# *AQUIFER indicates the input of aquifer location information.

*AQPROP indicates the input of aquifer properties.
*AQMETO! selects the numerical method to "e used for calculatin# \$ater influ% from
the aquifer.
*AQ&EA' determines the a"ilit( of \$ater to lea) "ac) into the aquifer \$hen under the
influence of a hi#her reser*oir pressure.
FORMAT+
*AQUIFER ,*-OU.!AR/0,*-OTTOM0,*RE1IO.0 i2+i3 42+43 )2+)3
,*I!IR0,*5!IR0,*'!IR0
*AQPROP
Thic)ness Porosit( Permea"ilit( Radius An#le ,R6Ratio0
*AQMETO! ,*7ARTER6TRA7/0,*FET'O8IT70,*O&!0
*AQ&EA' ,*O.0,*OFF0,*O&!0
!EFI.ITIO.9+
*-OU.!AR/
The aquifer is to "e connected to all fundamental #rid ed#e "loc)s ,either I equals 2 or ni:
or 5 equals 2 or n4: or "oth0 in the appropriate I or 5 direction ,ni ; last "loc) in %
direction: n4 ; last "loc) in ( direction0.
*-OTTOM
The aquifer is to "e connected to the "ottom of the reser*oir< that is: the "ottom of all
fundamental #rid "loc)s in the deepest la(er.
*RE1IO.
The aquifer is to "e connected to the re#ion indicated "( the follo\$in# ran#e ,i2+i3 42+43
)2+)30 and direction )e(\$ords ,*I!IR: *5!IR or *'!IR0 )e(\$ords.
i2+i3
Indicates the I "e#innin# and endin# indices of the fundamental #rid re#ion \$here the
aquifer is to "e connected.
42+43
Indicates the 5 "e#innin# and endin# indices of the fundamental #rid re#ion \$here the
aquifer is to "e connected.
)2+)3
Indicates the ' "e#innin# and endin# indices of the fundamental #rid re#ion \$here the
aquifer is to "e connected.
*I!IR
The direction of inflo\$ "et\$een the aquifer and the reser*oir "oundar( is to "e in the I
direction.
*5!IR
The direction of inflo\$ "et\$een the aquifer and the reser*oir "oundar( is to "e in the 5
direction.
*'!IR
The direction of inflo\$ "et\$een the aquifer and the reser*oir "oundar( is to "e in the '
directions.
thic)ness
Aquifer thic)ness ,m = ft = cm0.
porosit(
Aquifer porosit( ,fraction0.
permea"ilit(
Aquifer permea"ilit( ,md = md = md0.
Effecti*e reser*oir radius ,m = ft = cm0.
an#le
Aquifer an#le of influence ,e%pressed as a fraction of a circle0.
R6Ratio
Ratio of the aquifer>s e%ternal radius to that the reser*oir>s effecti*e radius ,fraction0.
*7ARTER6TRA7/
7alculate \$ater influ% from the aquifer usin# the 7arter6Trac( appro%imation.
*FET'O8IT7
7alculate \$ater influ% from the aquifer usin# a formulation "ased on \$or) "( Fet)o*itch.
*AQMETO! *O&!
9elects the aquifer calculation for simulator *ersions num"ered ?@A.%%? and earlier.
*AQ&EA'
Indicates \$hether or not \$ater is allo\$ed to lea) from the reser*oir into the aquifer at a
"loc) \$here the "loc) pressure e%ceeds the ad4acent aquifer pressure. The "eha*ior of
the aquifer is modelled more accuratel( \$hen *O. follo\$s *AQ&EA': and lea)a#e is
allo\$ed: rather than \$hen *OFF is used: \$hen no lea)a#e is allo\$ed. If *AQ&EA' is
not specified: this is equi*alent to *AQ&EA' *OFF.
*AQ&EA' *O&!
9elects the aquifer lea) off calculation for simulator *ersions num"ered ?@B.%%? and
earlier. The *O&! method: in some instances allo\$ed aquifer lea)a#e e*en \$hen
lea)a#e \$as not allo\$ed. *AQ&EA' *OFF ,the default0 does not under an( condition
allo\$ aquifer lea)a#e \$hen none \$as specified.
!EFAU&T9+
Optional )e(\$ords. .o defaults for *AQUIFER.
!efaults are assi#ned as follo\$s+
Thic)ness+
a*era#e thic)ness for *-OU.!AR/ and *RE1IO.
6or6
square root of the contact area ,see "elo\$0: for *-OTTOM
Porosit(+
a*era#e porosit(
Permea"ilit(+
a*era#e reser*oir permea"ilit(: a*era#ed o*er the aquifer flo\$ directions
the radius of the circle \$hose circumference: \$hich \$hen multiplied "( the thic)ness
#i*es the contact area: for *-OU.!AR/ 6or6 the square root of the ,t(pical0 area of a
side of the reser*oir: di*ided "( pi ,see "elo\$0: for *-OTTOM 6or6 the square root of the
contact area di*ided "( pi: for *RE1IO.
An#le+
full circle ,2.C0 for all #rids e%cept *RA!IA&: \$hen the sum of the outer rin# an#ular
e%tents is used ,after di*ision "( DEC.C0: for *-OU.!AR/ and *RE1IO. 6or6 an#ular
e%tent of the "ottom of the reser*oir ,after di*ision "( DEC.C< see "elo\$0: for *-OTTOM
R6Ratio+
defaults to 2CC.C for *AQMETO! *FET'O8IT7
That is+
In the a"o*e: ?a*era#e? refers to a pore6*olume \$ei#hted a*era#e ta)en o*er aquifer6
contactin# cells: and ?contact area? means the sum of the areas of all cell faces that are
defined to contact the aquifer: as specified "( the *AQUIFER )e(\$ord.
*AQMETO! defaults to *7ARTER6TRA7/ usin# a dimensionless pressure influence
function for an infinite aquifer.
7O.!ITIO.9+
This )e(\$ord must "e in the Reser*oir !escription )e(\$ord #roup.
EFP&A.ATIO.+
The aquifer modellin# descri"ed here allo\$s \$ater influ% ,and re*erse flo\$ if *AQ&EA'
*O. is ena"led0 to a reser*oir from an aquifer: or se*eral aquifers. Usin# an anal(tical
aquifer model can "e more economical for simulation purposes than usin# #rid "loc)s
filled \$ith \$ater. If #reat accurac( is required in modellin# aquifers ho\$e*er: \$ater
filled "loc)s should "e used.
9ince outflo\$ from the reser*oir into the aquifer is modelled anal(ticall( \$hen
*AQ&EA' *O. is used: it is possi"le to ha*e \$ater outflo\$ from a #rid "loc) attached
to the aquifer that has no mo"ile \$ater. Thus: care must "e e%ercised \$hen usin#
anal(tical aquifer models. It is recommended that aquifers "e modelled usin# #rid "loc)s
in cases \$here the reser*oir pressure is e%pected to increase si#nificantl( durin# the
course of the simulation.
Ghen dual porosit( models are used: the aquifers \$ill "e connected to the fracture
porosit( of #rid "loc)s \$hene*er possi"le. Other\$ise: matri% porosit( connections \$ill
"e used.
The su")e(\$ord *RE1IO. indicates direct input of the aquifer "oundar( "loc)s. The
su")e(\$ords *I!IR: *5!IR: and *'!IR indicate \$hich face of the reser*oir is in contact
\$ith the aquifer. If more than one face is in contact \$ith the aquifer: list each re#ion on
su"sequent lines.
*AQPROP specifies the aquifer properties for calculation of \$ater influ% from the
aquifer. *AQPROP defaults for *-OU.!AR/ aquifers en*ision a c(lindrical reser*oir
\$ith the aquifer contactin# the reser*oir around the full c(linder. The defaults are
constructed so that the a*era#e thic)ness multiplied "( the circumference #i*es the
contact area calculated usin# the *AQUIFER )e(\$ord.
*AQPROP defaults for *-OTTOM aquifers en*ision a square contact area \$ith a side
dimension of &. Thus: & is equal to the square root of the "ottom contact area. An
a*era#e reser*oir thic)ness is also used in these calculations. The aquifer is assumed
to "e "ounded "( the ed#es of a \$ed#e comin# up to the "ottom of the reser*oir: as
sho\$n in the follo\$in# side *ie\$ of the reser*oir. The ?!?>s define dia#onals dra\$n
throu#h the corners and their e%tensions: the ?G?>s: define the \$ed#e+
\$here the \$ed#e an#le is 3*atan,&H0. Then: the theor( for radial aquifers is applied in
this side *ie\$: \$ith the *alue for An#le ta)en as 3*atan,&H0HDEC: Thic)ness ta)en as &
,*ie\$ed as a dimension into the pa#e0: and Radius ta)en as the square root of ,&*Hpi0.
This latter choice is required as the reser*oir must "e circular to appl( the theor(. This
defines defaults for *AQUIFER *-OTTOM.
*AQPROP defaults for *RE1IO. aquifers are much li)e those for *-OU.!AR/ e%cept
that Radius is ta)en to "e the square root of the contact area di*ided "( pi.
If *AQMETO! *7ARTER6TRA7/ is specified: the simulator calculates \$ater influ%
usin# a 7arter6Trac( appro%imation. For more information: refer to R. !. 7arter and 1.
G. Trac(: ?An Impro*ed Method for 7alculatin# Gater Influ%?: Trans.: AIME: 8ol. 32@:
,2@EC0: pp. I2J6I2A. This method uses a dimensionless pressure influence function P,td0:
e%pressed as a function of dimensionless time td. The function is defined for IMEF
usin# a ta"le ,see *AQFU.7 "elo\$0: alon# \$ith an e%trapolation method for
dimensionless times that #o "e(ond the end of the ta"le. If the internal infinite e%tent
aquifer ta"le is used: an anal(tical e%pression is used for the e%trapolation ,see the 8an
E*erdin#en and urst reference mentioned in the *AQFU.7 section0. Other\$ise: linear
e%trapolation in dimensionless time is used: \$hich is appropriate for finite aquifers.
If *AQMETO! *FET'O8IT7 is specified: the simulator calculates \$ater influ%
from the aquifer usin# a formulation "ased on \$or) "( Fet)o*itch ,see: for instance: M.
5. Fet)o*itch: ?A 9implified Approach to Gater Influ% 7alculations 6 Finite Aquifer
9(stems?: 5PT: 5ul( 2@A2: pp. B2I6B3B0. This approach is a"le to model finite aquifers
\$ithout ha*in# to #enerate dimensionless pressure functions. Onl( a ?R6Ratio?
parameter is required.
If *AQMETO! *O&! is specified: older calculations ,from *ersions num"ered ?@A.%%?
and earlier0 are used. These *ersions used 7arter6Trac( \$ith a linear e%trapolation for the
dimensionless aquifer pressure influence function. Ghen the default infinite e%tent
aquifer function \$as "ein# used: the linear e%trapolation could result in an aquifer
pressure drop that \$as too lar#e: \$hich could result in an aquifer that could seem limited
in e%tent. As noted a"o*e: a standard anal(tical e%pression in lo#,td0 is no\$ used for
lar#e time e%trapolation of the infinite aquifer case. 9ome modifications of the defaults
for *AQPROP parameters are also introduced \$hen *AQMETO! *O&! is specified.
-loc) transmissi"ilit( multipliers affect the aquifer inflo\$. *-OU.!AR/ aquifers for
*RA!IA& #rids use *TRA.9I multipliers. It the aquifer is of *-OTTOM t(pe \$ith
la(er .' #enerall( deeper than la(er 2: then *TRA.9'6defined multipliers are used. If
la(er 2 is deeper than la(er .': then *TRA.&'6defined multipliers are used. If the
aquifer is of *-OU.!AR/ or *RE1IO. t(pe: and I6direction contact is made on a cell
\$ith an I6inde% I;2: then a *TRA.&I6defined *alue is used. 9imilarl(: if I6direction
contact is made on a cell \$ith an I6inde% I;.I: then a *TRA.9I6defined *alue is used. If
aquifer contact is made on a cell \$ith an intermediate I6inde%: it is assumed that that cell
has a null cell l(in# on one side of it in the I6direction. For this case: the aquifer uses the
*TRA.9IH*TRA.&I multiplier that \$ould ha*e #o*erned inter6"loc) flo\$ if the
nei#h"our \$as not null. 9imilar comments hold for the 56 and '6directions.
E%amples+
*AQUIFER *-OU.!AR/
*AQPROP ...
6or6
*AQUIFER *-OTTOM
*AQPROP ...
Multiple use of *RE1IO. is allo\$ed to define comple% aquifer connections.
*AQUIFER *RE1IO. D I+E A+@ *I!IR
*RE1IO. 2+DI A+@ *5!IR
*RE1IO. I+A J+A @ *'!IR
*AQPROP
C. C.D 2JC.C C.C .J
The accepta"le ran#e of *alues for the aquifer thic)ness is+
9Im Fieldft &a"cm
minma% C.C2.CEKI C.CD.3BEKI C.C2.CEKE