Coordinating and subordinating conjunctions (as an intro to relative clauses

)

 A clause is a structure that has at least one subject and one finite verb linked together in subject
verb agreement. If clause can stand alone  independent clause (e.g. Louise brings her lunch.);
if cannot  dependent clause (e.g. Louise brings her lunch whenever she has to attend a noon
presentation).

 coordinating conjunctions (“FANBOYS”) can be used to join two independent clauses (e.g. John
is British, and Sue is Mexican.) Examples of coordinating conjunctions: For, And, Nor, But, Or,
Yet, So

 subordinating conjunctions can be used to join an independent clause and a dependent clause.
A subordinating conjunction introduces a specific type of dependent clause called an adverb
clause (e.g. Louise brings her lunch whenever she has to attend a noon presentation).

 Examples of subordinating conjunctions: so that, because, after, before, when, while, although,
where, unless  Adverb Clause Movement Test: If a clause can be moved to the beginning of
a sentence, then that clause is an adverb that modifies the verb [e.g. Before the movie even
started, I had finished my popcorn. vs. *And Sue is Mexican, John is British (coordinating
conjunction) or, vs. * That you told me about, I finally read the book. (relative pronoun)]

 relative pronouns can also (i.e. in addition to subordinating conjunctions) be used to join an
independent clause and a dependent clause. A relative pronoun introduces a specific type of
dependent clause called an adjective (relative) clause (e.g. I finally read the book that you told
me about.)

 Examples of relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, which  Adjective Clause 3
rd
-person
pronoun Test: If a noun and a following clause can both be replaced by a single 3
rd
-person
pronoun, then that clause must be an adjective (relative) clause modifying that noun [e.g. I
finally read the book that you told me about.  I finally read it. ]

Relative (Adjective) Clauses
1. A clause is a structure that has at least one subject and one finite verb linked together in subject
verb agreement. If clause can stand alone  independent clause (e.g. Sue lives in Tokyo); if
cannot  dependent clause (e.g. Tokyo, where Sue lives, is a big city). Relative (adjective)
clauses are a subset of dependent clauses.

2. Relative pronoun: a special group of pronouns that begin relative (adjective) clauses: who (used
for people), whom, whose, which (used for things), that (used for people and things), where,
when

3. Relative (adjective) clause: always modify the nouns they follow (e.g. The answer that we
received was not very satisfactory). If the clause significantly restricts and redefines the
meaning of the noun it modifies  restrictive (defining) relative clause; never set-off with
commas (e.g. We bought the rug that was on sale). If the clause does not significantly define or
alter the identity of the noun it modifies but instead gives additional (but non-defining) info
about the noun  nonrestrictive (non-defining) relative clause; always set-off with commas
(e.g. My father, who was born in Ireland, came to Canada as a child.) More examples, see Azar,
p. 73

4. who vs. which vs. that

who  used for people (e.g.1 I thanked the woman who helped me.)
which  used for things (e.g.2 The book which is on the table is mine.)
that  used for people and things (e.g.3 I thanked the woman that helped me.  no
difference in meaning from e.g. 1; e.g.4 The book that is on the table is mine.  no difference
in meaning from e.g. 2)

5. Relative pronouns can function as subject or object

As subject of the relative clause: e.g. I thanked the woman who helped me.

As object of a verb in the relative clause (Note that when the relative pronoun functions as an
object in a restrictive (defining, no commas) relative clause, it may be omitted as in e.g.3 &6):

e.g.1 The man who(m) I saw was Mr. Jones. (who(m)  people)
e.g.2 The man that I saw was Mr. Jones. (that  people and things)
e.g.3 The man I saw was Mr. Jones

e.g.4 The movie which we saw last night wasn’t very good. (which  things)
e.g.5 The movie that we saw last night wasn’t very good. (that  people and things)
e.g.6 The movie we saw last night wasn’t very good.