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***AQPROP indicates the input of aquifer properties.
**

*AQMETO! selects the numerical method to "e used for calculatin# $ater influ% from

the aquifer.

*AQ&EA' determines the a"ilit( of $ater to lea) "ac) into the aquifer $hen under the

influence of a hi#her reser*oir pressure.

FORMAT+

*AQUIFER ,*-OU.!AR/0,*-OTTOM0,*RE1IO.0 i2+i3 42+43 )2+)3

,*I!IR0,*5!IR0,*'!IR0

*AQPROP

Thic)ness Porosit( Permea"ilit( Radius An#le ,R6Ratio0

*AQMETO! ,*7ARTER6TRA7/0,*FET'O8IT70,*O&!0

*AQ&EA' ,*O.0,*OFF0,*O&!0

!EFI.ITIO.9+

*-OU.!AR/

The aquifer is to "e connected to all fundamental #rid ed#e "loc)s ,either I equals 2 or ni:

or 5 equals 2 or n4: or "oth0 in the appropriate I or 5 direction ,ni ; last "loc) in %

direction: n4 ; last "loc) in ( direction0.

*-OTTOM

The aquifer is to "e connected to the "ottom of the reser*oir< that is: the "ottom of all

fundamental #rid "loc)s in the deepest la(er.

*RE1IO.

The aquifer is to "e connected to the re#ion indicated "( the follo$in# ran#e ,i2+i3 42+43

)2+)30 and direction )e($ords ,*I!IR: *5!IR or *'!IR0 )e($ords.

i2+i3

Indicates the I "e#innin# and endin# indices of the fundamental #rid re#ion $here the

aquifer is to "e connected.

42+43

Indicates the 5 "e#innin# and endin# indices of the fundamental #rid re#ion $here the

aquifer is to "e connected.

)2+)3

Indicates the ' "e#innin# and endin# indices of the fundamental #rid re#ion $here the

aquifer is to "e connected.

*I!IR

The direction of inflo$ "et$een the aquifer and the reser*oir "oundar( is to "e in the I

direction.

*5!IR

The direction of inflo$ "et$een the aquifer and the reser*oir "oundar( is to "e in the 5

direction.

*'!IR

The direction of inflo$ "et$een the aquifer and the reser*oir "oundar( is to "e in the '

directions.

thic)ness

Aquifer thic)ness ,m = ft = cm0.

porosit(

Aquifer porosit( ,fraction0.

permea"ilit(

Aquifer permea"ilit( ,md = md = md0.

radius

Effecti*e reser*oir radius ,m = ft = cm0.

an#le

Aquifer an#le of influence ,e%pressed as a fraction of a circle0.

R6Ratio

Ratio of the aquifer>s e%ternal radius to that the reser*oir>s effecti*e radius ,fraction0.

*7ARTER6TRA7/

7alculate $ater influ% from the aquifer usin# the 7arter6Trac( appro%imation.

*FET'O8IT7

7alculate $ater influ% from the aquifer usin# a formulation "ased on $or) "( Fet)o*itch.

*AQMETO! *O&!

9elects the aquifer calculation for simulator *ersions num"ered ?@A.%%? and earlier.

*AQ&EA'

Indicates $hether or not $ater is allo$ed to lea) from the reser*oir into the aquifer at a

"loc) $here the "loc) pressure e%ceeds the ad4acent aquifer pressure. The "eha*ior of

the aquifer is modelled more accuratel( $hen *O. follo$s *AQ&EA': and lea)a#e is

allo$ed: rather than $hen *OFF is used: $hen no lea)a#e is allo$ed. If *AQ&EA' is

not specified: this is equi*alent to *AQ&EA' *OFF.

*AQ&EA' *O&!

9elects the aquifer lea) off calculation for simulator *ersions num"ered ?@B.%%? and

earlier. The *O&! method: in some instances allo$ed aquifer lea)a#e e*en $hen

lea)a#e $as not allo$ed. *AQ&EA' *OFF ,the default0 does not under an( condition

allo$ aquifer lea)a#e $hen none $as specified.

!EFAU&T9+

Optional )e($ords. .o defaults for *AQUIFER.

!efaults are assi#ned as follo$s+

Thic)ness+

a*era#e thic)ness for *-OU.!AR/ and *RE1IO.

6or6

square root of the contact area ,see "elo$0: for *-OTTOM

Porosit(+

a*era#e porosit(

Permea"ilit(+

a*era#e reser*oir permea"ilit(: a*era#ed o*er the aquifer flo$ directions

Radius+

the radius of the circle $hose circumference: $hich $hen multiplied "( the thic)ness

#i*es the contact area: for *-OU.!AR/ 6or6 the square root of the ,t(pical0 area of a

side of the reser*oir: di*ided "( pi ,see "elo$0: for *-OTTOM 6or6 the square root of the

contact area di*ided "( pi: for *RE1IO.

An#le+

full circle ,2.C0 for all #rids e%cept *RA!IA&: $hen the sum of the outer rin# an#ular

e%tents is used ,after di*ision "( DEC.C0: for *-OU.!AR/ and *RE1IO. 6or6 an#ular

e%tent of the "ottom of the reser*oir ,after di*ision "( DEC.C< see "elo$0: for *-OTTOM

R6Ratio+

defaults to 2CC.C for *AQMETO! *FET'O8IT7

That is+

In the a"o*e: ?a*era#e? refers to a pore6*olume $ei#hted a*era#e ta)en o*er aquifer6

contactin# cells: and ?contact area? means the sum of the areas of all cell faces that are

defined to contact the aquifer: as specified "( the *AQUIFER )e($ord.

*AQMETO! defaults to *7ARTER6TRA7/ usin# a dimensionless pressure influence

function for an infinite aquifer.

7O.!ITIO.9+

This )e($ord must "e in the Reser*oir !escription )e($ord #roup.

EFP&A.ATIO.+

The aquifer modellin# descri"ed here allo$s $ater influ% ,and re*erse flo$ if *AQ&EA'

*O. is ena"led0 to a reser*oir from an aquifer: or se*eral aquifers. Usin# an anal(tical

aquifer model can "e more economical for simulation purposes than usin# #rid "loc)s

filled $ith $ater. If #reat accurac( is required in modellin# aquifers ho$e*er: $ater

filled "loc)s should "e used.

9ince outflo$ from the reser*oir into the aquifer is modelled anal(ticall( $hen

*AQ&EA' *O. is used: it is possi"le to ha*e $ater outflo$ from a #rid "loc) attached

to the aquifer that has no mo"ile $ater. Thus: care must "e e%ercised $hen usin#

anal(tical aquifer models. It is recommended that aquifers "e modelled usin# #rid "loc)s

in cases $here the reser*oir pressure is e%pected to increase si#nificantl( durin# the

course of the simulation.

Ghen dual porosit( models are used: the aquifers $ill "e connected to the fracture

porosit( of #rid "loc)s $hene*er possi"le. Other$ise: matri% porosit( connections $ill

"e used.

The su")e($ord *RE1IO. indicates direct input of the aquifer "oundar( "loc)s. The

su")e($ords *I!IR: *5!IR: and *'!IR indicate $hich face of the reser*oir is in contact

$ith the aquifer. If more than one face is in contact $ith the aquifer: list each re#ion on

su"sequent lines.

*AQPROP specifies the aquifer properties for calculation of $ater influ% from the

aquifer. *AQPROP defaults for *-OU.!AR/ aquifers en*ision a c(lindrical reser*oir

$ith the aquifer contactin# the reser*oir around the full c(linder. The defaults are

constructed so that the a*era#e thic)ness multiplied "( the circumference #i*es the

contact area calculated usin# the *AQUIFER )e($ord.

*AQPROP defaults for *-OTTOM aquifers en*ision a square contact area $ith a side

dimension of &. Thus: & is equal to the square root of the "ottom contact area. An

a*era#e reser*oir thic)ness is also used in these calculations. The aquifer is assumed

to "e "ounded "( the ed#es of a $ed#e comin# up to the "ottom of the reser*oir: as

sho$n in the follo$in# side *ie$ of the reser*oir. The ?!?>s define dia#onals dra$n

throu#h the corners and their e%tensions: the ?G?>s: define the $ed#e+

$here the $ed#e an#le is 3*atan,&H0. Then: the theor( for radial aquifers is applied in

this side *ie$: $ith the *alue for An#le ta)en as 3*atan,&H0HDEC: Thic)ness ta)en as &

,*ie$ed as a dimension into the pa#e0: and Radius ta)en as the square root of ,&*Hpi0.

This latter choice is required as the reser*oir must "e circular to appl( the theor(. This

defines defaults for *AQUIFER *-OTTOM.

*AQPROP defaults for *RE1IO. aquifers are much li)e those for *-OU.!AR/ e%cept

that Radius is ta)en to "e the square root of the contact area di*ided "( pi.

If *AQMETO! *7ARTER6TRA7/ is specified: the simulator calculates $ater influ%

usin# a 7arter6Trac( appro%imation. For more information: refer to R. !. 7arter and 1.

G. Trac(: ?An Impro*ed Method for 7alculatin# Gater Influ%?: Trans.: AIME: 8ol. 32@:

,2@EC0: pp. I2J6I2A. This method uses a dimensionless pressure influence function P,td0:

e%pressed as a function of dimensionless time td. The function is defined for IMEF

usin# a ta"le ,see *AQFU.7 "elo$0: alon# $ith an e%trapolation method for

dimensionless times that #o "e(ond the end of the ta"le. If the internal infinite e%tent

aquifer ta"le is used: an anal(tical e%pression is used for the e%trapolation ,see the 8an

E*erdin#en and urst reference mentioned in the *AQFU.7 section0. Other$ise: linear

e%trapolation in dimensionless time is used: $hich is appropriate for finite aquifers.

If *AQMETO! *FET'O8IT7 is specified: the simulator calculates $ater influ%

from the aquifer usin# a formulation "ased on $or) "( Fet)o*itch ,see: for instance: M.

5. Fet)o*itch: ?A 9implified Approach to Gater Influ% 7alculations 6 Finite Aquifer

9(stems?: 5PT: 5ul( 2@A2: pp. B2I6B3B0. This approach is a"le to model finite aquifers

$ithout ha*in# to #enerate dimensionless pressure functions. Onl( a ?R6Ratio?

parameter is required.

If *AQMETO! *O&! is specified: older calculations ,from *ersions num"ered ?@A.%%?

and earlier0 are used. These *ersions used 7arter6Trac( $ith a linear e%trapolation for the

dimensionless aquifer pressure influence function. Ghen the default infinite e%tent

aquifer function $as "ein# used: the linear e%trapolation could result in an aquifer

pressure drop that $as too lar#e: $hich could result in an aquifer that could seem limited

in e%tent. As noted a"o*e: a standard anal(tical e%pression in lo#,td0 is no$ used for

lar#e time e%trapolation of the infinite aquifer case. 9ome modifications of the defaults

for *AQPROP parameters are also introduced $hen *AQMETO! *O&! is specified.

-loc) transmissi"ilit( multipliers affect the aquifer inflo$. *-OU.!AR/ aquifers for

*RA!IA& #rids use *TRA.9I multipliers. It the aquifer is of *-OTTOM t(pe $ith

la(er .' #enerall( deeper than la(er 2: then *TRA.9'6defined multipliers are used. If

la(er 2 is deeper than la(er .': then *TRA.&'6defined multipliers are used. If the

aquifer is of *-OU.!AR/ or *RE1IO. t(pe: and I6direction contact is made on a cell

$ith an I6inde% I;2: then a *TRA.&I6defined *alue is used. 9imilarl(: if I6direction

contact is made on a cell $ith an I6inde% I;.I: then a *TRA.9I6defined *alue is used. If

aquifer contact is made on a cell $ith an intermediate I6inde%: it is assumed that that cell

has a null cell l(in# on one side of it in the I6direction. For this case: the aquifer uses the

*TRA.9IH*TRA.&I multiplier that $ould ha*e #o*erned inter6"loc) flo$ if the

nei#h"our $as not null. 9imilar comments hold for the 56 and '6directions.

E%amples+

*AQUIFER *-OU.!AR/

*AQPROP ...

6or6

*AQUIFER *-OTTOM

*AQPROP ...

Multiple use of *RE1IO. is allo$ed to define comple% aquifer connections.

*AQUIFER *RE1IO. D I+E A+@ *I!IR

*RE1IO. 2+DI A+@ *5!IR

*RE1IO. I+A J+A @ *'!IR

*AQPROP

C. C.D 2JC.C C.C .J

The accepta"le ran#e of *alues for the aquifer thic)ness is+

9Im Fieldft &a"cm

minma% C.C2.CEKI C.CD.3BEKI C.C2.CEKE

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