large numbers of

magnetic dipoles to become misaligned by dipole rotation.

(b) For ferromagnetic materials, the saturation magnetization decreases with

increasing temperature because the atomic thermal vibrational motions

counteract the coupling forces between the adjacent atomic dipole

moments, causing some magnetic dipole misalignment. Ferromagnetic

behavior ceases above the Curie temperature because the atomic thermal

vibrations are sufficiently violent so as to completely destroy the mutual spin

coupling forces.

MS1015-TUT7-7

Figure 20.25 shows the B-versus-H curve for a steel alloy.

(a) What is the saturation flux density?

(b) What is the saturation magnetization?

(c) What is the remanence?

(d) What is the coercivity?

(e) What electric current is required in a cylindrical wire coil of 0.1 m long

and having 50 turns in order to generate the necessary magnetic field to

demagnetize a magnet bar made of this alloy?

Q4

MS1015-TUT7-8

A4

(a) The saturation flux density for the steel, the B-H behavior for which is

shown in Figure 20.25, is 1.30 tesla, the maximum B value shown on the plot

(b) The saturation magnetization is computed from Equation (20.8) as

M

s

=

B

s

µ

o

=

1.30 tesla

1.257 x 10

−6

H/m

= 1.03 x 10

6

A/m

(c) The remanence, Br, is read from this plot (Figure 20.25) in the same

manner as from the hysteresis loop shown in Figure 20.14; its value is

0.80 tesla.

(d) The coercivity, Hc, is read from this plot in the same fashion as from

Figure 20.14; the value is 80 A/m.

(e) In order to demagnetize this alloy having a coercivity of 80 A/m, an H

field of 80 A/m must be applied in a direction opposite to that of

magnetization. According to Equation (20.1)

I =

Hl

N

A 0.16 =

50

) 1 . 0 )( / 80 (

=

turns

m m A

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