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BEng 20

Energy Conversion and Management (ECM)


Teo Loy Hiang

Homework submission

(Module 6)

Question 1

An office building is space heated between October and April (inclusive). The degree days and the
corresponding fuel consumptions in units of 1000 litres for two consecutive years are shown in the
following table. In between the two seasons the heating plant was modernized and insulation work was
carried out which cost $27000. The cost of fuel was 22 c/ litre when the costing was done. Plot the fuel
consumption / degree-day characteristics for the two seasons and calculate:

(i) the average fuel consumptions for the two seasons in litres per degree day.
(ii) the saving to be expected per annum based on the same months, over a 20-year period.
(iii) the period of repayment for the cost of the modifications.

Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr Total


First year
Degree
175 290 320 280 275 300 200 1840
days
Fuel /
(10 3 litr 14.5 24.0 26.5 23.3 23.0 25.0 16.5 152.8
e)
Second year
Degree
240 240 220 255 290 315 215 1775
days
Fuel /
(10 3 litr 12.0 12.0 11.0 12.8 14.5 15.8 10.8 88.9
e)
20-years
average
Degree
133 243 301 338 306 273 203 1797
days

(i) From the graph,

the average fuel consumption for the first year is 82.758 litre / degree day.
the average fuel consumption for the second year is 50 litre / degree day.

(ii) First year fuel consumption cost

82.758 litre / degree day * $ 0.22 = $18.206


Second year fuel consumption cost

50 litre / degree day * $ 0.22 = $11

Average fuel consumption cost after the modernized is

($18.206 - $11) * 1797

= $7.206 * 1797

= $12949.182

Therefore, the expecting saving per annum is $12949.182.

(iii) Pay back period

$27000 / $12949.182

= 2.08 years

Therefore, the pay back period after modification is 2.08 years.

Question 2

A central heating boiler-house provides stream for both the process and space-heating requirements of
a factory complex. The boilers are fired with gas oil costing $3/GJ and run at an average efficiency of
75%. The monthly fuel consumptions and corresponding degree days (D days) referred to 15.5°C for a
previous period are as given in the following Table.

Month Consumption/ (GJ) D days 20-year average D days


Sept 12040 102 94
Oct 13100 156 171
Nov NA* 300 286
Dec 17460 370 360
Jan NA 370 379
Feb 17000 350 343
Mar NA 312 320
Apr NA 215 238
May 12600 132 156
June NA 60 79
July NA 28 48
Aug 10600 30 53
NA=not available 2527
Recent modifications at the factory have included the installation of a new process consuming 1000 GJ
steam / month and the installation of an economizer to increase the boiler efficiency to 80%. Using the
degree days as being applicable to all space heating loads, state any assumptions made and determine:

(i) the expected annual fuel consumption of the modified factory.


(ii) the maximum monthly fuel consumption of the modified factory.
(iii) the payback period in years for the economizer if the capital cost is $40,000.

(i) From the graph,


The space heating factor is 20 GJ/ Degree day.
The actual energy requirements taking into the boiler efficiency of 75%,

Space heating factor = 0.75 * 20 = 15 GJ/ Degree day


Base load = 0.75 * 10000 = 7500GJ / month.
Base load for the new process = 7500 + 1000 = 8500GJ / month.

For a new boiler efficiency of 80%, the new fuel consumption will be,

Base load = 8500/ 0.8 = 10625GJ / month


Space heating = 15 / 0.8 = 18.75GJ / day

The projected annual figures based on 20 years average degree day,


Annual fuel consumption = (12 * 10625) + (18.75 * 2527)
= 174881.25GJ / annum

Therefore, the expected annual fuel consumption is 174881.25GJ / annum.

(ii)The fuel consumption is at maximum in January,


Maximum month fuel consumption = 10625 + (379 * 18.75)
= 17731.25GJ / month

Therefore, the maximum monthly fuel consumption is 17731.25GJ /month

(iii)Savings to be expected from fitting the economizer at $40000 are based on,
the existing cost of fuel at $3/GJ.

New base load = 12 * 8500 / 0.75


= 136000GJ

Energy consumption required for new base load at 75% is 136000GJ.

Space heating = 2527 * 20

= 50540GJ

Energy consumption required for space heating with factor 20GJ / Degree day is 50540GJ.

Total = 136000 + 50540


= 186540

Energy consumption required is 186540GJ / annum

Energy saving = 186540 – 174881.25


= 11658.75 GJ / annum

Cost saving = $3 * 11658.75


= 34976.25GJ / annum

Pay-back period = 40000 / 34976.25


1.14 years

Therefore, the payback period for cost of the economizer is 1.14years.

(Module 7)

Problem 1

In a process, there are four fluid steams having thermal capacity flow rates and temperatures as
shown in the table below. Calculate:

(i) the rate of external heating and cooling required if there is no heat recovery between
steams.
(ii) the rate of external heating and cooling required if a heat recovery scheme is used with
the minimum allowable temperature between streams being 25 K.
(iii) the pinch temperature of the hot and cool streams.

Thermal Capacity, Initial Final Temperature


Stream Number Type
C (kW/K) Temperature (C) (C)
1 Hot 0.2 350 50
2 Hot 0.4 250 50
3 Cold 0.1 20 200
4 Cold 0.3 100 300

(i) Without heat recovery,

External cooling required = 0.2 * (350-50) + 0.4 * (250-50)


= 140kW

External heating required = 0.1 * (200-20) + 0.3 (300-100)


= 78kW

(ii) Hot stream composite


350oC 250 oC 50oC
C = 0.2
C = 0.2

C = 0.4

C = 0.2 C = 0.6

0.2(350 – 250) = 20KW 0.6(250 – 50) = 120KW

Cold stream composite

300oC 200 oC 100 oC 20 oC


C = 0.1 C = 0.1

C = 0.3 C = 0.3

C = 0.3 C = 0.4 C = 0.1

0.3(300 – 200) = 30KW 0.4(200 – 100) = 40KW 0.1(100 – 20) = 8KW

From the graph,

External heating required = 2.5kW


External cooling required = 64.5kW

(iii) From the graph,

Pinch temperature of hot stream = 250 °C


Pinch temperature of cold stream = 225°C

Problem 2
Figure shows a circuit layout for a heat recovery scheme. The external heating and cooling duties are
28.3 kW and 29.3 kW respectively.

(a) Draw a circuit with a pinch temperature difference of 20 K, which will reduce the external
heating and cooling duties to 15.5 kW and 16.5 kW.
(b) Find the pinch temperature of the hot and cold streams.

Stream 1 Stream 2

90°C 70°C

22°C
90°C 47°C 15°C

Stream 3
H

28.5kW
60°C 56°C

65°C 40°C 33°C 15°C

Stream 4
H

2.5kW
58.6°C 50°C

3kW
26.3kW C C

6°C 40°C

(a) Thermal capacity of stream 1,

26.3kW = C 1 * (58.6 - 6)
C 1 = 0.5kW/K

Thermal capacity of stream 2,

3kW = C 2 * (50 - 40)


C 2 = 0.3kW/K

Thermal capacity of stream 3,

25.8kW = C 3 * (90 – 47)


C 3 = 0.6kW/K

Thermal capacity of stream 4,

2.5kW = C 4 * (65 - 40)


C 4 = 0.1kW/K

New external heating required,

H = 0.6* (90 – 64.2)


= 15.5kW

New external cooling required,

C = 0.5* (39 - 6)
= 16.5kW

Stream 4 out
65°C 50°C 15°C Stream 4 in

HE4 HE1
90°C 87°C
Stream 1 in
70°C 39°C 6°C

C Stream 1 out
HE5

HE3
50°C 15°C Stream 3 in

90°C 64.2°C

Stream 3 out H
Stream 2 in 70°C 40°C

HE2
Stream 2 out

HE1 = 0.1* (50 - 15)


= 3.5kW

HE2 = 0.3* (70 - 40)


= 9kW

HE3 = [0.6 * (50 - 15)] – 9


= 12kW

HE4 = 0.5 * (90 - 87)


= 1.5kW
HE5 = 0.5 * (87 - 70)
= 8.5kW

Thermal Capacity, Initial Final Temperature


Stream number Type
C (kW/K) Temperature (°C) (°C)
1 Hot 0.5 90 6
2 Hot 0.3 70 40
3 Cold 0.6 15 90
4 Cold 0.1 15 65

Hot stream composite

Temperature

90°C 70°C 40°C 6°C

C=0.5 C=0.5 C=0.5

C=0.3

C=0.5 C=0.8 C=0.5

10kW 24kW 18kW

Cold stream composite

Temperature

90°C 65°C 15°C

C=0.6 C=0.6

C=0.1

C=0.6 C=0.7

15kW 35kW

(b) From the graph,


Pinch temperature of hot stream = 70°C

Pinch temperature of cold stream = 50°C

Problem 3

For process purposes a factory requires a supply of air at an atmospheric pressure of 1.01325 bar and
at 35°C at a rate of 10 m3/s for 16 h per day, 5 days per week, and 48 weeks per year. The average air
temperature at entry is 11°C.
Two heating systems are to be considered:

(a) Direct heating by a gas-fired heater which is 80% efficient and uses gas costing 1.5 c/kWh.
(b) A vapor-compression heat pump using Refrigerant 134a driven by an electric motor. The
heat is taken from an outside source which has an average temperature over the year of
10°C. Assume electricity costs 3 c/kWh.

Allow a 10 K temperature difference for heat transfer at the evaporator and condenser and assume a
real coefficient of performance of 0.6 of that based on a simple heat pump cycle. Calculate:

(i) the average rate of heating required.


(ii) the cost/annum for gas and electricity.
(iii) the maximum difference in capital cost per kilowatt of heating load that can be spent if the
pay-back period is to be less than 5 years.

(i) Using linear interpolation, to find density of air at 308K

(305 - 308) / (325 - 300) = (1.086 – 1.177)

Density, ρ = 1.14788kg/m 3

Therefore, mass flow rate, m = 10 * 1.14788


= 11.4788 kg/s

Using linear interpolation to find the C p of air at at 308K,

(325 - 308) / (325 - 300) = (1.0063 - C p ) / (1.0063 – 1.0049)

C p = 1.005348kJ/kgK

Average rate of heating required, Q = m C p (T 2 - T 1 )

= 11.4788 * 1.005348 * (35 - 11)

= 276.96 kW

(ii) Heating power required by gas fired heating,


Power gas = 276.96 / 0.8
= 346.2kW

Total power per annum = 346.2 * 16 * 5 * 48

= 1,329,408kWh

Total cost per year using gas = 1,329,408 * 0.015

= 19,941

Total cost per annum using gas is $19,941. For a vapor-compression heat pump, we need to

find the power needed for the electric motor.

Condenser

Air inlet

T
3 2 2
Compressor 45°C
3

Throttle
valve 0°C
Process
Motor 4 1

4
1

Air outlet

Evaporator

From property table of Refrigerant 134a,

h3=h4 =h f at 45°C = 263.92 kJ / kg

h 1 = h g at 0°C = 398.43kJ/kg

s 1 = s g at 0°C = 1.7264 kJ/kgK

Interpolating for superheated vapour at 11.595 bar,


h 2 = 421.53 + [(1.7264 – 1.7092) / (1.7449 – 1.7092)] * (433.06 – 421.53)

= 427.29kJ/kg

Heat required to heat up the air = 276.96kW

Therefore, m ref ( h 2 - h 3 ) = 276.96

m ref = 276.96 / (427.29 – 263.92)

m ref = 1.695 kg/s

Power input required by the motor = m ref * (h 2 - h 1 )

= 1.695 * (427.09 – 398.43)

= 48.58kW

Given real coefficient of performance = 0.6

Therefore, actual power needed by motor = 48.58 / 0.6

= 80.97kW

Total power needed per year = 80.97 * 16 * 5 * 48

= 310,925kWh

Total cost per year using electricity = 310,925 * 0.05

= 15,546

Total cost per annum using electricity is $ 15,546

(iii) Given pay back period to be less than 5 years,

Let x be the difference of cost between gas and electricity,

5 = x / (19941 - 15546)
x = 21975

Maximum difference in capital cost per kilowatt = 21975 / 276.96


= 79.34

The maximum difference will be $79.34 per kW for a pay back period of 5 years.