energy consumption

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energy consumption

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Teo Loy Hiang

Homework submission

(Module 6)

Question 1

An office building is space heated between October and April (inclusive). The degree days and the

corresponding fuel consumptions in units of 1000 litres for two consecutive years are shown in the

following table. In between the two seasons the heating plant was modernized and insulation work was

carried out which cost $27000. The cost of fuel was 22 c/ litre when the costing was done. Plot the fuel

consumption / degree-day characteristics for the two seasons and calculate:

(i) the average fuel consumptions for the two seasons in litres per degree day.

(ii) the saving to be expected per annum based on the same months, over a 20-year period.

(iii) the period of repayment for the cost of the modifications.

First year

Degree

175 290 320 280 275 300 200 1840

days

Fuel /

(10 3 litr 14.5 24.0 26.5 23.3 23.0 25.0 16.5 152.8

e)

Second year

Degree

240 240 220 255 290 315 215 1775

days

Fuel /

(10 3 litr 12.0 12.0 11.0 12.8 14.5 15.8 10.8 88.9

e)

20-years

average

Degree

133 243 301 338 306 273 203 1797

days

the average fuel consumption for the first year is 82.758 litre / degree day.

the average fuel consumption for the second year is 50 litre / degree day.

Second year fuel consumption cost

= $7.206 * 1797

= $12949.182

$27000 / $12949.182

= 2.08 years

Question 2

A central heating boiler-house provides stream for both the process and space-heating requirements of

a factory complex. The boilers are fired with gas oil costing $3/GJ and run at an average efficiency of

75%. The monthly fuel consumptions and corresponding degree days (D days) referred to 15.5°C for a

previous period are as given in the following Table.

Sept 12040 102 94

Oct 13100 156 171

Nov NA* 300 286

Dec 17460 370 360

Jan NA 370 379

Feb 17000 350 343

Mar NA 312 320

Apr NA 215 238

May 12600 132 156

June NA 60 79

July NA 28 48

Aug 10600 30 53

NA=not available 2527

Recent modifications at the factory have included the installation of a new process consuming 1000 GJ

steam / month and the installation of an economizer to increase the boiler efficiency to 80%. Using the

degree days as being applicable to all space heating loads, state any assumptions made and determine:

(ii) the maximum monthly fuel consumption of the modified factory.

(iii) the payback period in years for the economizer if the capital cost is $40,000.

The space heating factor is 20 GJ/ Degree day.

The actual energy requirements taking into the boiler efficiency of 75%,

Base load = 0.75 * 10000 = 7500GJ / month.

Base load for the new process = 7500 + 1000 = 8500GJ / month.

For a new boiler efficiency of 80%, the new fuel consumption will be,

Space heating = 15 / 0.8 = 18.75GJ / day

Annual fuel consumption = (12 * 10625) + (18.75 * 2527)

= 174881.25GJ / annum

Maximum month fuel consumption = 10625 + (379 * 18.75)

= 17731.25GJ / month

(iii)Savings to be expected from fitting the economizer at $40000 are based on,

the existing cost of fuel at $3/GJ.

= 136000GJ

= 50540GJ

Energy consumption required for space heating with factor 20GJ / Degree day is 50540GJ.

= 186540

= 11658.75 GJ / annum

= 34976.25GJ / annum

1.14 years

(Module 7)

Problem 1

In a process, there are four fluid steams having thermal capacity flow rates and temperatures as

shown in the table below. Calculate:

(i) the rate of external heating and cooling required if there is no heat recovery between

steams.

(ii) the rate of external heating and cooling required if a heat recovery scheme is used with

the minimum allowable temperature between streams being 25 K.

(iii) the pinch temperature of the hot and cool streams.

Stream Number Type

C (kW/K) Temperature (C) (C)

1 Hot 0.2 350 50

2 Hot 0.4 250 50

3 Cold 0.1 20 200

4 Cold 0.3 100 300

= 140kW

= 78kW

350oC 250 oC 50oC

C = 0.2

C = 0.2

C = 0.4

C = 0.2 C = 0.6

C = 0.1 C = 0.1

C = 0.3 C = 0.3

External cooling required = 64.5kW

Pinch temperature of cold stream = 225°C

Problem 2

Figure shows a circuit layout for a heat recovery scheme. The external heating and cooling duties are

28.3 kW and 29.3 kW respectively.

(a) Draw a circuit with a pinch temperature difference of 20 K, which will reduce the external

heating and cooling duties to 15.5 kW and 16.5 kW.

(b) Find the pinch temperature of the hot and cold streams.

Stream 1 Stream 2

90°C 70°C

22°C

90°C 47°C 15°C

Stream 3

H

28.5kW

60°C 56°C

Stream 4

H

2.5kW

58.6°C 50°C

3kW

26.3kW C C

6°C 40°C

26.3kW = C 1 * (58.6 - 6)

C 1 = 0.5kW/K

C 2 = 0.3kW/K

C 3 = 0.6kW/K

C 4 = 0.1kW/K

= 15.5kW

C = 0.5* (39 - 6)

= 16.5kW

Stream 4 out

65°C 50°C 15°C Stream 4 in

HE4 HE1

90°C 87°C

Stream 1 in

70°C 39°C 6°C

C Stream 1 out

HE5

HE3

50°C 15°C Stream 3 in

90°C 64.2°C

Stream 3 out H

Stream 2 in 70°C 40°C

HE2

Stream 2 out

= 3.5kW

= 9kW

= 12kW

= 1.5kW

HE5 = 0.5 * (87 - 70)

= 8.5kW

Stream number Type

C (kW/K) Temperature (°C) (°C)

1 Hot 0.5 90 6

2 Hot 0.3 70 40

3 Cold 0.6 15 90

4 Cold 0.1 15 65

Temperature

C=0.3

Temperature

C=0.6 C=0.6

C=0.1

C=0.6 C=0.7

15kW 35kW

Pinch temperature of hot stream = 70°C

Problem 3

For process purposes a factory requires a supply of air at an atmospheric pressure of 1.01325 bar and

at 35°C at a rate of 10 m3/s for 16 h per day, 5 days per week, and 48 weeks per year. The average air

temperature at entry is 11°C.

Two heating systems are to be considered:

(a) Direct heating by a gas-fired heater which is 80% efficient and uses gas costing 1.5 c/kWh.

(b) A vapor-compression heat pump using Refrigerant 134a driven by an electric motor. The

heat is taken from an outside source which has an average temperature over the year of

10°C. Assume electricity costs 3 c/kWh.

Allow a 10 K temperature difference for heat transfer at the evaporator and condenser and assume a

real coefficient of performance of 0.6 of that based on a simple heat pump cycle. Calculate:

(ii) the cost/annum for gas and electricity.

(iii) the maximum difference in capital cost per kilowatt of heating load that can be spent if the

pay-back period is to be less than 5 years.

Density, ρ = 1.14788kg/m 3

= 11.4788 kg/s

C p = 1.005348kJ/kgK

= 276.96 kW

Power gas = 276.96 / 0.8

= 346.2kW

= 1,329,408kWh

= 19,941

Total cost per annum using gas is $19,941. For a vapor-compression heat pump, we need to

Condenser

Air inlet

T

3 2 2

Compressor 45°C

3

Throttle

valve 0°C

Process

Motor 4 1

4

1

Air outlet

Evaporator

h 1 = h g at 0°C = 398.43kJ/kg

h 2 = 421.53 + [(1.7264 – 1.7092) / (1.7449 – 1.7092)] * (433.06 – 421.53)

= 427.29kJ/kg

= 48.58kW

= 80.97kW

= 310,925kWh

= 15,546

5 = x / (19941 - 15546)

x = 21975

= 79.34

The maximum difference will be $79.34 per kW for a pay back period of 5 years.

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