MS1015-TUT7-1

Q1
To what temperature must a cylindrical rod of tungsten 15..025 mm in
diameter and a plate of 1025 steel having a circular hole 15.000 mm in
diameter have to be heated for the rod to just fit into the hole? Assume that
the initial temperature is 25°C.
MS1015-TUT7-2
A1
This problem asks for us to determine the temperature to which a cylindrical rod
of tungsten 15.025 mm in diameter must be heated in order for it of just fit into a
15.000 mm diameter circular hole in a plate of 1025 steel (which, of course, is
also heated), assuming that the initial temperature is 25°C. This requires the use
of Equation (19.3a), which is applied to the diameters of both the rod and hole.
That is
d
f
−d
o
d
o
= α
l
T
f
− T
o
( )
Solving this expression for df yields
d
f
= d
o
1+ α
l
T
f
− T
o
( )




Now all we need do is to establish expressions for d
f
(steel) and d
f
(W), set
them equal to one another, and solve for T
f
. According to Table 19.1, αl(steel)
= 12.0 x 10
-6
(°C)
-1
and αl(W) = 4.5 x 10-6 (°C)
-1
. Thus
d
f
(steel) = d
f
(W)
Now solving for T
f
gives (T
f
-25) = 222.4°C
Thus T
f
= 247.4 °C
( ) ( )
{ }
( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
( )
1 1
6 6
15.000 1 12.0 10 25 15.025 1 4.5 10 25
f f
mm x C T C mm x C T C
− −
− −
   
+ ° − ° = + ° − °
   
MS1015-TUT7-3
(a) The thermal conductivity of a single-crystal specimen is slightly greater than
a polycrystalline one of the same material. Why is this so?
(b) The thermal conductivity of a plain carbon steel is greater than for a stainless
steel. Why is this so?
Q2
MS1015-TUT7-4
(a) The thermal conductivity of a single crystal is greater than a polycrystalline
specimen of the same material because both phonons and free electrons are
scattered at grain boundaries, thus decreasing the efficiency of thermal
transport
(b) The thermal conductivity of a plain carbon steel is greater than that for a
stainless steel because the stainless steel has a much higher concentration of
alloying elements. Atoms of these alloying elements serve as scattering
centers for the free electrons that are involved in the thermal transport
process.
A2
MS1015-TUT7-5
Explain why repeatedly dropping a permanent magnet on the floor will cause it
to become demagnetized?
(b) Briefly explain why the magnitude of the saturation magnetization
decreases with increasing temperature for ferromagnetic materials, and
why ferromagnetic behaviour ceases above the Curie temperature. ?
Q3
MS1015-TUT7-6
A3
(a) Repeatedly dropping a permanent magnet on the floor will cause it to
become demagnetized because the jarring will cause large numbers of
magnetic dipoles to become misaligned by dipole rotation.
(b) For ferromagnetic materials, the saturation magnetization decreases with
increasing temperature because the atomic thermal vibrational motions
counteract the coupling forces between the adjacent atomic dipole
moments, causing some magnetic dipole misalignment. Ferromagnetic
behavior ceases above the Curie temperature because the atomic thermal
vibrations are sufficiently violent so as to completely destroy the mutual spin
coupling forces.
MS1015-TUT7-7
Figure 20.25 shows the B-versus-H curve for a steel alloy.
(a) What is the saturation flux density?
(b) What is the saturation magnetization?
(c) What is the remanence?
(d) What is the coercivity?
(e) What electric current is required in a cylindrical wire coil of 0.1 m long
and having 50 turns in order to generate the necessary magnetic field to
demagnetize a magnet bar made of this alloy?
Q4
MS1015-TUT7-8
A4
(a) The saturation flux density for the steel, the B-H behavior for which is
shown in Figure 20.25, is 1.30 tesla, the maximum B value shown on the plot
(b) The saturation magnetization is computed from Equation (20.8) as
M
s
=
B
s
µ
o
=
1.30 tesla
1.257 x 10
−6
H/m
= 1.03 x 10
6
A/m
(c) The remanence, Br, is read from this plot (Figure 20.25) in the same
manner as from the hysteresis loop shown in Figure 20.14; its value is
0.80 tesla.
(d) The coercivity, Hc, is read from this plot in the same fashion as from
Figure 20.14; the value is 80 A/m.
(e) In order to demagnetize this alloy having a coercivity of 80 A/m, an H
field of 80 A/m must be applied in a direction opposite to that of
magnetization. According to Equation (20.1)

I =
Hl
N
A 0.16 =
50
) 1 . 0 )( / 80 (
=
turns
m m A