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# BEng 20

## Energy Conversion and Management (ECM)

Teo Loy Hiang

Homework submission

(Module 6)

Question 1

An office building is space heated between October and April (inclusive). The degree days and the
corresponding fuel consumptions in units of 1000 litres for two consecutive years are shown in the
following table. In between the two seasons the heating plant was modernized and insulation work was
carried out which cost \$27000. The cost of fuel was 22 c/ litre when the costing was done. Plot the fuel
consumption / degree-day characteristics for the two seasons and calculate:

(i) the average fuel consumptions for the two seasons in litres per degree day.
(ii) the saving to be expected per annum based on the same months, over a 20-year period.
(iii) the period of repayment for the cost of the modifications.

## Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr Total

First year
Degree
175 290 320 280 275 300 200 1840
days
Fuel /
(10 3 litr 14.5 24.0 26.5 23.3 23.0 25.0 16.5 152.8
e)
Second year
Degree
240 240 220 255 290 315 215 1775
days
Fuel /
(10 3 litr 12.0 12.0 11.0 12.8 14.5 15.8 10.8 88.9
e)
20-years
average
Degree
133 243 301 338 306 273 203 1797
days

## (i) From the graph,

the average fuel consumption for the first year is 82.758 litre / degree day.
the average fuel consumption for the second year is 50 litre / degree day.

## 82.758 litre / degree day * \$ 0.22 = \$18.206

Second year fuel consumption cost

= \$7.206 * 1797

= \$12949.182

## (iii) Pay back period

\$27000 / \$12949.182

= 2.08 years

## Therefore, the pay back period after modification is 2.08 years.

Question 2

A central heating boiler-house provides stream for both the process and space-heating requirements of
a factory complex. The boilers are fired with gas oil costing \$3/GJ and run at an average efficiency of
75%. The monthly fuel consumptions and corresponding degree days (D days) referred to 15.5°C for a
previous period are as given in the following Table.

## Month Consumption/ (GJ) D days 20-year average D days

Sept 12040 102 94
Oct 13100 156 171
Nov NA* 300 286
Dec 17460 370 360
Jan NA 370 379
Feb 17000 350 343
Mar NA 312 320
Apr NA 215 238
May 12600 132 156
June NA 60 79
July NA 28 48
Aug 10600 30 53
NA=not available 2527
Recent modifications at the factory have included the installation of a new process consuming 1000 GJ
steam / month and the installation of an economizer to increase the boiler efficiency to 80%. Using the
degree days as being applicable to all space heating loads, state any assumptions made and determine:

## (i) the expected annual fuel consumption of the modified factory.

(ii) the maximum monthly fuel consumption of the modified factory.
(iii) the payback period in years for the economizer if the capital cost is \$40,000.

## (i) From the graph,

The space heating factor is 20 GJ/ Degree day.
The actual energy requirements taking into the boiler efficiency of 75%,

## Space heating factor = 0.75 * 20 = 15 GJ/ Degree day

Base load = 0.75 * 10000 = 7500GJ / month.
Base load for the new process = 7500 + 1000 = 8500GJ / month.

For a new boiler efficiency of 80%, the new fuel consumption will be,

## Base load = 8500/ 0.8 = 10625GJ / month

Space heating = 15 / 0.8 = 18.75GJ / day

## The projected annual figures based on 20 years average degree day,

Annual fuel consumption = (12 * 10625) + (18.75 * 2527)
= 174881.25GJ / annum

## (ii)The fuel consumption is at maximum in January,

Maximum month fuel consumption = 10625 + (379 * 18.75)
= 17731.25GJ / month

## Therefore, the maximum monthly fuel consumption is 17731.25GJ /month

(iii)Savings to be expected from fitting the economizer at \$40000 are based on,
the existing cost of fuel at \$3/GJ.

= 136000GJ

## Space heating = 2527 * 20

= 50540GJ

Energy consumption required for space heating with factor 20GJ / Degree day is 50540GJ.

= 186540

## Energy saving = 186540 – 174881.25

= 11658.75 GJ / annum

## Cost saving = \$3 * 11658.75

= 34976.25GJ / annum

1.14 years

## Therefore, the payback period for cost of the economizer is 1.14years.

(Module 7)

Problem 1

In a process, there are four fluid steams having thermal capacity flow rates and temperatures as
shown in the table below. Calculate:

(i) the rate of external heating and cooling required if there is no heat recovery between
steams.
(ii) the rate of external heating and cooling required if a heat recovery scheme is used with
the minimum allowable temperature between streams being 25 K.
(iii) the pinch temperature of the hot and cool streams.

## Thermal Capacity, Initial Final Temperature

Stream Number Type
C (kW/K) Temperature (C) (C)
1 Hot 0.2 350 50
2 Hot 0.4 250 50
3 Cold 0.1 20 200
4 Cold 0.3 100 300

= 140kW

= 78kW

## (ii) Hot stream composite

350oC 250 oC 50oC
C = 0.2
C = 0.2

C = 0.4

C = 0.2 C = 0.6

C = 0.1 C = 0.1

C = 0.3 C = 0.3

## External heating required = 2.5kW

External cooling required = 64.5kW

## Pinch temperature of hot stream = 250 °C

Pinch temperature of cold stream = 225°C

Problem 2
Figure shows a circuit layout for a heat recovery scheme. The external heating and cooling duties are
28.3 kW and 29.3 kW respectively.

(a) Draw a circuit with a pinch temperature difference of 20 K, which will reduce the external
heating and cooling duties to 15.5 kW and 16.5 kW.
(b) Find the pinch temperature of the hot and cold streams.

Stream 1 Stream 2

90°C 70°C

22°C
90°C 47°C 15°C

Stream 3
H

28.5kW
60°C 56°C

Stream 4
H

2.5kW
58.6°C 50°C

3kW
26.3kW C C

6°C 40°C

## (a) Thermal capacity of stream 1,

26.3kW = C 1 * (58.6 - 6)
C 1 = 0.5kW/K

C 2 = 0.3kW/K

C 3 = 0.6kW/K

C 4 = 0.1kW/K

= 15.5kW

## New external cooling required,

C = 0.5* (39 - 6)
= 16.5kW

Stream 4 out
65°C 50°C 15°C Stream 4 in

HE4 HE1
90°C 87°C
Stream 1 in
70°C 39°C 6°C

C Stream 1 out
HE5

HE3
50°C 15°C Stream 3 in

90°C 64.2°C

Stream 3 out H
Stream 2 in 70°C 40°C

HE2
Stream 2 out

= 3.5kW

= 9kW

= 12kW

## HE4 = 0.5 * (90 - 87)

= 1.5kW
HE5 = 0.5 * (87 - 70)
= 8.5kW

## Thermal Capacity, Initial Final Temperature

Stream number Type
C (kW/K) Temperature (°C) (°C)
1 Hot 0.5 90 6
2 Hot 0.3 70 40
3 Cold 0.6 15 90
4 Cold 0.1 15 65

Temperature

C=0.3

Temperature

C=0.6 C=0.6

C=0.1

C=0.6 C=0.7

15kW 35kW

## (b) From the graph,

Pinch temperature of hot stream = 70°C

## Pinch temperature of cold stream = 50°C

Problem 3

For process purposes a factory requires a supply of air at an atmospheric pressure of 1.01325 bar and
at 35°C at a rate of 10 m3/s for 16 h per day, 5 days per week, and 48 weeks per year. The average air
temperature at entry is 11°C.
Two heating systems are to be considered:

(a) Direct heating by a gas-fired heater which is 80% efficient and uses gas costing 1.5 c/kWh.
(b) A vapor-compression heat pump using Refrigerant 134a driven by an electric motor. The
heat is taken from an outside source which has an average temperature over the year of
10°C. Assume electricity costs 3 c/kWh.

Allow a 10 K temperature difference for heat transfer at the evaporator and condenser and assume a
real coefficient of performance of 0.6 of that based on a simple heat pump cycle. Calculate:

## (i) the average rate of heating required.

(ii) the cost/annum for gas and electricity.
(iii) the maximum difference in capital cost per kilowatt of heating load that can be spent if the
pay-back period is to be less than 5 years.

## (305 - 308) / (325 - 300) = (1.086 – 1.177)

Density, ρ = 1.14788kg/m 3

= 11.4788 kg/s

## (325 - 308) / (325 - 300) = (1.0063 - C p ) / (1.0063 – 1.0049)

C p = 1.005348kJ/kgK

= 276.96 kW

## (ii) Heating power required by gas fired heating,

Power gas = 276.96 / 0.8
= 346.2kW

= 1,329,408kWh

## Total cost per year using gas = 1,329,408 * 0.015

= 19,941

Total cost per annum using gas is \$19,941. For a vapor-compression heat pump, we need to

Condenser

Air inlet

T
3 2 2
Compressor 45°C
3

Throttle
valve 0°C
Process
Motor 4 1

4
1

Air outlet

Evaporator

## h3=h4 =h f at 45°C = 263.92 kJ / kg

h 1 = h g at 0°C = 398.43kJ/kg

## Interpolating for superheated vapour at 11.595 bar,

h 2 = 421.53 + [(1.7264 – 1.7092) / (1.7449 – 1.7092)] * (433.06 – 421.53)

= 427.29kJ/kg

= 48.58kW

= 80.97kW

= 310,925kWh

= 15,546

## Let x be the difference of cost between gas and electricity,

5 = x / (19941 - 15546)
x = 21975

## Maximum difference in capital cost per kilowatt = 21975 / 276.96

= 79.34

The maximum difference will be \$79.34 per kW for a pay back period of 5 years.