BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/1

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
OBJECTIVES

General Objec!"e : To understand the concept of units and dimensions
S#ec!\$!c Objec!"e% : At the end of the unit you will be able to:
 state the difference between fundamentals and derived
quantities
 describe the physical quantities of thermodynamics
 understand the conversion units of thermodynamics
 calculate the examples of conversion factors
UNIT 1
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/2
1&0 INTROD'CTION
id you realize that the work of an engineer is limited unless he has a source
of power to drive his machines or tools? However before such a study can
begin it is necessary to be sure of the number of definitions and units
which are essential for a proper understanding of the sub!ect" #e are familiar with
most of these items in our everyday lives but science demands that we have to be
exact in our understanding if real progress is to be made"
\$
#hen engineering calculations are performed it is necessary to be concerned with
the units of the physical quantities involved" A unit is any specified amount of a
quantity by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measured"
%or example meters centimeters and millimeters are all units of length" &econds
minutes and hours are alternative time units"

1&1 ()n*a+enal an* Der!"e* ,)an!!e%
10 -!l.+eer / 0 (ee /
20 Yar* / 100 Inc1e%
2 3 Meer
C.)l* 4.) 5!"e +e an
an%6er3
INPUT
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/7
'n the present discussion we consider the system of units called &' ('nternational
&ystem of )nits* and it is a legally accepted system in many countries" &' units will
be used throughout this module"
+ength mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature and luminous
intensity are the six fundamental physical quantities" These six quantities are
absolutely independent of one another" They are also called the ,'ndefinables- of
mechanics" The &' base units are listed in Table ."./."
Table 1&181 %undamental units
,)an!4 'n! S4+b.l
0ass kilogram kg
Time second s
+ength meter m
Thermodynamic temperature degree 1elvin 1
2lectric current ampere A
+uminous intensity candela cd
All other physical quantities which can be expressed in terms of one or more of
these are known as ,derived quantities-" The unit of length mass time electric
current thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity are known as
,fundamental units’" 3hysical quantities like area volume density velocity
acceleration force energy power torque etc" are called derived quantities since they
depend on one or more of these fundamental quantities" The units of the derived
quantities are called derived units as shown in Table ."./4"
Table 1&182 \$erived units
,)an!4 'n! S4+b.l N.e%
Area meter square m
4
5olume meter cube m
6
. m
6
7 . x .8
6
litre
5elocity meter per second m9s
Acceleration 0eter per second
squared
m9s
4
\$ensity kilogram 9 meter cube kg9m
6
%orce :ewton : . : 7 . kgm9s
4
3ressure :ewton9meter square :9m
4
. :9m
4
7 . 3ascal
. bar 7 .8
;
:9m
4
7 .8
4
k:9m
4
1&1&1 (.rce
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/9
:ewton-s second law may be written as force α (mass x acceleration* for a
body of a constant mass"
i"e" F = kma (.".*
(where m is the mass of a body accelerated with an acceleration a by a force
% k is constant*
'n a coherent system of units such as &' k 7 . hence:
F = ma (."4*
The &' unit of force is therefore kgm9s
4
" This composite unit is called the
:ewton :"
i"e" . : 7 . kg"m9s
4
1&1&2 Ener54
Heat and work are both forms of energy" The work done by a force is the
product of the force and the distance moved in the same direction"
The &' unit of work 7 force x distance in the :ewton meter :m"
A general unit for energy is introduced by giving the :ewton meter the name
<oule <"
i"e" . <oule 7 . :ewton x . meter
or . < 7 . :m
A more common unit for energy in &' is the kilo !oule (. k< 7 .8
6
<*
1&1&7 :.6er
The use of an additional name for composite units is extended further by
introducing the Watt # as the unit of power" 3ower is the rate of energy
transfer (or work done* by or to a system"
i"e" . #att # 7 . <9s 7 . : m9s
1&1&9 :re%%)re
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/0
3ressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area" #e speak of pressure
only when we deal with gas or liquid" The pressure on a surface due to
forces from another surface or from a fluid is the force acting at =8
o
to the
unit area of the surface"
i"e" pressure 7 force9 area
P = F/A (."6*
The unit of pressure is :9m
4
and this unit is sometimes called the 3ascal 3a"
%or most cases occurring in thermodynamics the pressure expressed in 3ascal
will be a very small number" This new unit is defined as follows:
. bar 7 .8
;
:9m
4
7 .8
;
3a
1&1&0& Den%!4
\$ensity is the mass of a substance per unit volume"
The unit of density is kg9m
6
"
(.rce; ( 2 +a
:re%%)re; : 2 (/A
<.r=; < 2 ( > ?
Den%!4; ρ 2 +/V
(.">*
volume
mass
\$ensity
V
m
=
=
ρ
?alculate the pressure of gas underneath the piston in equilibrium for a ;8 kg
mass that reacts to a piston with a surface area of .88 cm
4
"
A density of ρ 7 @;8 kg9m
6
of oil is filled to a tank" \$etermine the amount of
mass m in the tank if the volume of the tank is V 7 4 m
6
"
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/6
E>a+#le 1&1
S.l)!.n . E>a+#le 1&1
4
:9m 8; " >=
8"8.
="@. x ;8

area
force
(3* 3ressure
=
=
=
E>a+#le 1&2
S.l)!.n . E>a+#le 1&2
#e should end up with the unit of kilograms" 3utting the given information into
perspective we have
ρ 7 @;8 kg9m
6
and V 7 4 m
6
't is obvious that we can eliminate m
6
and end up with kg by multiplying these
two quantities" Therefore the formula we are looking for is
V
m
= ρ
Thus m = ρV
7 (@;8 kg9m
6
*(4 m
6
*
7 .A88 kg
(.rce 2 +a%% > accelera!.n
:re%%)re 2 \$.rce/area
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/@
TEST YO'R 'NDERSTANDING B2%CD2 EC) ?C:T':)2 #'TH TH2
:2FT ':3)TGH
.". #hat is the work done by an expanding gas if the force resisting the motion
of the piston is A88 : and the length of the stroke is 8"; m ?
."4 #hat is the force required to accelerate a mass of 68 kg at a rate of .; m9s
4
?
."6 The fuel tank of a large truck measures ."4m x 8"=m x 8"Im" How many litres
of fuel are contained in the tank when it is full?
."> A weather research instrument is suspended below a helium filled balloon
which is a 6"@m diameter sphere" 'f the specific volume of helium is
;"Im
6
9kg what is the weight of helium in the balloon? 2xplain briefly why
the balloon rises in the atmosphere"
Ac!"!4 1A
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/A
(ee*bac= . Ac!"!4 1A
.". #ork 7 %orce x \$istance
7 (A88 :*(8"; m*
7 6;8 :m or <
."4 %orce 7 mass x acceleration
F 7 ma
7 (68 kg*(.; m9s
4
*
7 >;8 kg"m9s
4
or :
."6 5olume 7 ."4 x 8"= x 8"I 7 8"I>@ m
6
&ince .m
6
7 .888 litres
Then contents of full tank 7 8"I>@ x .888
7 I>@ litres
."> Dadius of volume r 7
4
d
7
4
6 " 6
7 ."= m
5olume of balloon V 7
6

6
>
r π
7
6
* = " . (
6
>
π
7 4@"A6 m
6
0ass of helium in balloon m 7
v
V
7 4@"A69;"I
7 ;".6 kg
∴ w = mg
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/B
7 ;".6 x ="@.
7 ;8"6 :
\$ensity of helium ρ =
v
.
7
I " ;
.
2 8".A@I kg9m
6
The balloon rises in the atmosphere because the density of helium is less than
the density of atmosphere"
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/10
1&2 'n! C.n"er%!.n%
#e all know from experience that conversion of units can give terrible headaches
if they are not used carefully in solving a problem" But with some attention and
skill conversion of units can be used to our advantage"
0easurements that describe physical quantities may be expressed in a variety of
different units" As a result one often has to convert a quantity from one unit to
another" %or example we would like to convert say >= days into weeks" Cne
approach is to multiply the value by ratios of the equivalent units" The ratios are
formed such that the old units are cancelled leaving the new units"
T1e D!+en%!.nal H.+.5ene!4
 \$espite their causing us errors units9dimensions can be our friends"
 All terms in an equation must be dimensionally homogeneous"
• That is we can-t add apples to
orangesG
• :either can we add <9mol to <9kg s"
 By keeping track of our units9dimensions
we can automatically do a reality check
on our equations"
 But the fun doesn-t stop thereG
 A dimensional analysis can help to determine the form of an equation
that we may have forgotten"
The example of unit conversions are:
 . kg 7 .888 g
 . m 7 .88 cm 7 .888 mm
 . km 7 .888 m 7 (.88 888 cm J .8
;
cm* 7 (. 888 888 mm J .8
I
mm*
 . hour 7 I8 minutes 7 6I88 seconds
 . m
6
7 .888 litre or . litre 7 . x .8
/6
m
6
 . bar 7 . x .8
;
:9m
4
7 . x .8
4
k:9m
4
INPUT
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/11
0ultiple and sub/multiple of the basic units are formed by means of prefixes and the
ones most commonly used are shown in the following table:
Table 1&2 0ultiplying factors
M)l!#l4!n5 (ac.r :re\$!> S4+b.l
. 888 888 888 888 .8
.4
tera T
. 888 888 888 .8
=
giga K
. 888 888 .8
I
mega 0
. 888 .8
6
kilo k
.88 .8
4
hector h
.8 .8
.
deca da
8". .8
/.
desi d
8"8. .8
/4
centi c
8"88. .8
/6
milli m
8"888 88. .8
/I
micro µ
8"888 888 88. .8
/=
nano n
8"888 888 888 88. .8
/.4
pico p
E>a+#le 1&7

?onvert . km9h to m9s"
S.l)!.n . E>a+#le 1&7
m9s 4A@ " 8
s 6I88
m .888

s 6I88
! .
x
km .
m .888
x
!
km .
!
km .
=
=
= ∴
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/12
E>a+#le 1&9
?onvert 4; g9mm
6
to kg9m
6
"
S.l)!.n . E>a+#le 1&9
. kg 7 .888 g
. m 7 .888 mm
. m
6
7 .888 x .888 x .888 mm
6
7 .8
=
m
6
6 I
6
=
6
6 =
6 6
kg9m .8 x 4;
m .888
kg . x .8 x 4;

g .888
kg .
x
m .
mm .8
x
mm
g 4;
mm
g 4;

=
=
= ∴
How could I convert
g/mm
3
to kg/m
3
?
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/17
TEST YO'R 'NDERSTANDING B2%CD2 EC) ?C:T':)2 #'TH TH2
:2FT ':3)TGH
."; ?onvert the following data:
a* 6 :9cm
4
to k:9m
4
b* .; 0:9m
4
to :9m
4
."I ?onvert .; milligram per litre to kg9m
6
"
I hope you’ve learnt something
from this unit. Let’s move on to
the next topic.
Ac!"!4 1B
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/19
(ee*bac= T. Ac!"!4 1B
."; a* . k: 7 .888 :
. m
4
7 .88 x .88 7 .8
>
cm
4
b* . 0: 7 .8
I
:9m
4
."I . kg 7 . 888 888 mg
. m
6
7 .888 litre
4
4
>
4
4 >
4 4
k:9m 68
m .888
k: .8 x 6

: .888
k: .
x
m .
cm .8
x
cm
: 6
cm
: 6
=
=
= ∴
4 I
I
4 4
:9m .8 x .;
0: .
: .8
x
m
0: .;

m
0: .;
=
= ∴
6 6 /
6
kg9m .8 x .;
m .
litre .888
x
mg 888 888 .
kg .
x
litre
mg .;
litre
mg .;
=
= ∴
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/10
Eou are approaching success" Tr4 all 1e C)e%!.n% in this self/assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the %eedback to &elf/Assessment on the
next page" 'f you face any problem discuss it with your lecturer" Kood luck"
." A gas is contained in a vertical frictionless piston/cylinder device" The piston
has a mass of > kg and a cross/sectional area of 6; cm
4
" A compressed spring
above the piston exerts a force of I8 : onto the piston" 'f the atmospheric
pressure is =; k3a determine the pressure inside the cylinder"
4" A force of @ : is applied continuously at an angle of 68
o
to a certain mass"
%ind the work done when the mass moves through a distance of I m"
6" A man weighing I8 kg goes up a staircase of ; m in height in 48 secs"
?alculate his rate of doing work and power in watts"
>" The density of water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is
."8 g9cm
6
" ?onvert this to kg9m
6
" %ind also the specific volume of water"
SE?(8ASSESSMENT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/16