STPM 2008

1.(a) “If two or more orbitals with equal energy are available, the orbitals are each filled with one
electron, with the electrons having parallel spins, before a second electrons of the opposite spin
in added.”
(i) Name the above rule. ! mar"#
(ii) $raw a diagram showing valence shells filled with valence electrons for an atom %
with proton number &'. ! mar"#
(iii) (tate the number of unpaired electrons in atom % ! mar"#
(iv) )hy does the total energy of atom % decrease when there is a transfer of an electron
form one subshell to another* ! mar"#
(b) +he decomposition of aqueous hydrogen pero,ide can be accelerated by the additions of a
small amount of an acidic solution of sodium bromide. +he catalysis steps are as follows.
&-r
.
/ 0&1& / &0
/
-r& / &0&1
-r& / 0&1& &-r
.
/ &0
/
/ 1&
(i) )rite an overall equation for the above e,othermic reaction. ! mar"#
(ii) ("etch and label the energy profiles for the catalysed and uncatalysed reactions on the a,es
below. 2 mar"s#
3nergy
4eaction coordinate
(iii) (tate two observations for the catalysed reaction. & mar"s#
2. (a) $mitri 5endeleyev is ac"nowledged by scientists as the founder of the modern 6eriodic
+able.
(i) )hat is the basis of 5endeleyev7s 6eriodic +able* ! mar"#
(ii) -ased on his 6eriodic +able, 5endeleyev successfully predicted the properties of some
elements that had not been discovered. Name one of the elements. ! mar"#
(b) 8 graph of first ioni9ation energy versus proton number for several elements in 6eriod 2 of
the 6eriodic +able is given below.
:irst ioni9ation
3nergy;"< mol
.!
=
6roton number
(i) Identify the element labelled =. ! mar"#
(ii) )hy is the first ioni9ation energy of = higher than that of the ne,t element*
! mar"#
(c) >yclopropane decomposes into propene through the ring opening of cyclopropane according
to the equation
>20?(g) >0&@>0>02(g)
+he rate constant for the decomposition is !A.!& s
.!
at BCC
o
>.
(i) )rite the rate equation for the decomposition of cyclopropane. ! mar"#
(ii) >alculate the half.life of cyclopropane. & mar"s#
(iii) If !.Cmol of cyclopropane is introduced into a ! dm
2
container, what is the concentration of
cyclopropane at BCC
o
> after two half.lives* ! mar"#
(iv) )hat is the relationship between cyclopropane and propene* ! mar"#
(v) Name a chemical compound, other than cyclopropane, that may be used to produce propene.
! mar"#
2. (a) (ilicon compounds are mainly used in ma"ing glass. +he most common and cheapest glass
is soda glass which is manufactured by fusing sand, sodium carbonate and limestone.
(i) (tate the components of soda glass, and write the equation for the reaction involved.
& mar"s#
(ii) (tate the main component of borosilicate glass and its property.
& mar"s#
(b) (ilicones are oil or rubber.li"e materials used commercially in a wide variety of products.
>ommercial silicones have infinite 1.(i.1 chains with al"yl or aryl groups attached to the
silicon atoms.
(i) $raws the structure of chain silicone showing three repeating units with al"yl groups.
& mar"s#
(ii) (tate one property of silicone. ! mar"#
(iii) 3,plain why silicone is used in the manufacture of waterproof fabrics.
2 mar"s#
4.(a) 6henylamine, >?0AN0&, reacts with nitric acid in the presence of concentrated
hydrochloric acid at a temperature of Co> to Ao> to produce a salt used in dyeing industry.
(i) Name this salt. ! mar"#
(ii) )rite an equation to show the formation of this salt. ! mar"#
(iii) )hen an aqueous solution of this salt is heated to DC
o
>, a vigorous reaction occurs.
Name the organic product formed. ! mar"#
(iv) )hen an aqueous solution of this salt is added to an al"aline solution of phenol, a
yellow precipitate if formed immediately. Name the chemical reaction which occurs, and draw
the structure of the yellow precipitate. & mar"s#
Name of reactionEFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF..
(tructure of precipitateE
(b) Insulin is a hormone which controls the concentration of glucose in the blood. It is a globular
protein which has two interlin"ed of polypeptide chains.
(i) $raw the structural formula of the basic unit in a polypeptide. ! mar"#
(ii) )hat is meant by polypeptide* ! mar"#
(iii) 3,plain why insulin is easily denatured under a strong al"aline or acidic conditions.
& mar"s#
(iv) Name one type of bonding which can contribute to the rigidity of the structure of the insulin
molecules. ! mar"#
(3>+I1N - ( ?C 5ar"s )
5. 8 methane molecule dissociates homolytically in the presence of a chlorine free radical to
form a methyl free radical.
(a) Gsing the valence.shell electron pair repulsion theory, compare the shape of a methyl free
radical to that of a methane molecule.
(b) +he standard enthalpies of atomi9ation of several species are given in the following table.
(pecies (tandard enthalpy of atomi9ation;
"< mol
.!
>0B
/>02
0>l
/!DBC
/!2CA
/B2!
(i) >alculate the standard enthalpy of reaction of reaction for the homolytic
dissociation of methane by a chlorine free radical. ? mar"s#
(ii) ("etch the enthalpy diagram for the reaction. 2 mar"s#
(iii)
6. (a) 8mmonia is a nitrogen fertili9er which is very soluble in water. It is prepared commercially
by the 0aber process. !.C mol of nitrogen gas and !.C mol of hydrogen gas are introduced into a
&.C dm
2
volumetric flas" at BAC
o
>. +he amount of hydrogen gas is C.BC mol at equilibrium.
>alculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction involved at this temperature.
D mar"s#
(b) 8 colourless gas % is an o,ide of nitrogen. It changes to a brown gas = when heated and
forms % again when cooled. Identify gases % and =, e,plain the observations.
B mar"s#
(c) Hases % and = are allowed to react in a closed container until equilibrium is reached.
(i) (tate and e,plain what would be observed when the pressure of the container is increased
at constant temperature. & mar"s#
(ii) 3,plain the equilibrium position when a small amount of argon gas is added to the
equilibrium mi,ture at constant volume. & mar"s#
7. (a) +he table below shows the formulae of ions with proton numbers D to !2 e,cept proton
number !C.
6roton number D ' I !! !& !2
:ormula of ion N
2.
1
&.
:
.
Na
/
5g
&/
8l
2/
(i) ("etch a graph of the ionic radius against proton number. & mar"s#
(ii) 3,plain your graph. 2 mar"s#
(b) In industry, one of the stages in nitrogen e,traction is the liquefaction of air by applying high
pressure and low temperature. +he liquefied air contains mainly nitrogen, o,ygen and argon.
(i) )hy is carbon dio,ide not found in the liquefied air* ! mar"#
(ii) 3,plain how pure nitrogen is obtained from the liquefied air, and state one of the uses
of liquid nitrogen. 2 mar"s#
(iii) Hive a reason for the inertness of nitrogen, and e,plain a natural phenomenon
which produces nitrogen o,ides. 2
mar"s#
(c) +he relatives molecular mass of aluminium chloride calculated from its vapour density at
different temperatures are shown in the table below.
+emperature;
o
> &CC ?CC 'CC
4elative molecular mass &?I !?2 !22
3,plain why the relative molecular mass of aluminium chloride shows different values at the
different temperatures. 2 mar"s#
8. (a) )hat is meant by a transition element* ! mar"#
(i) (tate and e,plain what would be observed when an aqueous solution of potassium thiocyanate
is added to an aqueous solution of iron(III) ions. B mar"s#
(ii) 8 :e
&/
ions reacts with >N
.
ions to form the comple, ions he,acyanoferrate(II). $raw the
shape of this comple, ion. (tate the number of 2d suborbitals which are not filled with electrons,
and give reasons for your answer. B mar"s#
(b) +he stability constants, e,pressed as their logarithms, of the comple, ions >u>lB#
&.
and
>u(N02)B#
&/
are A.? and !2.& respectively.
(i) 3,plain what happens when an aqueous solution of ammonia is added to an aqueous solution
of >u>lB#
&.
. B mar"s#
(ii) 6redict the stability constants, e,pressed as their logarithms, of the comple, ion
>u(3$+8)#
&.
, and give a reason for your answer. & mar"s#
9. >ompound 8, with the molecular formula >A0!&1, which has a straight chain structure is an
optically active alcohol. )hen 8 is heated with alumina, compounds - and > are formed. -
shows geometrical isomerism but > does not. )hen > is heated with an acidified potassium
manganate(JII) solution, compound $ is formed and a gas which turns lime water chal"y is
evolved. )hen $ is heated with an aqueous solution ammonia, compound 3 is formed which
reacts with lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III) to form compound :.
(i) )rite the structural formulae of compounds 8, -, >, $, 3 and :. <ustify your answers.
!C mar"s#
(ii) )rite the structural formulae of the cis and trans isomers of compound -.
! mar"#
(iii) )rite the equations for all the reactions above. B mar"s#
10. (a) 6ropene polymers in the presence of ben9oyl pero,ide, >?0A>11.11>>?0A, to form
polypropene. 3,plain, with chemical equations, the reactions which occurs in the polymeri9ation
of propene. D mar"s#
(b) 8n optically active compound K, with molecular formula >B0I>l , reacts with ethanolic
potassium hydro,ide solution to form three isomers of unsaturated organic comounds.
(i) )rite the structural formula of K, and e,plain its reaction with ethanolic potassium hydro,ide
solution. A mar"s#
(ii) $etermine the isomer of K which reacts with ethanolic potassium hydro,ide solution to form
only one organic compound. Hive a reason for your answer. 2 mar"s#