by Immanuel Kant

translated by ! "! #! "e$%le&'(n


Human reas'n) $n 'ne s*(ere '+ $ts ,'-n$t$'n) $s ,alled u*'n t'
,'ns$der .uest$'ns) /($,( $t ,ann't de,l$ne) as t(ey are *resented
by $ts '/n nature) but /($,( $t ,ann't ans/er) as t(ey trans,end e0ery
+a,ulty '+ t(e m$nd!
It +alls $nt' t($s d$++$,ulty /$t('ut any +ault '+ $ts '/n! It
be-$ns /$t( *r$n,$*les) /($,( ,ann't be d$s*ensed /$t( $n t(e +$eld '+
e1*er$en,e) and t(e trut( and su++$,$en,y '+ /($,( are) at t(e same
t$me) $nsured by e1*er$en,e! 2$t( t(ese *r$n,$*les $t r$ses) $n
'bed$en,e t' t(e la/s '+ $ts '/n nature) t' e0er ($-(er and m're
rem'te ,'nd$t$'ns! 3ut $t .u$,%ly d$s,'0ers t(at) $n t($s /ay) $ts
lab'urs must rema$n e0er $n,'m*lete) be,ause ne/ .uest$'ns ne0er ,ease
t' *resent t(emsel0es4 and t(us $t +$nds $tsel+ ,'m*elled t' (a0e
re,'urse t' *r$n,$*les /($,( trans,end t(e re-$'n '+ e1*er$en,e) /($le
t(ey are re-arded by ,'mm'n sense /$t('ut d$strust! It t(us +alls $nt'
,'n+us$'n and ,'ntrad$,t$'ns) +r'm /($,( $t ,'n&e,tures t(e *resen,e
'+ latent err'rs) /($,() ('/e0er) $t $s unable t' d$s,'0er) be,ause
t(e *r$n,$*les $t em*l'ys) trans,end$n- t(e l$m$ts '+ e1*er$en,e)
,ann't be tested by t(at ,r$ter$'n! T(e arena '+ t(ese endless
,'ntests $s ,alled "eta*(ys$,!
T$me /as) /(en s(e /as t(e .ueen '+ all t(e s,$en,es4 and) $+ /e
ta%e t(e /$ll +'r t(e deed) s(e ,erta$nly deser0es) s' +ar as
re-ards t(e ($-( $m*'rtan,e '+ (er 'b&e,t5matter) t($s t$tle '+
('n'ur! N'/) $t $s t(e +as($'n '+ t(e t$me t' (ea* ,'ntem*t and
s,'rn u*'n (er4 and t(e matr'n m'urns) +'rl'rn and +'rsa%en) l$%e
"'d' ma1$ma rerum)

T't -ener$s) nat$s.ue *'tens!!!

Nun, tra('r e1ul) $n'*s!7

7O0$d) "etam'r*('ses! 81$$$) 93ut late 'n t(e *$nna,le '+ +ame)
str'n- $n my many s'ns! n'/ e1$led) *enn$less!9:
At +$rst) (er -'0ernment) under t(e adm$n$strat$'n '+ t(e
d'-mat$sts) /as an abs'lute des*'t$sm! 3ut) as t(e le-$slat$0e
,'nt$nued t' s('/ tra,es '+ t(e an,$ent barbar$, rule) (er em*$re
-radually br'%e u*) and $ntest$ne /ars $ntr'du,ed t(e re$-n '+
anar,(y4 /($le t(e s,e*t$,s) l$%e n'mad$, tr$bes) /(' (ate a *ermanent
(ab$tat$'n and settled m'de '+ l$0$n-) atta,%ed +r'm t$me t' t$me
t('se /(' (ad 'r-an$;ed t(emsel0es $nt' ,$0$l ,'mmun$t$es! 3ut t(e$r
number /as) 0ery (a**$ly) small4 and t(us t(ey ,'uld n't ent$rely
*ut a st'* t' t(e e1ert$'ns '+ t('se /(' *ers$sted $n ra$s$n- ne/
ed$+$,es) alt('u-( 'n n' settled 'r un$+'rm *lan! In re,ent t$mes
t(e ('*e da/ned u*'n us '+ see$n- t('se d$s*utes settled) and t(e
le-$t$ma,y '+ (er ,la$ms establ$s(ed by a %$nd '+ *(ys$'l'-y '+ t(e
(uman understand$n-5 t(at '+ t(e ,elebrated <',%e! 3ut $t /as +'und
t(at5 alt('u-( $t /as a++$rmed t(at t($s s'5,alled .ueen ,'uld n't
re+er (er des,ent t' any ($-(er s'ur,e t(an t(at '+ ,'mm'n e1*er$en,e)
a ,$r,umstan,e /($,( ne,essar$ly br'u-(t sus*$,$'n 'n (er ,la$ms5 as
t($s -eneal'-y /as $n,'rre,t) s(e *ers$sted $n t(e ad0an,ement '+
(er ,la$ms t' s'0ere$-nty! T(us meta*(ys$,s ne,essar$ly +ell ba,% $nt'
t(e ant$.uated and r'tten ,'nst$tut$'n '+ d'-mat$sm) and a-a$n
be,ame 'bn'1$'us t' t(e ,'ntem*t +r'm /($,( e++'rts (ad been made t'
sa0e $t! At *resent) as all met('ds) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e -eneral
*ersuas$'n) (a0e been tr$ed $n 0a$n) t(ere re$-ns n'u-(t but /ear$ness
and ,'m*lete $nd$++erent$sm5 t(e m't(er '+ ,(a's and n$-(t $n t(e
s,$ent$+$, /'rld) but at t(e same t$me t(e s'ur,e '+) 'r at least
t(e *relude t') t(e re5,reat$'n and re$nstallat$'n '+ a s,$en,e)
/(en $t (as +allen $nt' ,'n+us$'n) 'bs,ur$ty) and d$suse +r'm $ll
d$re,ted e++'rt!
F'r $t $s $n real$ty 0a$n t' *r'+ess $nd$++eren,e $n re-ard t'
su,( $n.u$r$es) t(e 'b&e,t '+ /($,( ,ann't be $nd$++erent t' (uman$ty!
3es$des) t(ese *retended $nd$++erent$sts) ('/e0er mu,( t(ey may try t'
d$s-u$se t(emsel0es by t(e assum*t$'n '+ a *'*ular style and by
,(an-es 'n t(e lan-ua-e '+ t(e s,(''ls) una0'$dably +all $nt'
meta*(ys$,al de,larat$'ns and *r'*'s$t$'ns) /($,( t(ey *r'+ess t'
re-ard /$t( s' mu,( ,'ntem*t! At t(e same t$me) t($s $nd$++eren,e)
/($,( (as ar$sen $n t(e /'rld '+ s,$en,e) and /($,( relates t' t(at
%$nd '+ %n'/led-e /($,( /e s('uld /$s( t' see destr'yed t(e last) $s a
*(en'men'n t(at /ell deser0es 'ur attent$'n and re+le,t$'n! It $s
*la$nly n't t(e e++e,t '+ t(e le0$ty) but '+ t(e matured &ud-ement7 '+
t(e a-e) /($,( re+uses t' be any l'n-er enterta$ned /$t( $llus'ry
%n'/led-e) It $s) $n +a,t) a ,all t' reas'n) a-a$n t' underta%e t(e
m'st lab'r$'us '+ all tas%s5 t(at '+ sel+5e1am$nat$'n5 and t'
establ$s( a tr$bunal) /($,( may se,ure $t $n $ts /ell5-r'unded ,la$ms)
/($le $t *r'n'un,es a-a$nst all baseless assum*t$'ns and
*retens$'ns) n't $n an arb$trary manner) but a,,'rd$n- t' $ts '/n
eternal and un,(an-eable la/s! T($s tr$bunal $s n't($n- less t(an
t(e ,r$t$,al $n0est$-at$'n '+ *ure reas'n!
72e 0ery '+ten (ear ,'m*la$nts '+ t(e s(all'/ness '+ t(e *resent
a-e) and '+ t(e de,ay '+ *r'+'und s,$en,e! 3ut I d' n't t($n% t(at
t('se /($,( rest u*'n a se,ure +'undat$'n) su,( as mat(emat$,s)
*(ys$,al s,$en,e) et,!) $n t(e least deser0e t($s re*r'a,() but t(at
t(ey rat(er ma$nta$n t(e$r an,$ent +ame) and $n t(e latter ,ase)
$ndeed) +ar sur*ass $t! T(e same /'uld be t(e ,ase /$t( t(e 't(er
%$nds '+ ,'-n$t$'n) $+ t(e$r *r$n,$*les /ere but +$rmly establ$s(ed!
In t(e absen,e '+ t($s se,ur$ty) $nd$++eren,e) d'ubt) and +$nally)
se0ere ,r$t$,$sm are rat(er s$-ns '+ a *r'+'und (ab$t '+ t('u-(t!
Our a-e $s t(e a-e '+ ,r$t$,$sm) t' /($,( e0eryt($n- must be
sub&e,ted! T(e sa,redness '+ rel$-$'n) and t(e aut('r$ty '+
le-$slat$'n) are by many re-arded as -r'unds '+ e1em*t$'n +r'm t(e
e1am$nat$'n '+ t($s tr$bunal! 3ut) $+ t(ey 'n t(ey are e1em*ted)
t(ey be,'me t(e sub&e,ts '+ &ust sus*$,$'n) and ,ann't lay ,la$m t'
s$n,ere res*e,t) /($,( reas'n a,,'rds 'nly t' t(at /($,( (as st''d t(e
test '+ a +ree and *ubl$, e1am$nat$'n!
I d' n't mean by t($s a ,r$t$,$sm '+ b''%s and systems) but a
,r$t$,al $n.u$ry $nt' t(e +a,ulty '+ reas'n) /$t( re+eren,e t' t(e
,'-n$t$'ns t' /($,( $t str$0es t' atta$n /$t('ut t(e a$d '+
e1*er$en,e4 $n 't(er /'rds) t(e s'lut$'n '+ t(e .uest$'n re-ard$n- t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty 'r $m*'ss$b$l$ty '+ meta*(ys$,s) and t(e determ$nat$'n
'+ t(e 'r$-$n) as /ell as '+ t(e e1tent and l$m$ts '+ t($s s,$en,e!
All t($s must be d'ne 'n t(e bas$s '+ *r$n,$*les!
T($s *at(5 t(e 'nly 'ne n'/ rema$n$n-5 (as been entered u*'n by
me4 and I +latter mysel+ t(at I (a0e) $n t($s /ay) d$s,'0ered t(e
,ause '+5 and ,'nse.uently t(e m'de '+ rem'0$n-5 all t(e err'rs
/($,( (a0e ($t(ert' set reas'n at 0ar$an,e /$t( $tsel+) $n t(e
s*(ere '+ n'n5em*$r$,al t('u-(t! I (a0e n't returned an e0as$0e ans/er
t' t(e .uest$'ns '+ reas'n) by alle-$n- t(e $nab$l$ty and l$m$tat$'n
'+ t(e +a,ult$es '+ t(e m$nd4 I (a0e) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) e1am$ned t(em
,'m*letely $n t(e l$-(t '+ *r$n,$*les) and) a+ter (a0$n- d$s,'0ered
t(e ,ause '+ t(e d'ubts and ,'ntrad$,t$'ns $nt' /($,( reas'n +ell)
(a0e s'l0ed t(em t' $ts *er+e,t sat$s+a,t$'n! It $s true) t(ese
.uest$'ns (a0e n't been s'l0ed as d'-mat$sm) $n $ts 0a$n +an,$es and
des$res) (ad e1*e,ted4 +'r $t ,an 'nly be sat$s+$ed by t(e e1er,$se '+
ma-$,al arts) and '+ t(ese I (a0e n' %n'/led-e! 3ut ne$t(er d' t(ese
,'me /$t($n t(e ,'m*ass '+ 'ur mental *'/ers4 and $t /as t(e duty '+
*($l's'*(y t' destr'y t(e $llus$'ns /($,( (ad t(e$r 'r$-$n $n
m$s,'n,e*t$'ns) /(ate0er darl$n- ('*es and 0alued e1*e,tat$'ns may
be ru$ned by $ts e1*lanat$'ns! "y ,($e+ a$m $n t($s /'r% (as been
t('r'u-(ness4 and I ma%e b'ld t' say t(at t(ere $s n't a s$n-le
meta*(ys$,al *r'blem t(at d'es n't +$nd $ts s'lut$'n) 'r at least
t(e %ey t' $ts s'lut$'n) (ere! Pure reas'n $s a *er+e,t un$ty4 and
t(ere+'re) $+ t(e $+ t(e *r$n,$*le *resented by $t *r'0e t' be
$nsu++$,$ent +'r t(e s'lut$'n '+ e0en a s$n-le 'ne '+ t('se
.uest$'ns t' /($,( t(e 0ery nature '+ reas'n -$0es b$rt() /e must
re&e,t $t) as /e ,'uld n't be *er+e,tly ,erta$n '+ $ts su++$,$en,y
$n t(e ,ase '+ t(e 't(ers!
2($le I say t($s) I t($n% I see u*'n t(e ,'untenan,e '+ t(e reader
s$-ns '+ d$ssat$s+a,t$'n m$n-led /$t( ,'ntem*t) /(en (e (ears
de,larat$'ns /($,( s'und s' b'ast+ul and e1tra0a-ant4 and yet t(ey are
bey'nd ,'m*ar$s'n m're m'derate t(an t('se ad0an,ed by t(e ,'mm'nest
aut('r '+ t(e ,'mm'nest *($l's'*($,al *r'-ramme) $n /($,( t(e
d'-mat$st *r'+esses t' dem'nstrate t(e s$m*le nature '+ t(e s'ul) 'r
t(e ne,ess$ty '+ a *r$mal be$n-! Su,( a d'-mat$st *r'm$ses t' e1tend
(uman %n'/led-e bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e4 /($le I
(umbly ,'n+ess t(at t($s $s ,'m*letely bey'nd my *'/er! Instead '+ any
su,( attem*t) I ,'n+$ne mysel+ t' t(e e1am$nat$'n '+ reas'n al'ne
and $ts *ure t('u-(t4 and I d' n't need t' see% +ar +'r t(e
sum5t'tal '+ $ts ,'-n$t$'n) be,ause $t (as $ts seat $n my '/n m$nd!
3es$des) ,'mm'n l'-$, *resents me /$t( a ,'m*lete and systemat$,
,atal'-ue '+ all t(e s$m*le '*erat$'ns '+ reas'n4 and $t $s my tas% t'
ans/er t(e .uest$'n ('/ +ar reas'n ,an -') /$t('ut t(e mater$al
*resented and t(e a$d +urn$s(ed by e1*er$en,e!
S' mu,( +'r t(e ,'m*leteness and t('r'u-(ness ne,essary $n t(e
e1e,ut$'n '+ t(e *resent tas%! T(e a$ms set be+'re us are n't
arb$trar$ly *r'*'sed) but are $m*'sed u*'n us by t(e nature '+
,'-n$t$'n $tsel+!
T(e ab'0e remar%s relate t' t(e matter '+ 'ur ,r$t$,al $n.u$ry! As
re-ards t(e +'rm) t(ere are t/' $nd$s*ensable ,'nd$t$'ns) /($,( any
'ne /(' underta%es s' d$++$,ult a tas% as t(at '+ a ,r$t$.ue '+ *ure
reas'n) $s b'und t' +ul+$l! T(ese ,'nd$t$'ns are ,ert$tude and
As re-ards ,ert$tude) I (a0e +ully ,'n0$n,ed mysel+ t(at) $n t($s
s*(ere '+ t('u-(t) '*$n$'n $s *er+e,tly $nadm$ss$ble) and t(at
e0eryt($n- /($,( bears t(e least semblan,e '+ an (y*'t(es$s must be
e1,luded) as '+ n' 0alue $n su,( d$s,uss$'ns! F'r $t $s a ne,essary
,'nd$t$'n '+ e0ery ,'-n$t$'n t(at $s t' be establ$s(ed u*'n a *r$'r$
-r'unds t(at $t s(all be (eld t' be abs'lutely ne,essary4 mu,( m're $s
t($s t(e ,ase /$t( an attem*t t' determ$ne all *ure a *r$'r$
,'-n$t$'n) and t' +urn$s( t(e standard5 and ,'nse.uently an e1am*le5
'+ all a*'de$,t$, =*($l's'*($,al> ,ert$tude! 2(et(er I (a0e
su,,eeded $n /(at I *r'+essed t' d') $t $s +'r t(e reader t'
determ$ne4 $t $s t(e aut('r?s bus$ness merely t' addu,e -r'unds and
reas'ns) /$t('ut determ$n$n- /(at $n+luen,e t(ese 'u-(t t' (a0e 'n t(e
m$nd '+ ($s &ud-es! 3ut) lest anyt($n- (e may (a0e sa$d may be,'me t(e
$nn',ent ,ause '+ d'ubt $n t(e$r m$nds) 'r tend t' /ea%en t(e e++e,t
/($,( ($s ar-uments m$-(t 't(er/$se *r'du,e5 (e may be all'/ed t'
*'$nt 'ut t('se *assa-es /($,( may ',,as$'n m$strust 'r d$++$,ulty)
alt('u-( t(ese d' n't ,'n,ern t(e ma$n *ur*'se '+ t(e *resent /'r%! He
d'es t($s s'lely /$t( t(e 0$e/ '+ rem'0$n- +r'm t(e m$nd '+ t(e reader
any d'ubts /($,( m$-(t a++e,t ($s &ud-ement '+ t(e /'r% as a /('le)
and $n re-ard t' $ts ult$mate a$m!
I %n'/ n' $n0est$-at$'ns m're ne,essary +'r a +ull $ns$-(t $nt'
t(e nature '+ t(e +a,ulty /($,( /e ,all understand$n-) and at t(e same
t$me +'r t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e rules and l$m$ts '+ $ts use) t(an
t('se underta%en $n t(e se,'nd ,(a*ter '+ t(e 9Trans,endental
Analyt$,)9 under t(e t$tle '+ 9#edu,t$'n '+ t(e Pure C'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e Understand$n-94 and t(ey (a0e als' ,'st me by +ar t(e -reatest
lab'ur5 lab'ur /($,() I ('*e) /$ll n't rema$n un,'m*ensated! T(e
0$e/ t(ere ta%en) /($,( -'es s'me/(at dee*ly $nt' t(e sub&e,t) (as t/'
s$des) T(e 'ne relates t' t(e 'b&e,ts '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) and
$s $ntended t' dem'nstrate and t' render ,'m*re(ens$ble t(e
'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty '+ $ts a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns4 and $t +'rms +'r
t($s reas'n an essent$al *art '+ t(e Cr$t$.ue! T(e 't(er ,'ns$ders t(e
*ure understand$n- $tsel+) $ts *'ss$b$l$ty and $ts *'/ers '+
,'-n$t$'n5 t(at $s) +r'm a sub&e,t$0e *'$nt '+ 0$e/4 and) alt('u-(
t($s e1*'s$t$'n $s '+ -reat $m*'rtan,e) $t d'es n't bel'n- essent$ally
t' t(e ma$n *ur*'se '+ t(e /'r%) be,ause t(e -rand .uest$'n $s /(at
and ('/ mu,( ,an reas'n and understand$n-) a*art +r'm e1*er$en,e)
,'-n$;e) and n't) ('/ $s t(e +a,ulty '+ t('u-(t $tsel+ *'ss$ble@ As
t(e latter $s an) $n.u$ry $nt' t(e ,ause '+ a -$0en e++e,t) and (as
t(us $n $t s'me semblan,e '+ an (y*'t(es$s =alt('u-() as I s(all
s('/ 'n an't(er ',,as$'n) t($s $s really n't t(e +a,t>) $t /'uld
seem t(at) $n t(e *resent $nstan,e) I (ad all'/ed mysel+ t' en'un,e
a mere '*$n$'n) and t(at t(e reader must t(ere+'re be at l$berty t'
('ld a d$++erent '*$n$'n! 3ut I be- t' rem$nd ($m t(at) $+ my
sub&e,t$0e dedu,t$'n d'es n't *r'du,e $n ($s m$nd t(e ,'n0$,t$'n '+
$ts ,ert$tude at /($,( I a$med) t(e 'b&e,t$0e dedu,t$'n) /$t( /($,(
al'ne t(e *resent /'r% $s *r'*erly ,'n,erned) $s $n e0ery res*e,t
As re-ards ,learness) t(e reader (as a r$-(t t' demand) $n t(e +$rst
*la,e) d$s,urs$0e 'r l'-$,al ,learness) t(at $s) 'n t(e bas$s '+
,'n,e*t$'ns) and) se,'ndly) $ntu$t$0e 'r aest(et$, ,learness) by means
'+ $ntu$t$'ns) t(at $s) by e1am*les 'r 't(er m'des '+ $llustrat$'n
$n ,'n,ret'! I (a0e d'ne /(at I ,'uld +'r t(e +$rst %$nd '+
$ntell$-$b$l$ty! T($s /as essent$al t' my *ur*'se4 and $t t(us
be,ame t(e a,,$dental ,ause '+ my $nab$l$ty t' d' ,'m*lete &ust$,e
t' t(e se,'nd re.u$rement! I (a0e been alm'st al/ays at a l'ss) dur$n-
t(e *r'-ress '+ t($s /'r%) ('/ t' settle t($s .uest$'n! E1am*les and
$llustrat$'ns al/ays a**eared t' me ne,essary) and) $n t(e +$rst
s%et,( '+ t(e Cr$t$.ue) naturally +ell $nt' t(e$r *r'*er *la,es! 3ut I
0ery s''n be,ame a/are '+ t(e ma-n$tude '+ my tas%) and t(e numer'us
*r'blems /$t( /($,( I s('uld be en-a-ed4 and) as I *er,e$0ed t(at t($s
,r$t$,al $n0est$-at$'n /'uld) e0en $+ del$0ered $n t(e dr$est
s,('last$, manner) be +ar +r'm be$n- br$e+) I +'und $t unad0$sable
t' enlar-e $t st$ll m're /$t( e1am*les and e1*lanat$'ns) /($,( are
ne,essary 'nly +r'm a *'*ular *'$nt '+ 0$e/! I /as $ndu,ed t' ta%e
t($s ,'urse +r'm t(e ,'ns$derat$'n als' t(at t(e *resent /'r% $s n't
$ntended +'r *'*ular use) t(at t('se de0'ted t' s,$en,e d' n't re.u$re
su,( (el*s) alt('u-( t(ey are al/ays a,,e*table) and t(at t(ey /'uld
(a0e mater$ally $nter+ered /$t( my *resent *ur*'se! Abbe Terrass'n
remar%s /$t( -reat &ust$,e t(at) $+ /e est$mate t(e s$;e '+ a /'r%)
n't +r'm t(e number '+ $ts *a-es) but +r'm t(e t$me /($,( /e re.u$re
t' ma%e 'ursel0es master '+ $t) $t may be sa$d '+ many a b''% t(at
$t /'uld be mu,( s('rter) $+ $t /ere n't s' s('rt! On t(e 't(er
(and) as re-ards t(e ,'m*re(ens$b$l$ty '+ a system '+ s*e,ulat$0e
,'-n$t$'n) ,'nne,ted under a s$n-le *r$n,$*le) /e may say /$t( e.ual
&ust$,e6 many a b''% /'uld (a0e been mu,( ,learer) $+ $t (ad n't
been $ntended t' be s' 0ery ,lear! F'r e1*lanat$'ns and e1am*les)
and 't(er (el*s t' $ntell$-$b$l$ty) a$d us $n t(e ,'m*re(ens$'n '+
*arts) but t(ey d$stra,t t(e attent$'n) d$ss$*ate t(e mental *'/er
'+ t(e reader) and stand $n t(e /ay '+ ($s +'rm$n- a ,lear
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e /('le4 as (e ,ann't atta$n s''n en'u-( t' a sur0ey
'+ t(e system) and t(e ,'l'ur$n- and embell$s(ments best'/ed u*'n $t
*re0ent ($s 'bser0$n- $ts art$,ulat$'n 'r 'r-an$;at$'n5 /($,( $s t(e
m'st $m*'rtant ,'ns$derat$'n /$t( ($m) /(en (e ,'mes t' &ud-e '+ $ts
un$ty and stab$l$ty!
T(e reader must naturally (a0e a str'n- $ndu,ement t' ,'5'*erate
/$t( t(e *resent aut('r) $+ (e (as +'rmed t(e $ntent$'n '+ ere,t$n-
a ,'m*lete and s'l$d ed$+$,e '+ meta*(ys$,al s,$en,e) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e
*lan n'/ la$d be+'re ($m! "eta*(ys$,s) as (ere re*resented) $s t(e
'nly s,$en,e /($,( adm$ts '+ ,'m*let$'n5 and /$t( l$ttle lab'ur) $+ $t
$s un$ted) $n a s('rt t$me4 s' t(at n't($n- /$ll be le+t t' +uture
-enerat$'ns e1,e*t t(e tas% '+ $llustrat$n- and a**ly$n- $t
d$da,t$,ally! F'r t($s s,$en,e $s n't($n- m're t(an t(e $n0ent'ry '+
all t(at $s -$0en us by *ure reas'n) systemat$,ally arran-ed!
N't($n- ,an es,a*e 'ur n't$,e4 +'r /(at reas'n *r'du,es +r'm $tsel+
,ann't l$e ,'n,ealed) but must be br'u-(t t' t(e l$-(t by reas'n
$tsel+) s' s''n as /e (a0e d$s,'0ered t(e ,'mm'n *r$n,$*le '+ t(e
$deas /e see%! T(e *er+e,t un$ty '+ t($s %$nd '+ ,'-n$t$'ns) /($,( are
based u*'n *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns) and un$n+luen,ed by any em*$r$,al
element) 'r any *e,ul$ar $ntu$t$'n lead$n- t' determ$nate
e1*er$en,e) renders t($s ,'m*leteness n't 'nly *ra,t$,able) but als'
Te,um (ab$ta) et n'r$s .uam s$t t$b$ ,urta su*elle1!7

7Pers$us! 8Sat$rae $0! AB! 9#/ell /$t( y'ursel+) and y'u /$ll %n'/
('/ s('rt y'ur ('use('ld stu++ $s!9
Su,( a system '+ *ure s*e,ulat$0e reas'n I ('*e t' be able t'
*ubl$s( under t(e t$tle '+ "eta*(ys$, '+ Nature! T(e ,'ntent '+ t($s
/'r% =/($,( /$ll n't be (al+ s' l'n-> /$ll be 0ery mu,( r$,(er t(an
t(at '+ t(e *resent Cr$t$.ue) /($,( (as t' d$s,'0er t(e s'ur,es '+
t($s ,'-n$t$'n and e1*'se t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ts *'ss$b$l$ty) and at
t(e same t$me t' ,lear and le0el a +$t +'undat$'n +'r t(e s,$ent$+$,
ed$+$,e! In t(e *resent /'r%) I l''% +'r t(e *at$ent (ear$n- and t(e
$m*art$al$ty '+ a &ud-e4 $n t(e 't(er) +'r t(e -''d5/$ll and
ass$stan,e '+ a ,'5lab'urer! F'r) ('/e0er ,'m*lete t(e l$st '+
*r$n,$*les +'r t($s system may be $n t(e Cr$t$.ue) t(e ,'rre,tness
'+ t(e system re.u$res t(at n' dedu,ed ,'n,e*t$'ns s('uld be absent!
T(ese ,ann't be *resented a *r$'r$) but must be -radually
d$s,'0ered4 and) /($le t(e synt(es$s '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns (as been +ully
e1(austed $n t(e Cr$t$.ue) $t $s ne,essary t(at) $n t(e *r'*'sed /'r%)
t(e same s('uld be t(e ,ase /$t( t(e$r analys$s! 3ut t($s /$ll be
rat(er an amusement t(an a lab'ur!

2(et(er t(e treatment '+ t(at *'rt$'n '+ 'ur %n'/led-e /($,( l$es
/$t($n t(e *r'0$n,e '+ *ure reas'n ad0an,es /$t( t(at unde0$at$n-
,erta$nty /($,( ,(ara,ter$;es t(e *r'-ress '+ s,$en,e) /e s(all be
at n' l'ss t' determ$ne! I+ /e +$nd t('se /(' are en-a-ed $n
meta*(ys$,al *ursu$ts) unable t' ,'me t' an understand$n- as t' t(e
met('d /($,( t(ey 'u-(t t' +'ll'/4 $+ /e +$nd t(em) a+ter t(e m'st
elab'rate *re*arat$'ns) $n0ar$ably br'u-(t t' a stand be+'re t(e
-'al $s rea,(ed) and ,'m*elled t' retra,e t(e$r ste*s and str$%e
$nt' +res( *at(s) /e may t(en +eel .u$te sure t(at t(ey are +ar +r'm
(a0$n- atta$ned t' t(e ,erta$nty '+ s,$ent$+$, *r'-ress and may rat(er
be sa$d t' be merely -r'*$n- ab'ut $n t(e dar%! In t(ese ,$r,umstan,es
/e s(all render an $m*'rtant ser0$,e t' reas'n $+ /e su,,eed $n s$m*ly
$nd$,at$n- t(e *at( al'n- /($,( $t must tra0el) $n 'rder t' arr$0e
at any results5 e0en $+ $t s('uld be +'und ne,essary t' aband'n many
'+ t('se a$ms /($,() /$t('ut re+le,t$'n) (a0e been *r'*'sed +'r $ts
T(at l'-$, (as ad0an,ed $n t($s sure ,'urse) e0en +r'm t(e
earl$est t$mes) $s a**arent +r'm t(e +a,t t(at) s$n,e Ar$st'tle) $t
(as been unable t' ad0an,e a ste* and) t(us) t' all a**earan,e (as
rea,(ed $ts ,'m*let$'n! F'r) $+ s'me '+ t(e m'derns (a0e t('u-(t t'
enlar-e $ts d'ma$n by $ntr'du,$n- *sy,('l'-$,al d$s,uss$'ns 'n t(e
mental +a,ult$es) su,( as $ma-$nat$'n and /$t) meta*(ys$,al)
d$s,uss$'ns 'n t(e 'r$-$n '+ %n'/led-e and t(e d$++erent %$nds '+
,ert$tude) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e d$++eren,e '+ t(e 'b&e,ts =$deal$sm)
s,e*t$,$sm) and s' 'n>) 'r ant(r'*'l'-$,al d$s,uss$'ns 'n
*re&ud$,es) t(e$r ,auses and remed$es6 t($s attem*t) 'n t(e *art '+
t(ese aut('rs) 'nly s('/s t(e$r $-n'ran,e '+ t(e *e,ul$ar nature '+
l'-$,al s,$en,e! 2e d' n't enlar-e but d$s+$-ure t(e s,$en,es /(en
/e l'se s$-(t '+ t(e$r res*e,t$0e l$m$ts and all'/ t(em t' run $nt'
'ne an't(er! N'/ l'-$, $s en,l'sed /$t($n l$m$ts /($,( adm$t '+
*er+e,tly ,lear de+$n$t$'n4 $t $s a s,$en,e /($,( (as +'r $ts 'b&e,t
n't($n- but t(e e1*'s$t$'n and *r''+ '+ t(e +'rmal la/s '+ all
t('u-(t) /(et(er $t be a *r$'r$ 'r em*$r$,al) /(ate0er be $ts 'r$-$n
'r $ts 'b&e,t) and /(ate0er t(e d$++$,ult$es5 natural 'r a,,$dental5
/($,( $t en,'unters $n t(e (uman m$nd!
T(e early su,,ess '+ l'-$, must be attr$buted e1,lus$0ely t' t(e
narr'/ness '+ $ts +$eld) $n /($,( abstra,t$'n may) 'r rat(er must)
be made '+ all t(e 'b&e,ts '+ ,'-n$t$'n /$t( t(e$r ,(ara,ter$st$,
d$st$n,t$'ns) and $n /($,( t(e understand$n- (as 'nly t' deal /$t(
$tsel+ and /$t( $ts '/n +'rms! It $s) 'b0$'usly) a mu,( m're d$++$,ult
tas% +'r reas'n t' str$%e $nt' t(e sure *at( '+ s,$en,e) /(ere $t
(as t' deal n't s$m*ly /$t( $tsel+) but /$t( 'b&e,ts e1ternal t'
$tsel+! Hen,e) l'-$, $s *r'*erly 'nly a *r'*aedeut$,5 +'rms) as $t
/ere) t(e 0est$bule '+ t(e s,$en,es4 and /($le $t $s ne,essary t'
enable us t' +'rm a ,'rre,t &ud-ement /$t( re-ard t' t(e 0ar$'us
bran,(es '+ %n'/led-e) st$ll t(e a,.u$s$t$'n '+ real) substant$0e
%n'/led-e $s t' be s'u-(t 'nly $n t(e s,$en,es *r'*erly s' ,alled)
t(at $s) $n t(e 'b&e,t$0e s,$en,es!
N'/ t(ese s,$en,es) $+ t(ey ,an be termed rat$'nal at all) must
,'nta$n elements '+ a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n) and t($s ,'-n$t$'n may stand
$n a t/'+'ld relat$'n t' $ts 'b&e,t! E$t(er $t may (a0e t' determ$ne
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t5 /($,( must be su**l$ed e1trane'usly)
'r $t may (a0e t' establ$s( $ts real$ty! T(e +'rmer $s t(e'ret$,al)
t(e latter *ra,t$,al) rat$'nal ,'-n$t$'n! In b't() t(e *ure 'r a
*r$'r$ element must be treated +$rst) and must be ,are+ully
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(at /($,( $s su**l$ed +r'm 't(er s'ur,es! Any
't(er met('d ,an 'nly lead t' $rremed$able ,'n+us$'n!
"at(emat$,s and *(ys$,s are t(e t/' t(e'ret$,al s,$en,es /($,(
(a0e t' determ$ne t(e$r 'b&e,ts a *r$'r$! T(e +'rmer $s *urely a
*r$'r$) t(e latter $s *art$ally s') but $s als' de*endent 'n 't(er
s'ur,es '+ ,'-n$t$'n!
In t(e earl$est t$mes '+ /($,( ($st'ry a++'rds us any re,'rd)
mat(emat$,s (ad already entered 'n t(e sure ,'urse '+ s,$en,e) am'n-
t(at /'nder+ul nat$'n) t(e Cree%s! St$ll $t $s n't t' be su**'sed t(at
$t /as as easy +'r t($s s,$en,e t' str$%e $nt') 'r rat(er t' ,'nstru,t
+'r $tsel+) t(at r'yal r'ad) as $t /as +'r l'-$,) $n /($,( reas'n
(as 'nly t' deal /$t( $tsel+! On t(e ,'ntrary) I bel$e0e t(at $t
must (a0e rema$ned l'n-5 ,($e+ly am'n- t(e E-y*t$ans5 $n t(e sta-e
'+ bl$nd -r'*$n- a+ter $ts true a$ms and dest$nat$'n) and t(at $t
/as re0'lut$'n$;ed by t(e (a**y $dea '+ 'ne man) /(' stru,% 'ut and
determ$ned +'r all t$me t(e *at( /($,( t($s s,$en,e must +'ll'/) and
/($,( adm$ts '+ an $nde+$n$te ad0an,ement! T(e ($st'ry '+ t($s
$ntelle,tual re0'lut$'n5 mu,( m're $m*'rtant $n $ts results t(an t(e
d$s,'0ery '+ t(e *assa-e r'und t(e ,elebrated Ca*e '+ C''d H'*e5 and
'+ $ts aut('r) (as n't been *reser0ed! 3ut #$'-enes <aert$us) $n
nam$n- t(e su**'sed d$s,'0erer '+ s'me '+ t(e s$m*lest elements '+
-e'metr$,al dem'nstrat$'n5 elements /($,() a,,'rd$n- t' t(e 'rd$nary
'*$n$'n) d' n't e0en re.u$re t' be *r'0ed5 ma%es $t a**arent t(at
t(e ,(an-e $ntr'du,ed by t(e +$rst $nd$,at$'n '+ t($s ne/ *at() must
(a0e seemed '+ t(e utm'st $m*'rtan,e t' t(e mat(emat$,$ans '+ t(at
a-e) and $t (as t(us been se,ured a-a$nst t(e ,(an,e '+ 'bl$0$'n! A
ne/ l$-(t must (a0e +las(ed 'n t(e m$nd '+ t(e +$rst man =T(ales) 'r
/(ate0er may (a0e been ($s name> /(' dem'nstrated t(e *r'*ert$es '+
t(e $s's,eles tr$an-le! F'r (e +'und t(at $t /as n't su++$,$ent t'
med$tate 'n t(e +$-ure) as $t lay be+'re ($s eyes) 'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ $t) as $t e1$sted $n ($s m$nd) and t(us endea0'ur t' -et at t(e
%n'/led-e '+ $ts *r'*ert$es) but t(at $t /as ne,essary t' *r'du,e
t(ese *r'*ert$es) as $t /ere) by a *'s$t$0e a *r$'r$ ,'nstru,t$'n4 and
t(at) $n 'rder t' arr$0e /$t( ,erta$nty at a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n) (e must
n't attr$bute t' t(e 'b&e,t any 't(er *r'*ert$es t(an t('se /($,(
ne,essar$ly +'ll'/ed +r'm t(at /($,( (e (ad ($msel+) $n a,,'rdan,e
/$t( ($s ,'n,e*t$'n) *la,ed $n t(e 'b&e,t!
A mu,( l'n-er *er$'d ela*sed be+'re *(ys$,s entered 'n t(e ($-(/ay
'+ s,$en,e! F'r $t $s 'nly ab'ut a ,entury and a (al+ s$n,e t(e /$se
3a,'n -a0e a ne/ d$re,t$'n t' *(ys$,al stud$es) 'r rat(er5 as 't(ers
/ere already 'n t(e r$-(t tra,%5 $m*arted +res( 0$-'ur t' t(e
*ursu$t '+ t($s ne/ d$re,t$'n! Here) t'') as $n t(e ,ase '+
mat(emat$,s) /e +$nd e0$den,e '+ a ra*$d $ntelle,tual re0'lut$'n! In
t(e remar%s /($,( +'ll'/ I s(all ,'n+$ne mysel+ t' t(e em*$r$,al
s$de '+ natural s,$en,e!
2(en Cal$le$ e1*er$mented /$t( balls '+ a de+$n$te /e$-(t 'n t(e
$n,l$ned *lane) /(en T'rr$,ell$ ,aused t(e a$r t' susta$n a /e$-(t
/($,( (e (ad ,al,ulated be+'re(and t' be e.ual t' t(at '+ a de+$n$te
,'lumn '+ /ater) 'r /(en Sta(l) at a later *er$'d) ,'n0erted metals
$nt' l$me) and re,'n0erted l$me $nt' metal) by t(e add$t$'n and
subtra,t$'n '+ ,erta$n elements47 a l$-(t br'%e u*'n all natural
*($l's'*(ers! T(ey learned t(at reas'n 'nly *er,e$0es t(at /($,( $t
*r'du,es a+ter $ts '/n des$-n4 t(at $t must n't be ,'ntent t'
+'ll'/) as $t /ere) $n t(e lead$n-5str$n-s '+ nature) but must *r',eed
$n ad0an,e /$t( *r$n,$*les '+ &ud-ement a,,'rd$n- t' un0ary$n- la/s)
and ,'m*el nature t' re*ly $ts .uest$'ns! F'r a,,$dental 'bser0at$'ns)
made a,,'rd$n- t' n' *re,'n,e$0ed *lan) ,ann't be un$ted under a
ne,essary la/! 3ut $t $s t($s t(at reas'n see%s +'r and re.u$res! It
$s 'nly t(e *r$n,$*les '+ reas'n /($,( ,an -$0e t' ,'n,'rdant
*(en'mena t(e 0al$d$ty '+ la/s) and $t $s 'nly /(en e1*er$ment $s
d$re,ted by t(ese rat$'nal *r$n,$*les t(at $t ,an (a0e any real
ut$l$ty! Reas'n must a**r'a,( nature /$t( t(e 0$e/) $ndeed) '+
re,e$0$n- $n+'rmat$'n +r'm $t) n't) ('/e0er) $n t(e ,(ara,ter '+ a
*u*$l) /(' l$stens t' all t(at ($s master ,(''ses t' tell ($m) but
$n t(at '+ a &ud-e) /(' ,'m*els t(e /$tnesses t' re*ly t' t('se
.uest$'ns /($,( (e ($msel+ t($n%s +$t t' *r'*'se! T' t($s s$n-le
$dea must t(e re0'lut$'n be as,r$bed) by /($,() a+ter -r'*$n- $n t(e
dar% +'r s' many ,entur$es) natural s,$en,e /as at len-t( ,'ndu,ted
$nt' t(e *at( '+ ,erta$n *r'-ress!
7I d' n't (ere +'ll'/ /$t( e1a,tness t(e ($st'ry '+ t(e e1*er$mental
met('d) '+ /($,() $ndeed) t(e +$rst ste*s are $n0'l0ed $n s'me
2e ,'me n'/ t' meta*(ys$,s) a *urely s*e,ulat$0e s,$en,e) /($,(
',,u*$es a ,'m*letely $s'lated *'s$t$'n and $s ent$rely $nde*endent '+
t(e tea,($n-s '+ e1*er$en,e! It deals /$t( mere ,'n,e*t$'ns5 n't) l$%e
mat(emat$,s) /$t( ,'n,e*t$'ns a**l$ed t' $ntu$t$'n5 and $n $t)
reas'n $s t(e *u*$l '+ $tsel+ al'ne! It $s t(e 'ldest '+ t(e s,$en,es)
and /'uld st$ll sur0$0e) e0en $+ all t(e rest /ere s/all'/ed u* $n t(e
abyss '+ an all5destr'y$n- barbar$sm! 3ut $t (as n't yet (ad t(e
-''d +'rtune t' atta$n t' t(e sure s,$ent$+$, met('d! T($s /$ll be
a**arent4 $+ /e a**ly t(e tests /($,( /e *r'*'sed at t(e 'utset! 2e
+$nd t(at reas'n *er*etually ,'mes t' a stand) /(en $t attem*ts t'
-a$n a *r$'r$ t(e *er,e*t$'n e0en '+ t('se la/s /($,( t(e m'st
,'mm'n e1*er$en,e ,'n+$rms! 2e +$nd $t ,'m*elled t' retra,e $ts
ste*s $n $nnumerable $nstan,es) and t' aband'n t(e *at( 'n /($,( $t
(ad entered) be,ause t($s d'es n't lead t' t(e des$red result! 2e
+$nd) t'') t(at t('se /(' are en-a-ed $n meta*(ys$,al *ursu$ts are +ar
+r'm be$n- able t' a-ree am'n- t(emsel0es) but t(at) 'n t(e
,'ntrary) t($s s,$en,e a**ears t' +urn$s( an arena s*e,$ally ada*ted
+'r t(e d$s*lay '+ s%$ll 'r t(e e1er,$se '+ stren-t( $n m',%5,'ntests5
a +$eld $n /($,( n' ,'mbatant e0er yet su,,eeded $n -a$n$n- an $n,( '+
-r'und) $n /($,() at least) n' 0$,t'ry /as e0er yet ,r'/ned /$t(
*ermanent *'ssess$'n!
T($s leads us t' $n.u$re /(y $t $s t(at) $n meta*(ys$,s) t(e sure
*at( '+ s,$en,e (as n't ($t(ert' been +'und! S(all /e su**'se t(at
$t $s $m*'ss$ble t' d$s,'0er $t@ 2(y t(en s('uld nature (a0e 0$s$ted
'ur reas'n /$t( restless as*$rat$'ns a+ter $t) as $+ $t /ere 'ne '+
'ur /e$-(t$est ,'n,erns@ Nay) m're) ('/ l$ttle ,ause s('uld /e (a0e t'
*la,e ,'n+$den,e $n 'ur reas'n) $+ $t aband'ns us $n a matter ab'ut
/($,() m'st '+ all) /e des$re t' %n'/ t(e trut(5 and n't 'nly s')
but e0en allures us t' t(e *ursu$t '+ 0a$n *(ant'ms) 'nly t' betray us
$n t(e end@ Or) $+ t(e *at( (as 'nly ($t(ert' been m$ssed) /(at
$nd$,at$'ns d' /e *'ssess t' -u$de us $n a rene/ed $n0est$-at$'n)
and t' enable us t' ('*e +'r -reater su,,ess t(an (as +allen t' t(e
l't '+ 'ur *rede,ess'rs@
It a**ears t' me t(at t(e e1am*les '+ mat(emat$,s and natural
*($l's'*(y) /($,() as /e (a0e seen) /ere br'u-(t $nt' t(e$r *resent
,'nd$t$'n by a sudden re0'lut$'n) are su++$,$ently remar%able t' +$1
'ur attent$'n 'n t(e essent$al ,$r,umstan,es '+ t(e ,(an-e /($,( (as
*r'0ed s' ad0anta-e'us t' t(em) and t' $ndu,e us t' ma%e t(e
e1*er$ment '+ $m$tat$n- t(em) s' +ar as t(e anal'-y /($,() as rat$'nal
s,$en,es) t(ey bear t' meta*(ys$,s may *erm$t! It (as ($t(ert' been
assumed t(at 'ur ,'-n$t$'n must ,'n+'rm t' t(e 'b&e,ts4 but all
attem*ts t' as,erta$n anyt($n- ab'ut t(ese 'b&e,ts a *r$'r$) by
means '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) and t(us t' e1tend t(e ran-e '+ 'ur %n'/led-e)
(a0e been rendered ab'rt$0e by t($s assum*t$'n! <et us t(en ma%e t(e
e1*er$ment /(et(er /e may n't be m're su,,ess+ul $n meta*(ys$,s) $+ /e
assume t(at t(e 'b&e,ts must ,'n+'rm t' 'ur ,'-n$t$'n! T($s a**ears)
at all e0ents) t' a,,'rd better /$t( t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ 'ur -a$n$n-
t(e end /e (a0e $n 0$e/) t(at $s t' say) '+ arr$0$n- at t(e
,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts a *r$'r$) '+ determ$n$n- s'met($n- /$t( res*e,t
t' t(ese 'b&e,ts) be+'re t(ey are -$0en t' us! 2e (ere *r'*'se t' d'
&ust /(at C'*ern$,us d$d $n attem*t$n- t' e1*la$n t(e ,elest$al
m'0ements! 2(en (e +'und t(at (e ,'uld ma%e n' *r'-ress by assum$n-
t(at all t(e (ea0enly b'd$es re0'l0ed r'und t(e s*e,tat'r) (e re0ersed
t(e *r',ess) and tr$ed t(e e1*er$ment '+ assum$n- t(at t(e s*e,tat'r
re0'l0ed) /($le t(e stars rema$ned at rest! 2e may ma%e t(e same
e1*er$ment /$t( re-ard t' t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts! I+ t(e $ntu$t$'n
must ,'n+'rm t' t(e nature '+ t(e 'b&e,ts) I d' n't see ('/ /e ,an
%n'/ anyt($n- '+ t(em a *r$'r$! I+) 'n t(e 't(er (and) t(e 'b&e,t
,'n+'rms t' t(e nature '+ 'ur +a,ulty '+ $ntu$t$'n) I ,an t(en
eas$ly ,'n,e$0e t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( an a *r$'r$ %n'/led-e! N'/
as I ,ann't rest $n t(e mere $ntu$t$'ns) but5 $+ t(ey are t' be,'me
,'-n$t$'ns5 must re+er t(em) as re*resentat$'ns) t' s'met($n-) as
'b&e,t) and must determ$ne t(e latter by means '+ t(e +'rmer) (ere
a-a$n t(ere are t/' ,'urses '*en t' me! E$t(er) +$rst) I may assume
t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns) by /($,( I e++e,t t($s determ$nat$'n) ,'n+'rm t'
t(e 'b&e,t5 and $n t($s ,ase I am redu,ed t' t(e same *er*le1$ty as
be+'re4 'r se,'ndly) I may assume t(at t(e 'b&e,ts) 'r) /($,( $s t(e
same t($n-) t(at e1*er$en,e) $n /($,( al'ne as -$0en 'b&e,ts t(ey
are ,'-n$;ed) ,'n+'rm t' my ,'n,e*t$'ns5 and t(en I am at n' l'ss
('/ t' *r',eed! F'r e1*er$en,e $tsel+ $s a m'de '+ ,'-n$t$'n /($,(
re.u$res understand$n-! 3e+'re 'b&e,ts) are -$0en t' me) t(at $s) a
*r$'r$) I must *resu**'se $n mysel+ la/s '+ t(e understand$n- /($,(
are e1*ressed $n ,'n,e*t$'ns a *r$'r$! T' t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(en) all
t(e 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e must ne,essar$ly ,'n+'rm! N'/ t(ere are
'b&e,ts /($,( reas'n t($n%s) and t(at ne,essar$ly) but /($,( ,ann't be
-$0en $n e1*er$en,e) 'r) at least) ,ann't be -$0en s' as reas'n t($n%s
t(em! T(e attem*t t' t($n% t(ese 'b&e,ts /$ll (erea+ter +urn$s( an
e1,ellent test '+ t(e ne/ met('d '+ t('u-(t /($,( /e (a0e ad'*ted) and
/($,( $s based 'n t(e *r$n,$*le t(at /e 'nly ,'-n$;e $n t($n-s a
*r$'r$ t(at /($,( /e 'ursel0es *la,e $n t(em!7
7T($s met('d) a,,'rd$n-ly) /($,( /e (a0e b'rr'/ed +r'm t(e natural
*($l's'*(er) ,'ns$sts $n see%$n- +'r t(e elements '+ *ure reas'n $n
t(at /($,( adm$ts '+ ,'n+$rmat$'n 'r re+utat$'n by e1*er$ment! N'/ t(e
*r'*'s$t$'ns '+ *ure reas'n) es*e,$ally /(en t(ey trans,end t(e l$m$ts
'+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) d' n't adm$t '+ 'ur ma%$n- any e1*er$ment /$t(
t(e$r 'b&e,ts) as $n natural s,$en,e! Hen,e) /$t( re-ard t' t('se
,'n,e*t$'ns and *r$n,$*les /($,( /e assume a *r$'r$) 'ur 'nly ,'urse
$ll be t' 0$e/ t(em +r'm t/' d$++erent s$des! 2e must re-ard 'ne and
t(e same ,'n,e*t$'n) 'n t(e 'ne (and) $n relat$'n t' e1*er$en,e as
an 'b&e,t '+ t(e senses and '+ t(e understand$n-) 'n t(e 't(er (and)
$n relat$'n t' reas'n) $s'lated and trans,end$n- t(e l$m$ts '+
e1*er$en,e) as an 'b&e,t '+ mere t('u-(t! N'/ $+ /e +$nd t(at) /(en /e
re-ard t($n-s +r'm t($s d'uble *'$nt '+ 0$e/) t(e result $s $n (arm'ny
/$t( t(e *r$n,$*le '+ *ure reas'n) but t(at) /(en /e re-ard t(em
+r'm a s$n-le *'$nt '+ 0$e/) reas'n $s $n0'l0ed $n sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'n)
t(en t(e e1*er$ment /$ll establ$s( t(e ,'rre,tness '+ t($s
T($s attem*t su,,eeds as /ell as /e ,'uld des$re) and *r'm$ses t'
meta*(ys$,s) $n $ts +$rst *art5 t(at $s) /(ere $t $s ',,u*$ed /$t(
,'n,e*t$'ns a *r$'r$) '+ /($,( t(e ,'rres*'nd$n- 'b&e,ts may be
-$0en $n e1*er$en,e5 t(e ,erta$n ,'urse '+ s,$en,e! F'r by t($s ne/
met('d /e are enabled *er+e,tly t' e1*la$n t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a *r$'r$
,'-n$t$'n) and) /(at $s m're) t' dem'nstrate sat$s+a,t'r$ly t(e la/s
/($,( l$e a *r$'r$ at t(e +'undat$'n '+ nature) as t(e sum '+ t(e
'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e5 ne$t(er '+ /($,( /as *'ss$ble a,,'rd$n- t'
t(e *r',edure ($t(ert' +'ll'/ed! 3ut +r'm t($s dedu,t$'n '+ t(e
+a,ulty '+ a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n $n t(e +$rst *art '+ meta*(ys$,s) /e
der$0e a sur*r$s$n- result) and 'ne /($,() t' all a**earan,e)
m$l$tates a-a$nst t(e -reat end '+ meta*(ys$,s) as treated $n t(e
se,'nd *art! F'r /e ,'me t' t(e ,'n,lus$'n t(at 'ur +a,ulty '+
,'-n$t$'n $s unable t' trans,end t(e l$m$ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e4
and yet t($s $s *re,$sely t(e m'st essent$al 'b&e,t '+ t($s s,$en,e!
T(e est$mate '+ 'ur rat$'nal ,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$ at /($,( /e arr$0e
$s t(at $t (as 'nly t' d' /$t( *(en'mena) and t(at t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) /($le *'ssess$n- a real e1$sten,e) l$e bey'nd $ts
s*(ere! Here /e are enabled t' *ut t(e &ust$,e '+ t($s est$mate t' t(e
test! F'r t(at /($,( '+ ne,ess$ty $m*els us t' trans,end t(e l$m$ts '+
e1*er$en,e and '+ all *(en'mena $s t(e un,'nd$t$'ned) /($,( reas'n
abs'lutely re.u$res $n t($n-s as t(ey are $n t(emsel0es) $n 'rder t'
,'m*lete t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns! N'/) $+ $t a**ears t(at /(en) 'n
t(e 'ne (and) /e assume t(at 'ur ,'-n$t$'n ,'n+'rms t' $ts 'b&e,ts
as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) t(e un,'nd$t$'ned ,ann't be t('u-(t /$t('ut
,'ntrad$,t$'n) and t(at /(en) 'n t(e 't(er (and) /e assume t(at 'ur
re*resentat$'n '+ t($n-s as t(ey are -$0en t' us) d'es n't ,'n+'rm
t' t(ese t($n-s as t(ey are $n t(emsel0es) but t(at t(ese 'b&e,ts)
as *(en'mena) ,'n+'rm t' 'ur m'de '+ re*resentat$'n) t(e ,'ntrad$,t$'n
d$sa**ears6 /e s(all t(en be ,'n0$n,ed '+ t(e trut( '+ t(at /($,( /e
be-an by assum$n- +'r t(e sa%e '+ e1*er$ment4 /e may l''% u*'n $t as
establ$s(ed t(at t(e un,'nd$t$'ned d'es n't l$e $n t($n-s as /e %n'/
t(em) 'r as t(ey are -$0en t' us) but $n t($n-s as t(ey are $n
t(emsel0es) bey'nd t(e ran-e '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n!7
7T($s e1*er$ment '+ *ure reas'n (as a -reat s$m$lar$ty t' t(at '+
t(e ,(em$sts) /($,( t(ey term t(e e1*er$ment '+ redu,t$'n) 'r) m're
usually) t(e synt(et$, *r',ess! T(e analys$s '+ t(e meta*(ys$,$an
se*arates *ure ,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$ $nt' t/' (eter'-ene'us elements)
0$;!) t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ t($n-s as *(en'mena) and '+ t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es! #$ale,t$, ,'mb$nes t(ese a-a$n $nt' (arm'ny /$t( t(e
ne,essary rat$'nal $dea '+ t(e un,'nd$t$'ned) and +$nds t(at t($s
(arm'ny ne0er results e1,e*t t(r'u-( t(e ab'0e d$st$n,t$'n) /($,(
$s) t(ere+'re) ,'n,luded t' be &ust!
3ut) a+ter /e (a0e t(us den$ed t(e *'/er '+ s*e,ulat$0e reas'n t'
ma%e any *r'-ress $n t(e s*(ere '+ t(e su*ersens$ble) $t st$ll rema$ns
+'r 'ur ,'ns$derat$'n /(et(er data d' n't e1$st $n *ra,t$,al ,'-n$t$'n
/($,( may enable us t' determ$ne t(e trans,endent ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned) t' r$se bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ all *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e
+r'm a *ra,t$,al *'$nt '+ 0$e/) and t(us t' sat$s+y t(e -reat ends
'+ meta*(ys$,s! S*e,ulat$0e reas'n (as t(us) at least) made r''m +'r
su,( an e1tens$'n '+ 'ur %n'/led-e6 and) $+ $t must lea0e t($s s*a,e
0a,ant) st$ll $t d'es n't r'b us '+ t(e l$berty t' +$ll $t u*) $+ /e
,an) by means '+ *ra,t$,al data5 nay) $t e0en ,(allen-es us t' ma%e
t(e attem*t!7
7S' t(e ,entral la/s '+ t(e m'0ements '+ t(e (ea0enly b'd$es
establ$s(ed t(e trut( '+ t(at /($,( C'*ern$,us) +$rst) assumed 'nly as
a (y*'t(es$s) and) at t(e same t$me) br'u-(t t' l$-(t t(at $n0$s$ble
+'r,e =Ne/t'n$an attra,t$'n> /($,( ('lds t(e un$0erse t'-et(er! T(e
latter /'uld (a0e rema$ned +'re0er und$s,'0ered) $+ C'*ern$,us (ad n't
0entured 'n t(e e1*er$ment5 ,'ntrary t' t(e senses but st$ll &ust5
'+ l''%$n- +'r t(e 'bser0ed m'0ements n't $n t(e (ea0enly b'd$es)
but $n t(e s*e,tat'r! In t($s Pre+a,e I treat t(e ne/ meta*(ys$,al
met('d as a (y*'t(es$s /$t( t(e 0$e/ '+ render$n- a**arent t(e +$rst
attem*ts at su,( a ,(an-e '+ met('d) /($,( are al/ays (y*'t(et$,al!
3ut $n t(e Cr$t$.ue $tsel+ $t /$ll be dem'nstrated) n't
(y*'t(et$,ally) but a*'de$,t$,ally) +r'm t(e nature '+ 'ur
re*resentat$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me! and +r'm t(e elementary ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n-!
T($s attem*t t' $ntr'du,e a ,'m*lete re0'lut$'n $n t(e *r',edure
'+ meta*(ys$,s) a+ter t(e e1am*le '+ t(e -e'metr$,$ans and natural
*($l's'*(ers) ,'nst$tutes t(e a$m '+ t(e Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure
S*e,ulat$0e Reas'n! It $s a treat$se 'n t(e met('d t' be +'ll'/ed) n't
a system '+ t(e s,$en,e $tsel+! 3ut) at t(e same t$me) $t mar%s 'ut
and de+$nes b't( t(e e1ternal b'undar$es and t(e $nternal stru,ture '+
t($s s,$en,e! F'r *ure s*e,ulat$0e reas'n (as t($s *e,ul$ar$ty)
t(at) $n ,(''s$n- t(e 0ar$'us 'b&e,ts '+ t('u-(t) $t $s able t' de+$ne
t(e l$m$ts '+ $ts '/n +a,ult$es) and e0en t' -$0e a ,'m*lete
enumerat$'n '+ t(e *'ss$ble m'des '+ *r'*'s$n- *r'blems t' $tsel+) and
t(us t' s%et,( 'ut t(e ent$re system '+ meta*(ys$,s! F'r) 'n t(e 'ne
(and) $n ,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$) n't($n- must be attr$buted t' t(e 'b&e,ts
but /(at t(e t($n%$n- sub&e,t der$0es +r'm $tsel+4 and) 'n t(e 't(er
(and) reas'n $s) $n re-ard t' t(e *r$n,$*les '+ ,'-n$t$'n) a *er+e,tly
d$st$n,t) $nde*endent un$ty) $n /($,() as $n an 'r-an$;ed b'dy)
e0ery member e1$sts +'r t(e sa%e '+ t(e 't(ers) and all +'r t(e sa%e
'+ ea,() s' t(at n' *r$n,$*le ,an be 0$e/ed) /$t( sa+ety) $n 'ne
relat$'ns($*) unless $t $s) at t(e same t$me) 0$e/ed $n relat$'n t'
t(e t'tal use '+ *ure reas'n! Hen,e) t'') meta*(ys$,s (as t($s
s$n-ular ad0anta-e5 an ad0anta-e /($,( +alls t' t(e l't '+ n' 't(er
s,$en,e /($,( (as t' d' /$t( 'b&e,ts5 t(at) $+ 'n,e $t $s ,'ndu,ted
$nt' t(e sure *at( '+ s,$en,e) by means '+ t($s ,r$t$,$sm) $t ,an t(en
ta%e $n t(e /('le s*(ere '+ $ts ,'-n$t$'ns) and ,an t(us ,'m*lete
$ts /'r%) and lea0e $t +'r t(e use '+ *'ster$ty) as a ,a*$tal /($,(
,an ne0er re,e$0e +res( a,,ess$'ns! F'r meta*(ys$,s (as t' deal 'nly
/$t( *r$n,$*les and /$t( t(e l$m$tat$'ns '+ $ts '/n em*l'yment as
determ$ned by t(ese *r$n,$*les! T' t($s *er+e,t$'n $t $s) t(ere+'re)
b'und) as t(e +undamental s,$en,e) t' atta$n) and t' $t t(e ma1$m
may &ustly be a**l$ed6
N$l a,tum re*utans) s$ .u$d su*eresset a-endum!7

79He ,'ns$dered n't($n- d'ne) s' l'n- as anyt($n- rema$ned t' be
3ut) $t /$ll be as%ed) /(at %$nd '+ a treasure $s t($s t(at /e
*r'*'se t' be.ueat( t' *'ster$ty@ 2(at $s t(e real 0alue '+ t($s
system '+ meta*(ys$,s) *ur$+$ed by ,r$t$,$sm) and t(ereby redu,ed t' a
*ermanent ,'nd$t$'n@ A ,urs'ry 0$e/ '+ t(e *resent /'r% /$ll lead t'
t(e su**'s$t$'n t(at $ts use $s merely ne-at$0e) t(at $t 'nly ser0es
t' /arn us a-a$nst 0entur$n-) /$t( s*e,ulat$0e reas'n) bey'nd t(e
l$m$ts '+ e1*er$en,e! T($s $s) $n +a,t) $ts *r$mary use! 3ut t($s)
at 'n,e) assumes a *'s$t$0e 0alue) /(en /e 'bser0e t(at t(e *r$n,$*les
/$t( /($,( s*e,ulat$0e reas'n endea0'urs t' trans,end $ts l$m$ts
lead $ne0$tably) n't t' t(e e1tens$'n) but t' t(e ,'ntra,t$'n '+ t(e
use '+ reas'n) $nasmu,( as t(ey t(reaten t' e1tend t(e l$m$ts '+
sens$b$l$ty) /($,( $s t(e$r *r'*er s*(ere) '0er t(e ent$re realm '+
t('u-(t and) t(us) t' su**lant t(e *ure =*ra,t$,al> use '+ reas'n!
S' +ar) t(en) as t($s ,r$t$,$sm $s ',,u*$ed $n ,'n+$n$n- s*e,ulat$0e
reas'n /$t($n $ts *r'*er b'unds) $t $s 'nly ne-at$0e4 but) $nasmu,( as
$t t(ereby) at t(e same t$me) rem'0es an 'bsta,le /($,( $m*edes and
e0en t(reatens t' destr'y t(e use '+ *ra,t$,al reas'n) $t *'ssesses
a *'s$t$0e and 0ery $m*'rtant 0alue! In 'rder t' adm$t t($s) /e (a0e
'nly t' be ,'n0$n,ed t(at t(ere $s an abs'lutely ne,essary use '+ *ure
reas'n5 t(e m'ral use5 $n /($,( $t $ne0$tably trans,ends t(e l$m$ts '+
sens$b$l$ty) /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ s*e,ulat$'n) re.u$r$n- 'nly t' be
$nsured a-a$nst t(e e++e,ts '+ a s*e,ulat$'n /($,( /'uld $n0'l0e $t $n
,'ntrad$,t$'n /$t( $tsel+! T' deny t(e *'s$t$0e ad0anta-e '+ t(e
ser0$,e /($,( t($s ,r$t$,$sm renders us /'uld be as absurd as! t'
ma$nta$n t(at t(e system '+ *'l$,e $s *r'du,t$0e '+ n' *'s$t$0e
bene+$t) s$n,e $ts ma$n bus$ness $s t' *re0ent t(e 0$'len,e /($,(
,$t$;en (as t' a**re(end +r'm ,$t$;en) t(at s' ea,( may *ursue ($s
0',at$'n $n *ea,e and se,ur$ty! T(at s*a,e and t$me are 'nly +'rms
'+ sens$ble $ntu$t$'n) and (en,e are 'nly ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s as *(en'mena4 t(at) m're'0er) /e (a0e n'
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) and) ,'nse.uently) n' elements +'r
t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ t($n-s) e1,e*t $n s' +ar as a ,'rres*'nd$n- $ntu$t$'n
,an be -$0en t' t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns4 t(at) a,,'rd$n-ly) /e ,an (a0e n'
,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t) as a t($n- $n $tsel+) but 'nly as an 'b&e,t '+
sens$ble $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s) as *(en'men'n5 all t($s $s *r'0ed $n
t(e analyt$,al *art '+ t(e Cr$t$.ue4 and +r'm t($s t(e l$m$tat$'n '+
all *'ss$ble s*e,ulat$0e ,'-n$t$'n t' t(e mere 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e) +'ll'/s as a ne,essary result! At t(e same t$me) $t must
be ,are+ully b'rne $n m$nd t(at) /($le /e surrender t(e *'/er '+
,'-n$;$n-) /e st$ll reser0e t(e *'/er '+ t($n%$n- 'b&e,ts) as t($n-s
$n t(emsel0es!7 F'r) 't(er/$se) /e s('uld re.u$re t' a++$rm t(e
e1$sten,e '+ an a**earan,e) /$t('ut s'met($n- t(at a**ears5 /($,(
/'uld be absurd! N'/ let us su**'se) +'r a m'ment) t(at /e (ad n't
underta%en t($s ,r$t$,$sm and) a,,'rd$n-ly) (ad n't dra/n t(e
ne,essary d$st$n,t$'n bet/een t($n-s as 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e and
t($n-s as t(ey are $n t(emsel0es! T(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,ausal$ty) and)
by ,'nse.uen,e) t(e me,(an$sm '+ nature as determ$ned by ,ausal$ty)
/'uld t(en (a0e abs'lute 0al$d$ty $n relat$'n t' all t($n-s as
e++$,$ent ,auses! I s('uld t(en be unable t' assert) /$t( re-ard t'
'ne and t(e same be$n-) e!-!) t(e (uman s'ul) t(at $ts /$ll $s +ree)
and yet) at t(e same t$me) sub&e,t t' natural ne,ess$ty) t(at $s)
n't +ree) /$t('ut +all$n- $nt' a *al*able ,'ntrad$,t$'n) +'r $n b't(
*r'*'s$t$'ns I s('uld ta%e t(e s'ul $n t(e same s$-n$+$,at$'n) as a
t($n- $n -eneral) as a t($n- $n $tsel+5 as) /$t('ut *re0$'us
,r$t$,$sm) I ,'uld n't but ta%e $t! Su**'se n'/) 'n t(e 't(er (and)
t(at /e (a0e underta%en t($s ,r$t$,$sm) and (a0e learnt t(at an 'b&e,t
may be ta%en $n t/' senses) +$rst) as a *(en'men'n) se,'ndly) as a
t($n- $n $tsel+4 and t(at) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e dedu,t$'n '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,ausal$ty (as
re+eren,e 'nly t' t($n-s $n t(e +$rst sense! 2e t(en see ('/ $t d'es
n't $n0'l0e any ,'ntrad$,t$'n t' assert) 'n t(e 'ne (and) t(at t(e
/$ll) $n t(e *(en'menal s*(ere5 $n 0$s$ble a,t$'n5 $s ne,essar$ly
'bed$ent t' t(e la/ '+ nature) and) $n s' +ar) n't +ree4 and) 'n t(e
't(er (and) t(at) as bel'n-$n- t' a t($n- $n $tsel+) $t $s n't sub&e,t
t' t(at la/) and) a,,'rd$n-ly) $s +ree! N'/) $t $s true t(at I ,ann't)
by means '+ s*e,ulat$0e reas'n) and st$ll less by em*$r$,al
'bser0at$'n) ,'-n$;e my s'ul as a t($n- $n $tsel+ and ,'nse.uently)
,ann't ,'-n$;e l$berty as t(e *r'*erty '+ a be$n- t' /($,( I as,r$be
e++e,ts $n t(e /'rld '+ sense! F'r) t' d' s') I must ,'-n$;e t($s
be$n- as e1$st$n-) and yet n't $n t$me) /($,(5 s$n,e I ,ann't
su**'rt my ,'n,e*t$'n by any $ntu$t$'n5 $s $m*'ss$ble! At t(e same
t$me) /($le I ,ann't ,'-n$;e) I ,an .u$te /ell t($n% +reed'm) t(at
$s t' say) my re*resentat$'n '+ $t $n0'l0es at least n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n)
$+ /e bear $n m$nd t(e ,r$t$,al d$st$n,t$'n '+ t(e t/' m'des '+
re*resentat$'n =t(e sens$ble and t(e $ntelle,tual> and t(e
,'nse.uent l$m$tat$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e *ure understand$n- and
'+ t(e *r$n,$*les /($,( +l'/ +r'm t(em! Su**'se n'/ t(at m'ral$ty
ne,essar$ly *resu**'sed l$berty) $n t(e str$,test sense) as a *r'*erty
'+ 'ur /$ll4 su**'se t(at reas'n ,'nta$ned ,erta$n *ra,t$,al) 'r$-$nal
*r$n,$*les a *r$'r$) /($,( /ere abs'lutely $m*'ss$ble /$t('ut t($s
*resu**'s$t$'n4 and su**'se) at t(e same t$me) t(at s*e,ulat$0e reas'n
(ad *r'0ed t(at l$berty /as $n,a*able '+ be$n- t('u-(t at all! It
/'uld t(en +'ll'/ t(at t(e m'ral *resu**'s$t$'n must -$0e /ay t' t(e
s*e,ulat$0e a++$rmat$'n) t(e '**'s$te '+ /($,( $n0'l0es an 'b0$'us
,'ntrad$,t$'n) and t(at l$berty and) /$t( $t) m'ral$ty must y$eld t'
t(e me,(an$sm '+ nature4 +'r t(e ne-at$'n '+ m'ral$ty $n0'l0es n'
,'ntrad$,t$'n) e1,e*t 'n t(e *resu**'s$t$'n '+ l$berty! N'/ m'ral$ty
d'es n't re.u$re t(e s*e,ulat$0e ,'-n$t$'n '+ l$berty4 $t $s en'u-(
t(at I ,an t($n% $t) t(at $ts ,'n,e*t$'n $n0'l0es n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n)
t(at $t d'es n't $nter+ere /$t( t(e me,(an$sm '+ nature! 3ut e0en t($s
re.u$rement /e ,'uld n't sat$s+y) $+ /e (ad n't learnt t(e t/'+'ld
sense $n /($,( t($n-s may be ta%en4 and $t $s 'nly $n t($s /ay t(at
t(e d',tr$ne '+ m'ral$ty and t(e d',tr$ne '+ nature are ,'n+$ned
/$t($n t(e$r *r'*er l$m$ts! F'r t($s result) t(en) /e are $ndebted
t' a ,r$t$,$sm /($,( /arns us '+ 'ur una0'$dable $-n'ran,e /$t( re-ard
t' t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) and establ$s(es t(e ne,essary l$m$tat$'n '+
'ur t(e'ret$,al ,'-n$t$'n t' mere *(en'mena!
7In 'rder t' ,'-n$;e an 'b&e,t) I must be able t' *r'0e $ts
*'ss$b$l$ty) e$t(er +r'm $ts real$ty as attested by e1*er$en,e) 'r a
*r$'r$) by means '+ reas'n! 3ut I ,an t($n% /(at I *lease) *r'0$ded
'nly I d' n't ,'ntrad$,t mysel+4 t(at $s) *r'0$ded my ,'n,e*t$'n $s
a *'ss$ble t('u-(t) t('u-( I may be unable t' ans/er +'r t(e e1$sten,e
'+ a ,'rres*'nd$n- 'b&e,t $n t(e sum '+ *'ss$b$l$t$es! 3ut s'met($n-
m're $s re.u$red be+'re I ,an attr$bute t' su,( a ,'n,e*t$'n 'b&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty) t(at $s real *'ss$b$l$ty5 t(e 't(er *'ss$b$l$ty be$n- merely
l'-$,al! 2e are n't) ('/e0er) ,'n+$ned t' t(e'ret$,al s'ur,es '+
,'-n$t$'n +'r t(e means '+ sat$s+y$n- t($s add$t$'nal re.u$rement) but
may der$0e t(em +r'm *ra,t$,al s'ur,es!
T(e *'s$t$0e 0alue '+ t(e ,r$t$,al *r$n,$*les '+ *ure reas'n $n
relat$'n t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ C'd and '+ t(e s$m*le nature '+ t(e
s'ul) adm$ts '+ a s$m$lar e1em*l$+$,at$'n4 but 'n t($s *'$nt I s(all
n't d/ell! I ,ann't e0en ma%e t(e assum*t$'n5 as t(e *ra,t$,al
$nterests '+ m'ral$ty re.u$re5 '+ C'd) +reed'm) and $mm'rtal$ty) $+
I d' n't de*r$0e s*e,ulat$0e reas'n '+ $ts *retens$'ns t' trans,endent
$ns$-(t! F'r t' arr$0e at t(ese) $t must ma%e use '+ *r$n,$*les /($,()
$n +a,t) e1tend 'nly t' t(e 'b&e,ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) and
/($,( ,ann't be a**l$ed t' 'b&e,ts bey'nd t($s s*(ere /$t('ut
,'n0ert$n- t(em $nt' *(en'mena) and t(us render$n- t(e *ra,t$,al
e1tens$'n '+ *ure reas'n $m*'ss$ble! I must) t(ere+'re) ab'l$s(
%n'/led-e) t' ma%e r''m +'r bel$e+! T(e d'-mat$sm '+ meta*(ys$,s) t(at
$s) t(e *resum*t$'n t(at $t $s *'ss$ble t' ad0an,e $n meta*(ys$,s
/$t('ut *re0$'us ,r$t$,$sm) $s t(e true s'ur,e '+ t(e unbel$e+ =al/ays
d'-mat$,> /($,( m$l$tates a-a$nst m'ral$ty!
T(us) /($le $t may be n' 0ery d$++$,ult tas% t' be.ueat( a le-a,y t'
*'ster$ty) $n t(e s(a*e '+ a system '+ meta*(ys$,s ,'nstru,ted $n
a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n) st$ll t(e 0alue '+ su,( a
be.uest $s n't t' be de*re,$ated! It /$ll render an $m*'rtant
ser0$,e t' reas'n) by subst$tut$n- t(e ,erta$nty '+ s,$ent$+$,
met('d +'r t(at rand'm -r'*$n- a+ter results /$t('ut t(e -u$dan,e '+
*r$n,$*les) /($,( (as ($t(ert' ,(ara,ter$;ed t(e *ursu$t '+
meta*(ys$,al stud$es! It /$ll render an $m*'rtant ser0$,e t' t(e
$n.u$r$n- m$nd '+ y'ut() by lead$n- t(e student t' a**ly ($s *'/ers t'
t(e ,ult$0at$'n '+! -enu$ne s,$en,e) $nstead '+ /ast$n- t(em) as at
*resent) 'n s*e,ulat$'ns /($,( ,an ne0er lead t' any result) 'r 'n t(e
$dle attem*t t' $n0ent ne/ $deas and '*$n$'ns! 3ut) ab'0e all) $t /$ll
,'n+er an $nest$mable bene+$t 'n m'ral$ty and rel$-$'n) by s('/$n-
t(at all t(e 'b&e,t$'ns ur-ed a-a$nst t(em may be s$len,ed +'r e0er by
t(e S',rat$, met('d) t(at $s t' say) by *r'0$n- t(e $-n'ran,e '+ t(e
'b&e,t'r! F'r) as t(e /'rld (as ne0er been) and) n' d'ubt) ne0er
/$ll be /$t('ut a system '+ meta*(ys$,s '+ 'ne %$nd 'r an't(er) $t
$s t(e ($-(est and /e$-(t$est ,'n,ern '+ *($l's'*(y t' render $t
*'/erless +'r (arm) by ,l's$n- u* t(e s'ur,es '+ err'r!
T($s $m*'rtant ,(an-e $n t(e +$eld '+ t(e s,$en,es) t($s l'ss '+ $ts
+an,$ed *'ssess$'ns) t' /($,( s*e,ulat$0e reas'n must subm$t) d'es n't
*r'0e $n any /ay detr$mental t' t(e -eneral $nterests '+ (uman$ty! T(e
ad0anta-es /($,( t(e /'rld (as der$0ed +r'm t(e tea,($n-s '+ *ure
reas'n are n't at all $m*a$red! T(e l'ss +alls) $n $ts /('le e1tent)
'n t(e m'n'*'ly '+ t(e s,(''ls) but d'es n't $n t(e sl$-(test de-ree
t'u,( t(e $nterests '+ man%$nd! I a**eal t' t(e m'st 'bst$nate
d'-mat$st) /(et(er t(e *r''+ '+ t(e ,'nt$nued e1$sten,e '+ t(e s'ul
a+ter deat() der$0ed +r'm t(e s$m*l$,$ty '+ $ts substan,e4 '+ t(e
+reed'm '+ t(e /$ll $n '**'s$t$'n t' t(e -eneral me,(an$sm '+
nature) dra/n +r'm t(e subtle but $m*'tent d$st$n,t$'n '+ sub&e,t$0e
and 'b&e,t$0e *ra,t$,al ne,ess$ty4 'r '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ C'd) dedu,ed
+r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an ens real$ss$mum5 t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ t(e
,(an-eable) and t(e ne,ess$ty '+ a *r$me m'0er) (as e0er been able
t' *ass bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ t(e s,(''ls) t' *enetrate t(e *ubl$,
m$nd) 'r t' e1er,$se t(e sl$-(test $n+luen,e 'n $ts ,'n0$,t$'ns! It
must be adm$tted t(at t($s (as n't been t(e ,ase and t(at) '/$n- t'
t(e un+$tness '+ t(e ,'mm'n understand$n- +'r su,( subtle
s*e,ulat$'ns) $t ,an ne0er be e1*e,ted t' ta%e *la,e! On t(e ,'ntrary)
$t $s *la$n t(at t(e ('*e '+ a +uture l$+e ar$ses +r'm t(e +eel$n-)
/($,( e1$sts $n t(e breast '+ e0ery man) t(at t(e tem*'ral $s
$nade.uate t' meet and sat$s+y t(e demands '+ ($s nature! In l$%e
manner) $t ,ann't be d'ubted t(at t(e ,lear e1($b$t$'n '+ dut$es $n
'**'s$t$'n t' all t(e ,la$ms '+ $n,l$nat$'n) -$0es r$se t' t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ +reed'm) and t(at t(e -l'r$'us 'rder) beauty) and
*r'0$dent$al ,are) e0ery/(ere d$s*layed $n nature) -$0e r$se t' t(e
bel$e+ $n a /$se and -reat Aut('r '+ t(e Un$0erse! Su,( $s t(e -enes$s
'+ t(ese -eneral ,'n0$,t$'ns '+ man%$nd) s' +ar as t(ey de*end 'n
rat$'nal -r'unds4 and t($s *ubl$, *r'*erty n't 'nly rema$ns
und$sturbed) but $s e0en ra$sed t' -reater $m*'rtan,e) by t(e d',tr$ne
t(at t(e s,(''ls (a0e n' r$-(t t' arr'-ate t' t(emsel0es a m're
*r'+'und $ns$-(t $nt' a matter '+ -eneral (uman ,'n,ernment t(an
t(at t' /($,( t(e -reat mass '+ men) e0er (eld by us $n t(e ($-(est
est$mat$'n) ,an /$t('ut d$++$,ulty atta$n) and t(at t(e s,(''ls
s('uld) t(ere+'re) ,'n+$ne t(emsel0es t' t(e elab'rat$'n '+ t(ese
un$0ersally ,'m*re(ens$ble and) +r'm a m'ral *'$nt '+ 0$e/) am*ly
sat$s+a,t'ry *r''+s! T(e ,(an-e) t(ere+'re) a++e,ts 'nly t(e
arr'-ant *retens$'ns '+ t(e s,(''ls) /($,( /'uld -ladly reta$n) $n
t(e$r '/n e1,lus$0e *'ssess$'n) t(e %ey t' t(e trut(s /($,( t(ey
$m*art t' t(e *ubl$,!
Qu'd me,um nes,$t) s'lus 0ult s,$re 0$der$!

At t(e same t$me $t d'es n't de*r$0e t(e s*e,ulat$0e *($l's'*(er '+
($s &ust t$tle t' be t(e s'le de*'s$t'r '+ a s,$en,e /($,( bene+$ts
t(e *ubl$, /$t('ut $ts %n'/led-e5 I mean) t(e Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n!
T($s ,an ne0er be,'me *'*ular and) $ndeed) (as n' ',,as$'n t' be s'4
+'r +$nes*un ar-uments $n +a0'ur '+ use+ul trut(s ma%e &ust as
l$ttle $m*ress$'n 'n t(e *ubl$, m$nd as t(e e.ually subtle
'b&e,t$'ns br'u-(t a-a$nst t(ese trut(s! On t(e 't(er (and) s$n,e b't(
$ne0$tably +'r,e t(emsel0es 'n e0ery man /(' r$ses t' t(e (e$-(t '+
s*e,ulat$'n) $t be,'mes t(e man$+est duty '+ t(e s,(''ls t' enter u*'n
a t('r'u-( $n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e r$-(ts '+ s*e,ulat$0e reas'n and)
t(us) t' *re0ent t(e s,andal /($,( meta*(ys$,al ,'ntr'0ers$es are
sure) s''ner 'r later) t' ,ause e0en t' t(e masses! It $s 'nly by
,r$t$,$sm t(at meta*(ys$,$ans =and) as su,() t(e'l'-$ans t''> ,an be
sa0ed +r'm t(ese ,'ntr'0ers$es and +r'm t(e ,'nse.uent *er0ers$'n '+
t(e$r d',tr$nes! Cr$t$,$sm al'ne ,an str$%e a bl'/ at t(e r''t '+
mater$al$sm) +atal$sm) at(e$sm) +ree5t($n%$n-) +anat$,$sm) and
su*erst$t$'n) /($,( are un$0ersally $n&ur$'us5 as /ell as '+
$deal$sm and s,e*t$,$sm) /($,( are dan-er'us t' t(e s,(''ls) but ,an
s,ar,ely *ass '0er t' t(e *ubl$,! I+ -'0ernments t($n% *r'*er t'
$nter+ere /$t( t(e a++a$rs '+ t(e learned) $t /'uld be m're ,'ns$stent
/$t( a /$se re-ard +'r t(e $nterests '+ s,$en,e) as /ell as +'r
t('se '+ s',$ety) t' +a0'ur a ,r$t$,$sm '+ t($s %$nd) by /($,( al'ne
t(e lab'urs '+ reas'n ,an be establ$s(ed 'n a +$rm bas$s) t(an t'
su**'rt t(e r$d$,ul'us des*'t$sm '+ t(e s,(''ls) /($,( ra$se a l'ud
,ry '+ dan-er t' t(e *ubl$, '0er t(e destru,t$'n '+ ,'b/ebs) '+
/($,( t(e *ubl$, (as ne0er ta%en any n't$,e) and t(e l'ss '+ /($,()
t(ere+'re) $t ,an ne0er +eel!
T($s ,r$t$,al s,$en,e $s n't '**'sed t' t(e d'-mat$, *r',edure '+
reas'n $n *ure ,'-n$t$'n4 +'r *ure ,'-n$t$'n must al/ays be
d'-mat$,) t(at $s) must rest 'n str$,t dem'nstrat$'n +r'm sure
*r$n,$*les a *r$'r$5 but t' d'-mat$sm) t(at $s) t' t(e *resum*t$'n
t(at $t $s *'ss$ble t' ma%e any *r'-ress /$t( a *ure ,'-n$t$'n)
der$0ed +r'm =*($l's'*($,al> ,'n,e*t$'ns) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e
*r$n,$*les /($,( reas'n (as l'n- been $n t(e (ab$t '+ em*l'y$n-5
/$t('ut +$rst $n.u$r$n- $n /(at /ay and by /(at r$-(t reas'n (as
,'me $nt' t(e *'ssess$'n '+ t(ese *r$n,$*les! #'-mat$sm $s t(us t(e
d'-mat$, *r',edure '+ *ure reas'n /$t('ut *re0$'us ,r$t$,$sm '+ $ts
'/n *'/ers) and $n '**'s$n- t($s *r',edure) /e must n't be su**'sed t'
lend any ,'untenan,e t' t(at l'.ua,$'us s(all'/ness /($,( arr'-ates t'
$tsel+ t(e name '+ *'*ular$ty) n'r yet t' s,e*t$,$sm) /($,( ma%es
s('rt /'r% /$t( t(e /('le s,$en,e '+ meta*(ys$,s! On t(e ,'ntrary) 'ur
,r$t$,$sm $s t(e ne,essary *re*arat$'n +'r a t('r'u-(ly s,$ent$+$,
system '+ meta*(ys$,s /($,( must *er+'rm $ts tas% ent$rely a *r$'r$)
t' t(e ,'m*lete sat$s+a,t$'n '+ s*e,ulat$0e reas'n) and must)
t(ere+'re) be treated) n't *'*ularly) but s,('last$,ally! In
,arry$n- 'ut t(e *lan /($,( t(e Cr$t$.ue *res,r$bes) t(at $s) $n t(e
+uture system '+ meta*(ys$,s) /e must (a0e re,'urse t' t(e str$,t
met('d '+ t(e ,elebrated 2'l+) t(e -reatest '+ all d'-mat$,
*($l's'*(ers! He /as t(e +$rst t' *'$nt 'ut t(e ne,ess$ty '+
establ$s($n- +$1ed *r$n,$*les) '+ ,learly de+$n$n- 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns)
and '+ sub&e,t$n- 'ur dem'nstrat$'ns t' t(e m'st se0ere s,rut$ny)
$nstead '+ ras(ly &um*$n- at ,'n,lus$'ns! T(e e1am*le /($,( (e set
ser0ed t' a/a%en t(at s*$r$t '+ *r'+'und and t('r'u-( $n0est$-at$'n
/($,( $s n't yet e1t$n,t $n Cermany! He /'uld (a0e been *e,ul$arly
/ell +$tted t' -$0e a truly s,$ent$+$, ,(ara,ter t' meta*(ys$,al
stud$es) (ad $t ',,urred t' ($m t' *re*are t(e +$eld by a ,r$t$,$sm '+
t(e 'r-anum) t(at $s) '+ *ure reas'n $tsel+! T(at be +a$led t'
*er,e$0e t(e ne,ess$ty '+ su,( a *r',edure must be as,r$bed t' t(e
d'-mat$, m'de '+ t('u-(t /($,( ,(ara,ter$;ed ($s a-e) and 'n t($s
*'$nt t(e *($l's'*(ers '+ ($s t$me) as /ell as '+ all *re0$'us
t$mes) (a0e n't($n- t' re*r'a,( ea,( 't(er /$t(! T('se /(' re&e,t at
'n,e t(e met('d '+ 2'l+) and '+ t(e Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n) ,an
(a0e n' 't(er a$m but t' s(a%e '++ t(e +etters '+ s,$en,e) t' ,(an-e
lab'ur $nt' s*'rt) ,erta$nty $nt' '*$n$'n) and *($l's'*(y $nt'
In t($s se,'nd ed$t$'n) I (a0e endea0'ured) as +ar as *'ss$ble) t'
rem'0e t(e d$++$,ult$es and 'bs,ur$ty /($,() /$t('ut +ault '+ m$ne
*er(a*s) (a0e -$0en r$se t' many m$s,'n,e*t$'ns e0en am'n- a,ute
t($n%ers! In t(e *r'*'s$t$'ns t(emsel0es) and $n t(e dem'nstrat$'ns by
/($,( t(ey are su**'rted) as /ell as $n t(e +'rm and t(e ent$re *lan
'+ t(e /'r%) I (a0e +'und n't($n- t' alter4 /($,( must be attr$buted
*artly t' t(e l'n- e1am$nat$'n t' /($,( I (ad sub&e,ted t(e /('le
be+'re '++er$n- $t t' t(e *ubl$, and *artly t' t(e nature '+ t(e ,ase!
F'r *ure s*e,ulat$0e reas'n $s an 'r-an$, stru,ture $n /($,( t(ere
$s n't($n- $s'lated 'r $nde*endent) but e0ery S$n-le *art $s essent$al
t' all t(e rest4 and (en,e) t(e sl$-(test $m*er+e,t$'n) /(et(er de+e,t
'r *'s$t$0e err'r) ,'uld n't +a$l t' betray $tsel+ $n use! I
0enture) +urt(er) t' ('*e) t(at t($s system /$ll ma$nta$n t(e same
unalterable ,(ara,ter +'r t(e +uture! I am led t' enterta$n t($s
,'n+$den,e) n't by 0an$ty) but by t(e e0$den,e /($,( t(e e.ual$ty '+
t(e result a++'rds) /(en /e *r',eed) +$rst) +r'm t(e s$m*lest elements
u* t' t(e ,'m*lete /('le '+ *ure reas'n and) and t(en) ba,%/ards
+r'm t(e /('le t' ea,( *art! 2e +$nd t(at t(e attem*t t' ma%e t(e
sl$-(test alterat$'n) $n any *art) leads $ne0$tably t' ,'ntrad$,t$'ns)
n't merely $n t($s system) but $n (uman reas'n $tsel+! At t(e same
t$me) t(ere $s st$ll mu,( r''m +'r $m*r'0ement $n t(e e1*'s$t$'n '+
t(e d',tr$nes ,'nta$ned $n t($s /'r%! In t(e *resent ed$t$'n) I (a0e
endea0'ured t' rem'0e m$sa**re(ens$'ns '+ t(e aest(et$,al *art)
es*e,$ally /$t( re-ard t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t$me4 t' ,lear a/ay t(e
'bs,ur$ty /($,( (as been +'und $n t(e dedu,t$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n-4 t' su**ly t(e su**'sed /ant '+ su++$,$ent
e0$den,e $n t(e dem'nstrat$'n '+ t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure
understand$n-4 and) lastly) t' 'b0$ate t(e m$sunderstand$n- '+ t(e
*aral'-$sms /($,( $mmed$ately *re,ede t(e rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y!
3ey'nd t($s *'$nt5 t(e end '+ t(e se,'nd ma$n d$0$s$'n '+ t(e
9Trans,endental #$ale,t$,95 I (a0e n't e1tended my alterat$'ns)7
*artly +r'm /ant '+ t$me) and *artly be,ause I am n't a/are t(at any
*'rt$'n '+ t(e rema$nder (as -$0en r$se t' m$s,'n,e*t$'ns am'n-
$ntell$-ent and $m*art$al ,r$t$,s) /('m I d' n't (ere ment$'n /$t(
t(at *ra$se /($,( $s t(e$r due) but /(' /$ll +$nd t(at t(e$r
su--est$'ns (a0e been attended t' $n t(e /'r% $tsel+!
7T(e 'nly add$t$'n) *r'*erly s' ,alled5 and t(at 'nly $n t(e
met('d '+ *r''+5 /($,( I (a0e made $n t(e *resent ed$t$'n) ,'ns$sts '+
a ne/ re+utat$'n '+ *sy,('l'-$,al $deal$sm) and a str$,t
dem'nstrat$'n5 t(e 'nly 'ne *'ss$ble) as I bel$e0e5 '+ t(e 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n! H'/e0er (armless $deal$sm may be
,'ns$dered5 alt('u-( $n real$ty $t $s n't s'5 $n re-ard t' t(e
essent$al ends '+ meta*(ys$,s) $t must st$ll rema$n a s,andal t'
*($l's'*(y and t' t(e -eneral (uman reas'n t' be 'bl$-ed t' assume) as
an art$,le '+ mere bel$e+) t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s e1ternal t'
'ursel0es =+r'm /($,() yet) /e der$0e t(e /('le mater$al '+
,'-n$t$'n +'r t(e $nternal sense>) and n't t' be able t' '**'se a
sat$s+a,t'ry *r''+ t' any 'ne /(' may ,all $t $n .uest$'n! As t(ere $s
s'me 'bs,ur$ty '+ e1*ress$'n $n t(e dem'nstrat$'n as $t stands $n
t(e te1t) I *r'*'se t' alter t(e *assa-e $n .uest$'n as +'ll'/s6
93ut t($s *ermanent ,ann't be an $ntu$t$'n $n me! F'r all t(e
determ$n$n- -r'unds '+ my e1$sten,e /($,( ,an be +'und $n me are
re*resentat$'ns and) as su,() d' t(emsel0es re.u$re a *ermanent)
d$st$n,t +r'm t(em) /($,( may determ$ne my e1$sten,e $n relat$'n t'
t(e$r ,(an-es) t(at $s) my e1$sten,e $n t$me) /(ere$n t(ey ,(an-e!9 It
may) *r'bably) be ur-ed $n '**'s$t$'n t' t($s *r''+ t(at) a+ter all) I
am 'nly ,'ns,$'us $mmed$ately '+ t(at /($,( $s $n me) t(at $s) '+ my
re*resentat$'n '+ e1ternal t($n-s) and t(at) ,'nse.uently) $t must
al/ays rema$n un,erta$n /(et(er anyt($n- ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t($s
re*resentat$'n d'es 'r d'es n't e1$st e1ternally t' me! 3ut I am
,'ns,$'us) t(r'u-( $nternal e1*er$en,e) '+ my e1$sten,e $n t$me
=,'nse.uently) als') '+ t(e determ$nab$l$ty '+ t(e +'rmer $n t(e
latter>) and t(at $s m're t(an t(e s$m*le ,'ns,$'usness '+ my
re*resentat$'n! It $s) $n +a,t) t(e same as t(e em*$r$,al
,'ns,$'usness '+ my e1$sten,e) /($,( ,an 'nly be determ$ned $n
relat$'n t' s'met($n-) /($,() /($le ,'nne,ted /$t( my e1$sten,e) $s
e1ternal t' me! T($s ,'ns,$'usness '+ my e1$sten,e $n t$me $s)
t(ere+'re) $dent$,al /$t( t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ a relat$'n t' s'met($n-
e1ternal t' me) and $t $s) t(ere+'re) e1*er$en,e) n't +$,t$'n)
sense) n't $ma-$nat$'n) /($,( $nse*arably ,'nne,ts t(e e1ternal /$t(
my $nternal sense! F'r t(e e1ternal sense $s) $n $tsel+) t(e
relat$'n '+ $ntu$t$'n t' s'met($n- real) e1ternal t' me4 and t(e
real$ty '+ t($s s'met($n-) as '**'sed t' t(e mere $ma-$nat$'n '+ $t)
rests s'lely 'n $ts $nse*arable ,'nne,t$'n /$t( $nternal e1*er$en,e as
t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ $ts *'ss$b$l$ty! I+ /$t( t(e $ntelle,tual
,'ns,$'usness '+ my e1$sten,e) $n t(e re*resentat$'n6 I am) /($,(
a,,'m*an$es all my &ud-ements) and all t(e '*erat$'ns '+ my
understand$n-) I ,'uld) at t(e same t$me) ,'nne,t a determ$nat$'n '+
my e1$sten,e by $ntelle,tual $ntu$t$'n) t(en t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ a
relat$'n t' s'met($n- e1ternal t' me /'uld n't be ne,essary! 3ut t(e
$nternal $ntu$t$'n $n /($,( al'ne my e1$sten,e ,an be determ$ned)
t('u-( *re,eded by t(at *urely $ntelle,tual ,'ns,$'usness) $s $tsel+
sens$ble and atta,(ed t' t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t$me! Hen,e t($s
determ$nat$'n '+ my e1$sten,e) and ,'nse.uently my $nternal e1*er$en,e
$tsel+) must de*end 'n s'met($n- *ermanent /($,( $s n't $n me) /($,(
,an be) t(ere+'re) 'nly $n s'met($n- e1ternal t' me) t' /($,( I must
l''% u*'n mysel+ as be$n- related! T(us t(e real$ty '+ t(e e1ternal
sense $s ne,essar$ly ,'nne,ted /$t( t(at '+ t(e $nternal) $n 'rder
t' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e $n -eneral4 t(at $s) I am &ust as
,erta$nly ,'ns,$'us t(at t(ere are t($n-s e1ternal t' me related t' my
sense as I am t(at I mysel+ e1$st as determ$ned $n t$me! 3ut $n
'rder t' as,erta$n t' /(at -$0en $ntu$t$'ns 'b&e,ts) e1ternal me)
really ,'rres*'nd) $n 't(er /'rds) /(at $ntu$t$'ns bel'n- t' t(e
e1ternal sense and n't t' $ma-$nat$'n) I must (a0e re,'urse) $n
e0ery *art$,ular ,ase) t' t('se rules a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( e1*er$en,e $n
-eneral =e0en $nternal e1*er$en,e> $s d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm
$ma-$nat$'n) and /($,( are al/ays based 'n t(e *r'*'s$t$'n t(at
t(ere really $s an e1ternal e1*er$en,e! 2e may add t(e remar% t(at t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ s'met($n- *ermanent $n e1$sten,e) $s n't t(e same
t($n- as t(e *ermanent re*resentat$'n4 +'r a re*resentat$'n may be
0ery 0ar$able and ,(an-$n-5 as all 'ur re*resentat$'ns) e0en t(at '+
matter) are5 and yet re+er t' s'met($n- *ermanent) /($,( must)
t(ere+'re) be d$st$n,t +r'm all my re*resentat$'ns and e1ternal t' me)
t(e e1$sten,e '+ /($,( $s ne,essar$ly $n,luded $n t(e determ$nat$'n '+
my '/n e1$sten,e) and /$t( $t ,'nst$tutes 'ne e1*er$en,e5 an
e1*er$en,e /($,( /'uld n't e0en be *'ss$ble $nternally) $+ $t /ere n't
als' at t(e same t$me) $n *art) e1ternal! T' t(e .uest$'n H'/@ /e
are n' m're able t' re*ly) t(an /e are) $n -eneral) t' t($n% t(e
stat$'nary $n t$me) t(e ,'e1$sten,e '+ /($,( /$t( t(e 0ar$able)
*r'du,es t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,(an-e!
In attem*t$n- t' render t(e e1*'s$t$'n '+ my 0$e/s as $ntell$-$ble
as *'ss$ble) I (a0e been ,'m*elled t' lea0e 'ut 'r abr$d-e 0ar$'us
*assa-es /($,( /ere n't essent$al t' t(e ,'m*leteness '+ t(e /'r%) but
/($,( many readers m$-(t ,'ns$der use+ul $n 't(er res*e,ts) and
m$-(t be un/$ll$n- t' m$ss! T($s tr$+l$n- l'ss) /($,( ,'uld n't be
a0'$ded /$t('ut s/ell$n- t(e b''% bey'nd due l$m$ts) may be
su**l$ed) at t(e *leasure '+ t(e reader) by a ,'m*ar$s'n /$t( t(e
+$rst ed$t$'n) and /$ll) I ('*e) be m're t(an ,'m*ensated +'r by t(e
-reater ,learness '+ t(e e1*'s$t$'n as $t n'/ stands!
I (a0e 'bser0ed) /$t( *leasure and t(an%+ulness) $n t(e *a-es '+
0ar$'us re0$e/s and treat$ses) t(at t(e s*$r$t '+ *r'+'und and
t('r'u-( $n0est$-at$'n $s n't e1t$n,t $n Cermany) t('u-( $t may (a0e
been '0erb'rne and s$len,ed +'r a t$me by t(e +as($'nable t'ne '+ a
l$,en,e $n t($n%$n-) /($,( -$0es $tsel+ t(e a$rs '+ -en$us) and t(at
t(e d$++$,ult$es /($,( beset t(e *at(s '+ ,r$t$,$sm (a0e n't *re0ented
ener-et$, and a,ute t($n%ers +r'm ma%$n- t(emsel0es masters '+ t(e
s,$en,e '+ *ure reas'n t' /($,( t(ese *at(s ,'ndu,t5 a s,$en,e /($,(
$s n't *'*ular) but s,('last$, $n $ts ,(ara,ter) and /($,( al'ne ,an
('*e +'r a last$n- e1$sten,e 'r *'ssess an ab$d$n- 0alue! T' t(ese
deser0$n- men) /(' s' (a**$ly ,'mb$ne *r'+und$ty '+ 0$e/ /$t( a talent
+'r lu,$d e1*'s$t$'n5 a talent /($,( I mysel+ am n't ,'ns,$'us '+
*'ssess$n-5 I lea0e t(e tas% '+ rem'0$n- any 'bs,ur$ty /($,( may st$ll
ad(ere t' t(e statement '+ my d',tr$nes! F'r) $n t($s ,ase) t(e dan-er
$s n't t(at '+ be$n- re+uted) but '+ be$n- m$sunderst''d! F'r my '/n
*art) I must (en,e+'r/ard absta$n +r'm ,'ntr'0ersy) alt('u-( I s(all
,are+ully attend t' all su--est$'ns) /(et(er +r'm +r$ends 'r
ad0ersar$es) /($,( may be '+ use $n t(e +uture elab'rat$'n '+ t(e
system '+ t($s *r'*aedeut$,! As) dur$n- t(ese lab'urs) I (a0e ad0an,ed
*retty +ar $n years t($s m'nt( I rea,( my s$1ty5+'urt( year5 $t /$ll
be ne,essary +'r me t' e,'n'm$;e t$me) $+ I am t' ,arry 'ut my *lan '+
elab'rat$n- t(e meta*(ys$,s '+ nature as /ell as '+ m'rals) $n
,'n+$rmat$'n '+ t(e ,'rre,tness '+ t(e *r$n,$*les establ$s(ed $n
t($s Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n) b't( s*e,ulat$0e and *ra,t$,al4 and I
must) t(ere+'re) lea0e t(e tas% '+ ,lear$n- u* t(e 'bs,ur$t$es '+
t(e *resent /'r%5 $ne0$table) *er(a*s) at t(e 'utset5 as /ell as)
t(e de+en,e '+ t(e /('le) t' t('se deser0$n- men) /(' (a0e made my
system t(e$r '/n! A *($l's'*($,al system ,ann't ,'me +'r/ard armed
at all *'$nts l$%e a mat(emat$,al treat$se) and (en,e $t may be
.u$te *'ss$ble t' ta%e 'b&e,t$'n t' *art$,ular *assa-es) /($le t(e
'r-an$, stru,ture '+ t(e system) ,'ns$dered as a un$ty) (as n'
dan-er t' a**re(end! 3ut +e/ *'ssess t(e ab$l$ty) and st$ll +e/er
t(e $n,l$nat$'n) t' ta%e a ,'m*re(ens$0e 0$e/ '+ a ne/ system! 3y
,'n+$n$n- t(e 0$e/ t' *art$,ular *assa-es) ta%$n- t(ese 'ut '+ t(e$r
,'nne,t$'n and ,'m*ar$n- t(em /$t( 'ne an't(er) $t $s easy t' *$,% 'ut
a**arent ,'ntrad$,t$'ns) es*e,$ally $n a /'r% /r$tten /$t( any +reed'm
'+ style! T(ese ,'ntrad$,t$'ns *la,e t(e /'r% $n an un+a0'urable l$-(t
$n t(e eyes '+ t('se /(' rely 'n t(e &ud-ement '+ 't(ers) but are
eas$ly re,'n,$led by t('se /(' (a0e mastered t(e $dea '+ t(e /('le! I+
a t(e'ry *'ssesses stab$l$ty $n $tsel+) t(e a,t$'n and rea,t$'n
/($,( seemed at +$rst t' t(reaten $ts e1$sten,e ser0e 'nly) $n t(e
,'urse '+ t$me) t' sm''t( d'/n any su*er+$,$al r'u-(ness 'r
$ne.ual$ty) and5 $+ men '+ $ns$-(t) $m*art$al$ty) and truly *'*ular
-$+ts) turn t(e$r attent$'n t' $t5 t' se,ure t' $t) $n a s('rt t$me)
t(e re.u$s$te ele-an,e als'!
K'n$-sber-) A*r$l 1787!

I! O+ t(e d$++eren,e bet/een Pure and Em*$r$,al Kn'/led-e

T(at all 'ur %n'/led-e be-$ns /$t( e1*er$en,e t(ere ,an be n' d'ubt!
F'r ('/ $s $t *'ss$ble t(at t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n s('uld be
a/a%ened $nt' e1er,$se 't(er/$se t(an by means '+ 'b&e,ts /($,( a++e,t
'ur senses) and *artly '+ t(emsel0es *r'du,e re*resentat$'ns) *artly
r'use 'ur *'/ers '+ understand$n- $nt' a,t$0$ty) t' ,'m*are t'
,'nne,t) 'r t' se*arate t(ese) and s' t' ,'n0ert t(e ra/ mater$al '+
'ur sensu'us $m*ress$'ns $nt' a %n'/led-e '+ 'b&e,ts) /($,( $s
,alled e1*er$en,e@ In res*e,t '+ t$me) t(ere+'re) n' %n'/led-e '+ 'urs
$s ante,edent t' e1*er$en,e) but be-$ns /$t( $t!
3ut) t('u-( all 'ur %n'/led-e be-$ns /$t( e1*er$en,e) $t by n' means
+'ll'/s t(at all ar$ses 'ut '+ e1*er$en,e! F'r) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) $t $s
.u$te *'ss$ble t(at 'ur em*$r$,al %n'/led-e $s a ,'m*'und '+ t(at
/($,( /e re,e$0e t(r'u-( $m*ress$'ns) and t(at /($,( t(e +a,ulty '+
,'-n$t$'n su**l$es +r'm $tsel+ =sensu'us $m*ress$'ns -$0$n- merely t(e
',,as$'n>) an add$t$'n /($,( /e ,ann't d$st$n-u$s( +r'm t(e 'r$-$nal
element -$0en by sense) t$ll l'n- *ra,t$,e (as made us attent$0e t')
and s%$l+ul $n se*arat$n- $t! It $s) t(ere+'re) a .uest$'n /($,(
re.u$res ,l'se $n0est$-at$'n) and n't t' be ans/ered at +$rst s$-(t)
/(et(er t(ere e1$sts a %n'/led-e alt'-et(er $nde*endent '+ e1*er$en,e)
and e0en '+ all sensu'us $m*ress$'ns@ Kn'/led-e '+ t($s %$nd $s ,alled
a *r$'r$) $n ,'ntrad$st$n,t$'n t' em*$r$,al %n'/led-e) /($,( (as $ts
s'ur,es a *'ster$'r$) t(at $s) $n e1*er$en,e!
3ut t(e e1*ress$'n) 9a *r$'r$)9 $s n't as yet de+$n$te en'u-(
ade.uately t' $nd$,ate t(e /('le mean$n- '+ t(e .uest$'n ab'0e
started! F'r) $n s*ea%$n- '+ %n'/led-e /($,( (as $ts s'ur,es $n
e1*er$en,e) /e are /'nt t' say) t(at t($s 'r t(at may be %n'/n a
*r$'r$) be,ause /e d' n't der$0e t($s %n'/led-e $mmed$ately +r'm
e1*er$en,e) but +r'm a -eneral rule) /($,() ('/e0er) /e (a0e $tsel+
b'rr'/ed +r'm e1*er$en,e! T(us) $+ a man underm$ned ($s ('use) /e say)
9(e m$-(t %n'/ a *r$'r$ t(at $t /'uld (a0e +allen49 t(at $s) (e needed
n't t' (a0e /a$ted +'r t(e e1*er$en,e t(at $t d$d a,tually +all! 3ut
st$ll) a *r$'r$) (e ,'uld n't %n'/ e0en t($s mu,(! F'r) t(at b'd$es
are (ea0y) and) ,'nse.uently) t(at t(ey +all /(en t(e$r su**'rts are
ta%en a/ay) must (a0e been %n'/n t' ($m *re0$'usly) by means '+
3y t(e term 9%n'/led-e a *r$'r$)9 t(ere+'re) /e s(all $n t(e
se.uel understand) n't su,( as $s $nde*endent '+ t($s 'r t(at %$nd
'+ e1*er$en,e) but su,( as $s abs'lutely s' '+ all e1*er$en,e! O**'sed
t' t($s $s em*$r$,al %n'/led-e) 'r t(at /($,( $s *'ss$ble 'nly a
*'ster$'r$) t(at $s) t(r'u-( e1*er$en,e! Kn'/led-e a *r$'r$ $s
e$t(er *ure 'r $m*ure! Pure %n'/led-e a *r$'r$ $s t(at /$t( /($,( n'
em*$r$,al element $s m$1ed u*! F'r e1am*le) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9E0ery
,(an-e (as a ,ause)9 $s a *r'*'s$t$'n a *r$'r$) but $m*ure) be,ause
,(an-e $s a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ,an 'nly be der$0ed +r'm e1*er$en,e!
II! T(e Human Intelle,t) e0en $n an Un*($l's'*($,al State)

$s $n P'ssess$'n '+ Certa$n C'-n$t$'ns 9a *r$'r$9!

T(e .uest$'n n'/ $s as t' a ,r$ter$'n) by /($,( /e may se,urely
d$st$n-u$s( a *ure +r'm an em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n! E1*er$en,e n' d'ubt
tea,(es us t(at t($s 'r t(at 'b&e,t $s ,'nst$tuted $n su,( and su,(
a manner) but n't t(at $t ,'uld n't *'ss$bly e1$st 't(er/$se! N'/)
$n t(e +$rst *la,e) $+ /e (a0e a *r'*'s$t$'n /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e $dea
'+ ne,ess$ty $n $ts 0ery ,'n,e*t$'n) $t $s a $+) m're'0er) $t $s n't
der$0ed +r'm any 't(er *r'*'s$t$'n) unless +r'm 'ne e.ually
$n0'l0$n- t(e $dea '+ ne,ess$ty) $t $s abs'lutely *r$'r$! Se,'ndly) an
em*$r$,al &ud-ement ne0er e1($b$ts str$,t and abs'lute) but 'nly
assumed and ,'m*arat$0e un$0ersal$ty =by $ndu,t$'n>4 t(ere+'re) t(e
m'st /e ,an say $s5 s' +ar as /e (a0e ($t(ert' 'bser0ed) t(ere $s n'
e1,e*t$'n t' t($s 'r t(at rule! I+) 'n t(e 't(er (and) a &ud-ement
,arr$es /$t( $t str$,t and abs'lute un$0ersal$ty) t(at $s) adm$ts '+
n' *'ss$ble e1,e*t$'n) $t $s n't der$0ed +r'm e1*er$en,e) but $s 0al$d
abs'lutely a *r$'r$!
Em*$r$,al un$0ersal$ty $s) t(ere+'re) 'nly an arb$trary e1tens$'n '+
0al$d$ty) +r'm t(at /($,( may be *red$,ated '+ a *r'*'s$t$'n 0al$d
$n m'st ,ases) t' t(at /($,( $s asserted '+ a *r'*'s$t$'n /($,(
('lds -''d $n all4 as) +'r e1am*le) $n t(e a++$rmat$'n) 9All b'd$es
are (ea0y!9 2(en) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) str$,t un$0ersal$ty ,(ara,ter$;es a
&ud-ement) $t ne,essar$ly $nd$,ates an't(er *e,ul$ar s'ur,e '+
%n'/led-e) namely) a +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$! Ne,ess$ty and
str$,t un$0ersal$ty) t(ere+'re) are $n+all$ble tests +'r
d$st$n-u$s($n- *ure +r'm em*$r$,al %n'/led-e) and are $nse*arably
,'nne,ted /$t( ea,( 't(er! 3ut as $n t(e use '+ t(ese ,r$ter$a t(e
em*$r$,al l$m$tat$'n $s s'met$mes m're eas$ly dete,ted t(an t(e
,'nt$n-en,y '+ t(e &ud-ement) 'r t(e unl$m$ted un$0ersal$ty /($,( /e
atta,( t' a &ud-ement $s '+ten a m're ,'n0$n,$n- *r''+ t(an $ts
ne,ess$ty) $t may be ad0$sable t' use t(e ,r$ter$a se*arately) ea,(
be$n- by $tsel+ $n+all$ble!
N'/) t(at $n t(e s*(ere '+ (uman ,'-n$t$'n /e (a0e &ud-ements
/($,( are ne,essary) and $n t(e str$,test sense un$0ersal)
,'nse.uently *ure a *r$'r$) $t /$ll be an easy matter t' s('/! I+ /e
des$re an e1am*le +r'm t(e s,$en,es) /e need 'nly ta%e any *r'*'s$t$'n
$n mat(emat$,s! I+ /e ,ast 'ur eyes u*'n t(e ,'mm'nest '*erat$'ns '+
t(e understand$n-) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9E0ery ,(an-e must (a0e a
,ause)9 /$ll am*ly ser0e 'ur *ur*'se! In t(e latter ,ase) $ndeed)
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ,ause s' *la$nly $n0'l0es t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a
ne,ess$ty '+ ,'nne,t$'n /$t( an e++e,t) and '+ a str$,t un$0ersal$ty
'+ t(e la/) t(at t(e 0ery n't$'n '+ a ,ause /'uld ent$rely
d$sa**ear) /ere /e t' der$0e $t) l$%e Hume) +r'm a +re.uent
ass',$at$'n '+ /(at (a**ens /$t( t(at /($,( *re,edes4 and t(e (ab$t
t(en,e 'r$-$nat$n- '+ ,'nne,t$n- re*resentat$'ns5 t(e ne,ess$ty
$n(erent $n t(e &ud-ement be$n- t(ere+'re merely sub&e,t$0e!
3es$des) /$t('ut see%$n- +'r su,( e1am*les '+ *r$n,$*les e1$st$n- a
*r$'r$ $n ,'-n$t$'n) /e m$-(t eas$ly s('/ t(at su,( *r$n,$*les are t(e
$nd$s*ensable bas$s '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e $tsel+) and
,'nse.uently *r'0e t(e$r e1$sten,e a *r$'r$! F'r /(en,e ,'uld 'ur
e1*er$en,e $tsel+ a,.u$re ,erta$nty) $+ all t(e rules 'n /($,( $t
de*ends /ere t(emsel0es em*$r$,al) and ,'nse.uently +'rtu$t'us@ N'
'ne) t(ere+'re) ,an adm$t t(e 0al$d$ty '+ t(e use '+ su,( rules as
+$rst *r$n,$*les! 3ut) +'r t(e *resent) /e may ,'ntent 'ursel0es
/$t( (a0$n- establ$s(ed t(e +a,t) t(at /e d' *'ssess and e1er,$se a
+a,ulty '+ *ure a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n4 and) se,'ndly) /$t( (a0$n- *'$nted
'ut t(e *r'*er tests '+ su,( ,'-n$t$'n) namely) un$0ersal$ty and
N't 'nly $n &ud-ements) ('/e0er) but e0en $n ,'n,e*t$'ns) $s an a
*r$'r$ 'r$-$n man$+est! F'r e1am*le) $+ /e ta%e a/ay by de-rees +r'm
'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ a b'dy all t(at ,an be re+erred t' mere sensu'us
e1*er$en,e5 ,'l'ur) (ardness 'r s'+tness) /e$-(t) e0en
$m*enetrab$l$ty5 t(e b'dy /$ll t(en 0an$s(4 but t(e s*a,e /($,( $t
',,u*$ed st$ll rema$ns) and t($s $t $s utterly $m*'ss$ble t'
ann$($late $n t('u-(t! A-a$n) $+ /e ta%e a/ay) $n l$%e manner) +r'm
'ur em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n '+ any 'b&e,t) ,'r*'real 'r $n,'r*'real)
all *r'*ert$es /($,( mere e1*er$en,e (as tau-(t us t' ,'nne,t /$t( $t)
st$ll /e ,ann't t($n% a/ay t('se t(r'u-( /($,( /e ,'-$tate $t as
substan,e) 'r ad(er$n- t' substan,e) alt('u-( 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+
substan,e $s m're determ$ned t(an t(at '+ an 'b&e,t! C'm*elled)
t(ere+'re) by t(at ne,ess$ty /$t( /($,( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ substan,e
+'r,es $tsel+ u*'n us) /e must ,'n+ess t(at $t (as $ts seat $n 'ur
+a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$!
III! P($l's'*(y stands $n need '+ a S,$en,e /($,( s(all

#eterm$ne t(e P'ss$b$l$ty) Pr$n,$*les) and E1tent '+

Human Kn'/led-e 9a *r$'r$9

O+ +ar m're $m*'rtan,e t(an all t(at (as been ab'0e sa$d) $s t(e
,'ns$derat$'n t(at ,erta$n '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns r$se ,'m*letely ab'0e t(e
s*(ere '+ all *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) and by means '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) t'
/($,( t(ere e1$sts $n t(e /('le e1tent '+ e1*er$en,e n'
,'rres*'nd$n- 'b&e,t) seem t' e1tend t(e ran-e '+ 'ur &ud-ements
bey'nd $ts b'unds! And &ust $n t($s trans,endental 'r su*ersens$ble
s*(ere) /(ere e1*er$en,e a++'rds us ne$t(er $nstru,t$'n n'r
-u$dan,e) l$e t(e $n0est$-at$'ns '+ reas'n) /($,() 'n a,,'unt '+ t(e$r
$m*'rtan,e) /e ,'ns$der +ar *re+erable t') and as (a0$n- a +ar m're
ele0ated a$m t(an) all t(at t(e understand$n- ,an a,($e0e /$t($n t(e
s*(ere '+ sensu'us *(en'mena! S' ($-( a 0alue d' /e set u*'n t(ese
$n0est$-at$'ns) t(at e0en at t(e r$s% '+ err'r) /e *ers$st $n
+'ll'/$n- t(em 'ut) and *erm$t ne$t(er d'ubt n'r d$sre-ard n'r
$nd$++eren,e t' restra$n us +r'm t(e *ursu$t! T(ese una0'$dable
*r'blems '+ mere *ure reas'n are C'd) +reed'm ='+ /$ll>) and
$mm'rtal$ty! T(e s,$en,e /($,() /$t( all $ts *rel$m$nar$es) (as +'r
$ts es*e,$al 'b&e,t t(e s'lut$'n '+ t(ese *r'blems $s named
meta*(ys$,s5 a s,$en,e /($,( $s at t(e 0ery 'utset d'-mat$,al) t(at
$s) $t ,'n+$dently ta%es u*'n $tsel+ t(e e1e,ut$'n '+ t($s tas%
/$t('ut any *re0$'us $n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e ab$l$ty 'r $nab$l$ty '+
reas'n +'r su,( an underta%$n-!
N'/ t(e sa+e -r'und '+ e1*er$en,e be$n- t(us aband'ned) $t seems
ne0ert(eless natural t(at /e s('uld (es$tate t' ere,t a bu$ld$n-
/$t( t(e ,'-n$t$'ns /e *'ssess) /$t('ut %n'/$n- /(en,e t(ey ,'me)
and 'n t(e stren-t( '+ *r$n,$*les) t(e 'r$-$n '+ /($,( $s
und$s,'0ered! Instead '+ t(us try$n- t' bu$ld /$t('ut a +'undat$'n) $t
$s rat(er t' be e1*e,ted t(at /e s('uld l'n- a-' (a0e *ut t(e
.uest$'n) ('/ t(e understand$n- ,an arr$0e at t(ese a *r$'r$
,'-n$t$'ns) and /(at $s t(e e1tent) 0al$d$ty) and /'rt( /($,( t(ey may
*'ssess@ 2e say) 9T($s $s natural en'u-()9 mean$n- by t(e /'rd
natural) t(at /($,( $s ,'ns$stent /$t( a &ust and reas'nable /ay '+
t($n%$n-4 but $+ /e understand by t(e term) t(at! /($,( usually
(a**ens) n't($n- $ndeed ,'uld be m're natural and m're
,'m*re(ens$ble t(an t(at t($s $n0est$-at$'n s('uld be le+t l'n-
unattem*ted! F'r 'ne *art '+ 'ur *ure %n'/led-e) t(e s,$en,e '+
mat(emat$,s) (as been l'n- +$rmly establ$s(ed) and t(us leads us t'
+'rm +latter$n- e1*e,tat$'ns /$t( re-ard t' 't(ers) t('u-( t(ese may
be '+ .u$te a d$++erent nature! 3es$des) /(en /e -et bey'nd t(e b'unds
'+ e1*er$en,e) /e are '+ ,'urse sa+e +r'm '**'s$t$'n $n t(at
.uarter4 and t(e ,(arm '+ /$den$n- t(e ran-e '+ 'ur %n'/led-e $s s'
-reat t(at) unless /e are br'u-(t t' a standst$ll by s'me e0$dent
,'ntrad$,t$'n) /e (urry 'n und'ubt$n-ly $n 'ur ,'urse! T($s)
('/e0er) may be a0'$ded) $+ /e are su++$,$ently ,aut$'us $n t(e
,'nstru,t$'n '+ 'ur +$,t$'ns) /($,( are n't t(e less +$,t$'ns 'n
t(at a,,'unt!
"at(emat$,al s,$en,e a++'rds us a br$ll$ant e1am*le) ('/ +ar)
$nde*endently '+ all e1*er$en,e) /e may ,arry 'ur a *r$'r$
%n'/led-e! It $s true t(at t(e mat(emat$,$an ',,u*$es ($msel+ /$t(
'b&e,ts and ,'-n$t$'ns 'nly $n s' +ar as t(ey ,an be re*resented by
means '+ $ntu$t$'n! 3ut t($s ,$r,umstan,e $s eas$ly '0erl''%ed)
be,ause t(e sa$d $ntu$t$'n ,an $tsel+ be -$0en a *r$'r$) and t(ere+'re
$s (ardly t' be d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm a mere *ure ,'n,e*t$'n! #e,e$0ed by
su,( a *r''+ '+ t(e *'/er '+ reas'n) /e ,an *er,e$0e n' l$m$ts t'
t(e e1tens$'n '+ 'ur %n'/led-e! T(e l$-(t d'0e ,lea0$n- $n +ree +l$-(t
t(e t($n a$r) /('se res$stan,e $t +eels) m$-(t $ma-$ne t(at (er
m'0ements /'uld be +ar m're +ree and ra*$d $n a$rless s*a,e! &ust $n
t(e same /ay d$d Plat') aband'n$n- t(e /'rld '+ sense be,ause '+ t(e
narr'/ l$m$ts $t sets t' t(e understand$n-) 0enture u*'n t(e /$n-s
'+ $deas bey'nd $t) $nt' t(e 0'$d s*a,e '+ *ure $ntelle,t! He d$d
n't re+le,t t(at (e made n' real *r'-ress by all ($s e++'rts4 +'r (e
met /$t( n' res$stan,e /($,( m$-(t ser0e ($m +'r a su**'rt) as $t
/ere) /(ere'n t' rest) and 'n /($,( (e m$-(t a**ly ($s *'/ers) $n
'rder t' let t(e $ntelle,t a,.u$re m'mentum +'r $ts *r'-ress! It $s)
$ndeed) t(e ,'mm'n +ate '+ (uman reas'n $n s*e,ulat$'n) t' +$n$s(
t(e $m*'s$n- ed$+$,e '+ t('u-(t as ra*$dly as *'ss$ble) and t(en +'r
t(e +$rst t$me t' be-$n t' e1am$ne /(et(er t(e +'undat$'n $s a s'l$d
'ne 'r n'! Arr$0ed at t($s *'$nt) all s'rts '+ e1,uses are s'u-(t
a+ter) $n 'rder t' ,'ns'le us +'r $ts /ant '+ stab$l$ty) 'r rat(er)
$ndeed) t' enable Us t' d$s*ense alt'-et(er /$t( s' late and dan-er'us
an $n0est$-at$'n! 3ut /(at +rees us dur$n- t(e *r',ess '+ bu$ld$n-
+r'm all a**re(ens$'n 'r sus*$,$'n) and +latters us $nt' t(e bel$e+ '+
$ts s'l$d$ty) $s t($s! A -reat *art) *er(a*s t(e -reatest *art) '+ t(e
bus$ness '+ 'ur reas'n ,'ns$sts $n t(e analysat$'n '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( /e already *'ssess '+ 'b&e,ts! 3y t($s means /e -a$n
a mult$tude '+ ,'-n$t$'ns) /($,( alt('u-( really n't($n- m're t(an
elu,$dat$'ns 'r e1*lanat$'ns '+ t(at /($,( =t('u-( $n a ,'n+used
manner> /as already t('u-(t $n 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns) are) at least $n
res*e,t '+ t(e$r +'rm) *r$;ed as ne/ $ntr's*e,t$'ns4 /($lst) s' +ar as
re-ards t(e$r matter 'r ,'ntent) /e (a0e really made n' add$t$'n t'
'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns) but 'nly d$s$n0'l0ed t(em! 3ut as t($s *r',ess d'es
+urn$s( a real *r$'r$ %n'/led-e) /($,( (as a sure *r'-ress and
use+ul results) reas'n) de,e$0ed by t($s) sl$*s $n) /$t('ut be$n-
$tsel+ a/are '+ $t) assert$'ns '+ a .u$te d$++erent %$nd4 $n /($,() t'
-$0en ,'n,e*t$'ns $t adds 't(ers) a *r$'r$ $ndeed) but ent$rely
+'re$-n t' t(em) /$t('ut 'ur %n'/$n- ('/ $t arr$0es at t(ese) and)
$ndeed) /$t('ut su,( a .uest$'n e0er su--est$n- $tsel+! I s(all
t(ere+'re at 'n,e *r',eed t' e1am$ne t(e d$++eren,e bet/een t(ese
t/' m'des '+ %n'/led-e!
ID! O+ t(e #$++eren,e 3et/een Analyt$,al and Synt(et$,al ud-ements!

In all &ud-ements /(ere$n t(e relat$'n '+ a sub&e,t t' t(e *red$,ate
$s ,'-$tated =I ment$'n a++$rmat$0e &ud-ements 'nly (ere4 t(e
a**l$,at$'n t' ne-at$0e /$ll be 0ery easy>) t($s relat$'n $s
*'ss$ble $n t/' d$++erent /ays! E$t(er t(e *red$,ate 3 bel'n-s t'
t(e sub&e,t A) as s'me/(at /($,( $s ,'nta$ned =t('u-( ,'0ertly> $n t(e
,'n,e*t$'n A4 'r t(e *red$,ate 3 l$es ,'m*letely 'ut '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
A) alt('u-( $t stands $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( $t! In t(e +$rst $nstan,e)
I term t(e &ud-ement analyt$,al) $n t(e se,'nd) synt(et$,al!
Analyt$,al &ud-ements =a++$rmat$0e> are t(ere+'re t('se $n /($,( t(e
,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e *red$,ate /$t( t(e sub&e,t $s ,'-$tated t(r'u-(
$dent$ty4 t('se $n /($,( t($s ,'nne,t$'n $s ,'-$tated /$t('ut
$dent$ty) are ,alled synt(et$,al &ud-ements! T(e +'rmer may be
,alled e1*l$,at$0e) t(e latter au-mentat$0e &ud-ements4 be,ause t(e
+'rmer add $n t(e *red$,ate n't($n- t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
sub&e,t) but 'nly analyse $t $nt' $ts ,'nst$tuent ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,(
/ere t('u-(t already $n t(e sub&e,t) alt('u-( $n a ,'n+used manner4
t(e latter add t' 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e sub&e,t a *red$,ate /($,( /as
n't ,'nta$ned $n $t) and /($,( n' analys$s ,'uld e0er (a0e
d$s,'0ered t(ere$n! F'r e1am*le) /(en I say) 9All b'd$es are
e1tended)9 t($s $s an analyt$,al &ud-ement! F'r I need n't -' bey'nd
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy $n 'rder t' +$nd e1tens$'n ,'nne,ted /$t( $t)
but merely analyse t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) t(at $s) be,'me ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e
man$+'ld *r'*ert$es /($,( I t($n% $n t(at ,'n,e*t$'n) $n 'rder t'
d$s,'0er t($s *red$,ate $n $t6 $t $s t(ere+'re an analyt$,al
&ud-ement! On t(e 't(er (and) /(en I say) 9All b'd$es are (ea0y)9
t(e *red$,ate $s s'met($n- t'tally d$++erent +r'm t(at /($,( I t($n%
$n t(e mere ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a b'dy! 3y t(e add$t$'n '+ su,( a *red$,ate)
t(ere+'re) $t be,'mes a synt(et$,al &ud-ement!
ud-ements '+ e1*er$en,e) as su,() are al/ays synt(et$,al! F'r $t
/'uld be absurd t' t($n% '+ -r'und$n- an analyt$,al &ud-ement 'n
e1*er$en,e) be,ause $n +'rm$n- su,( a &ud-ement I need n't -' 'ut '+
t(e s*(ere '+ my ,'n,e*t$'ns) and t(ere+'re re,'urse t' t(e
test$m'ny '+ e1*er$en,e $s .u$te unne,essary! T(at 9b'd$es are
e1tended9 $s n't an em*$r$,al &ud-ement) but a *r'*'s$t$'n /($,(
stands +$rm a *r$'r$! F'r be+'re address$n- mysel+ t' e1*er$en,e) I
already (a0e $n my ,'n,e*t$'n all t(e re.u$s$te ,'nd$t$'ns +'r t(e
&ud-ement) and I (a0e 'nly t' e1tra,t t(e *red$,ate +r'm t(e
,'n,e*t$'n) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n) and t(ereby
at t(e same t$me be,'me ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e ne,ess$ty '+ t(e &ud-ement) a
ne,ess$ty /($,( I ,'uld ne0er learn +r'm e1*er$en,e! On t(e 't(er
(and) t('u-( at +$rst I d' n't at all $n,lude t(e *red$,ate '+
/e$-(t $n my ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy $n -eneral) t(at ,'n,e*t$'n st$ll
$nd$,ates an 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e) a *art '+ t(e t'tal$ty '+
e1*er$en,e) t' /($,( I ,an st$ll add 't(er *arts4 and t($s I d' /(en I
re,'-n$;e by 'bser0at$'n t(at b'd$es are (ea0y! I ,an ,'-n$;e
be+'re(and by analys$s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy t(r'u-( t(e
,(ara,ter$st$,s '+ e1tens$'n) $m*enetrab$l$ty) s(a*e) et,!) all
/($,( are ,'-$tated $n t($s ,'n,e*t$'n! 3ut n'/ I e1tend my %n'/led-e)
and l''%$n- ba,% 'n e1*er$en,e +r'm /($,( I (ad der$0ed t($s
,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy) I +$nd /e$-(t at all t$mes ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e
ab'0e ,(ara,ter$st$,s) and t(ere+'re I synt(et$,ally add t' my
,'n,e*t$'ns t($s as a *red$,ate) and say) 9All b'd$es are (ea0y!9 T(us
$t $s e1*er$en,e u*'n /($,( rests t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e synt(es$s
'+ t(e *red$,ate '+ /e$-(t /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy) be,ause b't(
,'n,e*t$'ns) alt('u-( t(e 'ne $s n't ,'nta$ned $n t(e 't(er) st$ll
bel'n- t' 'ne an't(er ='nly ,'nt$n-ently) ('/e0er>) as *arts '+ a
/('le) namely) '+ e1*er$en,e) /($,( $s $tsel+ a synt(es$s '+
3ut t' synt(et$,al &ud-ements a *r$'r$) su,( a$d $s ent$rely
/ant$n-! I+ I -' 'ut '+ and bey'nd t(e ,'n,e*t$'n A) $n 'rder t'
re,'-n$;e an't(er 3 as ,'nne,ted /$t( $t) /(at +'undat$'n (a0e I t'
rest 'n) /(ereby t' render t(e synt(es$s *'ss$ble@ I (a0e (ere n'
l'n-er t(e ad0anta-e '+ l''%$n- 'ut $n t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e +'r
/(at I /ant! <et us ta%e) +'r e1am*le) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9E0eryt($n-
t(at (a**ens (as a ,ause!9 In t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ 9s'met($n- t(at
(a**ens)9 I $ndeed t($n% an e1$sten,e /($,( a ,erta$n t$me
ante,edes) and +r'm t($s I ,an der$0e analyt$,al &ud-ements! 3ut t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ,ause l$es .u$te 'ut '+ t(e ab'0e ,'n,e*t$'n) and
$nd$,ates s'met($n- ent$rely d$++erent +r'm 9t(at /($,( (a**ens)9
and $s ,'nse.uently n't ,'nta$ned $n t(at ,'n,e*t$'n! H'/ t(en am I
able t' assert ,'n,ern$n- t(e -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n5 9t(at /($,(
(a**ens95 s'met($n- ent$rely d$++erent +r'm t(at ,'n,e*t$'n) and t'
re,'-n$;e t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,ause alt('u-( n't ,'nta$ned $n $t) yet as
bel'n-$n- t' $t) and e0en ne,essar$ly@ /(at $s (ere t(e un%n'/n E F)
u*'n /($,( t(e understand$n- rests /(en $t bel$e0es $t (as +'und)
'ut '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n A a +'re$-n *red$,ate 3) /($,( $t ne0ert(eless
,'ns$ders t' be ,'nne,ted /$t( $t@ It ,ann't be e1*er$en,e) be,ause
t(e *r$n,$*le addu,ed anne1es t(e t/' re*resentat$'ns) ,ause and
e++e,t) t' t(e re*resentat$'n e1$sten,e) n't 'nly /$t( un$0ersal$ty)
/($,( e1*er$en,e ,ann't -$0e) but als' /$t( t(e e1*ress$'n '+
ne,ess$ty) t(ere+'re ,'m*letely a *r$'r$ and +r'm *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns!
U*'n su,( synt(et$,al) t(at $s au-mentat$0e *r'*'s$t$'ns) de*ends
t(e /('le a$m '+ 'ur s*e,ulat$0e %n'/led-e a *r$'r$4 +'r alt('u-(
analyt$,al &ud-ements are $ndeed ($-(ly $m*'rtant and ne,essary)
t(ey are s') 'nly t' arr$0e at t(at ,learness '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,(
$s re.u$s$te +'r a sure and e1tended synt(es$s) and t($s al'ne $s a
real a,.u$s$t$'n!
D! In all T(e'ret$,al S,$en,es '+ Reas'n) Synt(et$,al ud-ements

9a *r$'r$9 are ,'nta$ned as Pr$n,$*les!

1! "at(emat$,al &ud-ements are al/ays synt(et$,al! H$t(ert' t($s
+a,t) t('u-( $n,'ntestably true and 0ery $m*'rtant $n $ts
,'nse.uen,es) seems t' (a0e es,a*ed t(e analysts '+ t(e (uman m$nd)
nay) t' be $n ,'m*lete '**'s$t$'n t' all t(e$r ,'n&e,tures! F'r as
$t /as +'und t(at mat(emat$,al ,'n,lus$'ns all *r',eed a,,'rd$n- t'
t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n =/($,( t(e nature '+ e0ery a*'de$,t$,
,erta$nty re.u$res>) *e'*le be,ame *ersuaded t(at t(e +undamental
*r$n,$*les '+ t(e s,$en,e als' /ere re,'-n$;ed and adm$tted $n t(e
same /ay! 3ut t(e n't$'n $s +alla,$'us4 +'r alt('u-( a synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n ,an ,erta$nly be d$s,erned by means '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+
,'ntrad$,t$'n) t($s $s *'ss$ble 'nly /(en an't(er synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n *re,edes) +r'm /($,( t(e latter $s dedu,ed) but ne0er '+
$tsel+ /($,(
3e+'re all) be $t 'bser0ed) t(at *r'*er mat(emat$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns
are al/ays &ud-ements a *r$'r$) and n't em*$r$,al) be,ause t(ey
,arry al'n- /$t( t(em t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ne,ess$ty) /($,( ,ann't be
-$0en by e1*er$en,e! I+ t($s be demurred t') $t matters n't4 I /$ll
t(en l$m$t my assert$'n t' *ure mat(emat$,s) t(e 0ery ,'n,e*t$'n '+
/($,( $m*l$es t(at $t ,'ns$sts '+ %n'/led-e alt'-et(er n'n5em*$r$,al
and a *r$'r$!
2e m$-(t) $ndeed at +$rst su**'se t(at t(e *r'*'s$t$'n 7 G A E 1B $s
a merely analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) +'ll'/$n- =a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *r$n,$*le
'+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n> +r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a sum '+ se0en and +$0e!
3ut $+ /e re-ard $t m're narr'/ly) /e +$nd t(at 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+
t(e sum '+ se0en and +$0e ,'nta$ns n't($n- m're t(an t(e un$t$n- '+
b't( sums $nt' 'ne) /(ereby $t ,ann't at all be ,'-$tated /(at t($s
s$n-le number $s /($,( embra,es b't(! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t/el0e $s by
n' means 'bta$ned by merely ,'-$tat$n- t(e un$'n '+ se0en and +$0e4
and /e may analyse 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a *'ss$ble sum as l'n- as /e
/$ll) st$ll /e s(all ne0er d$s,'0er $n $t t(e n't$'n '+ t/el0e! 2e
must -' bey'nd t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) and (a0e re,'urse t' an $ntu$t$'n
/($,( ,'rres*'nds t' 'ne '+ t(e t/'5 'ur +$0e +$n-ers) +'r e1am*le) 'r
l$%e Se-ner $n ($s Ar$t(met$, +$0e *'$nts) and s' by de-rees) add
t(e un$ts ,'nta$ned $n t(e +$0e -$0en $n t(e $ntu$t$'n) t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ se0en! F'r I +$rst ta%e t(e number 7) and) +'r t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ A ,all$n- $n t(e a$d '+ t(e +$n-ers '+ my (and as
'b&e,ts '+ $ntu$t$'n) I add t(e un$ts) /($,( I be+'re t''% t'-et(er t'
ma%e u* t(e number A) -radually n'/ by means '+ t(e mater$al $ma-e
my (and) t' t(e number 7) and by t($s *r',ess) I at len-t( see t(e
number 1B ar$se! T(at 7 s('uld be added t' A) I (a0e ,erta$nly
,'-$tated $n my ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a sum E 7 G A) but n't t(at t($s sum /as
e.ual t' 1B! Ar$t(met$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns are t(ere+'re al/ays
synt(et$,al) '+ /($,( /e may be,'me m're ,learly ,'n0$n,ed by try$n-
lar-e numbers! F'r $t /$ll t(us be,'me .u$te e0$dent t(at) turn and
t/$st 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns as /e may) $t $s $m*'ss$ble) /$t('ut (a0$n-
re,'urse t' $ntu$t$'n) t' arr$0e at t(e sum t'tal 'r *r'du,t by
means '+ t(e mere analys$s '+ 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns! &ust as l$ttle $s any
*r$n,$*le '+ *ure -e'metry analyt$,al! 9A stra$-(t l$ne bet/een t/'
*'$nts $s t(e s('rtest)9 $s a synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n! F'r my
,'n,e*t$'n '+ stra$-(t ,'nta$ns n' n't$'n '+ .uant$ty) but $s merely
.ual$tat$0e! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e s('rtest $s t(ere+'re +'re /('lly
an add$t$'n) and by n' analys$s ,an $t be e1tra,ted +r'm 'ur
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a stra$-(t l$ne! Intu$t$'n must t(ere+'re (ere lend
$ts a$d) by means '+ /($,() and t(us 'nly) 'ur synt(es$s $s *'ss$ble!
S'me +e/ *r$n,$*les *re*'s$ted by -e'metr$,$ans are) $ndeed)
really analyt$,al) and de*end 'n t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n!
T(ey ser0e) ('/e0er) l$%e $dent$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns) as l$n%s $n t(e
,(a$n '+ met('d) n't as *r$n,$*les5 +'r e1am*le) a E a) t(e /('le $s
e.ual t' $tsel+) 'r =aGb> H a) t(e /('le $s -reater t(an $ts *art! And
yet e0en t(ese *r$n,$*les t(emsel0es) t('u-( t(ey der$0e t(e$r
0al$d$ty +r'm *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns) are 'nly adm$tted $n mat(emat$,s
be,ause t(ey ,an be *resented $n $ntu$t$'n! 2(at ,auses us (ere
,'mm'nly t' bel$e0e t(at t(e *red$,ate '+ su,( a*'de$,t$, &ud-ements
$s already ,'nta$ned $n 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n) and t(at t(e &ud-ement $s
t(ere+'re analyt$,al) $s merely t(e e.u$0',al nature '+ t(e
e1*ress$'n! 2e must &'$n $n t('u-(t a ,erta$n *red$,ate t' a -$0en
,'n,e*t$'n) and t($s ne,ess$ty ,lea0es already t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n!
3ut t(e .uest$'n $s) n't /(at /e must &'$n $n t('u-(t t' t(e -$0en
,'n,e*t$'n) but /(at /e really t($n% t(ere$n) t('u-( 'nly 'bs,urely)
and t(en $t be,'mes man$+est t(at t(e *red$,ate *erta$ns t' t(ese
,'n,e*t$'ns) ne,essar$ly $ndeed) yet n't as t('u-(t $n t(e
,'n,e*t$'n $tsel+) but by 0$rtue '+ an $ntu$t$'n) /($,( must be
added t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n!
B! T(e s,$en,e '+ natural *($l's'*(y =*(ys$,s> ,'nta$ns $n $tsel+
synt(et$,al &ud-ements a *r$'r$) as *r$n,$*les! I s(all addu,e t/'
*r'*'s$t$'ns! F'r $nstan,e) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9In all ,(an-es '+ t(e
mater$al /'rld) t(e .uant$ty '+ matter rema$ns un,(an-ed94 'r) t(at)
9In all ,'mmun$,at$'n '+ m't$'n) a,t$'n and rea,t$'n must al/ays be
e.ual!9 In b't( '+ t(ese) n't 'nly $s t(e ne,ess$ty) and t(ere+'re
t(e$r 'r$-$n a *r$'r$ ,lear) but als' t(at t(ey are synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'ns! F'r $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ matter) I d' n't ,'-$tate $ts
*ermanen,y) but merely $ts *resen,e $n s*a,e) /($,( $t +$lls! I
t(ere+'re really -' 'ut '+ and bey'nd t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ matter) $n
'rder t' t($n% 'n t' $t s'met($n- a *r$'r$) /($,( I d$d n't t($n% $n
$t! T(e *r'*'s$t$'n $s t(ere+'re n't analyt$,al) but synt(et$,al)
and ne0ert(eless ,'n,e$0ed a *r$'r$4 and s' $t $s /$t( re-ard t' t(e
't(er *r'*'s$t$'ns '+ t(e *ure *art '+ natural *($l's'*(y!
I! As t' meta*(ys$,s) e0en $+ /e l''% u*'n $t merely as an attem*ted
s,$en,e) yet) +r'm t(e nature '+ (uman reas'n) an $nd$s*ensable 'ne)
/e +$nd t(at $t must ,'nta$n synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a *r$'r$! It
$s n't merely t(e duty '+ meta*(ys$,s t' d$sse,t) and t(ereby
analyt$,ally t' $llustrate t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( /e +'rm a *r$'r$ '+
t($n-s4 but /e see% t' /$den t(e ran-e '+ 'ur a *r$'r$ %n'/led-e!
F'r t($s *ur*'se) /e must a0a$l 'ursel0es '+ su,( *r$n,$*les as add
s'met($n- t' t(e 'r$-$nal ,'n,e*t$'n5 s'met($n- n't $dent$,al /$t()
n'r ,'nta$ned $n $t) and by means '+ synt(et$,al &ud-ements a
*r$'r$) lea0e +ar be($nd us t(e l$m$ts '+ e1*er$en,e4 +'r e1am*le)
$n t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9t(e /'rld must (a0e a be-$nn$n-)9 and su,(
l$%e! T(us meta*(ys$,s) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *r'*er a$m '+ t(e s,$en,e)
,'ns$sts merely '+ synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a *r$'r$!
DI! T(e Un$0ersal Pr'blem '+ Pure Reas'n!

It $s e1tremely ad0anta-e'us t' be able t' br$n- a number '+
$n0est$-at$'ns under t(e +'rmula '+ a s$n-le *r'blem! F'r $n t($s
manner) /e n't 'nly +a,$l$tate 'ur '/n lab'ur) $nasmu,( as /e de+$ne
$t ,learly t' 'ursel0es) but als' render $t m're easy +'r 't(ers t'
de,$de /(et(er /e (a0e d'ne &ust$,e t' 'ur underta%$n-! T(e *r'*er
*r'blem '+ *ure reas'n) t(en) $s ,'nta$ned $n t(e .uest$'n6 9H'/ are
synt(et$,al &ud-ements a *r$'r$ *'ss$ble@9
T(at meta*(ys$,al s,$en,e (as ($t(ert' rema$ned $n s' 0a,$llat$n-
a state '+ un,erta$nty and ,'ntrad$,t$'n) $s 'nly t' be attr$buted
t' t(e +a,t t(at t($s -reat *r'blem) and *er(a*s e0en t(e d$++eren,e
bet/een analyt$,al and synt(et$,al &ud-ements) d$d n't s''ner
su--est $tsel+ t' *($l's'*(ers! U*'n t(e s'lut$'n '+ t($s *r'blem)
'r u*'n su++$,$ent *r''+ '+ t(e $m*'ss$b$l$ty '+ synt(et$,al %n'/led-e
a *r$'r$) de*ends t(e e1$sten,e 'r d'/n+all '+ t(e s,$en,e '+
meta*(ys$,s! Am'n- *($l's'*(ers) #a0$d Hume ,ame t(e nearest '+ all t'
t($s *r'blem4 yet $t ne0er a,.u$red $n ($s m$nd su++$,$ent
*re,$s$'n) n'r d$d (e re-ard t(e .uest$'n $n $ts un$0ersal$ty! On
t(e ,'ntrary) (e st'**ed s('rt at t(e synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n '+ t(e
,'nne,t$'n '+ an e++e,t /$t( $ts ,ause =*r$n,$*$um ,ausal$tat$s>)
$ns$st$n- t(at su,( *r'*'s$t$'n a *r$'r$ /as $m*'ss$ble! A,,'rd$n-
t' ($s ,'n,lus$'ns) t(en) all t(at /e term meta*(ys$,al s,$en,e $s a
mere delus$'n) ar$s$n- +r'm t(e +an,$ed $ns$-(t '+ reas'n $nt' t(at
/($,( $s $n trut( b'rr'/ed +r'm e1*er$en,e) and t' /($,( (ab$t (as
-$0en t(e a**earan,e '+ ne,ess$ty! A-a$nst t($s assert$'n) destru,t$0e
t' all *ure *($l's'*(y) (e /'uld (a0e been -uarded) (ad (e (ad 'ur
*r'blem be+'re ($s eyes $n $ts un$0ersal$ty! F'r (e /'uld t(en (a0e
*er,e$0ed t(at) a,,'rd$n- t' ($s '/n ar-ument) t(ere l$%e/$se ,'uld
n't be any *ure mat(emat$,al s,$en,e) /($,( assuredly ,ann't e1$st
/$t('ut synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a *r$'r$5 an absurd$ty +r'm /($,( ($s
-''d understand$n- must (a0e sa0ed ($m!
In t(e s'lut$'n '+ t(e ab'0e *r'blem $s at t(e same t$me
,'m*re(ended t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e use '+ *ure reas'n $n t(e
+'undat$'n and ,'nstru,t$'n '+ all s,$en,es /($,( ,'nta$n
t(e'ret$,al %n'/led-e a *r$'r$ '+ 'b&e,ts) t(at $s t' say) t(e
ans/er t' t(e +'ll'/$n- .uest$'ns6
H'/ $s *ure mat(emat$,al s,$en,e *'ss$ble@

H'/ $s *ure natural s,$en,e *'ss$ble@

Res*e,t$n- t(ese s,$en,es) as t(ey d' ,erta$nly e1$st) $t may /$t(
*r'*r$ety be as%ed) ('/ t(ey are *'ss$ble@5 +'r t(at t(ey must be
*'ss$ble $s s('/n by t(e +a,t '+ t(e$r really e1$st$n-!7 3ut as t'
meta*(ys$,s) t(e m$serable *r'-ress $t (as ($t(ert' made) and t(e +a,t
t(at '+ n' 'ne system yet br'u-(t +'r/ard) +ar as re-ards $ts true
a$m) ,an $t be sa$d t(at t($s s,$en,e really e1$sts) lea0es any 'ne at
l$berty t' d'ubt /$t( reas'n t(e 0ery *'ss$b$l$ty '+ $ts e1$sten,e!
7As t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ *ure natural s,$en,e) 'r *(ys$,s) *er(a*s
many may st$ll e1*ress d'ubts! 3ut /e (a0e 'nly t' l''% at t(e
d$++erent *r'*'s$t$'ns /($,( are ,'mm'nly treated '+ at t(e
,'mmen,ement '+ *r'*er =em*$r$,al> *(ys$,al s,$en,e5 t('se) +'r
e1am*le) relat$n- t' t(e *ermanen,e '+ t(e same .uant$ty '+ matter)
t(e 0$s $nert$ae) t(e e.ual$ty '+ a,t$'n and rea,t$'n) et,!5 t' be
s''n ,'n0$n,ed t(at t(ey +'rm a s,$en,e '+ *ure *(ys$,s =*(ys$,a *ura)
'r rat$'nal$s>) /($,( /ell deser0es t' be se*arately e1*'sed as a
s*e,$al s,$en,e) $n $ts /('le e1tent) /(et(er t(at be -reat 'r
Jet) $n a ,erta$n sense) t($s %$nd '+ %n'/led-e must
un.uest$'nably be l''%ed u*'n as -$0en4 $n 't(er /'rds) meta*(ys$,s
must be ,'ns$dered as really e1$st$n-) $+ n't as a s,$en,e)
ne0ert(eless as a natural d$s*'s$t$'n '+ t(e (uman m$nd =meta*(ys$,a
natural$s>! F'r (uman reas'n) /$t('ut any $nst$-at$'ns $m*utable t'
t(e mere 0an$ty '+ -reat %n'/led-e) un,eas$n-ly *r'-resses) ur-ed 'n
by $ts '/n +eel$n- '+ need) t'/ards su,( .uest$'ns as ,ann't be
ans/ered by any em*$r$,al a**l$,at$'n '+ reas'n) 'r *r$n,$*les der$0ed
t(ere+r'm4 and s' t(ere (as e0er really e1$sted $n e0ery man s'me
system '+ meta*(ys$,s! It /$ll al/ays e1$st) s' s''n as reas'n
a/a%es t' t(e e1er,$se '+ $ts *'/er '+ s*e,ulat$'n! And n'/ t(e
.uest$'n ar$ses6 9H'/ $s meta*(ys$,s) as a natural d$s*'s$t$'n)
*'ss$ble@9 In 't(er /'rds) ('/) +r'm t(e nature '+ un$0ersal (uman
reas'n) d' t('se .uest$'ns ar$se /($,( *ure reas'n *r'*'ses t' $tsel+)
and /($,( $t $s $m*elled by $ts '/n +eel$n- '+ need t' ans/er as
/ell as $t ,an@
3ut as $n all t(e attem*ts ($t(ert' made t' ans/er t(e .uest$'ns
/($,( reas'n $s *r'm*ted by $ts 0ery nature t' *r'*'se t' $tsel+)
+'r e1am*le) /(et(er t(e /'rld (ad a be-$nn$n-) 'r (as e1$sted +r'm
etern$ty) $t (as al/ays met /$t( una0'$dable ,'ntrad$,t$'ns) /e must
n't rest sat$s+$ed /$t( t(e mere natural d$s*'s$t$'n '+ t(e m$nd t'
meta*(ys$,s) t(at $s) /$t( t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ *ure
reas'n) /(en,e) $ndeed) s'me s'rt '+ meta*(ys$,al system al/ays
ar$ses4 but $t must be *'ss$ble t' arr$0e at ,erta$nty $n re-ard t'
t(e .uest$'n /(et(er /e %n'/ 'r d' n't %n'/ t(e t($n-s '+ /($,(
meta*(ys$,s treats! 2e must be able t' arr$0e at a de,$s$'n 'n t(e
sub&e,ts '+ $ts .uest$'ns) 'r 'n t(e ab$l$ty 'r $nab$l$ty '+ reas'n t'
+'rm any &ud-ement res*e,t$n- t(em4 and t(ere+'re e$t(er t' e1tend
/$t( ,'n+$den,e t(e b'unds '+ 'ur *ure reas'n) 'r t' set str$,tly
de+$ned and sa+e l$m$ts t' $ts a,t$'n! T($s last .uest$'n) /($,(
ar$ses 'ut '+ t(e ab'0e un$0ersal *r'blem) /'uld *r'*erly run t(us6
9H'/ $s meta*(ys$,s *'ss$ble as a s,$en,e@9
T(us) t(e ,r$t$.ue '+ reas'n leads at last) naturally and
ne,essar$ly) t' s,$en,e4 and) 'n t(e 't(er (and) t(e d'-mat$,al use '+
reas'n /$t('ut ,r$t$,$sm leads t' -r'undless assert$'ns) a-a$nst /($,(
't(ers e.ually s*e,$'us ,an al/ays be set) t(us end$n- una0'$dably
$n s,e*t$,$sm!
3es$des) t($s s,$en,e ,ann't be '+ -reat and +'rm$dable *r'l$1$ty)
be,ause $t (as n't t' d' /$t( 'b&e,ts '+ reas'n) t(e 0ar$ety '+
/($,( $s $ne1(aust$ble) but merely /$t( Reas'n (ersel+ and (er
*r'blems4 *r'blems /($,( ar$se 'ut '+ (er '/n b's'm) and are n't
*r'*'sed t' (er by t(e nature '+ 'ut/ard t($n-s) but by (er '/n
nature! And /(en 'n,e Reas'n (as *re0$'usly be,'me able ,'m*letely
t' understand (er '/n *'/er $n re-ard t' 'b&e,ts /($,( s(e meets
/$t( $n e1*er$en,e) $t /$ll be easy t' determ$ne se,urely t(e e1tent
and l$m$ts '+ (er attem*ted a**l$,at$'n t' 'b&e,ts bey'nd t(e ,'n+$nes
'+ e1*er$en,e!
2e may and must) t(ere+'re) re-ard t(e attem*ts ($t(ert' made t'
establ$s( meta*(ys$,al s,$en,e d'-mat$,ally as n'n5e1$stent! F'r
/(at '+ analys$s) t(at $s) mere d$sse,t$'n '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) $s
,'nta$ned $n 'ne 'r 't(er) $s n't t(e a$m '+) but 'nly a *re*arat$'n
+'r meta*(ys$,s *r'*er) /($,( (as +'r $ts 'b&e,t t(e e1tens$'n) by
means '+ synt(es$s) '+ 'ur a *r$'r$ %n'/led-e! And +'r t($s *ur*'se)
mere analys$s $s '+ ,'urse useless) be,ause $t 'nly s('/s /(at $s
,'nta$ned $n t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) but n't ('/ /e arr$0e) a *r$'r$) at
t(em4 and t($s $t $s (er duty t' s('/) $n 'rder t' be able
a+ter/ards t' determ$ne t(e$r 0al$d use $n re-ard t' all 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e) t' all %n'/led-e $n -eneral! 3ut l$ttle sel+5den$al)
$ndeed) $s needed t' -$0e u* t(ese *retens$'ns) see$n- t(e unden$able)
and $n t(e d'-mat$, m'de '+ *r',edure) $ne0$table ,'ntrad$,t$'ns '+
Reas'n /$t( (ersel+) (a0e l'n- s$n,e ru$ned t(e re*utat$'n '+ e0ery
system '+ meta*(ys$,s t(at (as a**eared u* t' t($s t$me! It /$ll
re.u$re m're +$rmness t' rema$n undeterred by d$++$,ulty +r'm
/$t($n) and '**'s$t$'n +r'm /$t('ut) +r'm endea0'ur$n-) by a met('d
.u$te '**'sed t' all t('se ($t(ert' +'ll'/ed) t' +urt(er t(e -r'/t(
and +ru$t+ulness '+ a s,$en,e $nd$s*ensable t' (uman reas'n5 a s,$en,e
+r'm /($,( e0ery bran,( $t (as b'rne may be ,ut a/ay) but /('se
r''ts rema$n $ndestru,t$ble!
DII! Idea and #$0$s$'n '+ a Part$,ular S,$en,e) under t(e

Name '+ a Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n!

Fr'm all t(at (as been sa$d) t(ere results t(e $dea '+ a
*art$,ular s,$en,e) /($,( may be ,alled t(e Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n!
F'r reas'n $s t(e +a,ulty /($,( +urn$s(es us /$t( t(e *r$n,$*les '+
%n'/led-e a *r$'r$! Hen,e) *ure reas'n $s t(e +a,ulty /($,( ,'nta$ns
t(e *r$n,$*les '+ ,'-n$;$n- anyt($n- abs'lutely a *r$'r$! An 'r-an'n
'+ *ure reas'n /'uld be a ,'m*end$um '+ t('se *r$n,$*les a,,'rd$n-
t' /($,( al'ne all *ure ,'-n$t$'ns a *r$'r$ ,an be 'bta$ned! T(e
,'m*letely e1tended a**l$,at$'n '+ su,( an 'r-an'n /'uld a++'rd us a
system '+ *ure reas'n! As t($s) ('/e0er) $s demand$n- a -reat deal)
and $t $s yet d'ubt+ul /(et(er any e1tens$'n '+ 'ur %n'/led-e be
(ere *'ss$ble) 'r) $+ s') $n /(at ,ases4 /e ,an re-ard a s,$en,e '+
t(e mere ,r$t$,$sm '+ *ure reas'n) $ts s'ur,es and l$m$ts) as t(e
*r'*aedeut$, t' a system '+ *ure reas'n! Su,( a s,$en,e must n't be
,alled a d',tr$ne) but 'nly a ,r$t$.ue '+ *ure reas'n4 and $ts use) $n
re-ard t' s*e,ulat$'n) /'uld be 'nly ne-at$0e) n't t' enlar-e t(e
b'unds '+) but t' *ur$+y) 'ur reas'n) and t' s($eld $t a-a$nst
err'r5 /($,( al'ne $s n' l$ttle -a$n! I a**ly t(e term
trans,endental t' all %n'/led-e /($,( $s n't s' mu,( ',,u*$ed /$t(
'b&e,ts as /$t( t(e m'de '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts) s' +ar
as t($s m'de '+ ,'-n$t$'n $s *'ss$ble a *r$'r$! A system '+ su,(
,'n,e*t$'ns /'uld be ,alled trans,endental *($l's'*(y! 3ut t($s)
a-a$n) $s st$ll bey'nd t(e b'unds '+ 'ur *resent essay! F'r as su,(
a s,$en,e must ,'nta$n a ,'m*lete e1*'s$t$'n n't 'nly '+ 'ur
synt(et$,al a *r$'r$) but '+ 'ur analyt$,al a *r$'r$ %n'/led-e) $t
$s '+ t'' /$de a ran-e +'r 'ur *resent *ur*'se) be,ause /e d' n't
re.u$re t' ,arry 'ur analys$s any +art(er t(an $s ne,essary t'
understand) $n t(e$r +ull e1tent) t(e *r$n,$*les '+ synt(es$s a
*r$'r$) /$t( /($,( al'ne /e (a0e t' d'! T($s $n0est$-at$'n) /($,( /e
,ann't *r'*erly ,all a d',tr$ne) but 'nly a trans,endental ,r$t$.ue)
be,ause $t a$ms n't at t(e enlar-ement) but at t(e ,'rre,t$'n and
-u$dan,e) '+ 'ur %n'/led-e) and $s t' ser0e as a t'u,(st'ne '+ t(e
/'rt( 'r /'rt(lessness '+ all %n'/led-e a *r$'r$) $s t(e s'le 'b&e,t
'+ 'ur *resent essay! Su,( a ,r$t$.ue $s ,'nse.uently) as +ar as
*'ss$ble) a *re*arat$'n +'r an 'r-an'n4 and $+ t($s ne/ 'r-an'n s('uld
be +'und t' +a$l) at least +'r a ,an'n '+ *ure reas'n) a,,'rd$n- t'
/($,( t(e ,'m*lete system '+ t(e *($l's'*(y '+ *ure reas'n) /(et(er $t
e1tend 'r l$m$t t(e b'unds '+ t(at reas'n) m$-(t 'ne day be set
+'rt( b't( analyt$,ally and synt(et$,ally! F'r t(at t($s $s
*'ss$ble) nay) t(at su,( a system $s n't '+ s' -reat e1tent as t'
*re,lude t(e ('*e '+ $ts e0er be$n- ,'m*leted) $s e0$dent! F'r /e (a0e
n't (ere t' d' /$t( t(e nature '+ 'ut/ard 'b&e,ts) /($,( $s
$n+$n$te) but s'lely /$t( t(e m$nd) /($,( &ud-es '+ t(e nature '+
'b&e,ts) and) a-a$n) /$t( t(e m$nd 'nly $n res*e,t '+ $ts ,'-n$t$'n
a *r$'r$! And t(e 'b&e,t '+ 'ur $n0est$-at$'ns) as $t $s n't t' be
s'u-(t /$t('ut) but) alt'-et(er /$t($n) 'ursel0es) ,ann't rema$n
,'n,ealed) and $n all *r'bab$l$ty $s l$m$ted en'u-( t' be ,'m*letely
sur0eyed and +a$rly est$mated) a,,'rd$n- t' $ts /'rt( 'r
/'rt(lessness! St$ll less let t(e reader (ere e1*e,t a ,r$t$.ue '+
b''%s and systems '+ *ure reas'n4 'ur *resent 'b&e,t $s e1,lus$0ely
a ,r$t$.ue '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ *ure reas'n $tsel+! Only /(en /e ma%e
t($s ,r$t$.ue 'ur +'undat$'n) d' /e *'ssess a *ure t'u,(st'ne +'r
est$mat$n- t(e *($l's'*($,al 0alue '+ an,$ent and m'dern /r$t$n-s 'n
t($s sub&e,t4 and /$t('ut t($s ,r$ter$'n) t(e $n,'m*etent ($st'r$an 'r
&ud-e de,$des u*'n and ,'rre,ts t(e -r'undless assert$'ns '+ 't(ers
/$t( ($s '/n) /($,( (a0e t(emsel0es &ust as l$ttle +'undat$'n!
Trans,endental *($l's'*(y $s t(e $dea '+ a s,$en,e) +'r /($,( t(e
Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n must s%et,( t(e /('le *lan
ar,($te,t'n$,ally) t(at $s) +r'm *r$n,$*les) /$t( a +ull -uarantee +'r
t(e 0al$d$ty and stab$l$ty '+ all t(e *arts /($,( enter $nt' t(e
bu$ld$n-! It $s t(e system '+ all t(e *r$n,$*les '+ *ure reas'n! I+
t($s Cr$t$.ue $tsel+ d'es n't assume t(e t$tle '+ trans,endental
*($l's'*(y) $t $s 'nly be,ause) t' be a ,'m*lete system) $t 'u-(t t'
,'nta$n a +ull analys$s '+ all (uman %n'/led-e a *r$'r$! Our
,r$t$.ue must) $ndeed) lay be+'re us a ,'m*lete enumerat$'n '+ all t(e
rad$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( ,'nst$tute t(e sa$d *ure %n'/led-e! 3ut +r'm
t(e ,'m*lete analys$s '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns t(emsel0es) as als' +r'm
a ,'m*lete $n0est$-at$'n '+ t('se der$0ed +r'm t(em) $t absta$ns
/$t( reas'n4 *artly be,ause $t /'uld be de0$at$n- +r'm t(e end $n 0$e/
t' ',,u*y $tsel+ /$t( t($s analys$s) s$n,e t($s *r',ess $s n't
attended /$t( t(e d$++$,ulty and $nse,ur$ty t' be +'und $n t(e
synt(es$s) t' /($,( 'ur ,r$t$.ue $s ent$rely de0'ted) and *artly
be,ause $t /'uld be $n,'ns$stent /$t( t(e un$ty '+ 'ur *lan t'
burden t($s essay /$t( t(e 0$nd$,at$'n '+ t(e ,'m*leteness '+ su,(
an analys$s and dedu,t$'n) /$t( /($,() a+ter all) /e (a0e at *resent
n't($n- t' d'! T($s ,'m*leteness '+ t(e analys$s '+ t(ese rad$,al
,'n,e*t$'ns) as /ell as '+ t(e dedu,t$'n +r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns a *r$'r$
/($,( may be -$0en by t(e analys$s) /e ,an) ('/e0er) eas$ly atta$n)
*r'0$ded 'nly t(at /e are $n *'ssess$'n '+ all t(ese rad$,al
,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( are t' ser0e as *r$n,$*les '+ t(e synt(es$s) and
t(at $n res*e,t '+ t($s ma$n *ur*'se n't($n- $s /ant$n-!
T' t(e Cr$t$.ue '+ Pure Reas'n) t(ere+'re) bel'n-s all t(at
,'nst$tutes trans,endental *($l's'*(y4 and $t $s t(e ,'m*lete $dea
'+ trans,endental *($l's'*(y) but st$ll n't t(e s,$en,e $tsel+4
be,ause $t 'nly *r',eeds s' +ar /$t( t(e analys$s as $s ne,essary t'
t(e *'/er '+ &ud-$n- ,'m*letely '+ 'ur synt(et$,al %n'/led-e a *r$'r$!
T(e *r$n,$*al t($n- /e must attend t') $n t(e d$0$s$'n '+ t(e
*arts '+ a s,$en,e l$%e t($s) $s t(at n' ,'n,e*t$'ns must enter $t
/($,( ,'nta$n au-(t em*$r$,al4 $n 't(er /'rds) t(at t(e %n'/led-e a
*r$'r$ must be ,'m*letely *ure! Hen,e) alt('u-( t(e ($-(est *r$n,$*les
and +undamental ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ m'ral$ty are ,erta$nly ,'-n$t$'ns a
*r$'r$) yet t(ey d' n't bel'n- t' trans,endental *($l's'*(y4
be,ause) t('u-( t(ey ,erta$nly d' n't lay t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ *a$n)
*leasure) des$res) $n,l$nat$'ns) et,! =/($,( are all '+ em*$r$,al
'r$-$n>) at t(e +'undat$'n '+ $ts *re,e*ts) yet st$ll $nt' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ duty5 as an 'bsta,le t' be '0er,'me) 'r as an $n,$tement
/($,( s('uld n't be made $nt' a m't$0e5 t(ese em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns
must ne,essar$ly enter) $n t(e ,'nstru,t$'n '+ a system '+ *ure
m'ral$ty! Trans,endental *($l's'*(y $s ,'nse.uently a *($l's'*(y '+
t(e *ure and merely s*e,ulat$0e reas'n! F'r all t(at $s *ra,t$,al)
s' +ar as $t ,'nta$ns m't$0es) relates t' +eel$n-s) and t(ese bel'n-
t' em*$r$,al s'ur,es '+ ,'-n$t$'n!
I+ /e /$s( t' d$0$de t($s s,$en,e +r'm t(e un$0ersal *'$nt '+ 0$e/
'+ a s,$en,e $n -eneral) $t 'u-(t t' ,'m*re(end) +$rst) a #',tr$ne
'+ t(e Elements) and) se,'ndly) a #',tr$ne '+ t(e "et('d '+ *ure
reas'n! Ea,( '+ t(ese ma$n d$0$s$'ns /$ll (a0e $ts subd$0$s$'ns) t(e
se*arate reas'ns +'r /($,( /e ,ann't (ere *art$,ular$;e! Only s'
mu,( seems ne,essary) by /ay '+ $ntr'du,t$'n '+ *rem'n$t$'n) t(at
t(ere are t/' s'ur,es '+ (uman %n'/led-e =/($,( *r'bably s*r$n- +r'm a
,'mm'n) but t' us un%n'/n r''t>) namely) sense and understand$n-! 3y
t(e +'rmer) 'b&e,ts are -$0en t' us4 by t(e latter) t('u-(t! S' +ar as
t(e +a,ulty '+ sense may ,'nta$n re*resentat$'ns a *r$'r$) /($,(
+'rm t(e ,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( 'b&e,ts are -$0en) $n s' +ar $t
bel'n-s t' trans,endental *($l's'*(y! T(e trans,endental d',tr$ne '+
sense must +'rm t(e +$rst *art '+ 'ur s,$en,e '+ elements) be,ause t(e
,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( al'ne t(e 'b&e,ts '+ (uman %n'/led-e are
-$0en must *re,ede t('se under /($,( t(ey are t('u-(t!



SS I! Intr'du,t'ry!

In /(ats'e0er m'de) 'r by /(ats'e0er means) 'ur %n'/led-e may relate
t' 'b&e,ts) $t $s at least .u$te ,lear t(at t(e 'nly manner $n /($,(
$t $mmed$ately relates t' t(em $s by means '+ an $ntu$t$'n! T' t($s as
t(e $nd$s*ensable -r'und/'r%) all t('u-(t *'$nts! 3ut an $ntu$t$'n ,an
ta%e *la,e 'nly $n s' +ar as t(e 'b&e,t $s -$0en t' us! T($s) a-a$n)
$s 'nly *'ss$ble) t' man at least) 'n ,'nd$t$'n t(at t(e 'b&e,t a++e,t
t(e m$nd $n a ,erta$n manner! T(e ,a*a,$ty +'r re,e$0$n-
re*resentat$'ns =re,e*t$0$ty> t(r'u-( t(e m'de $n /($,( /e are
a++e,ted by 'b&e,ts) 'b&e,ts) $s ,alled sens$b$l$ty! 3y means '+
sens$b$l$ty) t(ere+'re) 'b&e,ts are -$0en t' us) and $t al'ne
+urn$s(es us /$t( $ntu$t$'ns4 by t(e understand$n- t(ey are t('u-(t)
and +r'm $t ar$se ,'n,e*t$'ns! 3ut an t('u-(t must d$re,tly) 'r
$nd$re,tly) by means '+ ,erta$n s$-ns) relate ult$mately t'
$ntu$t$'ns4 ,'nse.uently) /$t( us) t' sens$b$l$ty) be,ause $n n' 't(er
/ay ,an an 'b&e,t be -$0en t' us!
T(e e++e,t '+ an 'b&e,t u*'n t(e +a,ulty '+ re*resentat$'n) s' +ar
as /e are a++e,ted by t(e sa$d 'b&e,t) $s sensat$'n! T(at s'rt '+
$ntu$t$'n /($,( relates t' an 'b&e,t by means '+ sensat$'n $s ,alled
an em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n! T(e undeterm$ned 'b&e,t '+ an em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n $s ,alled *(en'men'n! T(at /($,( $n t(e *(en'men'n
,'rres*'nds t' t(e sensat$'n) I term $ts matter4 but t(at /($,(
e++e,ts t(at t(e ,'ntent '+ t(e *(en'men'n ,an be arran-ed under
,erta$n relat$'ns) I ,all $ts +'rm! 3ut t(at $n /($,( 'ur sensat$'ns
are merely arran-ed) and by /($,( t(ey are sus,e*t$ble '+ assum$n- a
,erta$n +'rm) ,ann't be $tsel+ sensat$'n! It $s) t(en) t(e matter '+
all *(en'mena t(at $s -$0en t' us a *'ster$'r$4 t(e +'rm must l$e
ready a *r$'r$ +'r t(em $n t(e m$nd) and ,'nse.uently ,an be
re-arded se*arately +r'm all sensat$'n!
I ,all all re*resentat$'ns *ure) $n t(e trans,endental mean$n- '+
t(e /'rd) /(ere$n n't($n- $s met /$t( t(at bel'n-s t' sensat$'n! And
a,,'rd$n-ly /e +$nd e1$st$n- $n t(e m$nd a *r$'r$) t(e *ure +'rm '+
sensu'us $ntu$t$'ns $n -eneral) $n /($,( all t(e man$+'ld ,'ntent '+
t(e *(en'menal /'rld $s arran-ed and 0$e/ed under ,erta$n relat$'ns!
T($s *ure +'rm '+ sens$b$l$ty I s(all ,all *ure $ntu$t$'n! T(us) $+
I ta%e a/ay +r'm 'ur re*resentat$'n '+ a b'dy all t(at t(e
understand$n- t($n%s as bel'n-$n- t' $t) as substan,e) +'r,e)
d$0$s$b$l$ty) et,!) and als' /(ate0er bel'n-s t' sensat$'n) as
$m*enetrab$l$ty) (ardness) ,'l'ur) et,!4 yet t(ere $s st$ll
s'met($n- le+t us +r'm t($s em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) namely) e1tens$'n and
s(a*e! T(ese bel'n- t' *ure $ntu$t$'n) /($,( e1$sts a *r$'r$ $n t(e
m$nd) as a mere +'rm '+ sens$b$l$ty) and /$t('ut any real 'b&e,t '+
t(e senses 'r any sensat$'n!
T(e s,$en,e '+ all t(e *r$n,$*les '+ sens$b$l$ty a *r$'r$) I ,all
trans,endental aest(et$,!7 T(ere must) t(en) be su,( a s,$en,e +'rm$n-
t(e +$rst *art '+ t(e trans,endental d',tr$ne '+ elements) $n
,'ntrad$st$n,t$'n t' t(at *art /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e *r$n,$*les '+ *ure
t('u-(t) and /($,( $s ,alled trans,endental l'-$,!
7T(e Cermans are t(e 'nly *e'*le /(' at *resent use t($s /'rd t'
$nd$,ate /(at 't(ers ,all t(e ,r$t$.ue '+ taste! At t(e +'undat$'n
'+ t($s term l$es t(e d$sa**'$nted ('*e) /($,( t(e em$nent analyst)
3aum-arten) ,'n,e$0ed) '+ sub&e,t$n- t(e ,r$t$,$sm '+ t(e beaut$+ul t'
*r$n,$*les '+ reas'n) and s' '+ ele0at$n- $ts rules $nt' a s,$en,e!
3ut ($s endea0'urs /ere 0a$n! F'r t(e sa$d rules 'r ,r$ter$a are) $n
res*e,t t' t(e$r ,($e+ s'ur,es) merely em*$r$,al) ,'nse.uently ne0er
,an ser0e as determ$nate la/s a *r$'r$) by /($,( 'ur &ud-ement $n
matters '+ taste $s t' be d$re,ted! It $s rat(er 'ur &ud-ement /($,(
+'rms t(e *r'*er test as t' t(e ,'rre,tness '+ t(e *r$n,$*les! On t($s
a,,'unt $t $s ad0$sable t' -$0e u* t(e use '+ t(e term as
des$-nat$n- t(e ,r$t$.ue '+ taste) and t' a**ly $t s'lely t' t(at
d',tr$ne) /($,( $s true s,$en,e5 t(e s,$en,e '+ t(e la/s '+
sens$b$l$ty5 and t(us ,'me nearer t' t(e lan-ua-e and t(e sense '+ t(e
an,$ents $n t(e$r /ell5%n'/n d$0$s$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,ts '+ ,'-n$t$'n $nt'
a$'t(eta %a$ n'eta) 'r t' s(are $t /$t( s*e,ulat$0e *($l's'*(y) and
em*l'y $t *artly $n a trans,endental) *artly $n a *sy,('l'-$,al
In t(e s,$en,e '+ trans,endental aest(et$, a,,'rd$n-ly) /e s(all
+$rst $s'late sens$b$l$ty 'r t(e sensu'us +a,ulty) by se*arat$n-
+r'm $t all t(at $s anne1ed t' $ts *er,e*t$'ns by t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
understand$n-) s' t(at n't($n- be le+t but em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n! In t(e
ne1t *la,e /e s(all ta%e a/ay +r'm t($s $ntu$t$'n all t(at bel'n-s
t' sensat$'n) s' t(at n't($n- may rema$n but *ure $ntu$t$'n) and t(e
mere +'rm '+ *(en'mena) /($,( $s all t(at t(e sens$b$l$ty ,an a++'rd a
*r$'r$! Fr'm t($s $n0est$-at$'n $t /$ll be +'und t(at t(ere are t/'
*ure +'rms '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) as *r$n,$*les '+ %n'/led-e a *r$'r$)
namely) s*a,e and t$me! T' t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(ese /e s(all n'/
SECTION I! O+ S*a,e!

SS B! "eta*(ys$,al E1*'s$t$'n '+ t($s C'n,e*t$'n!

3y means '+ t(e e1ternal sense =a *r'*erty '+ t(e m$nd>) /e
re*resent t' 'ursel0es 'b&e,ts as /$t('ut us) and t(ese all $n
s*a,e! Here$n al'ne are t(e$r s(a*e) d$mens$'ns) and relat$'ns t' ea,(
't(er determ$ned 'r determ$nable! T(e $nternal sense) by means '+
/($,( t(e m$nd ,'ntem*lates $tsel+ 'r $ts $nternal state) -$0es)
$ndeed) n' $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e s'ul as an 'b&e,t4 yet t(ere $s
ne0ert(eless a determ$nate +'rm) under /($,( al'ne t(e ,'ntem*lat$'n
'+ 'ur $nternal state $s *'ss$ble) s' t(at all /($,( relates t' t(e
$n/ard determ$nat$'ns '+ t(e m$nd $s re*resented $n relat$'ns '+ t$me!
O+ t$me /e ,ann't (a0e any e1ternal $ntu$t$'n) any m're t(an /e ,an
(a0e an $nternal $ntu$t$'n '+ s*a,e! 2(at t(en are t$me and s*a,e@ Are
t(ey real e1$sten,es@ Or) are t(ey merely relat$'ns 'r
determ$nat$'ns '+ t($n-s) su,() ('/e0er) as /'uld e.ually bel'n- t'
t(ese t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) t('u-( t(ey s('uld ne0er be,'me 'b&e,ts '+
$ntu$t$'n4 'r) are t(ey su,( as bel'n- 'nly t' t(e +'rm '+
$ntu$t$'n) and ,'nse.uently t' t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ t(e
m$nd) /$t('ut /($,( t(ese *red$,ates '+ t$me and s*a,e ,'uld n't be
atta,(ed t' any 'b&e,t@ In 'rder t' be,'me $n+'rmed 'n t(ese *'$nts)
/e s(all +$rst -$0e an e1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ s*a,e! 3y
e1*'s$t$'n) I mean t(e ,lear) t('u-( n't deta$led) re*resentat$'n '+
t(at /($,( bel'n-s t' a ,'n,e*t$'n4 and an e1*'s$t$'n $s
meta*(ys$,al /(en $t ,'nta$ns t(at /($,( re*resents t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
as -$0en a *r$'r$!
1! S*a,e $s n't a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( (as been der$0ed +r'm 'ut/ard
e1*er$en,es! F'r) $n 'rder t(at ,erta$n sensat$'ns may relate t'
s'met($n- /$t('ut me =t(at $s) t' s'met($n- /($,( ',,u*$es a d$++erent
*art '+ s*a,e +r'm t(at $n /($,( I am>4 $n l$%e manner) $n 'rder
t(at I may re*resent t(em n't merely as /$t('ut) '+) and near t'
ea,( 't(er) but als' $n se*arate *la,es) t(e re*resentat$'n '+ s*a,e
must already e1$st as a +'undat$'n! C'nse.uently) t(e re*resentat$'n
'+ s*a,e ,ann't be b'rr'/ed +r'm t(e relat$'ns '+ e1ternal *(en'mena
t(r'u-( e1*er$en,e4 but) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) t($s e1ternal e1*er$en,e
$s $tsel+ 'nly *'ss$ble t(r'u-( t(e sa$d ante,edent re*resentat$'n!
B! S*a,e t(en $s a ne,essary re*resentat$'n a *r$'r$) /($,( ser0es
+'r t(e +'undat$'n '+ all e1ternal $ntu$t$'ns! 2e ne0er ,an $ma-$ne 'r
ma%e a re*resentat$'n t' 'ursel0es '+ t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ s*a,e)
t('u-( /e may eas$ly en'u-( t($n% t(at n' 'b&e,ts are +'und $n $t!
It must) t(ere+'re) be ,'ns$dered as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ *(en'mena) and by n' means as a determ$nat$'n de*endent
'n t(em) and $s a re*resentat$'n a *r$'r$) /($,( ne,essar$ly
su**l$es t(e bas$s +'r e1ternal *(en'mena!
I! S*a,e $s n' d$s,urs$0e) 'r as /e say) -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
relat$'ns '+ t($n-s) but a *ure $ntu$t$'n! F'r) $n t(e +$rst *la,e) /e
,an 'nly re*resent t' 'ursel0es 'ne s*a,e) and) /(en /e tal% '+ d$0ers
s*a,es) /e mean 'nly *arts '+ 'ne and t(e same s*a,e! "'re'0er)
t(ese *arts ,ann't ante,ede t($s 'ne all5embra,$n- s*a,e) as t(e
,'m*'nent *arts +r'm /($,( t(e a--re-ate ,an be made u*) but ,an be
,'-$tated 'nly as e1$st$n- $n $t! S*a,e $s essent$ally 'ne) and
mult$*l$,$ty $n $t) ,'nse.uently t(e -eneral n't$'n '+ s*a,es) '+ t($s
'r t(at s*a,e) de*ends s'lely u*'n l$m$tat$'ns! Hen,e $t +'ll'/s
t(at an a *r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n =/($,( $s n't em*$r$,al> l$es at t(e r''t
'+ all 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ s*a,e! T(us) m're'0er) t(e *r$n,$*les '+
-e'metry5 +'r e1am*le) t(at 9$n a tr$an-le) t/' s$des t'-et(er are
-reater t(an t(e t($rd)9 are ne0er dedu,ed +r'm -eneral ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
l$ne and tr$an-le) but +r'm $ntu$t$'n) and t($s a *r$'r$) /$t(
a*'de$,t$, ,erta$nty!
K! S*a,e $s re*resented as an $n+$n$te -$0en .uant$ty! N'/ e0ery
,'n,e*t$'n must $ndeed be ,'ns$dered as a re*resentat$'n /($,( $s
,'nta$ned $n an $n+$n$te mult$tude '+ d$++erent *'ss$ble
re*resentat$'ns) /($,() t(ere+'re) ,'m*r$ses t(ese under $tsel+4 but
n' ,'n,e*t$'n) as su,() ,an be s' ,'n,e$0ed) as $+ $t ,'nta$ned /$t($n
$tsel+ an $n+$n$te mult$tude '+ re*resentat$'ns! Ne0ert(eless) s*a,e
$s s' ,'n,e$0ed '+) +'r all *arts '+ s*a,e are e.ually ,a*able '+
be$n- *r'du,ed t' $n+$n$ty! C'nse.uently) t(e 'r$-$nal
re*resentat$'n '+ s*a,e $s an $ntu$t$'n a *r$'r$) and n't a
SS I! Trans,endental E1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e C'n,e*t$'n '+ S*a,e!

3y a trans,endental e1*'s$t$'n) I mean t(e e1*lanat$'n '+ a
,'n,e*t$'n) as a *r$n,$*le) /(en,e ,an be d$s,erned t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
't(er synt(et$,al a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns! F'r t($s *ur*'se) $t $s
re.u$s$te) +$rstly) t(at su,( ,'-n$t$'ns d' really +l'/ +r'm t(e -$0en
,'n,e*t$'n4 and) se,'ndly) t(at t(e sa$d ,'-n$t$'ns are 'nly
*'ss$ble under t(e *resu**'s$t$'n '+ a -$0en m'de '+ e1*la$n$n- t($s
Ce'metry $s a s,$en,e /($,( determ$nes t(e *r'*ert$es '+ s*a,e
synt(et$,ally) and yet a *r$'r$! 2(at) t(en) must be 'ur
re*resentat$'n '+ s*a,e) $n 'rder t(at su,( a ,'-n$t$'n '+ $t may be
*'ss$ble@ It must be 'r$-$nally $ntu$t$'n) +'r +r'm a mere ,'n,e*t$'n)
n' *r'*'s$t$'ns ,an be dedu,ed /($,( -' 'ut bey'nd t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) and
yet t($s (a**ens $n -e'metry! =Intr'd! D!> 3ut t($s $ntu$t$'n must
be +'und $n t(e m$nd a *r$'r$) t(at $s) be+'re any *er,e*t$'n '+
'b&e,ts) ,'nse.uently must be *ure) n't em*$r$,al) $ntu$t$'n! F'r
-e'metr$,al *r$n,$*les are al/ays a*'de$,t$,) t(at $s) un$ted /$t( t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e$r ne,ess$ty) as6 9S*a,e (as 'nly t(ree
d$mens$'ns!9 3ut *r'*'s$t$'ns '+ t($s %$nd ,ann't be em*$r$,al
&ud-ements) n'r ,'n,lus$'ns +r'm t(em! =Intr'd! II!> N'/) ('/ ,an an
e1ternal $ntu$t$'n anter$'r t' 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es) and $n /($,( 'ur
,'n,e*t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts ,an be determ$ned a *r$'r$) e1$st $n t(e (uman
m$nd@ Ob0$'usly n't 't(er/$se t(an $n s' +ar as $t (as $ts seat $n t(e
sub&e,t 'nly) as t(e +'rmal ,a*a,$ty '+ t(e sub&e,t?s be$n- a++e,ted
by 'b&e,ts) and t(ereby '+ 'bta$n$n- $mmed$ate re*resentat$'n) t(at
$s) $ntu$t$'n4 ,'nse.uently) 'nly as t(e +'rm '+ t(e e1ternal sense $n
T(us $t $s 'nly by means '+ 'ur e1*lanat$'n t(at t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ -e'metry) as a synt(et$,al s,$en,e a *r$'r$) be,'mes
,'m*re(ens$ble! E0ery m'de '+ e1*lanat$'n /($,( d'es n't s('/ us
t($s *'ss$b$l$ty) alt('u-( $n a**earan,e $t may be s$m$lar t' 'urs)
,an /$t( t(e utm'st ,erta$nty be d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm $t by t(ese mar%s!
SS K! C'n,lus$'ns +r'm t(e +'re-'$n- C'n,e*t$'ns!

=a> S*a,e d'es S*a,e d'es n't re*resent any *r'*erty '+ 'b&e,ts as
t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) n'r d'es $t re*resent t(em $n t(e$r relat$'ns t'
ea,( 't(er4 $n 't(er /'rds) s*a,e d'es n't re*resent t' us any
determ$nat$'n '+ 'b&e,ts su,( as atta,(es t' t(e 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es)
and /'uld rema$n) e0en t('u-( all sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e
$ntu$t$'n /ere abstra,ted! F'r ne$t(er abs'lute n'r relat$0e
determ$nat$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts ,an be $ntu$ted *r$'r t' t(e e1$sten,e '+
t(e t($n-s t' /($,( t(ey bel'n-) and t(ere+'re n't a *r$'r$!
=b> S*a,e $s n't($n- else t(an t(e +'rm '+ all *(en'mena '+ t(e
e1ternal sense) t(at $s) t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
sens$b$l$ty) under /($,( al'ne e1ternal $ntu$t$'n $s *'ss$ble! N'/)
be,ause t(e re,e*t$0$ty 'r ,a*a,$ty '+ t(e sub&e,t t' be a++e,ted by
'b&e,ts ne,essar$ly ante,edes all $ntu$t$'ns '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts) $t $s
eas$ly underst''d ('/ t(e +'rm '+ all *(en'mena ,an be -$0en $n t(e
m$nd *re0$'us t' all a,tual *er,e*t$'ns) t(ere+'re a *r$'r$) and ('/
$t) as a *ure $ntu$t$'n) $n /($,( all 'b&e,ts must be determ$ned)
,an ,'nta$n *r$n,$*les '+ t(e relat$'ns '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts *r$'r t'
all e1*er$en,e!
It $s t(ere+'re +r'm t(e (uman *'$nt '+ 0$e/ 'nly t(at /e ,an
s*ea% '+ s*a,e) e1tended 'b&e,ts) et,! I+ /e de*art +r'm t(e
sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n) under /($,( al'ne /e ,an 'bta$n e1ternal
$ntu$t$'n) 'r) $n 't(er /'rds) by means '+ /($,( /e are a++e,ted by
'b&e,ts) t(e re*resentat$'n '+ s*a,e (as n' mean$n- /(ats'e0er! T($s
*red$,ate $s 'nly a**l$,able t' t($n-s $n s' +ar as t(ey a**ear t' us)
t(at $s) are 'b&e,ts '+ sens$b$l$ty! T(e ,'nstant +'rm '+ t($s
re,e*t$0$ty) /($,( /e ,all sens$b$l$ty) $s a ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n '+
all relat$'ns $n /($,( 'b&e,ts ,an be $ntu$ted as e1$st$n- /$t('ut us)
and /(en abstra,t$'n '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts $s made) $s a *ure $ntu$t$'n) t'
/($,( /e -$0e t(e name '+ s*a,e! It $s ,lear t(at /e ,ann't ma%e t(e
s*e,$al ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty $nt' ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ t($n-s) but 'nly '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e$r e1$sten,e as +ar as
t(ey are *(en'mena! And s' /e may ,'rre,tly say t(at s*a,e ,'nta$ns
all /($,( ,an a**ear t' us e1ternally) but n't all t($n-s ,'ns$dered
as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) be t(ey $ntu$ted 'r n't) 'r by /(ats'e0er
sub&e,t 'ne /$ll! As t' t(e $ntu$t$'ns '+ 't(er t($n%$n- be$n-s) /e
,ann't &ud-e /(et(er t(ey are 'r are n't b'und by t(e same
,'nd$t$'ns /($,( l$m$t 'ur '/n $ntu$t$'n) and /($,( +'r us are
un$0ersally 0al$d! I+ /e &'$n t(e l$m$tat$'n '+ a &ud-ement t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t) t(en t(e &ud-ement /$ll *'ssess
un,'nd$t$'ned 0al$d$ty! F'r e1am*le) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9All 'b&e,ts are
bes$de ea,( 't(er $n s*a,e)9 $s 0al$d 'nly under t(e l$m$tat$'n t(at
t(ese t($n-s are ta%en as 'b&e,ts '+ 'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! 3ut $+
I &'$n t(e ,'nd$t$'n t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n and say) 9All t($n-s) as
e1ternal *(en'mena) are bes$de ea,( 't(er $n s*a,e)9 t(en t(e rule
$s 0al$d un$0ersally) and /$t('ut any l$m$tat$'n! Our e1*'s$t$'ns)
,'nse.uently) tea,( t(e real$ty =$!e!) t(e 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty> '+
s*a,e $n re-ard '+ all /($,( ,an be *resented t' us e1ternally as
'b&e,t) and at t(e same t$me als' t(e $deal$ty '+ s*a,e $n re-ard t'
'b&e,ts /(en t(ey are ,'ns$dered by means '+ reas'n as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) t(at $s) /$t('ut re+eren,e t' t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ 'ur
sens$b$l$ty! 2e ma$nta$n) t(ere+'re) t(e em*$r$,al real$ty '+ s*a,e $n
re-ard t' all *'ss$ble e1ternal e1*er$en,e) alt('u-( /e must adm$t $ts
trans,endental $deal$ty4 $n 't(er /'rds) t(at $t $s n't($n-) s' s''n
as /e /$t(dra/ t(e ,'nd$t$'n u*'n /($,( t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all
e1*er$en,e de*ends and l''% u*'n s*a,e as s'met($n- t(at bel'n-s t'
t($n-s $n t(emsel0es!
3ut) /$t( t(e e1,e*t$'n '+ s*a,e) t(ere $s n' re*resentat$'n)
sub&e,t$0e and re+ err$n- t' s'met($n- e1ternal t' us) /($,( ,'uld
be ,alled 'b&e,t$0e a *r$'r$! F'r t(ere are n' 't(er sub&e,t$0e
re*resentat$'ns +r'm /($,( /e ,an dedu,e synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a
*r$'r$) as /e ,an +r'm t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ s*a,e! =See SS I!>
T(ere+'re) t' s*ea% a,,urately) n' $deal$ty /(ate0er bel'n-s t' t(ese)
alt('u-( t(ey a-ree $n t($s res*e,t /$t( t(e re*resentat$'n '+
s*a,e) t(at t(ey bel'n- merely t' t(e sub&e,t$0e nature '+ t(e m'de '+
sensu'us *er,e*t$'n4 su,( a m'de) +'r e1am*le) as t(at '+ s$-(t) '+
(ear$n-) and '+ +eel$n-) by means '+ t(e sensat$'ns '+ ,'l'ur)
s'und) and (eat) but /($,() be,ause t(ey are 'nly sensat$'ns and n't
$ntu$t$'ns) d' n't '+ t(emsel0es -$0e us t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ any
'b&e,t) least '+ all) an a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n! "y *ur*'se) $n t(e
ab'0e remar%) $s merely t($s6 t' -uard any 'ne a-a$nst $llustrat$n-
t(e asserted $deal$ty '+ s*a,e by e1am*les .u$te $nsu++$,$ent) +'r
e1am*le) by ,'l'ur) taste) et,!4 +'r t(ese must be ,'ntem*lated n't as
*r'*ert$es '+ t($n-s) but 'nly as ,(an-es $n t(e sub&e,t) ,(an-es
/($,( may be d$++erent $n d$++erent men! F'r) $n su,( a ,ase) t(at
/($,( $s 'r$-$nally a mere *(en'men'n) a r'se) +'r e1am*le) $s ta%en
by t(e em*$r$,al understand$n- +'r a t($n- $n $tsel+) t('u-( t'
e0ery d$++erent eye) $n res*e,t '+ $ts ,'l'ur) $t may a**ear
d$++erent! On t(e ,'ntrary) t(e trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'n '+ *(en'mena
$n s*a,e $s a ,r$t$,al adm'n$t$'n) t(at) $n -eneral) n't($n- /($,(
$s $ntu$ted $n s*a,e $s a t($n- $n $tsel+) and t(at s*a,e $s n't a
+'rm /($,( bel'n-s as a *r'*erty t' t($n-s4 but t(at 'b&e,ts are .u$te
un%n'/n t' us $n t(emsel0es) and /(at /e ,all 'ut/ard 'b&e,ts) are
n't($n- else but mere re*resentat$'ns '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty) /('se +'rm
$s s*a,e) but /('se real ,'rrelate) t(e t($n- $n $tsel+) $s n't
%n'/n by means '+ t(ese re*resentat$'ns) n'r e0er ,an be) but
res*e,t$n- /($,() $n e1*er$en,e) n' $n.u$ry $s e0er made!

SS A "eta*(ys$,al E1*'s$t$'n '+ t($s C'n,e*t$'n!

1! T$me $s n't an em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n! F'r ne$t(er ,'e1$sten,e
n'r su,,ess$'n /'uld be *er,e$0ed by us) $+ t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t$me
d$d n't e1$st as a +'undat$'n a *r$'r$! 2$t('ut t($s *resu**'s$t$'n /e
,'uld n't re*resent t' 'ursel0es t(at t($n-s e1$st t'-et(er at 'ne and
t(e same t$me) 'r at d$++erent t$mes) t(at $s) ,'ntem*'rane'usly) 'r
$n su,,ess$'n!
B! T$me $s a ne,essary re*resentat$'n) ly$n- at t(e +'undat$'n '+
all 'ur $ntu$t$'ns! 2$t( re-ard t' *(en'mena $n -eneral) /e ,ann't
t($n% a/ay t$me +r'm t(em) and re*resent t(em t' 'ursel0es as 'ut '+
and un,'nne,ted /$t( t$me) but /e ,an .u$te /ell re*resent t'
'ursel0es t$me 0'$d '+ *(en'mena! T$me $s t(ere+'re -$0en a *r$'r$! In
$t al'ne $s all real$ty '+ *(en'mena *'ss$ble! T(ese may all be
ann$($lated $n t('u-(t) but t$me $tsel+) as t(e un$0ersal ,'nd$t$'n '+
t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty) ,ann't be s' annulled!
I! On t($s ne,ess$ty a *r$'r$ $s als' +'unded t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
a*'de$,t$, *r$n,$*les '+ t(e relat$'ns '+ t$me) 'r a1$'ms '+ t$me $n
-eneral) su,( as6 9T$me (as 'nly 'ne d$mens$'n)9 9#$++erent t$mes
are n't ,'e1$stent but su,,ess$0e9 =as d$++erent s*a,es are n't
su,,ess$0e but ,'e1$stent>! T(ese *r$n,$*les ,ann't be der$0ed +r'm
e1*er$en,e) +'r $t /'uld -$0e ne$t(er str$,t un$0ersal$ty) n'r
a*'de$,t$, ,erta$nty! 2e s('uld 'nly be able t' say) 9s' ,'mm'n
e1*er$en,e tea,(es us)9 but n't 9$t must be s'!9 T(ey are 0al$d as
rules) t(r'u-( /($,() $n -eneral) e1*er$en,e $s *'ss$ble4 and t(ey
$nstru,t us res*e,t$n- e1*er$en,e) and n't by means '+ $t!
K! T$me $s n't a d$s,urs$0e) 'r as $t $s ,alled) -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n)
but a *ure +'rm '+ t(e sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! #$++erent t$mes are
merely *arts '+ 'ne and t(e same t$me! 3ut t(e re*resentat$'n /($,(
,an 'nly be -$0en by a s$n-le 'b&e,t $s an $ntu$t$'n! 3es$des) t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n t(at d$++erent t$mes ,ann't be ,'e1$stent ,'uld n't be
der$0ed +r'm a -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n! F'r t($s *r'*'s$t$'n $s
synt(et$,al) and t(ere+'re ,ann't s*r$n- 'ut '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns al'ne!
It $s t(ere+'re ,'nta$ned $mmed$ately $n t(e $ntu$t$'n and
re*resentat$'n '+ t$me!
A! T(e $n+$n$ty '+ t$me s$-n$+$es n't($n- m're t(an t(at e0ery
determ$ned .uant$ty '+ t$me $s *'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( l$m$tat$'ns '+
'ne t$me ly$n- at t(e +'undat$'n! C'nse.uently) t(e 'r$-$nal
re*resentat$'n) t$me) must be -$0en as unl$m$ted! 3ut as t(e
determ$nate re*resentat$'n '+ t(e *arts '+ t$me and '+ e0ery
.uant$ty '+ an 'b&e,t ,an 'nly be 'bta$ned by l$m$tat$'n) t(e ,'m*lete
re*resentat$'n '+ t$me must n't be +urn$s(ed by means '+
,'n,e*t$'ns) +'r t(ese ,'nta$n 'nly *art$al re*resentat$'ns!
C'n,e*t$'ns) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) must (a0e $mmed$ate $ntu$t$'n +'r
t(e$r bas$s!
SS L Trans,endental E1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e C'n,e*t$'n '+ T$me!

I may (ere re+er t' /(at $s sa$d ab'0e =SS A) I>) /(ere) +'r 'r sa%e
'+ bre0$ty) I (a0e *la,ed under t(e (ead '+ meta*(ys$,al e1*'s$t$'n)
t(at /($,( $s *r'*erly trans,endental! Here I s(all add t(at t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,(an-e) and /$t( $t t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ m't$'n) as
,(an-e '+ *la,e) $s *'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( and $n t(e re*resentat$'n '+
t$me4 t(at $+ t($s re*resentat$'n /ere n't an $ntu$t$'n =$nternal> a
*r$'r$) n' ,'n,e*t$'n) '+ /(ate0er %$nd) ,'uld render ,'m*re(ens$ble
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,(an-e) $n 't(er /'rds) '+ a ,'n&un,t$'n '+
,'ntrad$,t'r$ly '**'sed *red$,ates $n 'ne and t(e same 'b&e,t) +'r
e1am*le) t(e *resen,e '+ a t($n- $n a *la,e and t(e n'n5*resen,e '+
t(e same t($n- $n t(e same *la,e! It $s 'nly $n t$me t(at $t $s
*'ss$ble t' meet /$t( t/' ,'ntrad$,t'r$ly '**'sed determ$nat$'ns $n
'ne t($n-) t(at $s) a+ter ea,( 't(er! t(us 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t$me
e1*la$ns t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ s' mu,( synt(et$,al %n'/led-e a *r$'r$) as
$s e1($b$ted $n t(e -eneral d',tr$ne '+ m't$'n) /($,( $s n't a
l$ttle +ru$t+ul!
SS 7 C'n,lus$'ns +r'm t(e ab'0e C'n,e*t$'ns!

=a> T$me $s n't s'met($n- /($,( subs$sts '+ $tsel+) 'r /($,( $n(eres
$n t($n-s as an 'b&e,t$0e determ$nat$'n) and t(ere+'re rema$ns) /(en
abstra,t$'n $s made '+ t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e $ntu$t$'n '+
t($n-s! F'r $n t(e +'rmer ,ase) $t /'uld be s'met($n- real) yet
/$t('ut *resent$n- t' any *'/er '+ *er,e*t$'n any real 'b&e,t! In
t(e latter ,ase) as an 'rder 'r determ$nat$'n $n(erent $n t($n-s
t(emsel0es) $t ,'uld n't be ante,edent t' t($n-s) as t(e$r
,'nd$t$'n) n'r d$s,erned 'r $ntu$ted by means '+ synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'ns a *r$'r$! 3ut all t($s $s .u$te *'ss$ble /(en /e re-ard
t$me as merely t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n under /($,( all 'ur $ntu$t$'ns
ta%e *la,e! F'r $n t(at ,ase) t($s +'rm '+ t(e $n/ard $ntu$t$'n ,an be
re*resented *r$'r t' t(e 'b&e,ts) and ,'nse.uently a *r$'r$!
=b> T$me $s n't($n- else t(an t(e +'rm '+ t(e $nternal sense) t(at
$s) '+ t(e $ntu$t$'ns '+ sel+ and '+ 'ur $nternal state! F'r t$me
,ann't be any determ$nat$'n '+ 'ut/ard *(en'mena! It (as t' d' ne$t(er
/$t( s(a*e n'r *'s$t$'n4 'n t(e ,'ntrary) $t determ$nes t(e relat$'n
'+ re*resentat$'ns $n 'ur $nternal state! And *re,$sely be,ause t($s
$nternal $ntu$t$'n *resents t' us n' s(a*e 'r +'rm) /e endea0'ur t'
su**ly t($s /ant by anal'-$es) and re*resent t(e ,'urse '+ t$me by a
l$ne *r'-ress$n- t' $n+$n$ty) t(e ,'ntent '+ /($,( ,'nst$tutes a
ser$es /($,( $s 'nly '+ 'ne d$mens$'n4 and /e ,'n,lude +r'm t(e
*r'*ert$es '+ t($s l$ne as t' all t(e *r'*ert$es '+ t$me) /$t( t($s
s$n-le e1,e*t$'n) t(at t(e *arts '+ t(e l$ne are ,'e1$stent) /($lst
t('se '+ t$me are su,,ess$0e! Fr'm t($s $t $s ,lear als' t(at t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ t$me $s $tsel+ an $ntu$t$'n) be,ause all $ts
relat$'ns ,an be e1*ressed $n an e1ternal $ntu$t$'n!
=,> T$me $s t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n a *r$'r$ '+ all *(en'mena
/(ats'e0er! S*a,e) as t(e *ure +'rm '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n) $s
l$m$ted as a ,'nd$t$'n a *r$'r$ t' e1ternal *(en'mena al'ne! On t(e
't(er (and) be,ause all re*resentat$'ns) /(et(er t(ey (a0e 'r (a0e n't
e1ternal t($n-s +'r t(e$r 'b&e,ts) st$ll $n t(emsel0es) as
determ$nat$'ns '+ t(e m$nd) bel'n- t' 'ur $nternal state4 and
be,ause t($s $nternal state $s sub&e,t t' t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+
t(e $nternal $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s) t' t$me5 t$me $s a ,'nd$t$'n a *r$'r$
'+ all *(en'mena /(ats'e0er5 t(e $mmed$ate ,'nd$t$'n '+ all
$nternal) and t(ereby t(e med$ate ,'nd$t$'n '+ all e1ternal *(en'mena!
I+ I ,an say a *r$'r$) 9All 'ut/ard *(en'mena are $n s*a,e) and
determ$ned a *r$'r$ a,,'rd$n- t' t(e relat$'ns '+ s*a,e)9 I ,an
als') +r'm t(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(e $nternal sense) a++$rm un$0ersally)
9All *(en'mena $n -eneral) t(at $s) all 'b&e,ts '+ t(e senses) are
$n t$me and stand ne,essar$ly $n relat$'ns '+ t$me!9
I+ /e abstra,t 'ur $nternal $ntu$t$'n '+ 'ursel0es and all
e1ternal $ntu$t$'ns) *'ss$ble 'nly by 0$rtue '+ t($s $nternal
$ntu$t$'n and *resented t' us by 'ur +a,ulty '+ re*resentat$'n) and
,'nse.uently ta%e 'b&e,ts as t(ey are $n t(emsel0es) t(en t$me $s
n't($n-! It $s 'nly '+ 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty $n re-ard t' *(en'mena)
be,ause t(ese are t($n-s /($,( /e re-ard as 'b&e,ts '+ 'ur senses!
It n' l'n-er 'b&e,t$0e /e) ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ t(e sensu'usness '+ 'ur
$ntu$t$'n) $n 't(er /'rds) '+ t(at m'de '+ re*resentat$'n /($,( $s
*e,ul$ar t' us) and s*ea% '+ t($n-s $n -eneral! T$me $s t(ere+'re
merely a sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n '+ 'ur =(uman> $ntu$t$'n =/($,( $s
al/ays sensu'us) t(at $s) s' +ar as /e are a++e,ted by 'b&e,ts>) and
$n $tsel+) $nde*endently '+ t(e m$nd 'r sub&e,t) $s n't($n-!
Ne0ert(eless) $n res*e,t '+ all *(en'mena) ,'nse.uently '+ all
t($n-s /($,( ,'me /$t($n t(e s*(ere '+ 'ur e1*er$en,e) $t $s
ne,essar$ly 'b&e,t$0e! 2e ,ann't say) 9All t($n-s are $n t$me)9
be,ause $n t($s ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t($n-s $n -eneral) /e abstra,t and
ma%e n' ment$'n '+ any s'rt '+ $ntu$t$'n '+ t($n-s! 3ut t($s $s t(e
*r'*er ,'nd$t$'n under /($,( t$me bel'n-s t' 'ur re*resentat$'n '+
'b&e,ts! I+ /e add t(e ,'nd$t$'n t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) and say) 9All
t($n-s) as *(en'mena) t(at $s) 'b&e,ts '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) are $n
t$me)9 t(en t(e *r'*'s$t$'n (as $ts s'und 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty and
un$0ersal$ty a *r$'r$!
2(at /e (a0e n'/ set +'rt( tea,(es) t(ere+'re) t(e em*$r$,al real$ty
'+ t$me4 t(at $s) $ts 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty $n re+eren,e t' all 'b&e,ts
/($,( ,an e0er be *resented t' 'ur senses! And as 'ur $ntu$t$'n $s
al/ays sensu'us) n' 'b&e,t e0er ,an be *resented t' us $n
e1*er$en,e) /($,( d'es n't ,'me under t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me! On t(e
't(er (and) /e deny t' t$me all ,la$m t' abs'lute real$ty4 t(at $s) /e
deny t(at $t) /$t('ut (a0$n- re-ard t' t(e +'rm '+ 'ur sensu'us
$ntu$t$'n) abs'lutely $n(eres $n t($n-s as a ,'nd$t$'n 'r *r'*erty!
Su,( *r'*ert$es as bel'n- t' 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es ne0er ,an
be *resented t' us t(r'u-( t(e med$um '+ t(e senses! Here$n
,'ns$sts) t(ere+'re) t(e trans,endental $deal$ty '+ t$me) a,,'rd$n- t'
/($,() $+ /e abstra,t t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n)
$t $s n't($n-) and ,ann't be re,%'ned as subs$st$n- 'r $n(er$n- $n
'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) $nde*endently '+ $ts relat$'n t'
'ur $ntu$t$'n! t($s $deal$ty) l$%e t(at '+ s*a,e) $s n't t' be
*r'0ed 'r $llustrated by +alla,$'us anal'-$es /$t( sensat$'ns) +'r
t($s reas'n5 t(at $n su,( ar-uments 'r $llustrat$'ns) /e ma%e t(e
*resu**'s$t$'n t(at t(e *(en'men'n) $n /($,( su,( and su,(
*red$,ates $n(ere) (as 'b&e,t$0e real$ty) /($le $n t($s ,ase /e ,an
'nly +$nd su,( an 'b&e,t$0e real$ty as $s $tsel+ em*$r$,al) t(at $s)
re-ards t(e 'b&e,t as a mere *(en'men'n! In re+eren,e t' t($s sub&e,t)
see t(e remar% $n Se,t$'n I =SS K>
SS 8 Elu,$dat$'n!

A-a$nst t($s t(e'ry) /($,( -rants em*$r$,al real$ty t' t$me) but
den$es t' $t abs'lute and trans,endental real$ty) I (a0e (eard +r'm
$ntell$-ent men an 'b&e,t$'n s' unan$m'usly ur-ed t(at I ,'n,lude t(at
$t must naturally *resent $tsel+ t' e0ery reader t' /('m t(ese
,'ns$derat$'ns are n'0el! It runs t(us6 9C(an-es are real9 =t($s t(e
,'nt$nual ,(an-e $n 'ur '/n re*resentat$'ns dem'nstrates) e0en
t('u-( t(e e1$sten,e '+ all e1ternal *(en'mena) t'-et(er /$t( t(e$r
,(an-es) $s den$ed>! N'/) ,(an-es are 'nly *'ss$ble $n t$me) and
t(ere+'re t$me must be s'met($n- real! 3ut t(ere $s n' d$++$,ulty $n
ans/er$n- t($s! I -rant t(e /('le ar-ument! T$me) n' d'ubt) $s
s'met($n- real) t(at $s) $t $s t(e real +'rm '+ 'ur $nternal
$ntu$t$'n! It t(ere+'re (as sub&e,t$0e real$ty) $n re+eren,e t' 'ur
$nternal e1*er$en,e) t(at $s) I (a0e really t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t$me
and '+ my determ$nat$'ns t(ere$n! T$me) t(ere+'re) $s n't t' be
re-arded as an 'b&e,t) but as t(e m'de '+ re*resentat$'n '+ mysel+
as an 'b&e,t! 3ut $+ I ,'uld $ntu$te mysel+) 'r be $ntu$ted by an't(er
be$n-) /$t('ut t($s ,'nd$t$'n '+ sens$b$l$ty) t(en t('se 0ery
determ$nat$'ns /($,( /e n'/ re*resent t' 'ursel0es as ,(an-es) /'uld
*resent t' us a %n'/led-e $n /($,( t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t$me) and
,'nse.uently '+ ,(an-e) /'uld n't a**ear! T(e em*$r$,al real$ty '+
t$me) t(ere+'re) rema$ns) as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ all 'ur e1*er$en,e!
3ut abs'lute real$ty) a,,'rd$n- t' /(at (as been sa$d ab'0e) ,ann't be
-ranted $t! T$me $s n't($n- but t(e +'rm '+ 'ur $nternal $ntu$t$'n!7
I+ /e ta%e a/ay +r'm $t t(e s*e,$al ,'nd$t$'n '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty)
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t$me als' 0an$s(es4 and $t $n(eres n't $n t(e
'b&e,ts t(emsel0es) but s'lely $n t(e sub&e,t ='r m$nd> /($,( $ntu$tes
7I ,an $ndeed say 9my re*resentat$'ns +'ll'/ 'ne an't(er) 'r are
su,,ess$0e94 but t($s means 'nly t(at /e are ,'ns,$'us '+ t(em as $n a
su,,ess$'n) t(at $s) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e +'rm '+ t(e $nternal sense!
T$me) t(ere+'re) $s n't a t($n- $n $tsel+) n'r $s $t any 'b&e,t$0e
determ$nat$'n *erta$n$n- t') 'r $n(erent $n t($n-s!
3ut t(e reas'n /(y t($s 'b&e,t$'n $s s' unan$m'usly br'u-(t
a-a$nst 'ur d',tr$ne '+ t$me) and t(at t'' by d$s*utants /(' ,ann't
start any $ntell$-$ble ar-uments a-a$nst t(e d',tr$ne '+ t(e
$deal$ty '+ s*a,e) $s t($s5 t(ey (a0e n' ('*e '+ dem'nstrat$n-
a*'de$,t$,ally t(e abs'lute real$ty '+ s*a,e) be,ause t(e d',tr$ne
'+ $deal$sm $s a-a$nst t(em) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( t(e real$ty '+
e1ternal 'b&e,ts $s n't ,a*able '+ any str$,t *r''+! On t(e 't(er
(and) t(e real$ty '+ t(e 'b&e,t '+ 'ur $nternal sense =t(at $s) mysel+
and my $nternal state> $s ,lear $mmed$ately t(r'u-( ,'ns,$'usness! T(e
+'rmer5 e1ternal 'b&e,ts $n s*a,e5 m$-(t be a mere delus$'n) but t(e
latter5 t(e 'b&e,t '+ my $nternal *er,e*t$'n5 $s unden$ably real! T(ey
d' n't) ('/e0er) re+le,t t(at b't() /$t('ut .uest$'n '+ t(e$r
real$ty as re*resentat$'ns) bel'n- 'nly t' t(e -enus *(en'men'n) /($,(
(as al/ays t/' as*e,ts) t(e 'ne) t(e 'b&e,t ,'ns$dered as a t($n- $n
$tsel+) /$t('ut re-ard t' t(e m'de '+ $ntu$t$n- $t) and t(e nature
'+ /($,( rema$ns +'r t($s 0ery reas'n *r'blemat$,al) t(e 't(er) t(e
+'rm '+ 'ur $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t) /($,( must be s'u-(t n't $n t(e
'b&e,t as a t($n- $n $tsel+) but $n t(e sub&e,t t' /($,( $t a**ears5
/($,( +'rm '+ $ntu$t$'n ne0ert(eless bel'n-s really and ne,essar$ly t'
t(e *(en'menal 'b&e,t!
T$me and s*a,e are) t(ere+'re) t/' s'ur,es '+ %n'/led-e) +r'm /($,()
a *r$'r$) 0ar$'us synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'ns ,an be dra/n! O+ t($s /e +$nd
a str$%$n- e1am*le $n t(e ,'-n$t$'ns '+ s*a,e and $ts relat$'ns) /($,(
+'rm t(e +'undat$'n '+ *ure mat(emat$,s! T(ey are t(e t/' *ure +'rms
'+ all $ntu$t$'ns) and t(ereby ma%e synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a
*r$'r$ *'ss$ble! 3ut t(ese s'ur,es '+ %n'/led-e be$n- merely
,'nd$t$'ns '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty) d' t(ere+'re) and as su,() str$,tly
determ$ne t(e$r '/n ran-e and *ur*'se) $n t(at t(ey d' n't and
,ann't *resent 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) but are a**l$,able
t' t(em s'lely $n s' +ar as t(ey are ,'ns$dered as sensu'us *(en'mena!
T(e s*(ere '+ *(en'mena $s t(e 'nly s*(ere '+ t(e$r 0al$d$ty) and $+
/e 0enture 'ut '+ t($s) n' +urt(er 'b&e,t$0e use ,an be made '+
t(em! F'r t(e rest) t($s +'rmal real$ty '+ t$me and s*a,e lea0es t(e
0al$d$ty '+ 'ur em*$r$,al %n'/led-e uns(a%en4 +'r 'ur ,erta$nty $n
t(at res*e,t $s e.ually +$rm) /(et(er t(ese +'rms ne,essar$ly $n(ere
$n t(e t($n-s t(emsel0es) 'r 'nly $n 'ur $ntu$t$'ns '+ t(em! On t(e
't(er (and) t('se /(' ma$nta$n t(e abs'lute real$ty '+ t$me and s*a,e)
/(et(er as essent$ally subs$st$n-) 'r 'nly $n(er$n-) as m'd$+$,at$'ns)
$n t($n-s) must +$nd t(emsel0es at utter 0ar$an,e /$t( t(e
*r$n,$*les '+ e1*er$en,e $tsel+! F'r) $+ t(ey de,$de +'r t(e +$rst
0$e/) and ma%e s*a,e and t$me $nt' substan,es) t($s be$n- t(e s$de
ta%en by mat(emat$,al natural *($l's'*(ers) t(ey must adm$t t/'
sel+5subs$st$n- n'nent$t$es) $n+$n$te and eternal) /($,( e1$st =yet
/$t('ut t(ere be$n- anyt($n- real> +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ ,'nta$n$n- $n
t(emsel0es e0eryt($n- t(at $s real! I+ t(ey ad'*t t(e se,'nd 0$e/ '+
$n(eren,e) /($,( $s *re+erred by s'me meta*(ys$,al natural
*($l's'*(ers) and re-ard s*a,e and t$me as relat$'ns =,'nt$-u$ty $n
s*a,e 'r su,,ess$'n $n t$me>) abstra,ted +r'm e1*er$en,e) t('u-(
re*resented ,'n+usedly $n t($s state '+ se*arat$'n) t(ey +$nd
t(emsel0es $n t(at ,ase ne,ess$tated t' deny t(e 0al$d$ty '+
mat(emat$,al d',tr$nes a *r$'r$ $n re+eren,e t' real t($n-s =+'r
e1am*le) $n s*a,e>5 at all e0ents t(e$r a*'de$,t$, ,erta$nty! F'r su,(
,erta$nty ,ann't be +'und $n an a *'ster$'r$ *r'*'s$t$'n4 and t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns a *r$'r$ '+ s*a,e and t$me are) a,,'rd$n- t' t($s '*$n$'n)
mere ,reat$'ns '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n) (a0$n- t(e$r s'ur,e really $n
e1*er$en,e) $nasmu,( as) 'ut '+ relat$'ns abstra,ted +r'm
e1*er$en,e) $ma-$nat$'n (as made u* s'met($n- /($,( ,'nta$ns)
$ndeed) -eneral statements '+ t(ese relat$'ns) yet '+ /($,( n'
a**l$,at$'n ,an be made /$t('ut t(e restr$,t$'ns atta,(ed t(eret' by
nature! T(e +'rmer '+ t(ese *art$es -a$ns t($s ad0anta-e) t(at t(ey
%ee* t(e s*(ere '+ *(en'mena +ree +'r mat(emat$,al s,$en,e! On t(e
't(er (and) t(ese 0ery ,'nd$t$'ns =s*a,e and t$me> embarrass t(em
-reatly) /(en t(e understand$n- endea0'urs t' *ass t(e l$m$ts '+
t(at s*(ere! T(e latter (as) $ndeed) t($s ad0anta-e) t(at t(e
re*resentat$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me d' n't ,'me $n t(e$r /ay /(en t(ey
/$s( t' &ud-e '+ 'b&e,ts) n't as *(en'mena) but merely $n t(e$r
relat$'n t' t(e understand$n-! #e0'$d) ('/e0er) '+ a true and
'b&e,t$0ely 0al$d a *r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n) t(ey ,an ne$t(er +urn$s( any
bas$s +'r t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ mat(emat$,al ,'-n$t$'ns a *r$'r$) n'r
br$n- t(e *r'*'s$t$'ns '+ e1*er$en,e $nt' ne,essary a,,'rdan,e /$t(
t('se '+ mat(emat$,s! In 'ur t(e'ry '+ t(e true nature '+ t(ese t/'
'r$-$nal +'rms '+ t(e sens$b$l$ty) b't( d$++$,ult$es are surm'unted!
In ,'n,lus$'n) t(at trans,endental aest(et$, ,ann't ,'nta$n any m're
t(an t(ese t/' elements5 s*a,e and t$me) $s su++$,$ently 'b0$'us
+r'm t(e +a,t t(at all 't(er ,'n,e*t$'ns a**erta$n$n- t'
sens$b$l$ty) e0en t(at '+ m't$'n) /($,( un$tes $n $tsel+ b't(
elements) *resu**'se s'met($n- em*$r$,al! "'t$'n) +'r e1am*le)
*resu**'ses t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ s'met($n- m'0able! 3ut s*a,e
,'ns$dered $n $tsel+ ,'nta$ns n't($n- m'0able) ,'nse.uently m't$'n
must be s'met($n- /($,( $s +'und $n s*a,e 'nly t(r'u-( e1*er$en,e5
$n 't(er /'rds) an em*$r$,al datum! In l$%e manner) trans,endental
aest(et$, ,ann't number t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,(an-e am'n- $ts data a
*r$'r$4 +'r t$me $tsel+ d'es n't ,(an-e) but 'nly s'met($n- /($,( $s
$n t$me! T' a,.u$re t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,(an-e) t(ere+'re) t(e
*er,e*t$'n '+ s'me e1$st$n- 'b&e,t and '+ t(e su,,ess$'n '+ $ts
determ$nat$'ns) $n 'ne /'rd) e1*er$en,e) $s ne,essary!
SS M Ceneral Remar%s 'n Trans,endental Aest(et$,!

I! In 'rder t' *re0ent any m$sunderstand$n-) $t /$ll be re.u$s$te)
$n t(e +$rst *la,e) t' re,a*$tulate) as ,learly as *'ss$ble) /(at
'ur '*$n$'n $s /$t( res*e,t t' t(e +undamental nature '+ 'ur
sensu'us ,'-n$t$'n $n -eneral! 2e (a0e $ntended) t(en) t' say t(at all
'ur $ntu$t$'n $s n't($n- but t(e re*resentat$'n '+ *(en'mena4 t(at t(e
t($n-s /($,( /e $ntu$te) are n't $n t(emsel0es t(e same as 'ur
re*resentat$'ns '+ t(em $n $ntu$t$'n) n'r are t(e$r relat$'ns $n
t(emsel0es s' ,'nst$tuted as t(ey a**ear t' us4 and t(at $+ /e ta%e
a/ay t(e sub&e,t) 'r e0en 'nly t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ 'ur
senses $n -eneral) t(en n't 'nly t(e nature and relat$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts
$n s*a,e and t$me) but e0en s*a,e and t$me t(emsel0es d$sa**ear4 and
t(at t(ese) as *(en'mena) ,ann't e1$st $n t(emsel0es) but 'nly $n
us! 2(at may be t(e nature '+ 'b&e,ts ,'ns$dered as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es and /$t('ut re+eren,e t' t(e re,e*t$0$ty '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty
$s .u$te un%n'/n t' us! 2e %n'/ n't($n- m're t(an 'ur m'de '+
*er,e$0$n- t(em) /($,( $s *e,ul$ar t' us) and /($,() t('u-( n't '+
ne,ess$ty *erta$n$n- t' e0ery an$mated be$n-) $s s' t' t(e /('le (uman
ra,e! 2$t( t($s al'ne /e (a0e t' d'! S*a,e and t$me are t(e *ure +'rms
t(ere'+4 sensat$'n t(e matter! T(e +'rmer al'ne ,an /e ,'-n$;e a
*r$'r$) t(at $s) ante,edent t' all a,tual *er,e*t$'n4 and +'r t($s
reas'n su,( ,'-n$t$'n $s ,alled *ure $ntu$t$'n! T(e latter $s t(at
$n 'ur ,'-n$t$'n /($,( $s ,alled ,'-n$t$'n a *'ster$'r$) t(at $s)
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n! T(e +'rmer a**erta$n abs'lutely and ne,essar$ly
t' 'ur sens$b$l$ty) '+ /(ats'e0er %$nd 'ur sensat$'ns may be4 t(e
latter may be '+ 0ery d$0ers$+$ed ,(ara,ter! Su**'s$n- t(at /e
s('uld ,arry 'ur em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n e0en t' t(e 0ery ($-(est de-ree
'+ ,learness) /e s('uld n't t(ereby ad0an,e 'ne ste* nearer t' a
%n'/led-e '+ t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es!
F'r /e ,'uld 'nly) at best) arr$0e at a ,'m*lete ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'ur
'/n m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty) and t($s al/ays
under t(e ,'nd$t$'ns 'r$-$nally atta,($n- t' t(e sub&e,t) namely)
t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me4 /($le t(e .uest$'n6 92(at are
'b&e,ts ,'ns$dered as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es@9 rema$ns unans/erable e0en
a+ter t(e m'st t('r'u-( e1am$nat$'n '+ t(e *(en'menal /'rld!
T' say) t(en) t(at all 'ur sens$b$l$ty $s n't($n- but t(e ,'n+used
re*resentat$'n '+ t($n-s ,'nta$n$n- e1,lus$0ely t(at /($,( bel'n-s
t' t(em as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) and t($s under an a,,umulat$'n '+
,(ara,ter$st$, mar%s and *art$al re*resentat$'ns /($,( /e ,ann't
d$st$n-u$s( $n ,'ns,$'usness) $s a +als$+$,at$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ sens$b$l$ty and *(en'men$;at$'n) /($,( renders 'ur /('le d',tr$ne
t(ere'+ em*ty and useless! T(e d$++eren,e bet/een a ,'n+used and a
,lear re*resentat$'n $s merely l'-$,al and (as n't($n- t' d' /$t(
,'ntent! N' d'ubt t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ r$-(t) as em*l'yed by a s'und
understand$n-) ,'nta$ns all t(at t(e m'st subtle $n0est$-at$'n ,'uld
un+'ld +r'm $t) alt('u-() $n t(e 'rd$nary *ra,t$,al use '+ t(e /'rd)
/e are n't ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e man$+'ld re*resentat$'ns ,'m*r$sed $n
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n! 3ut /e ,ann't +'r t($s reas'n assert t(at t(e 'rd$nary
,'n,e*t$'n $s a sensu'us 'ne) ,'nta$n$n- a mere *(en'men'n) +'r
r$-(t ,ann't a**ear as a *(en'men'n4 but t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t l$es
$n t(e understand$n-) and re*resents a *r'*erty =t(e m'ral *r'*erty>
'+ a,t$'ns) /($,( bel'n-s t' t(em $n t(emsel0es! On t(e 't(er (and)
t(e re*resentat$'n $n $ntu$t$'n '+ a b'dy ,'nta$ns n't($n- /($,( ,'uld
bel'n- t' an 'b&e,t ,'ns$dered as a t($n- $n $tsel+) but merely t(e
*(en'men'n 'r a**earan,e '+ s'met($n-) and t(e m'de $n /($,( /e are
a++e,ted by t(at a**earan,e4 and t($s re,e*t$0$ty '+ 'ur +a,ulty '+
,'-n$t$'n $s ,alled sens$b$l$ty) and rema$ns t't' ,ael' d$++erent +r'm
t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t $n $tsel+) e0en t('u-( /e s('uld e1am$ne
t(e ,'ntent '+ t(e *(en'men'n t' t(e 0ery b'tt'm!
It must be adm$tted t(at t(e <e$bn$t;52'l+$an *($l's'*(y (as
ass$-ned an ent$rely err'ne'us *'$nt '+ 0$e/ t' all $n0est$-at$'ns
$nt' t(e nature and 'r$-$n '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns) $nasmu,( as $t re-ards
t(e d$st$n,t$'n bet/een t(e sensu'us and t(e $ntelle,tual as merely
l'-$,al) /(ereas $t $s *la$nly trans,endental) and ,'n,erns n't merely
t(e ,learness 'r 'bs,ur$ty) but t(e ,'ntent and 'r$-$n '+ b't(! F'r
t(e +a,ulty '+ sens$b$l$ty n't 'nly d'es n't *resent us /$t( an
$nd$st$n,t and ,'n+used ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) but) $n +a,t) -$0es us n' %n'/led-e '+ t(ese at all! On
t(e ,'ntrary) s' s''n as /e abstra,t $n t('u-(t 'ur '/n sub&e,t$0e
nature) t(e 'b&e,t re*resented) /$t( t(e *r'*ert$es as,r$bed t' $t
by sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) ent$rely d$sa**ears) be,ause $t /as 'nly t($s
sub&e,t$0e nature t(at determ$ned t(e +'rm '+ t(e 'b&e,t as a
In *(en'mena) /e ,'mm'nly) $ndeed) d$st$n-u$s( t(at /($,(
essent$ally bel'n-s t' t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ t(em) and $s 0al$d +'r t(e
sensu'us +a,ulty '+ e0ery (uman be$n-) +r'm t(at /($,( bel'n-s t'
t(e same $ntu$t$'n a,,$dentally) as 0al$d n't +'r t(e sensu'us +a,ulty
$n -eneral) but +'r a *art$,ular state 'r 'r-an$;at$'n '+ t($s 'r t(at
sense! A,,'rd$n-ly) /e are a,,ust'med t' say t(at t(e +'rmer $s a
,'-n$t$'n /($,( re*resents t(e 'b&e,t $tsel+) /($lst t(e latter
*resents 'nly a *art$,ular a**earan,e 'r *(en'men'n t(ere'+! T($s
d$st$n,t$'n) ('/e0er) $s 'nly em*$r$,al! I+ /e st'* (ere =as $s
usual>) and d' n't re-ard t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n as $tsel+ a mere
*(en'men'n =as /e 'u-(t t' d'>) $n /($,( n't($n- t(at ,an a**erta$n t'
a t($n- $n $tsel+ $s t' be +'und) 'ur trans,endental d$st$n,t$'n $s
l'st) and /e bel$e0e t(at /e ,'-n$;e 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) alt('u-( $n t(e /('le ran-e '+ t(e sensu'us /'rld)
$n0est$-ate t(e nature '+ $ts 'b&e,ts as *r'+'undly as /e may) /e (a0e
t' d' /$t( n't($n- but *(en'mena! T(us) /e ,all t(e ra$nb'/ a mere
a**earan,e '+ *(en'men'n $n a sunny s('/er) and t(e ra$n) t(e
real$ty 'r t($n- $n $tsel+4 and t($s $s r$-(t en'u-() $+ /e understand
t(e latter ,'n,e*t$'n $n a merely *(ys$,al sense) t(at $s) as t(at
/($,( $n un$0ersal e1*er$en,e) and under /(ate0er ,'nd$t$'ns '+
sensu'us *er,e*t$'n) $s %n'/n $n $ntu$t$'n t' be s' and s' determ$ned)
and n't 't(er/$se! 3ut $+ /e ,'ns$der t($s em*$r$,al datum
-enerally) and $n.u$re) /$t('ut re+eren,e t' $ts a,,'rdan,e /$t( all
'ur senses) /(et(er t(ere ,an be d$s,'0ered $n $t au-(t /($,(
re*resents an 'b&e,t as a t($n- $n $tsel+ =t(e ra$ndr'*s '+ ,'urse are
n't su,() +'r t(ey are) as *(en'mena) em*$r$,al 'b&e,ts>) t(e .uest$'n
'+ t(e relat$'n '+ t(e re*resentat$'n t' t(e 'b&e,t $s trans,endental4
and n't 'nly are t(e ra$ndr'*s mere *(en'mena) but e0en t(e$r ,$r,ular
+'rm) nay) t(e s*a,e $tsel+ t(r'u-( /($,( t(ey +all) $s n't($n- $n
$tsel+) but b't( are mere m'd$+$,at$'ns 'r +undamental d$s*'s$t$'ns '+
'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) /($lst t(e trans,endental 'b&e,t rema$ns +'r
us utterly un%n'/n!
T(e se,'nd $m*'rtant ,'n,ern '+ 'ur aest(et$, $s t(at $t d'es n't
'bta$n +a0'ur merely as a *laus$ble (y*'t(es$s) but *'ssess as
und'ubted a ,(ara,ter '+ ,erta$nty as ,an be demanded '+ any t(e'ry
/($,( $s t' ser0e +'r an 'r-an'n! In 'rder +ully t' ,'n0$n,e t(e
reader '+ t($s ,erta$nty) /e s(all sele,t a ,ase /($,( /$ll ser0e t'
ma%e $ts 0al$d$ty a**arent) and als' t' $llustrate /(at (as been
sa$d $n SS I!
Su**'se) t(en) t(at s*a,e and t$me are $n t(emsel0es 'b&e,t$0e)
and ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e5 *'ss$b$l$ty '+ 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es!
In t(e +$rst *la,e) $t $s e0$dent t(at b't( *resent us) /$t( 0ery many
a*'de$,t$, and synt(et$, *r'*'s$t$'ns a *r$'r$) but es*e,$ally
s*a,e5 and +'r t($s reas'n /e s(all *re+er $t +'r $n0est$-at$'n at
*resent! As t(e *r'*'s$t$'ns '+ -e'metry are ,'-n$;ed synt(et$,ally
a *r$'r$) and /$t( a*'de$,t$, ,erta$nty) I $n.u$re6 2(en,e d' y'u
'bta$n *r'*'s$t$'ns '+ t($s %$nd) and 'n /(at bas$s d'es t(e
understand$n- rest) $n 'rder t' arr$0e at su,( abs'lutely ne,essary
and un$0ersally 0al$d trut(s@
T(ere $s n' 't(er /ay t(an t(r'u-( $ntu$t$'ns 'r ,'n,e*t$'ns) as
su,(4 and t(ese are -$0en e$t(er a *r$'r$ 'r a *'ster$'r$! T(e latter)
namely) em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns) t'-et(er /$t( t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n
'n /($,( t(ey are +'unded) ,ann't a++'rd any synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n) e1,e*t su,( as $s $tsel+ als' em*$r$,al) t(at $s) a
*r'*'s$t$'n '+ e1*er$en,e! 3ut an em*$r$,al *r'*'s$t$'n ,ann't *'ssess
t(e .ual$t$es '+ ne,ess$ty and abs'lute un$0ersal$ty) /($,()
ne0ert(eless) are t(e ,(ara,ter$st$,s '+ all -e'metr$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns!
As t' t(e +$rst and 'nly means t' arr$0e at su,( ,'-n$t$'ns) namely)
t(r'u-( mere ,'n,e*t$'ns 'r $ntu$t$'ns a *r$'r$) $t $s .u$te ,lear
t(at +r'm mere ,'n,e*t$'ns n' synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'ns) but 'nly
analyt$,al 'nes) ,an be 'bta$ned! Ta%e) +'r e1am*le) t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n6 9T/' stra$-(t l$nes ,ann't en,l'se a s*a,e) and /$t(
t(ese al'ne n' +$-ure $s *'ss$ble)9 and try t' dedu,e $t +r'm t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a stra$-(t l$ne and t(e number t/'4 'r ta%e t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n6 9It $s *'ss$ble t' ,'nstru,t a +$-ure /$t( t(ree stra$-(t
l$nes)9 and endea0'ur) $n l$%e manner) t' dedu,e $t +r'm t(e mere
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a stra$-(t l$ne and t(e number t(ree! All y'ur
endea0'urs are $n 0a$n) and y'u +$nd y'ursel+ +'r,ed t' (a0e
re,'urse t' $ntu$t$'n) as) $n +a,t) -e'metry al/ays d'es! J'u
t(ere+'re -$0e y'ursel+ an 'b&e,t $n $ntu$t$'n! 3ut '+ /(at %$nd $s
t($s $ntu$t$'n@ Is $t a *ure a *r$'r$) 'r $s $t an em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n@ I+ t(e latter) t(en ne$t(er an un$0ersally 0al$d) mu,( less
an a*'de$,t$, *r'*'s$t$'n ,an ar$se +r'm $t) +'r e1*er$en,e ne0er
,an -$0e us any su,( *r'*'s$t$'n! J'u must) t(ere+'re) -$0e y'ursel+
an 'b&e,t a *r$'r$ $n $ntu$t$'n) and u*'n t(at -r'und y'ur synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n! N'/ $+ t(ere d$d n't e1$st /$t($n y'u a +a,ulty '+
$ntu$t$'n a *r$'r$4 $+ t($s sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n /ere n't $n res*e,t
t' $ts +'rm als' t(e un$0ersal ,'nd$t$'n a *r$'r$ under /($,( al'ne
t(e 'b&e,t '+ t($s e1ternal $ntu$t$'n $s $tsel+ *'ss$ble4 $+ t(e
'b&e,t =t(at $s) t(e tr$an-le> /ere s'met($n- $n $tsel+) /$t('ut
relat$'n t' y'u t(e sub&e,t4 ('/ ,'uld y'u a++$rm t(at t(at /($,( l$es
ne,essar$ly $n y'ur sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns $n 'rder t' ,'nstru,t a
tr$an-le) must als' ne,essar$ly bel'n- t' t(e tr$an-le $n $tsel+@
F'r t' y'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(ree l$nes) y'u ,'uld n't add anyt($n- ne/
=t(at $s) t(e +$-ure>4 /($,() t(ere+'re) must ne,essar$ly be +'und
$n t(e 'b&e,t) be,ause t(e 'b&e,t $s -$0en be+'re y'ur ,'-n$t$'n)
and n't by means '+ $t! I+) t(ere+'re) s*a,e =and t$me als'> /ere
n't a mere +'rm '+ y'ur $ntu$t$'n) /($,( ,'nta$ns ,'nd$t$'ns a *r$'r$)
under /($,( al'ne t($n-s ,an be,'me e1ternal 'b&e,ts +'r y'u) and
/$t('ut /($,( sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns t(e 'b&e,ts are $n t(emsel0es
n't($n-) y'u ,'uld n't ,'nstru,t any synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n
/(ats'e0er re-ard$n- e1ternal 'b&e,ts! It $s t(ere+'re n't merely
*'ss$ble 'r *r'bable) but $ndub$tably ,erta$n) t(at s*a,e and t$me) as
t(e ne,essary ,'nd$t$'ns '+ all 'ur e1ternal and $nternal
e1*er$en,e) are merely sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ all 'ur $ntu$t$'ns) $n
relat$'n t' /($,( all 'b&e,ts are t(ere+'re mere *(en'mena) and n't
t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) *resented t' us $n t($s *art$,ular manner! And
+'r t($s reas'n) $n res*e,t t' t(e +'rm '+ *(en'mena) mu,( may be sa$d
a *r$'r$) /($lst '+ t(e t($n- $n $tsel+) /($,( may l$e at t(e
+'undat$'n '+ t(ese *(en'mena) $t $s $m*'ss$ble t' say anyt($n-!
II! In ,'n+$rmat$'n '+ t($s t(e'ry '+ t(e $deal$ty '+ t(e e1ternal
as /ell as $nternal sense) ,'nse.uently '+ all 'b&e,ts '+ sense) as
mere *(en'mena) /e may es*e,$ally remar% t(at all $n 'ur ,'-n$t$'n
t(at bel'n-s t' $ntu$t$'n ,'nta$ns n't($n- m're t(an mere relat$'ns!
=T(e +eel$n-s '+ *a$n and *leasure) and t(e /$ll) /($,( are n't
,'-n$t$'ns) are e1,e*ted!> T(e relat$'ns) t' /$t) '+ *la,e $n an
$ntu$t$'n =e1tens$'n>) ,(an-e '+ *la,e =m't$'n>) and la/s a,,'rd$n- t'
/($,( t($s ,(an-e $s determ$ned =m'0$n- +'r,es>! T(at) ('/e0er)
/($,( $s *resent $n t($s 'r t(at *la,e) 'r any '*erat$'n -'$n- 'n)
'r result ta%$n- *la,e $n t(e t($n-s t(emsel0es) /$t( t(e e1,e*t$'n '+
,(an-e '+ *la,e) $s n't -$0en t' us by $ntu$t$'n! N'/ by means '+ mere
relat$'ns) a t($n- ,ann't be %n'/n $n $tsel+4 and $t may t(ere+'re
be +a$rly ,'n,luded) t(at) as t(r'u-( t(e e1ternal sense n't($n- but
mere re*resentat$'ns '+ relat$'ns are -$0en us) t(e sa$d e1ternal
sense $n $ts re*resentat$'n ,an ,'nta$n 'nly t(e relat$'n '+ t(e
'b&e,t t' t(e sub&e,t) but n't t(e essent$al nature '+ t(e 'b&e,t as a
t($n- $n $tsel+!
T(e same $s t(e ,ase /$t( t(e $nternal $ntu$t$'n) n't 'nly
be,ause) $n t(e $nternal $ntu$t$'n) t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e e1ternal
senses ,'nst$tutes t(e mater$al /$t( /($,( t(e m$nd $s ',,u*$ed4 but
be,ause t$me) $n /($,( /e *la,e) and /($,( $tsel+ ante,edes t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+) t(ese re*resentat$'ns $n e1*er$en,e) and /($,() as
t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e m'de a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( 'b&e,ts are *la,ed
$n t(e m$nd) l$es at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t(em) ,'nta$ns relat$'ns '+ t(e
su,,ess$0e) t(e ,'e1$stent) and '+ t(at /($,( al/ays must be
,'e1$stent /$t( su,,ess$'n) t(e *ermanent! N'/ t(at /($,() as
re*resentat$'n) ,an ante,ede e0ery e1er,$se '+ t('u-(t ='+ an 'b&e,t>)
$s $ntu$t$'n4 and /(en $t ,'nta$ns n't($n- but relat$'ns) $t $s t(e
+'rm '+ t(e $ntu$t$'n) /($,() as $t *resents us /$t( n'
re*resentat$'n) e1,e*t $n s' +ar as s'met($n- $s *la,ed $n t(e m$nd)
,an be n't($n- else t(an t(e m'de $n /($,( t(e m$nd $s a++e,ted by $ts
'/n a,t$0$ty) t' /$t5 $ts *resent$n- t' $tsel+ re*resentat$'ns)
,'nse.uently t(e m'de $n /($,( t(e m$nd $s a++e,ted by $tsel+4 t(at
$s) $t ,an be n't($n- but an $nternal sense $n res*e,t t' $ts +'rm!
E0eryt($n- t(at $s re*resented t(r'u-( t(e med$um '+ sense $s s' +ar
*(en'menal4 ,'nse.uently) /e must e$t(er re+use alt'-et(er t' adm$t an
$nternal sense) 'r t(e sub&e,t) /($,( $s t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(at sense)
,'uld 'nly be re*resented by $t as *(en'men'n) and n't as $t /'uld
&ud-e '+ $tsel+) $+ $ts $ntu$t$'n /ere *ure s*'ntane'us a,t$0$ty) t(at
$s) /ere $ntelle,tual! T(e d$++$,ulty (ere l$es /('lly $n t(e
.uest$'n6 H'/ ,an t(e sub&e,t (a0e an $nternal $ntu$t$'n '+ $tsel+@
3ut t($s d$++$,ulty $s ,'mm'n t' e0ery t(e'ry! T(e ,'ns,$'usness '+
sel+ =a**er,e*t$'n> $s t(e s$m*le re*resentat$'n '+ t(e 9e-'94 and
$+ by means '+ t(at re*resentat$'n al'ne) all t(e man$+'ld
re*resentat$'ns $n t(e sub&e,t /ere s*'ntane'usly -$0en) t(en 'ur
$nternal $ntu$t$'n /'uld be $ntelle,tual! T($s ,'ns,$'usness $n man
re.u$res an $nternal *er,e*t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld re*resentat$'ns
/($,( are *re0$'usly -$0en $n t(e sub&e,t4 and t(e manner $n /($,(
t(ese re*resentat$'ns are -$0en $n t(e m$nd /$t('ut s*'ntane$ty) must)
'n a,,'unt '+ t($s d$++eren,e =t(e /ant '+ s*'ntane$ty>) be ,alled
sens$b$l$ty! I+ t(e +a,ulty '+ sel+5,'ns,$'usness $s t' a**re(end /(at
l$es $n t(e m$nd) $t must all a,t t(at and ,an $n t($s /ay al'ne
*r'du,e an $ntu$t$'n '+ sel+! 3ut t(e +'rm '+ t($s $ntu$t$'n) /($,(
l$es $n t(e 'r$-$nal ,'nst$tut$'n '+ t(e m$nd) determ$nes) $n t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ t$me) t(e manner $n /($,( t(e man$+'ld
re*resentat$'ns are t' ,'mb$ne t(emsel0es $n t(e m$nd4 s$n,e t(e
sub&e,t $ntu$tes $tsel+) n't as $t /'uld re*resent $tsel+
$mmed$ately and s*'ntane'usly) but a,,'rd$n- t' t(e manner $n /($,(
t(e m$nd $s $nternally a++e,ted) ,'nse.uently) as $t a**ears) and
n't as $t $s!
III! 2(en /e say t(at t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ e1ternal 'b&e,ts) and als'
t(e sel+5$ntu$t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t) re*resent b't() 'b&e,ts and
sub&e,t) $n s*a,e and t$me) as t(ey a++e,t 'ur senses) t(at $s) as
t(ey a**ear5 t($s $s by n' means e.u$0alent t' assert$n- t(at t(ese
'b&e,ts are mere $llus'ry a**earan,es! F'r /(en /e s*ea% '+ t($n-s
as *(en'mena) t(e 'b&e,ts) nay) e0en t(e *r'*ert$es /($,( /e as,r$be
t' t(em) are l''%ed u*'n as really -$0en4 'nly t(at) $n s' +ar as t($s
'r t(at *r'*erty de*ends u*'n t(e m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t) $n
t(e relat$'n '+ t(e -$0en 'b&e,t t' t(e sub&e,t) t(e 'b&e,t as
*(en'men'n $s t' be d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e 'b&e,t as a t($n- $n
$tsel+! T(us I d' n't say t(at b'd$es seem 'r a**ear t' be e1ternal t'
me) 'r t(at my s'ul seems merely t' be -$0en $n my sel+5,'ns,$'usness)
alt('u-( I ma$nta$n t(at t(e *r'*ert$es '+ s*a,e and t$me) $n
,'n+'rm$ty t' /($,( I set b't() as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e$r e1$sten,e)
ab$de $n my m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n) and n't $n t(e 'b&e,ts $n t(emsel0es!
It /'uld be my '/n +ault) $+ 'ut '+ t(at /($,( I s('uld re,%'n as
*(en'men'n) I made mere $llus'ry a**earan,e!7 3ut t($s /$ll n't
(a**en) be,ause '+ 'ur *r$n,$*le '+ t(e $deal$ty '+ all sensu'us
$ntu$t$'ns! On t(e ,'ntrary) $+ /e as,r$be 'b&e,t$0e real$ty t'
t(ese +'rms '+ re*resentat$'n) $t be,'mes $m*'ss$ble t' a0'$d ,(an-$n-
e0eryt($n- $nt' mere a**earan,e! F'r $+ /e re-ard s*a,e and t$me as
*r'*ert$es) /($,( must be +'und $n 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) as
s$ne .u$bus n'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e$r e1$sten,e) and re+le,t
'n t(e absurd$t$es $n /($,( /e t(en +$nd 'ursel0es $n0'l0ed)
$nasmu,( as /e are ,'m*elled t' adm$t t(e e1$sten,e '+ t/' $n+$n$te
t($n-s) /($,( are ne0ert(eless n't substan,es) n'r anyt($n- really
$n(er$n- $n substan,es) nay) t' adm$t t(at t(ey are t(e ne,essary
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ all t($n-s) and m're'0er) t(at t(ey
must ,'nt$nue t' e1$st) alt('u-( all e1$st$n- t($n-s /ere ann$($lated5
/e ,ann't blame t(e -''d 3er%eley +'r de-rad$n- b'd$es t' mere
$llus'ry a**earan,es! Nay) e0en 'ur '/n e1$sten,e) /($,( /'uld $n t($s
,ase de*end u*'n t(e sel+5e1$stent real$ty '+ su,( a mere n'nent$ty as
t$me) /'uld ne,essar$ly be ,(an-ed /$t( $t $nt' mere a**earan,e5 an
absurd$ty /($,( n' 'ne (as as yet been -u$lty '+!
7T(e *red$,ates '+ t(e *(en'men'n ,an be a++$1ed t' t(e 'b&e,t
$tsel+ $n relat$'n t' 'ur sensu'us +a,ulty4 +'r e1am*le) t(e red
,'l'ur 'r t(e *er+ume t' t(e r'se! 3ut =$llus'ry> a**earan,e ne0er ,an
be attr$buted as a *red$,ate t' an 'b&e,t) +'r t($s 0ery reas'n)
t(at $t attr$butes t' t($s 'b&e,t $n $tsel+ t(at /($,( bel'n-s t' $t
'nly $n relat$'n t' 'ur sensu'us +a,ulty) 'r t' t(e sub&e,t $n
-eneral) e!-!) t(e t/' (andles /($,( /ere +'rmerly as,r$bed t' Saturn!
T(at /($,( $s ne0er t' be +'und $n t(e 'b&e,t $tsel+) but al/ays $n
t(e relat$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t t' t(e sub&e,t) and /($,( m're'0er $s
$nse*arable +r'm 'ur re*resentat$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t) /e den'm$nate
*(en'men'n! T(us t(e *red$,ates '+ s*a,e and t$me are r$-(tly
attr$buted t' 'b&e,ts '+ t(e senses as su,() and $n t($s t(ere $s n'
$llus$'n! On t(e ,'ntrary) $+ I as,r$be redness '+ t(e r'se as a t($n-
$n $tsel+) 'r t' Saturn ($s (andles) 'r e1tens$'n t' all e1ternal
'b&e,ts) ,'ns$dered as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) /$t('ut re-ard$n- t(e
determ$nate relat$'n '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts t' t(e sub&e,t) and /$t('ut
l$m$t$n- my &ud-ement t' t(at relat$'n5 t(en) and t(en 'nly) ar$ses
ID! In natural t(e'l'-y) /(ere /e t($n% '+ an 'b&e,t5 C'd5 /($,(
ne0er ,an be an 'b&e,t '+ $ntu$t$'n t' us) and e0en t' ($msel+ ,an
ne0er be an 'b&e,t '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) /e ,are+ully a0'$d
attr$but$n- t' ($s $ntu$t$'n t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me5 and
$ntu$t$'n all ($s ,'-n$t$'n must be) and n't t('u-(t) /($,( al/ays
$n,ludes l$m$tat$'n! 3ut /$t( /(at r$-(t ,an /e d' t($s $+ /e ma%e
t(em +'rms '+ 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) and su,() m're'0er)
as /'uld ,'nt$nue t' e1$st as a *r$'r$ ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e e1$sten,e
'+ t($n-s) e0en t('u-( t(e t($n-s t(emsel0es /ere ann$($lated@ F'r
as ,'nd$t$'ns '+ all e1$sten,e $n -eneral) s*a,e and t$me must be
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e Su*reme 3e$n- als'! 3ut $+ /e d'
n't t(us ma%e t(em 'b&e,t$0e +'rms '+ all t($n-s) t(ere $s n' 't(er
/ay le+t t(an t' ma%e t(em sub&e,t$0e +'rms '+ 'ur m'de '+
$ntu$t$'n5 e1ternal and $nternal4 /($,( $s ,alled sensu'us) be,ause $t
$s n't *r$m$t$0e) t(at $s) $s n't su,( as -$0es $n $tsel+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(e $ntu$t$'n =a m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n /($,()
s' +ar as /e ,an &ud-e) ,an bel'n- 'nly t' t(e Creat'r>) but $s
de*endent 'n t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e 'b&e,t) $s *'ss$ble) t(ere+'re) 'nly
'n ,'nd$t$'n t(at t(e re*resentat$0e +a,ulty '+ t(e sub&e,t $s
a++e,ted by t(e 'b&e,t!
It $s) m're'0er) n't ne,essary t(at /e s('uld l$m$t t(e m'de '+
$ntu$t$'n $n s*a,e and t$me t' t(e sensu'us +a,ulty '+ man! It may
/ell be t(at all +$n$te t($n%$n- be$n-s must ne,essar$ly $n t($s
res*e,t a-ree /$t( man =t('u-( as t' t($s /e ,ann't de,$de>) but
sens$b$l$ty d'es n't 'n a,,'unt '+ t($s un$0ersal$ty ,ease t' be
sens$b$l$ty) +'r t($s 0ery reas'n) t(at $t $s a dedu,ed =$ntu$tus
der$0at$0us>) and n't an 'r$-$nal =$ntu$tus 'r$-$nar$us>) ,'nse.uently
n't an $ntelle,tual $ntu$t$'n) and t($s $ntu$t$'n) as su,() +'r
reas'ns ab'0e ment$'ned) seems t' bel'n- s'lely t' t(e Su*reme
3e$n-) but ne0er t' a be$n- de*endent) .u'ad $ts e1$sten,e) as /ell as
$ts $ntu$t$'n =/($,( $ts e1$sten,e determ$nes and l$m$ts relat$0ely t'
-$0en 'b&e,ts>! T($s latter remar%) ('/e0er) must be ta%en 'nly as
an $llustrat$'n) and n't as any *r''+ '+ t(e trut( '+ 'ur
aest(et$,al t(e'ry!
SS 1N C'n,lus$'n '+ t(e Trans,endental Aest(et$,!

2e (a0e n'/ ,'m*letely be+'re us 'ne *art '+ t(e s'lut$'n '+ t(e
-rand -eneral *r'blem '+ trans,endental *($l's'*(y) namely) t(e
.uest$'n6 9H'/ are synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a *r$'r$ *'ss$ble@9 T(at
$s t' say) /e (a0e s('/n t(at /e are $n *'ssess$'n '+ *ure a *r$'r$
$ntu$t$'ns) namely) s*a,e and t$me) $n /($,( /e +$nd) /(en $n a
&ud-ement a *r$'r$ /e *ass 'ut bey'nd t(e -$0en ,'n,e*t$'n)
s'met($n- /($,( $s n't d$s,'0erable $n t(at ,'n,e*t$'n) but $s
,erta$nly +'und a *r$'r$ $n t(e $ntu$t$'n /($,( ,'rres*'nds t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n) and ,an be un$ted synt(et$,ally /$t( $t! 3ut t(e
&ud-ements /($,( t(ese *ure $ntu$t$'ns enable us t' ma%e) ne0er
rea,( +art(er t(an t' 'b&e,ts '+ t(e senses) and are 0al$d 'nly +'r
'b&e,ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e!

INTRO#UCTION! Idea '+ a Trans,endental <'-$,!

I! O+ <'-$, $n Ceneral!

Our %n'/led-e s*r$n-s +r'm t/' ma$n s'ur,es $n t(e m$nd) +$rst '+
/($,( $s t(e +a,ulty 'r *'/er '+ re,e$0$n- re*resentat$'ns
=re,e*t$0$ty +'r $m*ress$'ns>4 t(e se,'nd $s t(e *'/er '+ ,'-n$;$n- by
means '+ t(ese re*resentat$'ns =s*'ntane$ty $n t(e *r'du,t$'n '+
,'n,e*t$'ns>! T(r'u-( t(e +$rst an 'b&e,t $s -$0en t' us4 t(r'u-(
t(e se,'nd) $t $s) $n relat$'n t' t(e re*resentat$'n =/($,( $s a
mere determ$nat$'n '+ t(e m$nd>) t('u-(t! Intu$t$'n and ,'n,e*t$'ns
,'nst$tute) t(ere+'re) t(e elements '+ all 'ur %n'/led-e) s' t(at
ne$t(er ,'n,e*t$'ns /$t('ut an $ntu$t$'n $n s'me /ay ,'rres*'nd$n-
t' t(em) n'r $ntu$t$'n /$t('ut ,'n,e*t$'ns) ,an a++'rd us a ,'-n$t$'n!
3't( are e$t(er *ure 'r em*$r$,al! T(ey are! em*$r$,al) /(en sensat$'n
=/($,( *resu**'ses t(e a,tual *resen,e '+ t(e 'b&e,t> $s ,'nta$ned
$n t(em4 and *ure) /(en n' sensat$'n $s m$1ed /$t( t(e re*resentat$'n!
Sensat$'ns /e may ,all t(e matter '+ sensu'us ,'-n$t$'n! Pure
$ntu$t$'n ,'nse.uently ,'nta$ns merely t(e +'rm under /($,(
s'met($n- $s $ntu$ted) and *ure ,'n,e*t$'n 'nly t(e +'rm '+ t(e
t('u-(t '+ an 'b&e,t! Only *ure $ntu$t$'ns and *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns are
*'ss$ble a *r$'r$4 t(e em*$r$,al 'nly a *'ster$'r$!
2e a**ly t(e term sens$b$l$ty t' t(e re,e*t$0$ty '+ t(e m$nd +'r
$m*ress$'ns) $n s' +ar as $t $s $n s'me /ay a++e,ted4 and) 'n t(e
't(er (and) /e ,all t(e +a,ulty '+ s*'ntane'usly *r'du,$n-
re*resentat$'ns) 'r t(e s*'ntane$ty '+ ,'-n$t$'n) understand$n-! Our
nature $s s' ,'nst$tuted t(at $ntu$t$'n /$t( us ne0er ,an be 't(er
t(an sensu'us) t(at $s) $t ,'nta$ns 'nly t(e m'de $n /($,( /e are
a++e,ted by 'b&e,ts! On t(e 't(er (and) t(e +a,ulty '+ t($n%$n- t(e
'b&e,t '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n $s t(e understand$n-! Ne$t(er '+ t(ese
+a,ult$es (as a *re+eren,e '0er t(e 't(er! 2$t('ut t(e sensu'us
+a,ulty n' 'b&e,t /'uld be -$0en t' us) and /$t('ut t(e
understand$n- n' 'b&e,t /'uld be t('u-(t! T('u-(ts /$t('ut ,'ntent are
0'$d4 $ntu$t$'ns /$t('ut ,'n,e*t$'ns) bl$nd! Hen,e $t $s as
ne,essary +'r t(e m$nd t' ma%e $ts ,'n,e*t$'ns sensu'us =t(at $s) t'
&'$n t' t(em t(e 'b&e,t $n $ntu$t$'n>) as t' ma%e $ts $ntu$t$'ns
$ntell$-$ble =t(at $s) t' br$n- t(em under ,'n,e*t$'ns>! Ne$t(er '+
t(ese +a,ult$es ,an e1,(an-e $ts *r'*er +un,t$'n! Understand$n- ,ann't
$ntu$te) and t(e sensu'us +a,ulty ,ann't t($n%! $n n' 't(er /ay t(an
+r'm t(e un$ted '*erat$'n '+ b't() ,an %n'/led-e ar$se! 3ut n' 'ne
'u-(t) 'n t($s a,,'unt) t' '0erl''% t(e d$++eren,e '+ t(e elements
,'ntr$buted by ea,(4 /e (a0e rat(er -reat reas'n ,are+ully t' se*arate
and d$st$n-u$s( t(em! 2e t(ere+'re d$st$n-u$s( t(e s,$en,e '+ t(e la/s
'+ sens$b$l$ty) t(at $s) aest(et$,) +r'm t(e s,$en,e '+ t(e la/s '+
t(e understand$n-) t(at $s) l'-$,!
N'/) l'-$, $n $ts turn may be ,'ns$dered as t/'+'ld5 namely) as
l'-$, '+ t(e -eneral) 'r '+ t(e *art$,ular use '+ t(e understand$n-!
T(e +$rst ,'nta$ns t(e abs'lutely ne,essary la/s '+ t('u-(t) /$t('ut
/($,( n' use /(ats'e0er '+ t(e understand$n- $s *'ss$ble) and -$0es
la/s t(ere+'re t' t(e understand$n-) /$t('ut re-ard t' t(e
d$++eren,e '+ 'b&e,ts 'n /($,( $t may be em*l'yed! T(e l'-$, '+ t(e
*art$,ular use '+ t(e understand$n- ,'nta$ns t(e la/s '+ ,'rre,t
t($n%$n- u*'n a *art$,ular ,lass '+ 'b&e,ts! T(e +'rmer may be
,alled elemental l'-$,5 t(e latter) t(e 'r-an'n '+ t($s 'r t(at
*art$,ular s,$en,e! T(e latter $s +'r t(e m'st *art em*l'yed $n t(e
s,(''ls) as a *r'*aedeut$, t' t(e s,$en,es) alt('u-() $ndeed)
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e ,'urse '+ (uman reas'n) $t $s t(e last t($n- /e
arr$0e at) /(en t(e s,$en,e (as been already matured) and needs 'nly
t(e +$n$s($n- t'u,(es t'/ards $ts ,'rre,t$'n and ,'m*let$'n4 +'r 'ur
%n'/led-e '+ t(e 'b&e,ts '+ 'ur attem*ted s,$en,e must be t'lerably
e1tens$0e and ,'m*lete be+'re /e ,an $nd$,ate t(e la/s by /($,( a
s,$en,e '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts ,an be establ$s(ed!
Ceneral l'-$, $s a-a$n e$t(er *ure 'r a**l$ed! In t(e +'rmer) /e
abstra,t all t(e em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( t(e understand$n- $s
e1er,$sed4 +'r e1am*le) t(e $n+luen,e '+ t(e senses) t(e *lay '+ t(e
+antasy 'r $ma-$nat$'n) t(e la/s '+ t(e mem'ry) t(e +'r,e '+ (ab$t) '+
$n,l$nat$'n) et,!) ,'nse.uently als') t(e s'ur,es '+ *re&ud$,e5 $n a
/'rd) /e abstra,t all ,auses +r'm /($,( *art$,ular ,'-n$t$'ns ar$se)
be,ause t(ese ,auses re-ard t(e understand$n- under ,erta$n
,$r,umstan,es '+ $ts a**l$,at$'n) and) t' t(e %n'/led-e '+ t(em
e1*er$en,e $s re.u$red! Pure -eneral l'-$, (as t' d') t(ere+'re)
merely /$t( *ure a *r$'r$ *r$n,$*les) and $s a ,an'n '+
understand$n- and reas'n) but 'nly $n res*e,t '+ t(e +'rmal *art '+
t(e$r use) be t(e ,'ntent /(at $t may) em*$r$,al 'r trans,endental!
Ceneral l'-$, $s ,alled a**l$ed) /(en $t $s d$re,ted t' t(e la/s '+
t(e use '+ t(e understand$n-) under t(e sub&e,t$0e em*$r$,al
,'nd$t$'ns /($,( *sy,('l'-y tea,(es us! It (as t(ere+'re em*$r$,al
*r$n,$*les) alt('u-() at t(e same t$me) $t $s $n s' +ar -eneral)
t(at $t a**l$es t' t(e e1er,$se '+ t(e understand$n-) /$t('ut re-ard
t' t(e d$++eren,e '+ 'b&e,ts! On t($s a,,'unt) m're'0er) $t $s ne$t(er
a ,an'n '+ t(e understand$n- $n -eneral) n'r an 'r-an'n '+ a
*art$,ular s,$en,e) but merely a ,at(art$, '+ t(e (uman understand$n-!
In -eneral l'-$,) t(ere+'re) t(at *art /($,( ,'nst$tutes *ure
l'-$, must be ,are+ully d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(at /($,( ,'nst$tutes
a**l$ed =t('u-( st$ll -eneral> l'-$,! T(e +'rmer al'ne $s *r'*erly
s,$en,e) alt('u-( s('rt and dry) as t(e met('d$,al e1*'s$t$'n '+ an
elemental d',tr$ne '+ t(e understand$n- 'u-(t t' be! In t($s)
t(ere+'re) l'-$,$ans must al/ays bear $n m$nd t/' rules6
1! As -eneral l'-$,) $t ma%es abstra,t$'n '+ all ,'ntent '+ t(e
,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) and '+ t(e d$++eren,e '+ 'b&e,ts)
and (as t' d' /$t( n't($n- but t(e mere +'rm '+ t('u-(t!
B! As *ure l'-$,) $t (as n' em*$r$,al *r$n,$*les) and ,'nse.uently
dra/s n't($n- =,'ntrary t' t(e ,'mm'n *ersuas$'n> +r'm *sy,('l'-y)
/($,( t(ere+'re (as n' $n+luen,e 'n t(e ,an'n '+ t(e understand$n-! It
$s a dem'nstrated d',tr$ne) and e0eryt($n- $n $t must be ,erta$n
,'m*letely a *r$'r$!
2(at I ,alled a**l$ed l'-$, =,'ntrary t' t(e ,'mm'n a,,e*tat$'n '+
t($s term) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( $t s('uld ,'nta$n ,erta$n e1er,$ses
+'r t(e s,('lar) +'r /($,( *ure l'-$, -$0es t(e rules>) $s a
re*resentat$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) and '+ t(e rules '+ $ts ne,essary
em*l'yment $n ,'n,ret') t(at $s t' say) under t(e a,,$dental
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e sub&e,t) /($,( may e$t(er ($nder 'r *r'm'te t($s
em*l'yment) and /($,( are all -$0en 'nly em*$r$,ally! T(us a**l$ed
l'-$, treats '+ attent$'n) $ts $m*ed$ments and ,'nse.uen,es) '+ t(e
'r$-$n '+ err'r) '+ t(e state '+ d'ubt) (es$tat$'n) ,'n0$,t$'n)
et,!) and t' $t $s related *ure -eneral l'-$, $n t(e same /ay t(at
*ure m'ral$ty) /($,( ,'nta$ns 'nly t(e ne,essary m'ral la/s '+ a
+ree /$ll) $s related t' *ra,t$,al et($,s) /($,( ,'ns$ders t(ese
la/s under all t(e $m*ed$ments '+ +eel$n-s) $n,l$nat$'ns) and *ass$'ns
t' /($,( men are m're 'r less sub&e,ted) and /($,( ne0er ,an +urn$s(
us /$t( a true and dem'nstrated s,$en,e) be,ause $t) as /ell as
a**l$ed l'-$,) re.u$res em*$r$,al and *sy,('l'-$,al *r$n,$*les!
II! O+ Trans,endental <'-$,!

Ceneral l'-$,) as /e (a0e seen) ma%es abstra,t$'n '+ all ,'ntent
'+ ,'-n$t$'n) t(at $s) '+ all relat$'n '+ ,'-n$t$'n t' $ts 'b&e,t) and
re-ards 'nly t(e l'-$,al +'rm $n t(e relat$'n '+ ,'-n$t$'ns t' ea,(
't(er) t(at $s) t(e +'rm '+ t('u-(t $n -eneral! 3ut as /e (a0e b't(
*ure and em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'ns =as trans,endental aest(et$, *r'0es>) $n
l$%e manner a d$st$n,t$'n m$-(t be dra/n bet/een *ure and em*$r$,al
t('u-(t ='+ 'b&e,ts>! In t($s ,ase) t(ere /'uld e1$st a %$nd '+ l'-$,)
$n /($,( /e s('uld n't ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ all ,'ntent '+ ,'-n$t$'n4
+'r 'r l'-$, /($,( s('uld ,'m*r$se merely t(e la/s '+ *ure t('u-(t ='+
an 'b&e,t>) /'uld '+ ,'urse e1,lude all t('se ,'-n$t$'ns /($,( /ere '+
em*$r$,al ,'ntent! T($s %$nd '+ l'-$, /'uld als' e1am$ne t(e 'r$-$n '+
'ur ,'-n$t$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts) s' +ar as t(at 'r$-$n ,ann't be as,r$bed t'
t(e 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es4 /($le) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) -eneral l'-$, (as
n't($n- t' d' /$t( t(e 'r$-$n '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns) but ,'ntem*lates
'ur re*resentat$'ns) be t(ey -$0en *r$m$t$0ely a *r$'r$ $n
'ursel0es) 'r be t(ey 'nly '+ em*$r$,al 'r$-$n) s'lely a,,'rd$n- t'
t(e la/s /($,( t(e understand$n- 'bser0es $n em*l'y$n- t(em $n t(e
*r',ess '+ t('u-(t) $n relat$'n t' ea,( 't(er! C'nse.uently) -eneral
l'-$, treats '+ t(e +'rm '+ t(e understand$n- 'nly) /($,( ,an be
a**l$ed t' re*resentat$'ns) +r'm /(ate0er s'ur,e t(ey may (a0e ar$sen!
And (ere I s(all ma%e a remar%) /($,( t(e reader must bear /ell $n
m$nd $n t(e ,'urse '+ t(e +'ll'/$n- ,'ns$derat$'ns) t' /$t) t(at n't
e0ery ,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$) but 'nly t('se t(r'u-( /($,( /e ,'-n$;e t(at
and ('/ ,erta$n re*resentat$'ns =$ntu$t$'ns 'r ,'n,e*t$'ns> are
a**l$ed 'r are *'ss$ble 'nly a *r$'r$4 t(at $s t' say) t(e a *r$'r$
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'-n$t$'n and t(e a *r$'r$ use '+ $t are
trans,endental! T(ere+'re ne$t(er $s s*a,e) n'r any a *r$'r$
-e'metr$,al determ$nat$'n '+ s*a,e) a trans,endental Re*resentat$'n)
but 'nly t(e %n'/led-e t(at su,( a re*resentat$'n $s n't '+
em*$r$,al 'r$-$n) and t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ $ts relat$n- t' 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e) alt('u-( $tsel+ a *r$'r$) ,an be ,alled trans,endental! S'
als') t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ s*a,e t' 'b&e,ts $n -eneral /'uld be
trans,endental4 but $+ $t be l$m$ted t' 'b&e,ts '+ sense $t $s
em*$r$,al! T(us) t(e d$st$n,t$'n '+ t(e trans,endental and em*$r$,al
bel'n-s 'nly t' t(e ,r$t$.ue '+ ,'-n$t$'ns) and d'es n't ,'n,ern t(e
relat$'n '+ t(ese t' t(e$r 'b&e,t!
A,,'rd$n-ly) $n t(e e1*e,tat$'n t(at t(ere may *er(a*s be
,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( relate a *r$'r$ t' 'b&e,ts) n't as *ure 'r
sensu'us $ntu$t$'ns) but merely as a,ts '+ *ure t('u-(t =/($,( are
t(ere+'re ,'n,e*t$'ns) but ne$t(er '+ em*$r$,al n'r aest(et$,al
'r$-$n>5 $n t($s e1*e,tat$'n) I say) /e +'rm t' 'ursel0es) by
ant$,$*at$'n) t(e $dea '+ a s,$en,e '+ *ure understand$n- and rat$'nal
,'-n$t$'n) by means '+ /($,( /e may ,'-$tate 'b&e,ts ent$rely a
*r$'r$! A s,$en,e '+ t($s %$nd) /($,( s('uld determ$ne t(e 'r$-$n) t(e
e1tent) and t(e 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty '+ su,( ,'-n$t$'ns) must be
,alled trans,endental l'-$,) be,ause $t (as n't) l$%e -eneral l'-$,)
t' d' /$t( t(e la/s '+ understand$n- and reas'n $n relat$'n t'
em*$r$,al as /ell as *ure rat$'nal ,'-n$t$'ns /$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n) but
,'n,erns $tsel+ /$t( t(ese 'nly $n an a *r$'r$ relat$'n t' 'b&e,ts!
III! O+ t(e #$0$s$'n '+ Ceneral <'-$, $nt' Analyt$, and #$ale,t$,!

T(e 'ld .uest$'n /$t( /($,( *e'*le s'u-(t t' *us( l'-$,$ans $nt' a
,'rner) s' t(at t(ey must e$t(er (a0e re,'urse t' *$t$+ul s'*($sms
'r ,'n+ess t(e$r $-n'ran,e) and ,'nse.uently t(e 0an$ty '+ t(e$r /('le
art) $s t($s6 92(at $s trut(@9 T(e de+$n$t$'n '+ t(e /'rd trut() t'
/$t) 9t(e a,,'rdan,e '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n /$t( $ts 'b&e,t)9 $s *resu**'sed
$n t(e .uest$'n4 but /e des$re t' be t'ld) $n t(e ans/er t' $t) /(at
$s t(e un$0ersal and se,ure ,r$ter$'n '+ t(e trut( '+ e0ery ,'-n$t$'n!
T' %n'/ /(at .uest$'ns /e may reas'nably *r'*'se $s $n $tsel+ a
str'n- e0$den,e '+ sa-a,$ty and $ntell$-en,e! F'r $+ a .uest$'n be
$n $tsel+ absurd and unsus,e*t$ble '+ a rat$'nal ans/er) $t $s
attended /$t( t(e dan-er5 n't t' ment$'n t(e s(ame t(at +alls u*'n t(e
*ers'n /(' *r'*'ses $t5 '+ sedu,$n- t(e un-uarded l$stener $nt' ma%$n-
absurd ans/ers) and /e are *resented /$t( t(e r$d$,ul'us s*e,ta,le
'+ 'ne =as t(e an,$ents sa$d> 9m$l%$n- t(e (e5-'at) and t(e 't(er
('ld$n- a s$e0e!9
I+ trut( ,'ns$sts $n t(e a,,'rdan,e '+ a ,'-n$t$'n /$t( $ts
'b&e,t) t($s 'b&e,t must be) $*s' +a,t') d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm all
't(ers4 +'r a ,'-n$t$'n $s +alse $+ $t d'es n't a,,'rd /$t( t(e 'b&e,t
t' /($,( $t relates) alt('u-( $t ,'nta$ns s'met($n- /($,( may be
a++$rmed '+ 't(er 'b&e,ts! N'/ an un$0ersal ,r$ter$'n '+ trut( /'uld
be t(at /($,( $s 0al$d +'r all ,'-n$t$'ns) /$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n '+
t(e$r 'b&e,ts! 3ut $t $s e0$dent t(at s$n,e) $n t(e ,ase '+ su,( a
,r$ter$'n) /e ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ all t(e ,'ntent '+ a ,'-n$t$'n =t(at
$s) '+ all relat$'n t' $ts 'b&e,t>) and trut( relates *re,$sely t'
t($s ,'ntent) $t must be utterly absurd t' as% +'r a mar% '+ t(e trut(
'+ t($s ,'ntent '+ ,'-n$t$'n4 and t(at) a,,'rd$n-ly) a su++$,$ent) and
at t(e same t$me un$0ersal) test '+ trut( ,ann't *'ss$bly be +'und! As
/e (a0e already termed t(e ,'ntent '+ a ,'-n$t$'n $ts matter) /e s(all
say6 9O+ t(e trut( '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns $n res*e,t '+ t(e$r matter) n'
un$0ersal test ,an be demanded) be,ause su,( a demand $s
On t(e 't(er (and) /$t( re-ard t' 'ur ,'-n$t$'n $n res*e,t '+ $ts
mere +'rm =e1,lud$n- all ,'ntent>) $t $s e.ually man$+est t(at
l'-$,) $n s' +ar as $t e1($b$ts t(e un$0ersal and ne,essary la/s '+
t(e understand$n-) must $n t(ese 0ery la/s *resent us /$t( ,r$ter$a '+
trut(! 2(ate0er ,'ntrad$,ts t(ese rules $s +alse) be,ause t(ereby
t(e understand$n- $s made t' ,'ntrad$,t $ts '/n un$0ersal la/s '+
t('u-(t4 t(at $s) t' ,'ntrad$,t $tsel+! T(ese ,r$ter$a) ('/e0er) a**ly
s'lely t' t(e +'rm '+ trut() t(at $s) '+ t('u-(t $n -eneral) and $n s'
+ar t(ey are *er+e,tly a,,urate) yet n't su++$,$ent! F'r alt('u-( a
,'-n$t$'n may be *er+e,tly a,,urate as t' l'-$,al +'rm) t(at $s) n't
sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry) $t $s n't/$t(stand$n- .u$te *'ss$ble t(at $t may
n't stand $n a-reement /$t( $ts 'b&e,t! C'nse.uently) t(e merely
l'-$,al ,r$ter$'n '+ trut() namely) t(e a,,'rdan,e '+ a ,'-n$t$'n /$t(
t(e un$0ersal and +'rmal la/s '+ understand$n- and reas'n) $s
n't($n- m're t(an t(e ,'nd$t$' s$ne .ua n'n) 'r ne-at$0e ,'nd$t$'n
'+ all trut(! Fart(er t(an t($s l'-$, ,ann't -') and t(e err'r /($,(
de*ends n't 'n t(e +'rm) but 'n t(e ,'ntent '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n) $t (as
n' test t' d$s,'0er!
Ceneral l'-$,) t(en) res'l0es t(e /('le +'rmal bus$ness '+
understand$n- and reas'n $nt' $ts elements) and e1($b$ts t(em as
*r$n,$*les '+ all l'-$,al &ud-$n- '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns! T($s *art '+
l'-$, may) t(ere+'re) be ,alled analyt$,) and $s at least t(e ne-at$0e
test '+ trut() be,ause all ,'-n$t$'ns must +$rst '+ an be est$mated
and tr$ed a,,'rd$n- t' t(ese la/s be+'re /e *r',eed t' $n0est$-ate
t(em $n res*e,t '+ t(e$r ,'ntent) $n 'rder t' d$s,'0er /(et(er t(ey
,'nta$n *'s$t$0e trut( $n re-ard t' t(e$r 'b&e,t! 3e,ause) ('/e0er)
t(e mere +'rm '+ a ,'-n$t$'n) a,,urately as $t may a,,'rd /$t( l'-$,al
la/s) $s $nsu++$,$ent t' su**ly us /$t( mater$al ='b&e,t$0e> trut() n'
'ne) by means '+ l'-$, al'ne) ,an 0enture t' *red$,ate anyt($n- '+
'r de,$de ,'n,ern$n- 'b&e,ts) unless (e (as 'bta$ned) $nde*endently '+
l'-$,) /ell5-r'unded $n+'rmat$'n ab'ut t(em) $n 'rder a+ter/ards t'
e1am$ne) a,,'rd$n- t' l'-$,al la/s) $nt' t(e use and ,'nne,t$'n) $n
a ,'(er$n- /('le) '+ t(at $n+'rmat$'n) 'r) /(at $s st$ll better)
merely t' test $t by t(em! N't/$t(stand$n-) t(ere l$es s' sedu,t$0e
a ,(arm $n t(e *'ssess$'n '+ a s*e,$'us art l$%e t($s5 an art /($,(
-$0es t' all 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns t(e +'rm '+ t(e understand$n-) alt('u-(
/$t( res*e,t t' t(e ,'ntent t(ere'+ /e may be sadly de+$,$ent5 t(at
-eneral l'-$,) /($,( $s merely a ,an'n '+ &ud-ement) (as been em*l'yed
as an 'r-an'n +'r t(e a,tual *r'du,t$'n) 'r rat(er +'r t(e semblan,e
'+ *r'du,t$'n) '+ 'b&e,t$0e assert$'ns) and (as t(us been -r'ssly
m$sa**l$ed! N'/ -eneral l'-$,) $n $ts assumed ,(ara,ter '+ 'r-an'n) $s
,alled d$ale,t$,!
#$++erent as are t(e s$-n$+$,at$'ns $n /($,( t(e an,$ents used
t($s term +'r a s,$en,e 'r an art) /e may sa+ely $n+er) +r'm t(e$r
a,tual em*l'yment '+ $t) t(at /$t( t(em $t /as n't($n- else t(an a
l'-$, '+ $llus$'n5 a s'*($st$,al art +'r -$0$n- $-n'ran,e) nay) e0en
$ntent$'nal s'*($str$es) t(e ,'l'ur$n- '+ trut() $n /($,( t(e
t('r'u-(ness '+ *r',edure /($,( l'-$, re.u$res /as $m$tated) and t(e$r
t'*$, em*l'yed t' ,l'a% t(e em*ty *retens$'ns! N'/ $t may be ta%en
as a sa+e and use+ul /arn$n-) t(at -eneral l'-$,) ,'ns$dered as an
'r-an'n) must al/ays be a l'-$, '+ $llus$'n) t(at $s) be
d$ale,t$,al) +'r) as $t tea,(es us n't($n- /(ate0er res*e,t$n- t(e
,'ntent '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns) but merely t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e$r
a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e understand$n-) /($,( d' n't relate t' and are
.u$te $nd$++erent $n res*e,t '+ 'b&e,ts) any attem*t t' em*l'y $t as
an $nstrument ='r-an'n> $n 'rder t' e1tend and enlar-e t(e ran-e '+
'ur %n'/led-e must end $n mere *rat$n-4 any 'ne be$n- able t' ma$nta$n
'r '**'se) /$t( s'me a**earan,e '+ trut() any s$n-le assert$'n
Su,( $nstru,t$'n $s .u$te unbe,'m$n- t(e d$-n$ty '+ *($l's'*(y!
F'r t(ese reas'ns /e (a0e ,('sen t' den'm$nate t($s *art '+ l'-$,
d$ale,t$,) $n t(e sense '+ a ,r$t$.ue '+ d$ale,t$,al $llus$'n) and
/e /$s( t(e term t' be s' underst''d $n t($s *la,e!
ID! O+ t(e #$0$s$'n '+ Trans,endental <'-$, $nt' Trans,endental

Analyt$, and #$ale,t$,!

In trans,endental l'-$, /e $s'late t(e understand$n- =as $n
trans,endental aest(et$, t(e sens$b$l$ty> and sele,t +r'm 'ur
,'-n$t$'n merely t(at *art '+ t('u-(t /($,( (as $ts 'r$-$n $n t(e
understand$n- al'ne! T(e e1er,$se '+ t($s *ure ,'-n$t$'n) ('/e0er)
de*ends u*'n t($s as $ts ,'nd$t$'n) t(at 'b&e,ts t' /($,( $t may be
a**l$ed be -$0en t' us $n $ntu$t$'n) +'r /$t('ut $ntu$t$'n t(e /('le
'+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n $s /$t('ut 'b&e,ts) and $s t(ere+'re .u$te 0'$d! T(at
*art '+ trans,endental l'-$,) t(en) /($,( treats '+ t(e elements '+
*ure ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) and '+ t(e *r$n,$*les /$t('ut
/($,( n' 'b&e,t at all ,an be t('u-(t) $s trans,endental analyt$,) and
at t(e same t$me a l'-$, '+ trut(! F'r n' ,'-n$t$'n ,an ,'ntrad$,t $t)
/$t('ut l's$n- at t(e same t$me all ,'ntent) t(at $s) l's$n- all
re+eren,e t' an 'b&e,t) and t(ere+'re all trut(! 3ut be,ause /e are
0ery eas$ly sedu,ed $nt' em*l'y$n- t(ese *ure ,'-n$t$'ns and
*r$n,$*les '+ t(e understand$n- by t(emsel0es) and t(at e0en bey'nd
t(e b'undar$es '+ e1*er$en,e) /($,( yet $s t(e 'nly s'ur,e /(en,e /e
,an 'bta$n matter ='b&e,ts> 'n /($,( t('se *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns may be
em*l'yed5 understand$n- runs t(e r$s% '+ ma%$n-) by means '+ em*ty
s'*($sms) a mater$al and 'b&e,t$0e use '+ t(e mere +'rmal *r$n,$*les
'+ t(e *ure understand$n-) and '+ *ass$n- &ud-ements 'n 'b&e,ts
/$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n5 'b&e,ts /($,( are n't -$0en t' us) nay) *er(a*s
,ann't be -$0en t' us $n any /ay! N'/) as $t 'u-(t *r'*erly t' be 'nly
a ,an'n +'r &ud-$n- '+ t(e em*$r$,al use '+ t(e understand$n-) t($s
%$nd '+ l'-$, $s m$sused /(en /e see% t' em*l'y $t as an 'r-an'n '+
t(e un$0ersal and unl$m$ted e1er,$se '+ t(e understand$n-) and attem*t
/$t( t(e *ure understand$n- al'ne t' &ud-e synt(et$,ally) a++$rm)
and determ$ne res*e,t$n- 'b&e,ts $n -eneral! In t($s ,ase t(e e1er,$se
'+ t(e *ure understand$n- be,'mes d$ale,t$,al! T(e se,'nd *art '+
'ur trans,endental l'-$, must t(ere+'re be a ,r$t$.ue '+ d$ale,t$,al
$llus$'n) and t($s ,r$t$.ue /e s(all term trans,endental d$ale,t$,5
n't mean$n- $t as an art '+ *r'du,$n- d'-mat$,ally su,( $llus$'n =an
art /($,( $s un+'rtunately t'' ,urrent am'n- t(e *ra,t$t$'ners '+
meta*(ys$,al &u--l$n->) but as a ,r$t$.ue '+ understand$n- and
reas'n $n re-ard t' t(e$r (y*er*(ys$,al use! T($s ,r$t$.ue /$ll e1*'se
t(e -r'undless nature '+ t(e *retens$'ns '+ t(ese t/' +a,ult$es) and
$n0al$date t(e$r ,la$ms t' t(e d$s,'0ery and enlar-ement '+ 'ur
,'-n$t$'ns merely by means '+ trans,endental *r$n,$*les) and s('/ t(at
t(e *r'*er em*l'yment '+ t(ese +a,ult$es $s t' test t(e &ud-ements
made by t(e *ure understand$n-) and t' -uard $t +r'm s'*($st$,al
Trans,endental <'-$,! FIRST #IDISION!



Trans,endental analyt$, $s t(e d$sse,t$'n '+ t(e /('le '+ 'ur a
*r$'r$ %n'/led-e $nt' t(e elements '+ t(e *ure ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e
understand$n-! In 'rder t' e++e,t 'ur *ur*'se) $t $s ne,essary6 =1>
T(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns be *ure and n't em*$r$,al4 =B> T(at t(ey bel'n-
n't t' $ntu$t$'n and sens$b$l$ty) but t' t('u-(t and understand$n-4
=I> T(at t(ey be elementary ,'n,e*t$'ns) and as su,() .u$te
d$++erent +r'm dedu,ed 'r ,'m*'und ,'n,e*t$'ns4 =K> T(at 'ur table
'+ t(ese elementary ,'n,e*t$'ns be ,'m*lete) and +$ll u* t(e /('le
s*(ere '+ t(e *ure understand$n-! N'/ t($s ,'m*leteness '+ a s,$en,e
,ann't be a,,e*ted /$t( ,'n+$den,e 'n t(e -uarantee '+ a mere est$mate
'+ $ts e1$sten,e $n an a--re-ate +'rmed 'nly by means '+ re*eated
e1*er$ments and attem*ts! T(e ,'m*leteness /($,( /e re.u$re $s
*'ss$ble 'nly by means '+ an $dea '+ t(e t'tal$ty '+ t(e a *r$'r$
,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) and t(r'u-( t(e t(ereby determ$ned
d$0$s$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( +'rm t(e sa$d /('le4 ,'nse.uently)
'nly by means '+ t(e$r ,'nne,t$'n $n a system! Pure understand$n-
d$st$n-u$s(es $tsel+ n't merely +r'm e0eryt($n- em*$r$,al) but als'
,'m*letely +r'm all sens$b$l$ty! It $s a un$ty sel+5subs$stent)
sel+5su++$,$ent) and n't t' be enlar-ed by any add$t$'ns +r'm /$t('ut!
Hen,e t(e sum '+ $ts ,'-n$t$'n ,'nst$tutes a system t' be determ$ned
by and ,'m*r$sed under an $dea4 and t(e ,'m*leteness and
art$,ulat$'n '+ t($s system ,an at t(e same t$me ser0e as a test '+
t(e ,'rre,tness and -enu$neness '+ all t(e *arts '+ ,'-n$t$'n t(at
bel'n- t' $t! T(e /('le '+ t($s *art '+ trans,endental l'-$,
,'ns$sts '+ t/' b''%s) '+ /($,( t(e 'ne ,'nta$ns t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns)
and t(e 't(er t(e *r$n,$*les '+ *ure understand$n-!

Analyt$, '+ C'n,e*t$'ns! SS B

3y t(e term Analyt$, '+ C'n,e*t$'ns) I d' n't understand t(e
analys$s '+ t(ese) 'r t(e usual *r',ess $n *($l's'*($,al
$n0est$-at$'ns '+ d$sse,t$n- t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( *resent t(emsel0es)
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e$r ,'ntent) and s' ma%$n- t(em ,lear4 but I mean t(e
($t(ert' l$ttle attem*ted d$sse,t$'n '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ understand$n-
$tsel+) $n 'rder t' $n0est$-ate t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns a
*r$'r$) by l''%$n- +'r t(em $n t(e understand$n- al'ne) as t(e$r
b$rt(*la,e) and analys$n- t(e *ure use '+ t($s +a,ulty! F'r t($s $s
t(e *r'*er duty '+ a trans,endental *($l's'*(y4 /(at rema$ns $s t(e
l'-$,al treatment '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns $n *($l's'*(y $n -eneral! 2e
s(all t(ere+'re +'ll'/ u* t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns e0en t' t(e$r -erms and
be-$nn$n-s $n t(e (uman understand$n-) $n /($,( t(ey l$e) unt$l t(ey
are de0el'*ed 'n ',,as$'ns *resented by e1*er$en,e) and) +reed by
t(e same understand$n- +r'm t(e em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns atta,($n- t'
t(em) are set +'rt( $n t(e$r unall'yed *ur$ty! t
CHAPTER I! O+ t(e Trans,endental Clue t' t(e #$s,'0ery '+ all Pure
C'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e Understand$n-!
Intr'du,t'ry! SS I
2(en /e ,all $nt' *lay a +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n) d$++erent ,'n,e*t$'ns
man$+est t(emsel0es a,,'rd$n- t' t(e d$++erent ,$r,umstan,es) and ma%e
%n'/n t($s +a,ulty) and assemble t(emsel0es $nt' a m're 'r less
e1tens$0e ,'lle,t$'n) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e t$me 'r *enetrat$'n t(at (as
been a**l$ed t' t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(em! 2(ere t($s *r',ess)
,'ndu,ted as $t $s me,(an$,ally) s' t' s*ea%) /$ll end) ,ann't be
determ$ned /$t( ,erta$nty! 3es$des) t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( /e
d$s,'0er $n t($s (a*(a;ard manner *resent t(emsel0es by n' means $n
'rder and systemat$, un$ty) but are at last ,'u*led t'-et(er 'nly
a,,'rd$n- t' resemblan,es t' ea,( 't(er) and arran-ed $n ser$es)
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e .uant$ty '+ t(e$r ,'ntent) +r'm t(e s$m*ler t' t(e
m're ,'m*le15 ser$es /($,( are anyt($n- but systemat$,) t('u-( n't
alt'-et(er /$t('ut a ,erta$n %$nd '+ met('d $n t(e$r ,'nstru,t$'n! a
Trans,endental *($l's'*(y (as t(e ad0anta-e) and m're'0er t(e
duty) '+ sear,($n- +'r $ts ,'n,e*t$'ns a,,'rd$n- t' a *r$n,$*le4
be,ause t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns s*r$n- *ure and unm$1ed 'ut '+ t(e
understand$n- as an abs'lute un$ty) and t(ere+'re must be ,'nne,ted
/$t( ea,( 't(er a,,'rd$n- t' 'ne ,'n,e*t$'n 'r $dea! A ,'nne,t$'n '+
t($s %$nd) ('/e0er) +urn$s(es us /$t( a ready *re*ared rule) by
/($,( $ts *r'*er *la,e may be ass$-ned t' e0ery *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
understand$n-) and t(e ,'m*leteness '+ t(e system '+ all be determ$ned
a *r$'r$5 b't( /($,( /'uld 't(er/$se (a0e been de*endent 'n mere
,('$,e 'r ,(an,e! ,
SECTION 1! O+ de+$ned ab'0e Use '+ understand$n- $n Ceneral! SS K
T(e understand$n- /as de+$ned ab'0e 'nly ne-at$0ely) as a
n'n5sensu'us +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n! N'/) $nde*endently '+
sens$b$l$ty) /e ,ann't *'ss$bly (a0e any $ntu$t$'n4 ,'nse.uently)
t(e understand$n- $s n' +a,ulty '+ $ntu$t$'n! 3ut bes$des $ntu$t$'n
t(ere $s n' 't(er m'de '+ ,'-n$t$'n) e1,e*t t(r'u-( ,'n,e*t$'ns4
,'nse.uently) t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ e0ery) at least '+ e0ery (uman)
understand$n- $s a ,'-n$t$'n t(r'u-( ,'n,e*t$'ns5 n't $ntu$t$0e) but
d$s,urs$0e! All $ntu$t$'ns) as sensu'us) de*end 'n a++e,t$'ns4
,'n,e*t$'ns) t(ere+'re) u*'n +un,t$'ns! 3y t(e /'rd +un,t$'n I
understand t(e un$ty '+ t(e a,t '+ arran-$n- d$0erse re*resentat$'ns
under 'ne ,'mm'n re*resentat$'n! C'n,e*t$'ns) t(en) are based 'n t(e
s*'ntane$ty '+ t('u-(t) as sensu'us $ntu$t$'ns are 'n t(e
re,e*t$0$ty '+ $m*ress$'ns! N'/) t(e understand$n- ,ann't ma%e any
't(er use '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns t(an t' &ud-e by means '+ t(em! As n'
re*resentat$'n) e1,e*t an $ntu$t$'n) relates $mmed$ately t' $ts
'b&e,t) a ,'n,e*t$'n ne0er relates $mmed$ately t' an 'b&e,t) but
'nly t' s'me 't(er re*resentat$'n t(ere'+) be t(at an $ntu$t$'n 'r
$tsel+ a ,'n,e*t$'n! A &ud-ement) t(ere+'re) $s t(e med$ate
,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t) ,'nse.uently t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a
re*resentat$'n '+ $t! In e0ery &ud-ement t(ere $s a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,(
a**l$es t') and $s 0al$d +'r many 't(er ,'n,e*t$'ns) and /($,( am'n-
t(ese ,'m*re(ends als' a -$0en re*resentat$'n) t($s last be$n-
$mmed$ately ,'nne,ted /$t( an 'b&e,t! F'r e1am*le) $n t(e &ud-ement5
9All b'd$es are d$0$s$ble)9 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ d$0$s$ble a**l$es t'
0ar$'us 't(er ,'n,e*t$'ns4 am'n- t(ese) ('/e0er) $t $s (ere
*art$,ularly a**l$ed t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy) and t($s ,'n,e*t$'n '+
b'dy relates t' ,erta$n *(en'mena /($,( ',,ur t' us! T(ese 'b&e,ts)
t(ere+'re) are med$ately re*resented by t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
d$0$s$b$l$ty! All &ud-ements) a,,'rd$n-ly) are +un,t$'ns '+ un$ty $n
'ur re*resentat$'ns) $nasmu,( as) $nstead '+ an $mmed$ate) a ($-(er
re*resentat$'n) /($,( ,'m*r$ses t($s and 0ar$'us 't(ers) $s used +'r
'ur ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t) and t(ereby many *'ss$ble ,'-n$t$'ns
are ,'lle,ted $nt' 'ne! 3ut /e ,an redu,e all a,ts '+ t(e
understand$n- t' &ud-ements) s' t(at understand$n- may be
re*resented as t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-$n-! F'r $t $s) a,,'rd$n- t' /(at
(as been sa$d ab'0e) a +a,ulty '+ t('u-(t! N'/ t('u-(t $s ,'-n$t$'n by
means '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns! 3ut ,'n,e*t$'ns) as *red$,ates '+ *'ss$ble
&ud-ements) relate t' s'me re*resentat$'n '+ a yet undeterm$ned
'b&e,t! T(us t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy $nd$,ates s'met($n-5 +'r
e1am*le) metal5 /($,( ,an be ,'-n$;ed by means '+ t(at ,'n,e*t$'n!
It $s t(ere+'re a ,'n,e*t$'n) +'r t(e reas'n al'ne t(at 't(er
re*resentat$'ns are ,'nta$ned under $t) by means '+ /($,( $t ,an
relate t' 'b&e,ts! It $s t(ere+'re t(e *red$,ate t' a *'ss$ble
&ud-ement4 +'r e1am*le6 9E0ery metal $s a b'dy!9 All t(e +un,t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n- t(ere+'re ,an be d$s,'0ered) /(en /e ,an
,'m*letely e1($b$t t(e +un,t$'ns '+ un$ty $n &ud-ements! And t(at t($s
may be e++e,ted 0ery eas$ly) t(e +'ll'/$n- se,t$'n /$ll s('/! m
SECTION II! O+ t(e <'-$,al Fun,t$'n '+ t(e Understand$n- $n
ud-ements! SS A
I+ /e abstra,t all t(e ,'ntent '+ a &ud-ement) and ,'ns$der 'nly t(e
$ntelle,tual +'rm t(ere'+) /e +$nd t(at t(e +un,t$'n '+ t('u-(t $n a
&ud-ement ,an be br'u-(t under +'ur (eads) '+ /($,( ea,( ,'nta$ns
t(ree m'menta! T(ese may be ,'n0en$ently re*resented $n t(e
+'ll'/$n- table6 +
Quant$ty '+ &ud-ements
Qual$ty Relat$'n
A++$rmat$0e Cate-'r$,al
Ne-at$0e Hy*'t(et$,al
In+$n$te #$s&un,t$0e
As t($s d$0$s$'n a**ears t' d$++er $n s'me) t('u-( n't essent$al
*'$nts) +r'm t(e usual te,(n$.ue '+ l'-$,$ans) t(e +'ll'/$n-
'bser0at$'ns) +'r t(e *re0ent$'n '+ 't(er/$se *'ss$ble
m$sunderstand$n-) /$ll n't be /$t('ut t(e$r use! m
1! <'-$,$ans say) /$t( &ust$,e) t(at $n t(e use '+ &ud-ements $n
syll'-$sms) s$n-ular &ud-ements may be treated l$%e un$0ersal 'nes!
F'r) *re,$sely be,ause a s$n-ular &ud-ement (as n' e1tent at all)
$ts *red$,ate ,ann't re+er t' a *art '+ t(at /($,( $s ,'nta$ned $n t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t and be e1,luded +r'm t(e rest! T(e *red$,ate
$s 0al$d +'r t(e /('le ,'n,e*t$'n &ust as $+ $t /ere a -eneral
,'n,e*t$'n) and (ad e1tent) t' t(e /('le '+ /($,( t(e *red$,ate
a**l$ed! On t(e 't(er (and) let us ,'m*are a s$n-ular /$t( a -eneral
&ud-ement) merely as a ,'-n$t$'n) $n re-ard t' .uant$ty! T(e
s$n-ular &ud-ement relates t' t(e -eneral 'ne) as un$ty t' $n+$n$ty)
and $s t(ere+'re $n $tsel+ essent$ally d$++erent! T(us) $+ /e est$mate
a s$n-ular &ud-ement =&ud$,$um s$n-ulare> n't merely a,,'rd$n- t'
$ts $ntr$ns$, 0al$d$ty as a &ud-ement) but als' as a ,'-n$t$'n
-enerally) a,,'rd$n- t' $ts .uant$ty $n ,'m*ar$s'n /$t( t(at '+
't(er ,'-n$t$'ns) $t $s t(en ent$rely d$++erent +r'm a -eneral
&ud-ement =&ud$,$um ,'mmune>) and $n a ,'m*lete table '+ t(e m'menta
'+ t('u-(t deser0es a se*arate *la,e5 t('u-() $ndeed) t($s /'uld n't
be ne,essary $n a l'-$, l$m$ted merely t' t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(e use
'+ &ud-ements $n re+eren,e t' ea,( 't(er! '
B! In l$%e manner) $n trans,endental l'-$,) $n+$n$te must be
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm a++$rmat$0e &ud-ements) alt('u-( $n -eneral l'-$,
t(ey are r$-(tly en'u-( ,lassed under a++$rmat$0e! Ceneral l'-$,
abstra,ts all ,'ntent '+ t(e *red$,ate =t('u-( $t be ne-at$0e>) and
'nly ,'ns$ders /(et(er t(e sa$d *red$,ate be a++$rmed 'r den$ed '+ t(e
sub&e,t! 3ut trans,endental l'-$, ,'ns$ders als' t(e /'rt( 'r
,'ntent '+ t($s l'-$,al a++$rmat$'n5 an a++$rmat$'n by means '+ a
merely ne-at$0e *red$,ate) and $n.u$res ('/ mu,( t(e sum t'tal '+
'ur ,'-n$t$'n -a$ns by t($s a++$rmat$'n! F'r e1am*le) $+ I say '+
t(e s'ul) 9It $s n't m'rtal95 by t($s ne-at$0e &ud-ement I s('uld at
least /ard '++ err'r! N'/) by t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9T(e s'ul $s n't
m'rtal)9 I (a0e) $n res*e,t '+ t(e l'-$,al +'rm) really a++$rmed)
$nasmu,( as I t(ereby *la,e t(e s'ul $n t(e unl$m$ted s*(ere '+
$mm'rtal be$n-s! N'/) be,ause '+ t(e /('le s*(ere '+ *'ss$ble
e1$sten,es) t(e m'rtal ',,u*$es 'ne *art) and t(e $mm'rtal t(e
't(er) ne$t(er m're n'r less $s a++$rmed by t(e *r'*'s$t$'n t(an
t(at t(e s'ul $s 'ne am'n- t(e $n+$n$te mult$tude '+ t($n-s /($,(
rema$n '0er) /(en I ta%e a/ay t(e /('le m'rtal *art! 3ut by t($s
*r',eed$n- /e a,,'m*l$s( 'nly t($s mu,() t(at t(e $n+$n$te s*(ere '+
all *'ss$ble e1$sten,es $s $n s' +ar l$m$ted t(at t(e m'rtal $s
e1,luded +r'm $t) and t(e s'ul $s *la,ed $n t(e rema$n$n- *art '+
t(e e1tent '+ t($s s*(ere! 3ut t($s *art rema$ns) n't/$t(stand$n- t($s
e1,e*t$'n) $n+$n$te) and m're and m're *arts may be ta%en a/ay +r'm
t(e /('le s*(ere) /$t('ut $n t(e sl$-(test de-ree t(ereby au-ment$n-
'r a++$rmat$0ely determ$n$n- 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e s'ul! T(ese
&ud-ements) t(ere+'re) $n+$n$te $n res*e,t '+ t(e$r l'-$,al e1tent)
are) $n res*e,t '+ t(e ,'ntent '+ t(e$r ,'-n$t$'n) merely
l$m$tat$0e4 and are ,'nse.uently ent$tled t' a *la,e $n 'ur
trans,endental table '+ all t(e m'menta '+ t('u-(t $n &ud-ements)
be,ause t(e +un,t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- e1er,$sed by t(em may
*er(a*s be '+ $m*'rtan,e $n t(e +$eld '+ $ts *ure a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n! *
I! All relat$'ns '+ t('u-(t $n &ud-ements are t('se =a> '+ t(e
*red$,ate t' t(e sub&e,t4 =b> '+ t(e *r$n,$*le t' $ts ,'nse.uen,e4 =,>
'+ t(e d$0$ded ,'-n$t$'n and all t(e members '+ t(e d$0$s$'n t' ea,(
't(er! In t(e +$rst '+ t(ese t(ree ,lasses) /e ,'ns$der 'nly t/'
,'n,e*t$'ns4 $n t(e se,'nd) t/' &ud-ements4 $n t(e t($rd) se0eral
&ud-ements $n relat$'n t' ea,( 't(er! T(e (y*'t(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n)
9I+ *er+e,t &ust$,e e1$sts) t(e 'bst$nately /$,%ed are *un$s(ed)9
,'nta$ns *r'*erly t(e relat$'n t' ea,( 't(er '+ t/' *r'*'s$t$'ns)
namely) 9Per+e,t &ust$,e e1$sts)9 and 9T(e 'bst$nately /$,%ed are
*un$s(ed!9 2(et(er t(ese *r'*'s$t$'ns are $n t(emsel0es true $s a
.uest$'n n't (ere de,$ded! N't($n- $s ,'-$tated by means '+ t($s
&ud-ement e1,e*t a ,erta$n ,'nse.uen,e! F$nally) t(e d$s&un,t$0e
&ud-ement ,'nta$ns a relat$'n '+ t/' 'r m're *r'*'s$t$'ns t' ea,(
't(er5 a relat$'n n't '+ ,'nse.uen,e) but '+ l'-$,al '**'s$t$'n) $n s'
+ar as t(e s*(ere '+ t(e 'ne *r'*'s$t$'n e1,ludes t(at '+ t(e 't(er!
3ut $t ,'nta$ns at t(e same t$me a relat$'n '+ ,'mmun$ty) $n s' +ar as
all t(e *r'*'s$t$'ns ta%en t'-et(er +$ll u* t(e s*(ere '+ t(e
,'-n$t$'n! T(e d$s&un,t$0e &ud-ement ,'nta$ns) t(ere+'re) t(e relat$'n
'+ t(e *arts '+ t(e /('le s*(ere '+ a ,'-n$t$'n) s$n,e t(e s*(ere '+
ea,( *art $s a ,'m*lemental *art '+ t(e s*(ere '+ t(e 't(er) ea,(
,'ntr$but$n- t' +'rm t(e sum t'tal '+ t(e d$0$ded ,'-n$t$'n! Ta%e) +'r
e1am*le) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9T(e /'rld e1$sts e$t(er t(r'u-( bl$nd
,(an,e) 'r t(r'u-( $nternal ne,ess$ty) 'r t(r'u-( an e1ternal
,ause!9 Ea,( '+ t(ese *r'*'s$t$'ns embra,es a *art '+ t(e s*(ere '+
'ur *'ss$ble ,'-n$t$'n as t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ a /'rld4 all '+ t(em
ta%en t'-et(er) t(e /('le s*(ere! T' ta%e t(e ,'-n$t$'n 'ut '+ 'ne
'+ t(ese s*(eres) $s e.u$0alent t' *la,$n- $t $n 'ne '+ t(e 't(ers4
and) 'n t(e 't(er (and) t' *la,e $t $n 'ne s*(ere $s e.u$0alent t'
ta%$n- $t 'ut '+ t(e rest! T(ere $s) t(ere+'re) $n a d$s&un,t$0e
&ud-ement a ,erta$n ,'mmun$ty '+ ,'-n$t$'ns) /($,( ,'ns$sts $n t($s)
t(at t(ey mutually e1,lude ea,( 't(er) yet t(ereby determ$ne) as a
/('le) t(e true ,'-n$t$'n) $nasmu,( as) ta%en t'-et(er) t(ey ma%e u*
t(e ,'m*lete ,'ntent '+ a *art$,ular -$0en ,'-n$t$'n! And t($s $s
all t(at I +$nd ne,essary) +'r t(e sa%e '+ /(at +'ll'/s) t' remar%
$n t($s *la,e! $
K! T(e m'dal$ty '+ &ud-ements $s a .u$te *e,ul$ar +un,t$'n) /$t(
t($s d$st$n-u$s($n- ,(ara,ter$st$,) t(at $t ,'ntr$butes n't($n- t' t(e
,'ntent '+ a &ud-ement =+'r bes$des .uant$ty) .ual$ty) and relat$'n)
t(ere $s n't($n- m're t(at ,'nst$tutes t(e ,'ntent '+ a &ud-ement>)
but ,'n,erns $tsel+ 'nly /$t( t(e 0alue '+ t(e ,'*ula $n relat$'n t'
t('u-(t $n -eneral! Pr'blemat$,al &ud-ements are t('se $n /($,( t(e
a++$rmat$'n 'r ne-at$'n $s a,,e*ted as merely *'ss$ble =ad l$b$tum>!
In t(e assert'r$,al) /e re-ard t(e *r'*'s$t$'n as real =true>4 $n
t(e a*'de$,t$,al) /e l''% 'n $t as ne,essary!7 T(us t(e t/' &ud-ements
=ante,edens et ,'nse.uens>) t(e relat$'n '+ /($,( ,'nst$tutes a
(y*'t(et$,al &ud-ement) l$%e/$se t('se =t(e members '+ t(e d$0$s$'n>
$n /('se re,$*r',$ty t(e d$s&un,t$0e ,'ns$sts) are 'nly *r'blemat$,al!
In t(e e1am*le ab'0e -$0en t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9T(ere e1$sts *er+e,t
&ust$,e)9 $s n't stated assert'r$,ally) but as an ad l$b$tum
&ud-ement) /($,( s'me'ne may ,(''se t' ad'*t) and t(e ,'nse.uen,e
al'ne $s assert'r$,al! Hen,e su,( &ud-ements may be 'b0$'usly +alse)
and yet) ta%en *r'blemat$,ally) be ,'nd$t$'ns '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n '+
t(e trut(! T(us t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9T(e /'rld e1$sts 'nly by bl$nd
,(an,e)9 $s $n t(e d$s&un,t$0e &ud-ement '+ *r'blemat$,al $m*'rt 'nly6
t(at $s t' say) 'ne may a,,e*t $t +'r t(e m'ment) and $t (el*s us
=l$%e t(e $nd$,at$'n '+ t(e /r'n- r'ad am'n- all t(e r'ads t(at 'ne
,an ta%e> t' +$nd 'ut t(e true *r'*'s$t$'n! T(e *r'blemat$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n $s) t(ere+'re) t(at /($,( e1*resses 'nly l'-$,al
*'ss$b$l$ty =/($,( $s n't 'b&e,t$0e>4 t(at $s) $t e1*resses a +ree
,('$,e t' adm$t t(e 0al$d$ty '+ su,( a *r'*'s$t$'n5 a merely arb$trary
re,e*t$'n '+ $t $nt' t(e understand$n-! T(e assert'r$,al s*ea%s '+
l'-$,al real$ty 'r trut(4 as) +'r e1am*le) $n a (y*'t(et$,al
syll'-$sm) t(e ante,edens *resents $tsel+ $n a *r'blemat$,al +'rm $n
t(e ma&'r) $n an assert'r$,al +'rm $n t(e m$n'r) and $t s('/s t(at t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n $s $n (arm'ny /$t( t(e la/s '+ t(e understand$n-! T(e
a*'de$,t$,al *r'*'s$t$'n ,'-$tates t(e assert'r$,al as determ$ned by
t(ese 0ery la/s '+ t(e understand$n-) ,'nse.uently as a++$rm$n- a
*r$'r$) and $n t($s manner $t e1*resses l'-$,al ne,ess$ty! N'/ be,ause
all $s (ere -radually $n,'r*'rated /$t( t(e understand$n-5 $nasmu,( as
$n t(e +$rst *la,e /e &ud-e *r'blemat$,ally4 t(en a,,e*t
assert'r$,ally 'ur &ud-ement as true4 lastly) a++$rm $t as $nse*arably
un$ted /$t( t(e understand$n-) t(at $s) as ne,essary and a*'de$,t$,al5
/e may sa+ely re,%'n t(ese t(ree +un,t$'ns '+ m'dal$ty as s' many
m'menta '+ t('u-(t! m
7ust as $+ t('u-(t /ere $n t(e +$rst $nstan,e a +un,t$'n '+ t(e
understand$n-4 $n t(e se,'nd) '+ &ud-ement4 $n t(e t($rd) '+ reas'n! A
remar% /($,( /$ll be e1*la$ned $n t(e se.uel! r
SECTION III! O+ t(e Pure C'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e Understand$n-) 'r
Cate-'r$es! SS L
Ceneral l'-$,) as (as been re*eatedly sa$d) ma%es abstra,t$'n '+ all
,'ntent '+ ,'-n$t$'n) and e1*e,ts t' re,e$0e re*resentat$'ns +r'm s'me
't(er .uarter) $n 'rder) by means '+ analys$s) t' ,'n0ert t(em $nt'
,'n,e*t$'ns! On t(e ,'ntrary) trans,endental l'-$, (as ly$n- be+'re $t
t(e man$+'ld ,'ntent '+ a *r$'r$ sens$b$l$ty) /($,( trans,endental
aest(et$, *resents t' $t $n 'rder t' -$0e matter t' t(e *ure
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) /$t('ut /($,( trans,endental l'-$,
/'uld (a0e n' ,'ntent) and be t(ere+'re utterly 0'$d! N'/ s*a,e and
t$me ,'nta$n an $n+$n$te d$0ers$ty '+ determ$nat$'ns '+ *ure a
*r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n) but are ne0ert(eless t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e m$nd?s
re,e*t$0$ty) under /($,( al'ne $t ,an 'bta$n re*resentat$'ns '+
'b&e,ts) and /($,() ,'nse.uently) must al/ays a++e,t t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
t(ese 'b&e,ts! 3ut t(e s*'ntane$ty '+ t('u-(t re.u$res t(at t($s
d$0ers$ty be e1am$ned a+ter a ,erta$n manner) re,e$0ed $nt' t(e
m$nd) and ,'nne,ted) $n 'rder a+ter/ards t' +'rm a ,'-n$t$'n 'ut '+
$t! T($s Pr',ess I ,all synt(es$s! $
3y t(e /'rd synt(es$s) $n $ts m'st -eneral s$-n$+$,at$'n) I
understand t(e *r',ess '+ &'$n$n- d$++erent re*resentat$'ns t' ea,(
't(er and '+ ,'m*re(end$n- t(e$r d$0ers$ty $n 'ne ,'-n$t$'n! T($s
synt(es$s $s *ure /(en t(e d$0ers$ty $s n't -$0en em*$r$,ally but a
*r$'r$ =as t(at $n s*a,e and t$me>! Our re*resentat$'ns must be
-$0en *re0$'usly t' any analys$s '+ t(em4 and n' ,'n,e*t$'ns ,an
ar$se) .u'ad t(e$r ,'ntent) analyt$,ally! 3ut t(e synt(es$s '+ a
d$0ers$ty =be $t -$0en a *r$'r$ 'r em*$r$,ally> $s t(e +$rst re.u$s$te
+'r t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ a ,'-n$t$'n) /($,( $n $ts be-$nn$n-) $ndeed) may
be ,rude and ,'n+used) and t(ere+'re $n need '+ analys$s5 st$ll)
synt(es$s $s t(at by /($,( al'ne t(e elements '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns are
,'lle,ted and un$ted $nt' a ,erta$n ,'ntent) ,'nse.uently $t $s t(e
+$rst t($n- 'n /($,( /e must +$1 'ur attent$'n) $+ /e /$s( t'
$n0est$-ate t(e 'r$-$n '+ 'ur %n'/led-e! $
Synt(es$s) -enerally s*ea%$n-) $s) as /e s(all a+ter/ards see) t(e
mere '*erat$'n '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n5 a bl$nd but $nd$s*ensable
+un,t$'n '+ t(e s'ul) /$t('ut /($,( /e s('uld (a0e n' ,'-n$t$'n
/(ate0er) but '+ t(e /'r%$n- '+ /($,( /e are seld'm e0en ,'ns,$'us!
3ut t' redu,e t($s synt(es$s t' ,'n,e*t$'ns $s a +un,t$'n '+ t(e
understand$n-) by means '+ /($,( /e atta$n t' ,'-n$t$'n) $n t(e *r'*er
mean$n- '+ t(e term! m
Pure synt(es$s) re*resented -enerally) -$0es us t(e *ure
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-! 3ut by t($s *ure synt(es$s) I mean
t(at /($,( rests u*'n a bas$s '+ a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al un$ty! T(us) 'ur
numerat$'n =and t($s $s m're 'bser0able $n lar-e numbers> $s a
synt(es$s a,,'rd$n- t' ,'n,e*t$'ns) be,ause $t ta%es *la,e a,,'rd$n-
t' a ,'mm'n bas$s '+ un$ty =+'r e1am*le) t(e de,ade>! 3y means '+ t($s
,'n,e*t$'n) t(ere+'re) t(e un$ty $n t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld
be,'mes ne,essary! b
3y means '+ analys$s d$++erent re*resentat$'ns are br'u-(t under 'ne
,'n,e*t$'n5 an '*erat$'n '+ /($,( -eneral l'-$, treats! On t(e 't(er
(and) t(e duty '+ trans,endental l'-$, $s t' redu,e t' ,'n,e*t$'ns)
n't re*resentat$'ns) but t(e *ure synt(es$s '+ re*resentat$'ns! T(e
+$rst t($n- /($,( must be -$0en t' us +'r t(e sa%e '+ t(e a *r$'r$
,'-n$t$'n '+ all 'b&e,ts) $s t(e d$0ers$ty '+ t(e *ure $ntu$t$'n4
t(e synt(es$s '+ t($s d$0ers$ty by means '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n $s t(e
se,'nd4 but t($s -$0es) as yet) n' ,'-n$t$'n! T(e ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,(
-$0e un$ty t' t($s *ure synt(es$s) and /($,( ,'ns$st s'lely $n t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ t($s ne,essary synt(et$,al un$ty) +urn$s( t(e
t($rd re.u$s$te +'r t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t) and t(ese
,'n,e*t$'ns are -$0en by t(e understand$n-! ,
T(e same +un,t$'n /($,( -$0es un$ty t' t(e d$++erent
re*resentat$'n $n a &ud-ement) -$0es als' un$ty t' t(e mere
synt(es$s '+ d$++erent re*resentat$'ns $n an $ntu$t$'n4 and t($s un$ty
/e ,all t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-! T(us) t(e same
understand$n-) and by t(e same '*erat$'ns) /(ereby $n ,'n,e*t$'ns)
by means '+ analyt$,al un$ty) $t *r'du,ed t(e l'-$,al +'rm '+ a
&ud-ement) $ntr'du,es) by means '+ t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e
man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n) a trans,endental ,'ntent $nt' $ts
re*resentat$'ns) 'n /($,( a,,'unt t(ey are ,alled *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n-) and t(ey a**ly a *r$'r$ t' 'b&e,ts) a result n't
/$t($n t(e *'/er '+ -eneral l'-$,! /
In t($s manner) t(ere ar$se e1a,tly s' many *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e understand$n-) a**ly$n- a *r$'r$ t' 'b&e,ts '+ $ntu$t$'n $n
-eneral) as t(ere are l'-$,al +un,t$'ns $n all *'ss$ble &ud-ements!
F'r t(ere $s n' 't(er +un,t$'n 'r +a,ulty e1$st$n- $n t(e
understand$n- bes$des t('se enumerated $n t(at table! T(ese
,'n,e*t$'ns /e s(all) /$t( Ar$st'tle) ,all ,ate-'r$es) 'ur *ur*'se
be$n- 'r$-$nally $dent$,al /$t( ($s) n't/$t(stand$n- t(e -reat
d$++eren,e $n t(e e1e,ut$'n! d
1 B
O+ Quant$ty O+ Qual$ty
Un$ty Real$ty
Plural$ty Ne-at$'n
T'tal$ty <$m$tat$'n
O+ Relat$'n
O+ In(eren,e and Subs$sten,e =substant$a et a,,$dens>
O+ Causal$ty and #e*enden,e =,ause and e++e,t>
O+ C'mmun$ty =re,$*r',$ty bet/een t(e a-ent and *at$ent>
O+ "'dal$ty
P'ss$b$l$ty 5 Im*'ss$b$l$ty
E1$sten,e 5 N'n5e1$sten,e
Ne,ess$ty 5 C'nt$n-en,e
T($s) t(en) $s a ,atal'-ue '+ all t(e 'r$-$nally *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e synt(es$s /($,( t(e understand$n- ,'nta$ns a *r$'r$) and t(ese
,'n,e*t$'ns al'ne ent$tle $t t' be ,alled a *ure understand$n-4
$nasmu,( as 'nly by t(em $t ,an render t(e man$+'ld '+ $ntu$t$'n
,'n,e$0able) $n 't(er /'rds) t($n% an 'b&e,t '+ $ntu$t$'n! T($s
d$0$s$'n $s made systemat$,ally +r'm a ,'mm'n *r$n,$*le) namely t(e
+a,ulty '+ &ud-ement =/($,( $s &ust t(e same as t(e *'/er '+ t('u-(t>)
and (as n't ar$sen r(a*s'd$,ally +r'm a sear,( at (a*(a;ard a+ter *ure
,'n,e*t$'ns) res*e,t$n- t(e +ull number '+ /($,( /e ne0er ,'uld be
,erta$n) $nasmu,( as /e em*l'y $ndu,t$'n al'ne $n 'ur sear,()
/$t('ut ,'ns$der$n- t(at $n t($s /ay /e ,an ne0er understand /(ere+'re
*re,$sely t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) and n'ne 't(ers) ab$de $n t(e *ure
understand$n-! It /as a des$-n /'rt(y '+ an a,ute t($n%er l$%e
Ar$st'tle) t' sear,( +'r t(ese +undamental ,'n,e*t$'ns! #est$tute)
('/e0er) '+ any -u$d$n- *r$n,$*le) (e *$,%ed t(em u* &ust as t(ey
',,urred t' ($m) and at +$rst (unted 'ut ten) /($,( (e ,alled
,ate-'r$es =*red$,aments>! A+ter/ards be bel$e0ed t(at (e (ad
d$s,'0ered +$0e 't(ers) /($,( /ere added under t(e name '+ *'st
*red$,aments! 3ut ($s ,atal'-ue st$ll rema$ned de+e,t$0e! 3es$des)
t(ere are t' be +'und am'n- t(em s'me '+ t(e m'des '+ *ure sens$b$l$ty
=.uand') ub$) s$tus) als' *r$us) s$mul>) and l$%e/$se an em*$r$,al
,'n,e*t$'n =m'tus>5 /($,( ,an by n' means bel'n- t' t($s
-eneal'-$,al re-$ster '+ t(e *ure understand$n-! "'re'0er) t(ere are
dedu,ed ,'n,e*t$'ns =a,t$') *ass$'> enumerated am'n- t(e 'r$-$nal
,'n,e*t$'ns) and) '+ t(e latter) s'me are ent$rely /ant$n-! ,
2$t( re-ard t' t(ese) $t $s t' be remar%ed) t(at t(e ,ate-'r$es)
as t(e true *r$m$t$0e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) (a0e als'
t(e$r *ure dedu,ed ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,() $n a ,'m*lete system '+
trans,endental *($l's'*(y) must by n' means be *assed '0er4 t('u-(
$n a merely ,r$t$,al essay /e must be ,'ntented /$t( t(e s$m*le
ment$'n '+ t(e +a,t! m
<et $t be all'/ed me t' ,all t(ese *ure) but dedu,ed ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n-) t(e *red$,ables '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) $n
,'ntrad$st$n,t$'n t' *red$,aments! I+ /e are $n *'ssess$'n '+ t(e
'r$-$nal and *r$m$t$0e) t(e dedu,ed and subs$d$ary ,'n,e*t$'ns ,an
eas$ly be added) and t(e -eneal'-$,al tree '+ t(e understand$n-
,'m*letely del$neated! As my *resent a$m $s n't t' set +'rt( a
,'m*lete system) but merely t(e *r$n,$*les '+ 'ne) I reser0e t($s tas%
+'r an't(er t$me! It may be eas$ly e1e,uted by any 'ne /(' /$ll
re+er t' t(e 'nt'l'-$,al manuals) and sub'rd$nate t' t(e ,ate-'ry '+
,ausal$ty) +'r e1am*le) t(e *red$,ables '+ +'r,e) a,t$'n) *ass$'n4
t' t(at '+ ,'mmun$ty) t('se '+ *resen,e and res$stan,e4 t' t(e
,ate-'r$es '+ m'dal$ty) t('se '+ 'r$-$nat$'n) e1t$n,t$'n) ,(an-e4
and s' /$t( t(e rest! T(e ,ate-'r$es ,'mb$ned /$t( t(e m'des '+ *ure
sens$b$l$ty) 'r /$t( 'ne an't(er) a++'rd a -reat number '+ dedu,ed a
*r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns4 a ,'m*lete enumerat$'n '+ /($,( /'uld be a
use+ul and n't un*leasant) but $n t($s *la,e a *er+e,tly
d$s*ensable) ',,u*at$'n! d
I *ur*'sely 'm$t t(e de+$n$t$'ns '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es $n t($s treat$se!
I s(all analyse t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns 'nly s' +ar as $s ne,essary +'r
t(e d',tr$ne '+ met('d) /($,( $s t' +'rm a *art '+ t($s ,r$t$.ue! In a
system '+ *ure reas'n) de+$n$t$'ns '+ t(em /'uld be /$t( &ust$,e
demanded '+ me) but t' -$0e t(em (ere /'uld 'nly b$de +r'm 'ur 0$e/
t(e ma$n a$m '+ 'ur $n0est$-at$'n) at t(e same t$me ra$s$n- d'ubts and
'b&e,t$'ns) t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ /($,() /$t('ut $n&ust$,e t' 'ur
ma$n *ur*'se) may be 0ery /ell *'st*'ned t$ll an't(er '**'rtun$ty!
"ean/($le) $t 'u-(t t' be su++$,$ently ,lear) +r'm t(e l$ttle /e
(a0e already sa$d 'n t($s sub&e,t) t(at t(e +'rmat$'n '+ a ,'m*lete
0',abulary '+ *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns) a,,'m*an$ed by all t(e re.u$s$te
e1*lanat$'ns) $s n't 'nly a *'ss$ble) but an easy underta%$n-! T(e
,'m*artments already e1$st4 $t $s 'nly ne,essary t' +$ll t(em u*4
and a systemat$, t'*$, l$%e t(e *resent) $nd$,ates /$t( *er+e,t
*re,$s$'n t(e *r'*er *la,e t' /($,( ea,( ,'n,e*t$'n bel'n-s) /($le
$t read$ly *'$nts 'ut any t(at (a0e n't yet been +$lled u*! $
SS 7
Our table '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es su--ests ,'ns$derat$'ns '+ s'me
$m*'rtan,e) /($,( may *er(a*s (a0e s$-n$+$,ant results $n re-ard t'
t(e s,$ent$+$, +'rm '+ all rat$'nal ,'-n$t$'ns! F'r) t(at t($s table
$s use+ul $n t(e t(e'ret$,al *art '+ *($l's'*(y) nay) $nd$s*ensable
+'r t(e s%et,($n- '+ t(e ,'m*lete *lan '+ a s,$en,e) s' +ar as t(at
s,$en,e rests u*'n ,'n,e*t$'ns a *r$'r$) and +'r d$0$d$n- $t
mat(emat$,ally) a,,'rd$n- t' +$1ed *r$n,$*les) $s m'st man$+est +r'm
t(e +a,t t(at $t ,'nta$ns all t(e elementary ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n-) nay) e0en t(e +'rm '+ a system '+ t(ese $n t(e
understand$n- $tsel+) and ,'nse.uently $nd$,ates all t(e m'menta)
and als' t(e $nternal arran-ement '+ a *r'&e,ted s*e,ulat$0e
s,$en,e) as I (a0e else/(ere s('/n!7 Here +'ll'/ s'me '+ t(ese
'bser0at$'ns! '
7In t(e "eta*(ys$,al Pr$n,$*les '+ Natural S,$en,e!
I! T($s table) /($,( ,'nta$ns +'ur ,lasses '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n-) may) $n t(e +$rst $nstan,e) be d$0$ded $nt' t/'
,lasses) t(e +$rst '+ /($,( relates t' 'b&e,ts '+ $ntu$t$'n5 *ure as
/ell as em*$r$,al4 t(e se,'nd) t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts)
e$t(er $n relat$'n t' 'ne an't(er) 'r t' t(e understand$n-! e
T(e +'rmer '+ t(ese ,lasses '+ ,ate-'r$es I /'uld ent$tle t(e
mat(emat$,al) and t(e latter t(e dynam$,al ,ate-'r$es! T(e +'rmer)
as /e see) (as n' ,'rrelates4 t(ese are 'nly t' be +'und $n t(e se,'nd
,lass! T($s d$++eren,e must (a0e a -r'und $n t(e nature '+ t(e (uman
understand$n-! u
II! T(e number '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es $n ea,( ,lass $s al/ays t(e same)
namely) t(ree5 a +a,t /($,( als' demands s'me ,'ns$derat$'n) be,ause
$n all 't(er ,ases d$0$s$'n a *r$'r$ t(r'u-( ,'n,e*t$'ns $s
ne,essar$ly d$,('t'my! It $s t' be added) t(at t(e t($rd ,ate-'ry $n
ea,( tr$ad al/ays ar$ses +r'm t(e ,'mb$nat$'n '+ t(e se,'nd /$t( t(e
+$rst! +
T(us t'tal$ty $s n't($n- else but *lural$ty ,'ntem*lated as un$ty4
l$m$tat$'n $s merely real$ty ,'n&'$ned /$t( ne-at$'n4 ,'mmun$ty $s t(e
,ausal$ty '+ a substan,e) re,$*r',ally determ$n$n-) and determ$ned
by 't(er substan,es4 and +$nally) ne,ess$ty $s n't($n- but
e1$sten,e) /($,( $s -$0en t(r'u-( t(e *'ss$b$l$ty $tsel+! <et $t n't
be su**'sed) ('/e0er) t(at t(e t($rd ,ate-'ry $s merely a dedu,ed) and
n't a *r$m$t$0e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e *ure understand$n-! F'r t(e
,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e +$rst and se,'nd) $n 'rder t' *r'du,e t(e t($rd
,'n,e*t$'n) re.u$res a *art$,ular +un,t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) /($,(
$s by n' means $dent$,al /$t( t('se /($,( are e1er,$sed $n t(e +$rst
and se,'nd! T(us) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a number =/($,( bel'n-s t' t(e
,ate-'ry '+ t'tal$ty> $s n't al/ays *'ss$ble) /(ere t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
mult$tude and un$ty e1$st =+'r e1am*le) $n t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e
$n+$n$te>! Or) $+ I ,'n&'$n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ,ause /$t( t(at '+ a
substan,e) $t d'es n't +'ll'/ t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $n+luen,e) t(at
$s) ('/ 'ne substan,e ,an be t(e ,ause '+ s'met($n- $n an't(er
substan,e) /$ll be underst''d +r'm t(at! T(us $t $s e0$dent t(at a
*art$,ular a,t '+ t(e understand$n- $s (ere ne,essary4 and s' $n t(e
't(er $nstan,es! '
III! 2$t( res*e,t t' 'ne ,ate-'ry) namely) t(at '+ ,'mmun$ty)
/($,( $s +'und $n t(e t($rd ,lass) $t $s n't s' easy as /$t( t(e
't(ers t' dete,t $ts a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e +'rm '+ t(e d$s&un,t$0e
&ud-ement /($,( ,'rres*'nds t' $t $n t(e table '+ t(e l'-$,al
+un,t$'ns! +
In 'rder t' assure 'ursel0es '+ t($s a,,'rdan,e) /e must 'bser0e
t(at $n e0ery d$s&un,t$0e &ud-ement) t(e s*(ere '+ t(e &ud-ement =t(at
$s) t(e ,'m*le1 '+ all t(at $s ,'nta$ned $n $t> $s re*resented as a
/('le d$0$ded $nt' *arts4 and) s$n,e 'ne *art ,ann't be ,'nta$ned $n
t(e 't(er) t(ey are ,'-$tated as ,'5'rd$nated /$t() n't sub'rd$nated
t' ea,( 't(er) s' t(at t(ey d' n't determ$ne ea,( 't(er
un$laterally) as $n a l$near ser$es) but re,$*r',ally) as $n an
a--re-ate5 =$+ 'ne member '+ t(e d$0$s$'n $s *'s$ted) all t(e rest are
e1,luded4 and ,'n0ersely>! e
N'/ a l$%e ,'nne,t$'n $s ,'-$tated $n a /('le '+ t($n-s4 +'r 'ne
t($n- $s n't sub'rd$nated) as e++e,t) t' an't(er as ,ause '+ $ts
e1$sten,e) but) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) $s ,'5'rd$nated ,'ntem*'rane'usly and
re,$*r',ally) as a ,ause $n relat$'n t' t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e
't(ers =+'r e1am*le) $n a b'dy5 t(e *arts '+ /($,( mutually attra,t
and re*el ea,( 't(er>! And t($s $s an ent$rely d$++erent %$nd '+
,'nne,t$'n +r'm t(at /($,( /e +$nd $n t(e mere relat$'n '+ t(e ,ause
t' t(e e++e,t =t(e *r$n,$*le t' t(e ,'nse.uen,e>) +'r $n su,( a
,'nne,t$'n t(e ,'nse.uen,e d'es n't $n $ts turn determ$ne t(e
*r$n,$*le) and t(ere+'re d'es n't ,'nst$tute) /$t( t(e latter) a
/('le5 &ust as t(e Creat'r d'es n't /$t( t(e /'rld ma%e u* a /('le!
T(e *r',ess '+ understand$n- by /($,( $t re*resents t' $tsel+ t(e
s*(ere '+ a d$0$ded ,'n,e*t$'n) $s em*l'yed als' /(en /e t($n% '+ a
t($n- as d$0$s$ble4 and $n t(e same manner as t(e members '+ t(e
d$0$s$'n $n t(e +'rmer e1,lude 'ne an't(er) and yet are ,'nne,ted $n
'ne s*(ere) s' t(e understand$n- re*resents t' $tsel+ t(e *arts '+ t(e
latter) as (a0$n-5 ea,( '+ t(em5 an e1$sten,e =as substan,es>)
$nde*endently '+ t(e 't(ers) and yet as un$ted $n 'ne /('le! $
SS 8
In t(e trans,endental *($l's'*(y '+ t(e an,$ents t(ere e1$sts 'ne
m're lead$n- d$0$s$'n) /($,( ,'nta$ns *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n-) and /($,() alt('u-( n't numbered am'n- t(e
,ate-'r$es) 'u-(t) a,,'rd$n- t' t(em) as ,'n,e*t$'ns a *r$'r$) t' be
0al$d '+ 'b&e,ts! 3ut $n t($s ,ase t(ey /'uld au-ment t(e number '+
t(e ,ate-'r$es4 /($,( ,ann't be! T(ese are set +'rt( $n t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n) s' ren'/ned am'n- t(e s,(''lmen5 9Qu'dl$bet ens est UNU")
DERU") 3ONU"!9 N'/) t('u-( t(e $n+eren,es +r'm t($s *r$n,$*le /ere
mere taut'l'-$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns) and t('u-( $t $s all'/ed 'nly by
,'urtesy t' reta$n a *la,e $n m'dern meta*(ys$,s) yet a t('u-(t
/($,( ma$nta$ned $tsel+ +'r su,( a len-t( '+ t$me) ('/e0er em*ty $t
seems t' be) deser0es an $n0est$-at$'n '+ $ts 'r$-$n) and &ust$+$es
t(e ,'n&e,ture t(at $t must be -r'unded $n s'me la/ '+ t(e
understand$n-) /($,() as $s '+ten t(e ,ase) (as 'nly been
err'ne'usly $nter*reted! T(ese *retended trans,endental *red$,ates
are) $n +a,t) n't($n- but l'-$,al re.u$s$tes and ,r$ter$a '+ all
,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts) and t(ey em*l'y) as t(e bas$s +'r t($s
,'-n$t$'n) t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ .uant$ty) namely) un$ty) *lural$ty) and
t'tal$ty! 3ut t(ese) /($,( must be ta%en as mater$al ,'nd$t$'ns)
t(at $s) as bel'n-$n- t' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s t(emsel0es) t(ey
em*l'yed merely $n a +'rmal s$-n$+$,at$'n) as bel'n-$n- t' t(e l'-$,al
re.u$s$tes '+ all ,'-n$t$'n) and yet m'st un-uardedly ,(an-ed t(ese
,r$ter$a '+ t('u-(t $nt' *r'*ert$es '+ 'b&e,ts) as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es! N'/) $n e0ery ,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t) t(ere $s un$ty '+
,'n,e*t$'n) /($,( may be ,alled .ual$tat$0e un$ty) s' +ar as by t($s
term /e understand 'nly t(e un$ty $n 'ur ,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld4
+'r e1am*le) un$ty '+ t(e t(eme $n a *lay) an 'rat$'n) 'r a st'ry!
Se,'ndly) t(ere $s trut( $n res*e,t '+ t(e dedu,t$'ns +r'm $t! T(e
m're true dedu,t$'ns /e (a0e +r'm a -$0en ,'n,e*t$'n) t(e m're
,r$ter$a '+ $ts 'b&e,t$0e real$ty! T($s /e m$-(t ,all t(e
.ual$tat$0e *lural$ty '+ ,(ara,ter$st$, mar%s) /($,( bel'n- t' a
,'n,e*t$'n as t' a ,'mm'n +'undat$'n) but are n't ,'-$tated as a
.uant$ty $n $t! T($rdly) t(ere $s *er+e,t$'n5 /($,( ,'ns$sts $n
t($s) t(at t(e *lural$ty +alls ba,% u*'n t(e un$ty '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n) and a,,'rds ,'m*letely /$t( t(at ,'n,e*t$'n and /$t( n'
't(er! T($s /e may den'm$nate .ual$tat$0e ,'m*leteness! Hen,e $t $s
e0$dent t(at t(ese l'-$,al ,r$ter$a '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'-n$t$'n
are merely t(e t(ree ,ate-'r$es '+ .uant$ty m'd$+$ed and trans+'rmed
t' su$t an unaut('r$;ed manner '+ a**ly$n- t(em! T(at $s t' say) t(e
t(ree ,ate-'r$es) $n /($,( t(e un$ty $n t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ t(e
.uantum must be ('m'-ene'us t(r'u-('ut) are trans+'rmed s'lely /$t(
a 0$e/ t' t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ (eter'-ene'us *arts '+ ,'-n$t$'n $n 'ne
a,t '+ ,'ns,$'usness) by means '+ t(e .ual$ty '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n)
/($,( $s t(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(at ,'nne,t$'n! T(us t(e ,r$ter$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n =n't '+ $ts 'b&e,t> $s t(e de+$n$t$'n '+
$t) $n /($,( t(e un$ty '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) t(e trut( '+ all t(at may be
$mmed$ately dedu,ed +r'm $t) and +$nally) t(e ,'m*leteness '+ /(at (as
been t(us dedu,ed) ,'nst$tute t(e re.u$s$tes +'r t(e re*r'du,t$'n '+
t(e /('le ,'n,e*t$'n! T(us als') t(e ,r$ter$'n 'r test '+ an
(y*'t(es$s $s t(e $ntell$-$b$l$ty '+ t(e re,e$0ed *r$n,$*le '+
e1*lanat$'n) 'r $ts un$ty =/$t('ut (el* +r'm any subs$d$ary
(y*'t(es$s>5 t(e trut( '+ 'ur dedu,t$'ns +r'm $t =,'ns$sten,y /$t(
ea,( 't(er and /$t( e1*er$en,e>5 and lastly) t(e ,'m*leteness '+ t(e
*r$n,$*le '+ t(e e1*lanat$'n '+ t(ese dedu,t$'ns) /($,( re+er t'
ne$t(er m're n'r less t(an /(at /as adm$tted $n t(e (y*'t(es$s)
rest'r$n- analyt$,ally and a *'ster$'r$) /(at /as ,'-$tated
synt(et$,ally and a *r$'r$! 3y t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(ere+'re) '+ un$ty)
trut() and *er+e,t$'n) /e (a0e made n' add$t$'n t' t(e
trans,endental table '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) /($,( $s ,'m*lete /$t('ut
t(em! 2e (a0e) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) merely em*l'yed t(e t(ree ,ate-'r$es
'+ .uant$ty) sett$n- as$de t(e$r a**l$,at$'n t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e)
as -eneral l'-$,al la/s '+ t(e ,'ns$sten,y '+ ,'-n$t$'n /$t( $tsel+! a
CHAPTER II O+ t(e #edu,t$'n '+ t(e Pure C'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
SECTION I O+ t(e Pr$n,$*les '+ a Trans,endental #edu,t$'n
$n -eneral! SS M
Tea,(ers '+ &ur$s*ruden,e) /(en s*ea%$n- '+ r$-(ts and ,la$ms)
d$st$n-u$s( $n a ,ause t(e .uest$'n '+ r$-(t =.u$d &ur$s> +r'm t(e
.uest$'n '+ +a,t =.u$d +a,t$>) and /($le t(ey demand *r''+ '+ b't()
t(ey -$0e t' t(e *r''+ '+ t(e +'rmer) /($,( -'es t' establ$s( r$-(t 'r
,la$m $n la/) t(e name '+ dedu,t$'n! N'/ /e ma%e use '+ a -reat number
'+ em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns) /$t('ut '**'s$t$'n +r'm any 'ne4 and
,'ns$der 'ursel0es) e0en /$t('ut any attem*t at dedu,t$'n) &ust$+$ed
$n atta,($n- t' t(em a sense) and a su**'s$t$t$'us s$-n$+$,at$'n)
be,ause /e (a0e al/ays e1*er$en,e at (and t' dem'nstrate t(e$r
'b&e,t$0e real$ty! T(ere e1$st als') ('/e0er) usur*ed ,'n,e*t$'ns)
su,( as +'rtune) +ate) /($,( ,$r,ulate /$t( alm'st un$0ersal
$ndul-en,e) and yet are ',,as$'nally ,(allen-ed by t(e .uest$'n) 9.u$d
&ur$s@9 In su,( ,ases) /e (a0e -reat d$++$,ulty $n d$s,'0er$n- any
dedu,t$'n +'r t(ese terms) $nasmu,( as /e ,ann't *r'du,e any
man$+est -r'und '+ r$-(t) e$t(er +r'm e1*er$en,e 'r +r'm reas'n) 'n
/($,( t(e ,la$m t' em*l'y t(em ,an be +'unded! /
Am'n- t(e many ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( ma%e u* t(e 0ery 0ar$e-ated /eb '+
(uman ,'-n$t$'n) s'me are dest$ned +'r *ure use a *r$'r$)
$nde*endent '+ all e1*er$en,e4 and t(e$r t$tle t' be s' em*l'yed
al/ays re.u$res a dedu,t$'n) $nasmu,( as) t' &ust$+y su,( use '+ t(em)
*r''+s +r'm e1*er$en,e are n't su++$,$ent4 but $t $s ne,essary t' %n'/
('/ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns ,an a**ly t' 'b&e,ts /$t('ut be$n- der$0ed
+r'm e1*er$en,e! I term) t(ere+'re) an e1am$nat$'n '+ t(e manner $n
/($,( ,'n,e*t$'ns ,an a**ly a *r$'r$ t' 'b&e,ts) t(e trans,endental
dedu,t$'n '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) and I d$st$n-u$s( $t +r'm t(e em*$r$,al
dedu,t$'n) /($,( $nd$,ates t(e m'de $n /($,( ,'n,e*t$'n $s 'bta$ned
t(r'u-( e1*er$en,e and re+le,t$'n t(ere'n4 ,'nse.uently) d'es n't
,'n,ern $tsel+ /$t( t(e r$-(t) but 'nly /$t( t(e +a,t '+ 'ur 'bta$n$n-
,'n,e*t$'ns $n su,( and su,( a manner! 2e (a0e already seen t(at /e
are $n *'ssess$'n '+ t/' *er+e,tly d$++erent %$nds '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns)
/($,( ne0ert(eless a-ree /$t( ea,( 't(er $n t($s) t(at t(ey b't( a**ly
t' 'b&e,ts ,'m*letely a *r$'r$! T(ese are t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ s*a,e and
t$me as +'rms '+ sens$b$l$ty) and t(e ,ate-'r$es as *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n-! T' attem*t an em*$r$,al dedu,t$'n '+ e$t(er '+
t(ese ,lasses /'uld be lab'ur $n 0a$n) be,ause t(e d$st$n-u$s($n-
,(ara,ter$st$, '+ t(e$r nature ,'ns$sts $n t($s) t(at t(ey a**ly t'
t(e$r 'b&e,ts) /$t('ut (a0$n- b'rr'/ed anyt($n- +r'm e1*er$en,e
t'/ards t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(em! C'nse.uently) $+ a dedu,t$'n '+
t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns $s ne,essary) $t must al/ays be trans,endental! t
"ean/($le) /$t( res*e,t t' t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) as /$t( res*e,t t' all
'ur ,'-n$t$'n) /e ,erta$nly may d$s,'0er $n e1*er$en,e) $+ n't t(e
*r$n,$*le '+ t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty) yet t(e ',,as$'n$n- ,auses '+ t(e$r
*r'du,t$'n! It /$ll be +'und t(at t(e $m*ress$'ns '+ sense -$0e t(e
+$rst ',,as$'n +'r br$n-$n- $nt' a,t$'n t(e /('le +a,ulty '+
,'-n$t$'n) and +'r t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ e1*er$en,e) /($,( ,'nta$ns t/'
0ery d$ss$m$lar elements) namely) a matter +'r ,'-n$t$'n) -$0en by t(e
senses) and a ,erta$n +'rm +'r t(e arran-ement '+ t($s matter) ar$s$n-
'ut '+ t(e $nner +'unta$n '+ *ure $ntu$t$'n and t('u-(t4 and t(ese) 'n
',,as$'n -$0en by sensu'us $m*ress$'ns) are ,alled $nt' e1er,$se and
*r'du,e ,'n,e*t$'ns! Su,( an $n0est$-at$'n $nt' t(e +$rst e++'rts '+
'ur +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n t' m'unt +r'm *art$,ular *er,e*t$'ns t'
-eneral ,'n,e*t$'ns $s und'ubtedly '+ -reat ut$l$ty4 and /e (a0e t'
t(an% t(e ,elebrated <',%e +'r (a0$n- +$rst '*ened t(e /ay +'r t($s
$n.u$ry! 3ut a dedu,t$'n '+ t(e *ure a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ ,'urse
ne0er ,an be made $n t($s /ay) see$n- t(at) $n re-ard t' t(e$r
+uture em*l'yment) /($,( must be ent$rely $nde*endent '+ e1*er$en,e)
t(ey must (a0e a +ar d$++erent ,ert$+$,ate '+ b$rt( t' s('/ +r'm
t(at '+ a des,ent +r'm e1*er$en,e! T($s attem*ted *(ys$'l'-$,al
der$0at$'n) /($,( ,ann't *r'*erly be ,alled dedu,t$'n) be,ause $t
relates merely t' a .uaest$' +a,t$) I s(all ent$tle an e1*lanat$'n
'+ t(e *'ssess$'n '+ a *ure ,'-n$t$'n! It $s t(ere+'re man$+est t(at
t(ere ,an 'nly be a trans,endental dedu,t$'n '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns
and by n' means an em*$r$,al 'ne4 als') t(at all attem*ts at an
em*$r$,al dedu,t$'n) $n re-ard t' *ure a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns) are 0a$n)
and ,an 'nly be made by 'ne /(' d'es n't understand t(e alt'-et(er
*e,ul$ar nature '+ t(ese ,'-n$t$'ns! *
3ut alt('u-( $t $s adm$tted t(at t(e 'nly *'ss$ble dedu,t$'n '+ *ure
a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n $s a trans,endental dedu,t$'n) $t $s n't) +'r
t(at reas'n) *er+e,tly man$+est t(at su,( a dedu,t$'n $s abs'lutely
ne,essary! 2e (a0e already tra,ed t' t(e$r s'ur,es t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ s*a,e and t$me) by means '+ a trans,endental dedu,t$'n) and /e (a0e
e1*la$ned and determ$ned t(e$r 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty a *r$'r$!
Ce'metry) ne0ert(eless) ad0an,es stead$ly and se,urely $n t(e *r'0$n,e
'+ *ure a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns) /$t('ut need$n- t' as% +r'm *($l's'*(y
any ,ert$+$,ate as t' t(e *ure and le-$t$mate 'r$-$n '+ $ts
+undamental ,'n,e*t$'n '+ s*a,e! 3ut t(e use '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $n t($s
s,$en,e e1tends 'nly t' t(e e1ternal /'rld '+ sense) t(e *ure +'rm
'+ t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ /($,( $s s*a,e4 and $n t($s /'rld) t(ere+'re)
all -e'metr$,al ,'-n$t$'n) be,ause $t $s +'unded u*'n a *r$'r$
$ntu$t$'n) *'ssesses $mmed$ate e0$den,e) and t(e 'b&e,ts '+ t($s
,'-n$t$'n are -$0en a *r$'r$ =as re-ards t(e$r +'rm> $n $ntu$t$'n by
and t(r'u-( t(e ,'-n$t$'n $tsel+! 2$t( t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
understand$n-) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) ,'mmen,es t(e abs'lute ne,ess$ty '+
see%$n- a trans,endental dedu,t$'n) n't 'nly '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns
t(emsel0es) but l$%e/$se '+ s*a,e) be,ause) $nasmu,( as t(ey ma%e
a++$rmat$'ns ,'n,ern$n- 'b&e,ts n't by means '+ t(e *red$,ates '+
$ntu$t$'n and sens$b$l$ty) but '+ *ure t('u-(t a *r$'r$) t(ey a**ly t'
'b&e,ts /$t('ut any '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty! 3es$des) n't
be$n- +'unded 'n e1*er$en,e) t(ey are n't *resented /$t( any 'b&e,t $n
a *r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n u*'n /($,() ante,edently t' e1*er$en,e) t(ey
m$-(t base t(e$r synt(es$s! Hen,e results) n't 'nly d'ubt as t' t(e
'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty and *r'*er l$m$ts '+ t(e$r use) but t(at e0en 'ur
,'n,e*t$'n '+ s*a,e $s rendered e.u$0',al4 $nasmu,( as /e are 0ery
ready /$t( t(e a$d '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) t' ,arry t(e use '+ t($s
,'n,e*t$'n bey'nd t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n5 and) +'r
t($s reas'n) /e (a0e already +'und a trans,endental dedu,t$'n '+ $t
need+ul! T(e reader) t(en) must be .u$te ,'n0$n,ed '+ t(e abs'lute
ne,ess$ty '+ a trans,endental dedu,t$'n) be+'re ta%$n- a s$n-le ste*
$n t(e +$eld '+ *ure reas'n4 be,ause 't(er/$se (e -'es t' /'r%
bl$ndly) and a+ter (e (as /'ndered ab'ut $n all d$re,t$'ns) returns t'
t(e state '+ utter $-n'ran,e +r'm /($,( (e started! He 'u-(t)
m're'0er) ,learly t' re,'-n$;e be+'re(and t(e una0'$dable d$++$,ult$es
$n ($s underta%$n-) s' t(at (e may n't a+ter/ards ,'m*la$n '+ t(e
'bs,ur$ty $n /($,( t(e sub&e,t $tsel+ $s dee*ly $n0'l0ed) 'r be,'me
t'' s''n $m*at$ent '+ t(e 'bsta,les $n ($s *at(4 be,ause /e (a0e a
,('$,e '+ 'nly t/' t($n-s5 e$t(er at 'n,e t' -$0e u* all *retens$'ns
t' %n'/led-e bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) 'r t' br$n-
t($s ,r$t$,al $n0est$-at$'n t' ,'m*let$'n! t
2e (a0e been able) /$t( 0ery l$ttle tr'uble) t' ma%e $t
,'m*re(ens$ble ('/ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me) alt('u-( a
*r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns) must ne,essar$ly a**ly t' e1ternal 'b&e,ts) and
render a synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(ese *'ss$ble) $nde*endently '+ all
e1*er$en,e! F'r $nasmu,( as 'nly by means '+ su,( *ure +'rm '+
sens$b$l$ty an 'b&e,t ,an a**ear t' us) t(at $s) be an 'b&e,t '+
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) s*a,e and t$me are *ure $ntu$t$'ns) /($,( ,'nta$n
a *r$'r$ t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ 'b&e,ts as *(en'mena) and
an a *r$'r$ synt(es$s $n t(ese $ntu$t$'ns *'ssesses 'b&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty! 0
On t(e 't(er (and) t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ t(e understand$n- d' n't
re*resent t(e ,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( 'b&e,ts are -$0en t' us $n
$ntu$t$'n4 'b&e,ts ,an ,'nse.uently a**ear t' us /$t('ut ne,essar$ly
,'nne,t$n- t(emsel0es /$t( t(ese) and ,'nse.uently /$t('ut any
ne,ess$ty b$nd$n- 'n t(e understand$n- t' ,'nta$n a *r$'r$ t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts! T(us /e +$nd 'ursel0es $n0'l0ed $n a
d$++$,ulty /($,( d$d n't *resent $tsel+ $n t(e s*(ere '+
sens$b$l$ty) t(at $s t' say) /e ,ann't d$s,'0er ('/ t(e sub&e,t$0e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t('u-(t ,an (a0e 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty) $n 't(er /'rds) ,an
be,'me ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts4
+'r *(en'mena may ,erta$nly be -$0en t' us $n $ntu$t$'n /$t('ut any
(el* +r'm t(e +un,t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-! <et us ta%e) +'r
e1am*le) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,ause) /($,( $nd$,ates a *e,ul$ar %$nd '+
synt(es$s) namely) t(at /$t( s'met($n-) A) s'met($n- ent$rely
d$++erent) 3) $s ,'nne,ted a,,'rd$n- t' a la/! It $s n't a *r$'r$
man$+est /(y *(en'mena s('uld ,'nta$n anyt($n- '+ t($s %$nd =/e are '+
,'urse debarred +r'm a**eal$n- +'r *r''+ t' e1*er$en,e) +'r t(e
'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty '+ t($s ,'n,e*t$'n must be dem'nstrated a
*r$'r$>) and $t (en,e rema$ns d'ubt+ul a *r$'r$) /(et(er su,( a
,'n,e*t$'n be n't .u$te 0'$d and /$t('ut any ,'rres*'nd$n- 'b&e,t
am'n- *(en'mena! F'r t(at 'b&e,ts '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n must
,'rres*'nd t' t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty e1$st$n- a *r$'r$
$n t(e m$nd $s .u$te e0$dent) +r'm t(e +a,t t(at /$t('ut t(ese t(ey
,'uld n't be 'b&e,ts +'r us4 but t(at t(ey must als' ,'rres*'nd t' t(e
,'nd$t$'ns /($,( understand$n- re.u$res +'r t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+
t('u-(t $s an assert$'n) t(e -r'unds +'r /($,( are n't s' eas$ly t' be
d$s,'0ered! F'r *(en'mena m$-(t be s' ,'nst$tuted as n't t' ,'rres*'nd
t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e un$ty '+ t('u-(t4 and all t($n-s m$-(t l$e $n
su,( ,'n+us$'n t(at) +'r e1am*le) n't($n- ,'uld be met /$t( $n t(e
s*(ere '+ *(en'mena t' su--est a la/ '+ synt(es$s) and s' ,'rres*'nd
t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,ause and e++e,t4 s' t(at t($s ,'n,e*t$'n /'uld
be .u$te 0'$d) null) and /$t('ut s$-n$+$,an,e! P(en'mena /'uld
ne0ert(eless ,'nt$nue t' *resent 'b&e,ts t' 'ur $ntu$t$'n4 +'r mere
$ntu$t$'n d'es n't $n any res*e,t stand $n need '+ t(e +un,t$'ns '+
t('u-(t! t
I+ /e t('u-(t t' +ree 'ursel0es +r'm t(e lab'ur '+ t(ese
$n0est$-at$'ns by say$n-6 9E1*er$en,e $s ,'nstantly '++er$n- us
e1am*les '+ t(e relat$'n '+ ,ause and e++e,t $n *(en'mena) and
*resents us /$t( abundant '**'rtun$ty '+ abstra,t$n- t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
,ause) and s' at t(e same t$me '+ ,'rr'b'rat$n- t(e 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty
'+ t($s ,'n,e*t$'n94 /e s('uld $n t($s ,ase be '0erl''%$n- t(e +a,t)
t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,ause ,ann't ar$se $n t($s /ay at all4 t(at) 'n
t(e ,'ntrary) $t must e$t(er (a0e an a *r$'r$ bas$s $n t(e)
understand$n-) 'r be re&e,ted as a mere ,($mera! F'r t($s ,'n,e*t$'n
demands t(at s'met($n-) A) s('uld be '+ su,( a nature t(at s'met($n-
else) 3) s('uld +'ll'/ +r'm $t ne,essar$ly) and a,,'rd$n- t' an
abs'lutely un$0ersal la/! 2e may ,erta$nly ,'lle,t +r'm *(en'mena a
la/) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( t($s 'r t(at usually (a**ens) but t(e
element '+ ne,ess$ty $s n't t' be +'und $n $t! Hen,e $t $s e0$dent
t(at t' t(e synt(es$s '+ ,ause and e++e,t bel'n-s a d$-n$ty) /($,(
$s utterly /ant$n- $n any em*$r$,al synt(es$s4 +'r $t $s n' mere
me,(an$,al synt(es$s) by means '+ add$t$'n) but a dynam$,al 'ne4
t(at $s t' say) t(e e++e,t $s n't t' be ,'-$tated as merely anne1ed t'
t(e ,ause) but as *'s$ted by and t(r'u-( t(e ,ause) and result$n- +r'm
$t! T(e str$,t un$0ersal$ty '+ t($s la/ ne0er ,an be a
,(ara,ter$st$, '+ em*$r$,al la/s) /($,( 'bta$n t(r'u-( $ndu,t$'n
'nly a ,'m*arat$0e un$0ersal$ty) t(at $s) an e1tended ran-e '+
*ra,t$,al a**l$,at$'n! 3ut t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-
/'uld ent$rely l'se all t(e$r *e,ul$ar ,(ara,ter) $+ /e treated t(em
merely as t(e *r'du,t$'ns '+ e1*er$en,e! m
Trans$t$'n t' t(e Trans,endental #edu,t$'n '+ t(e
Cate-'r$es! SS 1N
T(ere are 'nly t/' *'ss$ble /ays $n /($,( synt(et$,al re*resentat$'n
and $ts 'b&e,ts ,an ,'$n,$de /$t( and relate ne,essar$ly t' ea,(
't(er) and) as $t /ere) meet t'-et(er! E$t(er t(e 'b&e,t al'ne ma%es
t(e re*resentat$'n *'ss$ble) 'r t(e re*resentat$'n al'ne ma%es t(e
'b&e,t *'ss$ble! In t(e +'rmer ,ase) t(e relat$'n bet/een t(em $s 'nly
em*$r$,al) and an a *r$'r$ re*resentat$'n $s $m*'ss$ble! And t($s $s
t(e ,ase /$t( *(en'mena) as re-ards t(at $n t(em /($,( $s re+erable t'
mere sensat$'n! In t(e latter ,ase5 alt('u-( re*resentat$'n al'ne =+'r
'+ $ts ,ausal$ty) by means '+ t(e /$ll) /e d' n't (ere s*ea%> d'es n't
*r'du,e t(e 'b&e,t as t' $ts e1$sten,e) $t must ne0ert(eless be a
*r$'r$ determ$nat$0e $n re-ard t' t(e 'b&e,t) $+ $t $s 'nly by means
'+ t(e re*resentat$'n t(at /e ,an ,'-n$;e anyt($n- as an 'b&e,t! N'/
t(ere are 'nly t/' ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a ,'-n$t$'n '+
'b&e,ts4 +$rstly) $ntu$t$'n) by means '+ /($,( t(e 'b&e,t) t('u-( 'nly
as *(en'men'n) $s -$0en4 se,'ndly) ,'n,e*t$'n) by means '+ /($,( t(e
'b&e,t /($,( ,'rres*'nds t' t($s $ntu$t$'n $s t('u-(t! 3ut $t $s
e0$dent +r'm /(at (as been sa$d 'n aest(et$, t(at t(e +$rst ,'nd$t$'n)
under /($,( al'ne 'b&e,ts ,an be $ntu$ted) must $n +a,t e1$st) as a
+'rmal bas$s +'r t(em) a *r$'r$ $n t(e m$nd! 2$t( t($s +'rmal
,'nd$t$'n '+ sens$b$l$ty) t(ere+'re) all *(en'mena ne,essar$ly
,'rres*'nd) be,ause $t $s 'nly t(r'u-( $t t(at t(ey ,an be *(en'mena
at all4 t(at $s) ,an be em*$r$,ally $ntu$ted and -$0en! N'/ t(e
.uest$'n $s /(et(er t(ere d' n't e1$st) a *r$'r$ $n t(e m$nd)
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ understand$n- als') as ,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( al'ne
s'met($n-) $+ n't $ntu$ted) $s yet t('u-(t as 'b&e,t! I+ t($s .uest$'n
be ans/ered $n t(e a++$rmat$0e) $t +'ll'/s t(at all em*$r$,al
,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts $s ne,essar$ly ,'n+'rmable t' su,( ,'n,e*t$'ns)
s$n,e) $+ t(ey are n't *resu**'sed) $t $s $m*'ss$ble t(at anyt($n- ,an
be an 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e! N'/ all e1*er$en,e ,'nta$ns) bes$des t(e
$ntu$t$'n '+ t(e senses t(r'u-( /($,( an 'b&e,t $s -$0en) a ,'n,e*t$'n
als' '+ an 'b&e,t t(at $s -$0en $n $ntu$t$'n! A,,'rd$n-ly) ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ 'b&e,ts $n -eneral must l$e as a *r$'r$ ,'nd$t$'ns at t(e
+'undat$'n '+ all em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n4 and ,'nse.uently) t(e 'b&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) as a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns) /$ll rest u*'n
t($s) t(at e1*er$en,e =as +ar as re-ards t(e +'rm '+ t('u-(t> $s
*'ss$ble 'nly by t(e$r means! F'r $n t(at ,ase t(ey a**ly
ne,essar$ly and a *r$'r$ t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) be,ause 'nly
t(r'u-( t(em ,an an 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e be t('u-(t! t
T(e /('le a$m '+ t(e trans,endental dedu,t$'n '+ all a *r$'r$
,'n,e*t$'ns $s t' s('/ t(at t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns are a *r$'r$
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all e1*er$en,e! C'n,e*t$'ns /($,(
a++'rd us t(e 'b&e,t$0e +'undat$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e
are +'r t(at 0ery reas'n ne,essary! 3ut t(e analys$s '+ t(e
e1*er$en,es $n /($,( t(ey are met /$t( $s n't dedu,t$'n) but 'nly an
$llustrat$'n '+ t(em) be,ause +r'm e1*er$en,e t(ey ,'uld ne0er
der$0e t(e attr$bute '+ ne,ess$ty! 2$t('ut t(e$r 'r$-$nal
a**l$,ab$l$ty and relat$'n t' all *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) $n /($,( all
'b&e,ts '+ ,'-n$t$'n *resent t(emsel0es) t(e relat$'n '+ t(e
,ate-'r$es t' 'b&e,ts) '+ /(ate0er nature) /'uld be .u$te
$n,'m*re(ens$ble! $
T(e ,elebrated <',%e) +'r /ant '+ due re+le,t$'n 'n t(ese *'$nts)
and be,ause (e met /$t( *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- $n
e1*er$en,e) s'u-(t als' t' dedu,e t(em +r'm e1*er$en,e) and yet
*r',eeded s' $n,'nse.uently as t' attem*t) /$t( t(e$r a$d) t' arr$0e
$t ,'-n$t$'ns /($,( l$e +ar bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ all e1*er$en,e! #a0$d
Hume *er,e$0ed t(at) t' render t($s *'ss$ble) $t /as ne,essary t(at
t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns s('uld (a0e an a *r$'r$ 'r$-$n! 3ut as (e ,'uld n't
e1*la$n ('/ $t /as *'ss$ble t(at ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( are n't ,'nne,ted
/$t( ea,( 't(er $n t(e understand$n- must ne0ert(eless be t('u-(t as
ne,essar$ly ,'nne,ted $n t(e 'b&e,t5 and $t ne0er ',,urred t' ($m t(at
t(e understand$n- $tsel+ m$-(t) *er(a*s) by means '+ t(ese
,'n,e*t$'ns) be t(e aut('r '+ t(e e1*er$en,e $n /($,( $ts 'b&e,ts /ere
*resented t' $t5 (e /as +'r,ed t' dr$0e t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns +r'm
e1*er$en,e) t(at $s) +r'm a sub&e,t$0e ne,ess$ty ar$s$n- +r'm re*eated
ass',$at$'n '+ e1*er$en,es err'ne'usly ,'ns$dered t' be 'b&e,t$0e5
$n 'ne /'rd) +r'm (ab$t! 3ut (e *r',eeded /$t( *er+e,t ,'nse.uen,e and
de,lared $t t' be $m*'ss$ble) /$t( su,( ,'n,e*t$'ns and t(e *r$n,$*les
ar$s$n- +r'm t(em) t' '0erste* t(e l$m$ts '+ e1*er$en,e! T(e em*$r$,al
der$0at$'n) ('/e0er) /($,( b't( '+ t(ese *($l's'*(ers attr$buted t'
t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) ,ann't *'ss$bly be re,'n,$led /$t( t(e +a,t t(at /e
d' *'ssess s,$ent$+$, a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns) namely) t('se '+ *ure
mat(emat$,s and -eneral *(ys$,s! m
T(e +'rmer '+ t(ese t/' ,elebrated men '*ened a /$de d''r t'
e1tra0a-an,e5 =+'r $+ reas'n (as 'n,e und'ubted r$-(t 'n $ts s$de)
$t /$ll n't all'/ $tsel+ t' be ,'n+$ned t' set l$m$ts) by 0a-ue
re,'mmendat$'ns '+ m'derat$'n>4 t(e latter -a0e ($msel+ u* ent$rely t'
s,e*t$,$sm5 a natural ,'nse.uen,e) a+ter (a0$n- d$s,'0ered) as (e
t('u-(t) t(at t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n /as n't trust/'rt(y! 2e n'/
$ntend t' ma%e a tr$al /(et(er $t be n't *'ss$ble sa+ely t' ,'ndu,t
reas'n bet/een t(ese t/' r',%s) t' ass$-n (er determ$nate l$m$ts)
and yet lea0e '*en +'r (er t(e ent$re s*(ere '+ (er le-$t$mate
a,t$0$ty! a
I s(all merely *rem$se an e1*lanat$'n '+ /(at t(e ,ate-'r$es are!
T(ey are ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ an 'b&e,t $n -eneral) by means '+ /($,( $ts
$ntu$t$'n $s ,'ntem*lated as determ$ned $n relat$'n t' 'ne '+ t(e
l'-$,al +un,t$'ns '+ &ud-ement! T(e +'ll'/$n- /$ll ma%e t($s *la$n!
T(e +un,t$'n '+ t(e ,ate-'r$,al &ud-ement $s t(at '+ t(e relat$'n '+
sub&e,t t' *red$,ate4 +'r e1am*le) $n t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9All b'd$es are
d$0$s$ble!9 3ut $n re-ard t' t(e merely l'-$,al use '+ t(e
understand$n-) $t st$ll rema$ns undeterm$ned t' /($,( O+ t(ese t/'
,'n,e*t$'ns bel'n-s t(e +un,t$'n O+ sub&e,t and t' /($,( t(at '+
*red$,ate! F'r /e ,'uld als' say6 9S'me d$0$s$ble $s a b'dy!9 3ut
t(e ,ate-'ry '+ substan,e) /(en t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a b'dy $s br'u-(t
under $t) determ$nes t(at4 and $ts em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n $n e1*er$en,e
must be ,'ntem*lated al/ays as sub&e,t and ne0er as mere *red$,ate!
And s' /$t( all t(e 't(er ,ate-'r$es! A
SECTION II Trans,endental #edu,t$'n '+ t(e *ure C'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e Understand$n-! SS 11
O+ t(e P'ss$b$l$ty '+ a C'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld re*resentat$'ns
-$0en by Sense!
T(e man$+'ld ,'ntent $n 'ur re*resentat$'ns ,an be -$0en $n an
$ntu$t$'n /($,( $s merely sensu'us5 $n 't(er /'rds) $s n't($n- but
sus,e*t$b$l$ty4 and t(e +'rm '+ t($s $ntu$t$'n ,an e1$st a *r$'r$ $n
'ur +a,ulty '+ re*resentat$'n) /$t('ut be$n- anyt($n- else but t(e
m'de $n /($,( t(e sub&e,t $s a++e,ted! 3ut t(e ,'n&un,t$'n
=,'n&un,t$'> '+ a man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n ne0er ,an be -$0en us by t(e
senses4 $t ,ann't t(ere+'re be ,'nta$ned $n t(e *ure +'rm '+
sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) +'r $t $s a s*'ntane'us a,t '+ t(e +a,ulty '+
re*resentat$'n! And as /e must) t' d$st$n-u$s( $t +r'm sens$b$l$ty)
ent$tle t($s +a,ulty understand$n-4 s' all ,'n&un,t$'n /(et(er
,'ns,$'us 'r un,'ns,$'us) be $t '+ t(e man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n) sensu'us
'r n'n5sensu'us) 'r '+ se0eral ,'n,e*t$'ns5 $s an a,t '+ t(e
understand$n-! T' t($s a,t /e s(all -$0e t(e -eneral a**ellat$'n '+
synt(es$s) t(ereby t' $nd$,ate) at t(e same t$me) t(at /e ,ann't
re*resent anyt($n- as ,'n&'$ned $n t(e 'b&e,t /$t('ut (a0$n-
*re0$'usly ,'n&'$ned $t 'ursel0es! O+ all mental n't$'ns) t(at '+
,'n&un,t$'n $s t(e 'nly 'ne /($,( ,ann't be -$0en t(r'u-( 'b&e,ts) but
,an be 'r$-$nated 'nly by t(e sub&e,t $tsel+) be,ause $t $s an a,t
'+ $ts *urely s*'ntane'us a,t$0$ty! T(e reader /$ll eas$ly en'u-(
*er,e$0e t(at t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'n&un,t$'n must be -r'unded $n t(e
0ery nature '+ t($s a,t) and t(at $t must be e.ually 0al$d +'r all
,'n&un,t$'n) and t(at analys$s) /($,( a**ears t' be $ts ,'ntrary)
must) ne0ert(eless) al/ays *resu**'se $t4 +'r /(ere t(e
understand$n- (as n't *re0$'usly ,'n&'$ned) $t ,ann't d$sse,t 'r
analyse) be,ause 'nly as ,'n&'$ned by $t) must t(at /($,( $s t' be
analysed (a0e been -$0en t' 'ur +a,ulty '+ re*resentat$'n! a
3ut t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,'n&un,t$'n $n,ludes) bes$des t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ t(e man$+'ld and '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ $t) t(at '+ t(e un$ty '+ $t
als'! C'n&un,t$'n $s t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+
t(e man$+'ld!7 T($s $dea '+ un$ty) t(ere+'re) ,ann't ar$se 'ut '+ t(at
'+ ,'n&un,t$'n4 mu,( rat(er d'es t(at $dea) by ,'mb$n$n- $tsel+ /$t(
t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld) render t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
,'n&un,t$'n *'ss$ble! T($s un$ty) /($,( a *r$'r$ *re,edes all
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ ,'n&un,t$'n) $s n't t(e ,ate-'ry '+ un$ty =SS L>4 +'r
all t(e ,ate-'r$es are based u*'n l'-$,al +un,t$'ns '+ &ud-ement)
and $n t(ese +un,t$'ns /e already (a0e ,'n&un,t$'n) and ,'nse.uently
un$ty '+ -$0en ,'n,e*t$'ns! It $s t(ere+'re e0$dent t(at t(e
,ate-'ry '+ un$ty *resu**'ses ,'n&un,t$'n! 2e must t(ere+'re l''%
st$ll ($-(er +'r t($s un$ty =as .ual$tat$0e) SS 8>) $n t(at) namely)
/($,( ,'nta$ns t(e -r'und '+ t(e un$ty '+ d$0erse ,'n,e*t$'ns $n
&ud-ements) t(e -r'und) ,'nse.uently) '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ t(e understand$n-) e0en $n re-ard t' $ts l'-$,al use! e
72(et(er t(e re*resentat$'ns are $n t(emsel0es $dent$,al) and
,'nse.uently /(et(er 'ne ,an be t('u-(t analyt$,ally by means '+ and
t(r'u-( t(e 't(er) $s a .uest$'n /($,( /e need n't at *resent
,'ns$der! Our C'ns,$'usness '+ t(e 'ne) /(en /e s*ea% '+ t(e man$+'ld)
$s al/ays d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm 'ur ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e 't(er4 and
$t $s 'nly res*e,t$n- t(e synt(es$s '+ t($s =*'ss$ble> ,'ns,$'usness
t(at /e (ere treat! t
O+ t(e Or$-$nally Synt(et$,al Un$ty '+ A**er,e*t$'n! SS 1B
T(e 9I t($n%9 must a,,'m*any all my re*resentat$'ns) +'r 't(er/$se
s'met($n- /'uld be re*resented $n me /($,( ,'uld n't be t('u-(t4 $n
't(er /'rds) t(e re*resentat$'n /'uld e$t(er be $m*'ss$ble) 'r at
least be) $n relat$'n t' me) n't($n-! T(at re*resentat$'n /($,( ,an be
-$0en *re0$'usly t' all t('u-(t $s ,alled $ntu$t$'n! All t(e d$0ers$ty
'r man$+'ld ,'ntent '+ $ntu$t$'n) (as) t(ere+'re) a ne,essary relat$'n
t' t(e ?I t($n%)9 $n t(e sub&e,t $n /($,( t($s d$0ers$ty $s +'und! 3ut
t($s re*resentat$'n) 9I t($n%)9 $s an a,t '+ s*'ntane$ty4 t(at $s t'
say) $t ,ann't be re-arded as bel'n-$n- t' mere sens$b$l$ty! I ,all $t
*ure a**er,e*t$'n) $n 'rder t' d$st$n-u$s( $t +r'm em*$r$,al4 'r
*r$m$t$0e a**er,e*t$'n) be,ause $t $s sel+5,'ns,$'usness /($,() /($lst
$t -$0es b$rt( t' t(e re*resentat$'n9 I t($n%)9 must ne,essar$ly be
,a*able '+ a,,'m*any$n- all 'ur re*resentat$'ns! It $s $n all a,ts
'+ ,'ns,$'usness 'ne and t(e same) and una,,'m*an$ed by $t) n'
re*resentat$'n ,an e1$st +'r me! T(e un$ty '+ t($s a**er,e*t$'n I ,all
t(e trans,endental un$ty '+ sel+5,'ns,$'usness) $n 'rder t' $nd$,ate
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n ar$s$n- +r'm $t! F'r t(e
man$+'ld re*resentat$'ns /($,( are -$0en $n an $ntu$t$'n /'uld n't all
'+ t(em be my re*resentat$'ns) $+ t(ey d$d n't all bel'n- t' 'ne
sel+5,'ns,$'usness) t(at $s) as my re*resentat$'ns =e0en alt('u-( I am
n't ,'ns,$'us '+ t(em as su,(>) t(ey must ,'n+'rm t' t(e ,'nd$t$'n
under /($,( al'ne t(ey ,an e1$st t'-et(er $n a ,'mm'n
sel+5,'ns,$'usness) be,ause 't(er/$se t(ey /'uld n't all /$t('ut
e1,e*t$'n bel'n- t' me! Fr'm t($s *r$m$t$0e ,'n&un,t$'n +'ll'/ many
$m*'rtant results!
F'r e1am*le) t($s un$0ersal $dent$ty '+ t(e a**er,e*t$'n '+ t(e
man$+'ld -$0en $n $ntu$t$'n ,'nta$ns a synt(es$s '+ re*resentat$'ns
and $s *'ss$ble 'nly by means '+ t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ t($s
synt(es$s! F'r t(e em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness /($,( a,,'m*an$es d$++erent
re*resentat$'ns $s $n $tsel+ +ra-mentary and d$sun$ted) and /$t('ut
relat$'n t' t(e $dent$ty '+ t(e sub&e,t! T($s relat$'n) t(en) d'es n't
e1$st be,ause I a,,'m*any e0ery re*resentat$'n /$t( ,'ns,$'usness) but
be,ause I &'$n 'ne re*resentat$'n t' an't(er) and am ,'ns,$'us '+
t(e synt(es$s '+ t(em! C'nse.uently) 'nly be,ause I ,an ,'nne,t a
0ar$ety '+ -$0en re*resentat$'ns $n 'ne ,'ns,$'usness) $s $t
*'ss$ble t(at I ,an re*resent t' mysel+ t(e $dent$ty '+
,'ns,$'usness $n t(ese re*resentat$'ns4 $n 't(er /'rds) t(e analyt$,al
un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n $s *'ss$ble 'nly under t(e *resu**'s$t$'n '+ a
synt(et$,al un$ty!7 T(e t('u-(t) 9T(ese re*resentat$'ns -$0en $n
$ntu$t$'n bel'n- all '+ t(em t' me)9 $s a,,'rd$n-ly &ust t(e same
as) 9I un$te t(em $n 'ne sel+5,'ns,$'usness) 'r ,an at least s'
un$te t(em94 and alt('u-( t($s t('u-(t $s n't $tsel+ t(e ,'ns,$'usness
'+ t(e synt(es$s '+ re*resentat$'ns) $t *resu**'ses t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
$t4 t(at $s t' say) +'r t(e reas'n al'ne t(at I ,an ,'m*re(end t(e
0ar$ety '+ my re*resentat$'ns $n 'ne ,'ns,$'usness) d' I ,all t(em
my re*resentat$'ns) +'r 't(er/$se I must (a0e as many5,'l'ured and
0ar$'us a sel+ as are t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ /($,( I am ,'ns,$'us!
Synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'ns) as -$0en a *r$'r$) $s
t(ere+'re t(e +'undat$'n '+ t(e $dent$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n $tsel+) /($,(
ante,edes a *r$'r$ all determ$nate t('u-(t! 3ut t(e ,'n&un,t$'n '+
re*resentat$'ns $nt' a ,'n,e*t$'n $s n't t' be +'und $n 'b&e,ts
t(emsel0es) n'r ,an $t be) as $t /ere) b'rr'/ed +r'm t(em and ta%en u*
$nt' t(e understand$n- by *er,e*t$'n) but $t $s 'n t(e ,'ntrary an
'*erat$'n '+ t(e understand$n- $tsel+) /($,( $s n't($n- m're t(an
t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'n&'$n$n- a *r$'r$ and '+ br$n-$n- t(e 0ar$ety '+
-$0en re*resentat$'ns under t(e un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n! T($s
*r$n,$*le $s t(e ($-(est $n all (uman ,'-n$t$'n! *
7All -eneral ,'n,e*t$'ns5 as su,(5 de*end) +'r t(e$r e1$sten,e) 'n
t(e analyt$,al un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness! F'r e1am*le) /(en I t($n% '+
red $n -eneral) I t(ereby t($n% t' mysel+ a *r'*erty /($,( =as a
,(ara,ter$st$, mar%> ,an be d$s,'0ered s'me/(ere) 'r ,an be un$ted
/$t( 't(er re*resentat$'ns4 ,'nse.uently) $t $s 'nly by means '+ a
+'ret('u-(t *'ss$ble synt(et$,al un$ty t(at I ,an t($n% t' mysel+
t(e analyt$,al! A re*resentat$'n /($,( $s ,'-$tated as ,'mm'n t'
d$++erent re*resentat$'ns) $s re-arded as bel'n-$n- t' su,( as)
bes$des t($s ,'mm'n re*resentat$'n) ,'nta$n s'met($n- d$++erent4
,'nse.uently $t must be *re0$'usly t('u-(t $n synt(et$,al un$ty /$t(
't(er alt('u-( 'nly *'ss$ble re*resentat$'ns) be+'re I ,an t($n% $n $t
t(e analyt$,al un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness /($,( ma%es $t a ,'n,e*tas
,'mmun$s! And t(us t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n $s t(e
($-(est *'$nt /$t( /($,( /e must ,'nne,t e0ery '*erat$'n '+ t(e
understand$n-) e0en t(e /('le '+ l'-$,) and a+ter $t 'ur
trans,endental *($l's'*(y4 $ndeed) t($s +a,ulty $s t(e understand$n-
$tsel+! $
T($s +undamental *r$n,$*le '+ t(e ne,essary un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n $s
$ndeed an $dent$,al) and t(ere+'re analyt$,al) *r'*'s$t$'n4 but $t
ne0ert(eless e1*la$ns t(e ne,ess$ty +'r a synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld
-$0en $n an $ntu$t$'n) /$t('ut /($,( t(e $dent$ty '+
sel+5,'ns,$'usness /'uld be $n,'-$table! F'r t(e e-') as a s$m*le
re*resentat$'n) *resents us /$t( n' man$+'ld ,'ntent4 'nly $n
$ntu$t$'n) /($,( $s .u$te d$++erent +r'm t(e re*resentat$'n e-') ,an
$t be -$0en us) and by means '+ ,'n&un,t$'n $t $s ,'-$tated $n 'ne
sel+5,'ns,$'usness! An understand$n-) $n /($,( all t(e man$+'ld s('uld
be -$0en by means '+ ,'ns,$'usness $tsel+) /'uld be $ntu$t$0e4 'ur
understand$n- ,an 'nly t($n% and must l''% +'r $ts $ntu$t$'n t' sense!
I am) t(ere+'re) ,'ns,$'us '+ my $dent$,al sel+) $n relat$'n t' all
t(e 0ar$ety '+ re*resentat$'ns -$0en t' me $n an $ntu$t$'n) be,ause
I ,all all '+ t(em my re*resentat$'ns! In 't(er /'rds) I am
,'ns,$'us mysel+ '+ a ne,essary a *r$'r$ synt(es$s '+ my
re*resentat$'ns) /($,( $s ,alled t(e 'r$-$nal synt(et$,al un$ty '+
a**er,e*t$'n) under /($,( ran% all t(e re*resentat$'ns *resented t'
me) but t(at 'nly by means '+ a synt(es$s! m
T(e Pr$n,$*le '+ t(e Synt(et$,al Un$ty '+ A**er,e*t$'n
$s t(e ($-(est Pr$n,$*le '+ all e1er,$se '+
t(e Understand$n-! SS 1I
T(e su*reme *r$n,$*le '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all $ntu$t$'n $n
relat$'n t' sens$b$l$ty /as) a,,'rd$n- t' 'ur trans,endental
aest(et$,) t(at all t(e man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n be sub&e,t t' t(e +'rmal
,'nd$t$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me! T(e su*reme *r$n,$*le '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ $t $n relat$'n t' t(e understand$n- $s t(at all t(e man$+'ld $n
$t be sub&e,t t' ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e 'r$-$nally synt(et$,al un$ty 'r
a**er,e*t$'n!7 T' t(e +'rmer '+ t(ese t/' *r$n,$*les are sub&e,t all
t(e 0ar$'us re*resentat$'ns '+ $ntu$t$'n) $n s' +ar as t(ey are
-$0en t' us4 t' t(e latter) $n s' +ar as t(ey must be ,a*able '+
,'n&un,t$'n $n 'ne ,'ns,$'usness4 +'r /$t('ut t($s n't($n- ,an be
t('u-(t 'r ,'-n$;ed) be,ause t(e -$0en re*resentat$'ns /'uld n't
(a0e $n ,'mm'n t(e a,t O+ t(e a**er,e*t$'n 9I t($n%9 and t(ere+'re
,'uld n't be ,'nne,ted $n 'ne sel+5,'ns,$'usness! ,
7S*a,e and t$me) and all *'rt$'ns t(ere'+) are $ntu$t$'ns4
,'nse.uently are) /$t( a man$+'ld +'r t(e$r ,'ntent) s$n-le
re*resentat$'ns! =See t(e Trans,endental Aest(et$,!> C'nse.uently)
t(ey are n't *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns) by means '+ /($,( t(e same
,'ns,$'usness $s +'und $n a -reat number '+ re*resentat$'ns4 but) 'n
t(e ,'ntrary) t(ey are many re*resentat$'ns ,'nta$ned $n 'ne) t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ /($,( $s) s' t' s*ea%) ,'m*'unded! T(e un$ty '+
,'ns,$'usness $s ne0ert(eless synt(et$,al and) t(ere+'re) *r$m$t$0e!
Fr'm t($s *e,ul$ar ,(ara,ter '+ ,'ns,$'usness +'ll'/ many $m*'rtant
,'nse.uen,es! =See SS B1!> ,
Understand$n- $s) t' s*ea% -enerally) t(e +a,ulty O+ ,'-n$t$'ns!
T(ese ,'ns$st $n t(e determ$ned relat$'n '+ -$0en re*resentat$'n t' an
'b&e,t! 3ut an 'b&e,t $s t(at) $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ /($,( t(e man$+'ld
$n a -$0en $ntu$t$'n $s un$ted! N'/ all un$'n '+ re*resentat$'ns
re.u$res un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness $n t(e synt(es$s '+ t(em!
C'nse.uently) $t $s t(e un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness al'ne t(at
,'nst$tutes t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ re*resentat$'ns relat$n- t' an
'b&e,t) and t(ere+'re '+ t(e$r 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty) and '+ t(e$r
be,'m$n- ,'-n$t$'ns) and ,'nse.uently) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ t(e understand$n- $tsel+! e
T(e +$rst *ure ,'-n$t$'n '+ understand$n-) t(en) u*'n /($,( $s
+'unded all $ts 't(er e1er,$se) and /($,( $s at t(e same t$me
*er+e,tly $nde*endent '+ all ,'nd$t$'ns '+ mere sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) $s
t(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(e 'r$-$nal synt(et$,al un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n!
T(us t(e mere +'rm '+ e1ternal sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) namely) s*a,e)
a++'rds us) *er se) n' ,'-n$t$'n4 $t merely ,'ntr$butes t(e man$+'ld
$n a *r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n t' a *'ss$ble ,'-n$t$'n! 3ut) $n 'rder t'
,'-n$;e s'met($n- $n s*a,e =+'r e1am*le) a l$ne>) I must dra/ $t)
and t(us *r'du,e synt(et$,ally a determ$ned ,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e -$0en
man$+'ld) s' t(at t(e un$ty '+ t($s a,t $s at t(e same t$me t(e
un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness =$n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a l$ne>) and by t($s
means al'ne $s an 'b&e,t =a determ$nate s*a,e> ,'-n$;ed! T(e
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness $s) t(ere+'re) an 'b&e,t$0e
,'nd$t$'n '+ all ,'-n$t$'n) /($,( I d' n't merely re.u$re $n 'rder
t' ,'-n$;e an 'b&e,t) but t' /($,( e0ery $ntu$t$'n must ne,essar$ly be
sub&e,t) $n 'rder t' be,'me an 'b&e,t +'r me4 be,ause $n any 't(er
/ay) and /$t('ut t($s synt(es$s) t(e man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n ,'uld n't
be un$ted $n 'ne ,'ns,$'usness! b
T($s *r'*'s$t$'n $s) as already sa$d) $tsel+ analyt$,al) alt('u-( $t
,'nst$tutes t(e synt(et$,al un$ty) t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ all t('u-(t4 +'r
$t states n't($n- m're t(an t(at all my re*resentat$'ns $n any -$0en
$ntu$t$'n must be sub&e,t t' t(e ,'nd$t$'n /($,( al'ne enables me t'
,'nne,t t(em) as my re*resentat$'n /$t( t(e $dent$,al sel+) and s'
t' un$te t(em synt(et$,ally $n 'ne a**er,e*t$'n) by means '+ t(e
-eneral e1*ress$'n) 9I t($n%!9 -
3ut t($s *r$n,$*le $s n't t' be re-arded as a *r$n,$*le +'r e0ery
*'ss$ble understand$n-) but 'nly +'r t(e understand$n- by means '+
/('se *ure a**er,e*t$'n $n t(e t('u-(t I am) n' man$+'ld ,'ntent $s
-$0en! T(e understand$n- 'r m$nd /($,( ,'nta$ned t(e man$+'ld $n
$ntu$t$'n) $n and t(r'u-( t(e a,t $tsel+ '+ $ts '/n
sel+5,'ns,$'usness) $n 't(er /'rds) an understand$n- by and $n t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ /($,( t(e 'b&e,ts '+ t(e re*resentat$'n s('uld at
t(e same t$me e1$st) /'uld n't re.u$re a s*e,$al a,t '+ synt(es$s '+
t(e man$+'ld as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e un$ty '+ $ts ,'ns,$'usness) an
a,t '+ /($,( t(e (uman understand$n-) /($,( t($n%s 'nly and ,ann't
$ntu$te) (as abs'lute need! 3ut t($s *r$n,$*le $s t(e +$rst
*r$n,$*le '+ all t(e '*erat$'ns '+ 'ur understand$n-) s' t(at /e
,ann't +'rm t(e least ,'n,e*t$'n '+ any 't(er *'ss$ble
understand$n-) e$t(er '+ 'ne su,( as s('uld be $tsel+ $ntu$t$'n) 'r
*'ssess a sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) but /$t( +'rms d$++erent +r'm t('se '+
s*a,e and t$me! s
2(at Ob&e,t$0e Un$ty '+ Sel+5,'ns,$'usness $s! SS 1K
It $s by means '+ t(e trans,endental un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n t(at
all t(e man$+'ld) -$0en $n an $ntu$t$'n $s un$ted $nt' a ,'n,e*t$'n '+
t(e 'b&e,t! On t($s a,,'unt $t $s ,alled 'b&e,t$0e) and must be
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e sub&e,t$0e un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness) /($,( $s a
determ$nat$'n '+ t(e $nternal sense) by means '+ /($,( t(e sa$d
man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n $s -$0en em*$r$,ally t' be s' un$ted! 2(et(er
I ,an be em*$r$,ally ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e man$+'ld as ,'e1$stent 'r as
su,,ess$0e) de*ends u*'n ,$r,umstan,es) 'r em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns! Hen,e
t(e em*$r$,al un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness by means '+ ass',$at$'n '+
re*resentat$'ns) $tsel+ relates t' a *(en'menal /'rld and $s /('lly
,'nt$n-ent! On t(e ,'ntrary) t(e *ure +'rm '+ $ntu$t$'n $n t$me)
merely as an $ntu$t$'n) /($,( ,'nta$ns a -$0en man$+'ld) $s sub&e,t t'
t(e 'r$-$nal un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness) and t(at s'lely by means '+ t(e
ne,essary relat$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n t' t(e 9I t($n%)9
,'nse.uently by means '+ t(e *ure synt(es$s '+ t(e understand$n-)
/($,( l$es a *r$'r$ at t(e +'undat$'n '+ all em*$r$,al synt(es$s!
T(e trans,endental un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n $s al'ne 'b&e,t$0ely 0al$d4
t(e em*$r$,al /($,( /e d' n't ,'ns$der $n t($s essay) and /($,( $s
merely a un$ty dedu,ed +r'm t(e +'rmer under -$0en ,'nd$t$'ns $n
,'n,ret') *'ssesses 'nly sub&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty! One *ers'n ,'nne,ts
t(e n't$'n ,'n0eyed $n a /'rd /$t( 'ne t($n-) an't(er /$t( an't(er
t($n-4 and t(e un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness $n t(at /($,( $s em*$r$,al)
$s) $n relat$'n t' t(at /($,( $s -$0en by e1*er$en,e) n't
ne,essar$ly and un$0ersally 0al$d! n
T(e <'-$,al F'rm '+ all ud-ements ,'ns$sts $n t(e Ob&e,t$0e
Un$ty '+ A**er,e*t$'n '+ t(e C'n,e*t$'ns
,'nta$ned t(ere$n! SS 1A
I ,'uld ne0er sat$s+y mysel+ /$t( t(e de+$n$t$'n /($,( l'-$,$ans
-$0e '+ a &ud-ement! It $s) a,,'rd$n- t' t(em) t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a
relat$'n bet/een t/' ,'n,e*t$'ns! I s(all n't d/ell (ere 'n t(e
+ault$ness '+ t($s de+$n$t$'n) $n t(at $t su$ts 'nly +'r ,ate-'r$,al
and n't +'r (y*'t(et$,al 'r d$s&un,t$0e &ud-ements) t(ese latter
,'nta$n$n- a relat$'n n't '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns but '+ &ud-ements t(emsel0es5
a blunder +r'm /($,( many e0$l results (a0e +'ll'/ed!7 It $s m're
$m*'rtant +'r 'ur *resent *ur*'se t' 'bser0e) t(at t($s de+$n$t$'n
d'es n't determ$ne $n /(at t(e sa$d relat$'n ,'ns$sts! d
7T(e ted$'us d',tr$ne '+ t(e +'ur syll'-$st$, +$-ures ,'n,erns
'nly ,ate-'r$,al syll'-$sms4 and alt('u-( $t $s n't($n- m're t(an an
art$+$,e by surre*t$t$'usly $ntr'du,$n- $mmed$ate ,'n,lus$'ns
=,'nse.uent$ae $mmed$atae> am'n- t(e *rem$ses '+ a *ure syll'-$sm)
t' -$0e $sm? -$0e r$se t' an a**earan,e '+ m're m'des '+ dra/$n- a
,'n,lus$'n t(an t(at $n t(e +$rst +$-ure) t(e art$+$,e /'uld n't
(a0e (ad mu,( su,,ess) (ad n't $ts aut('rs su,,eeded $n br$n-$n-
,ate-'r$,al &ud-ements $nt' e1,lus$0e res*e,t) as t('se t' /($,( all
't(ers must be re+erred5 a d',tr$ne) ('/e0er) /($,() a,,'rd$n- t' SS
A) $s utterly +alse! A
3ut $+ I $n0est$-ate m're ,l'sely t(e relat$'n '+ -$0en ,'-n$t$'ns
$n e0ery &ud-ement) and d$st$n-u$s( $t) as bel'n-$n- t' t(e
understand$n-) +r'm t(e relat$'n /($,( $s *r'du,ed a,,'rd$n- t' la/s
'+ t(e re*r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n =/($,( (as 'nly sub&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty>) I +$nd t(at &ud-ement $s n't($n- but t(e m'de '+ br$n-$n-
-$0en ,'-n$t$'ns under t(e 'b&e,t$0e un$t '+ a**er,e*t$'n! T($s $s
*la$n +r'm 'ur use '+ t(e term '+ relat$'n $s $n &ud-ements) $n
'rder t' d$st$n-u$s( t(e 'b&e,t$0e un$ty '+ -$0en re*resentat$'ns +r'm
t(e sub&e,t$0e un$ty! F'r t($s term $nd$,ates t(e relat$'n '+ t(ese
re*resentat$'ns t' t(e 'r$-$nal a**er,e*t$'n) and als' t(e$r ne,essary
un$ty) e0en alt('u-( t(e &ud-ement $s em*$r$,al) t(ere+'re ,'nt$n-ent)
as $n t(e &ud-ement6 9All b'd$es are (ea0y!9 I d' n't mean by t($s)
t(at t(ese re*resentat$'ns d' ne,essar$ly bel'n- t' ea,( 't(er $n
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) but t(at by means '+ t(e ne,essary un$ty '+
a**re,$at$'n t(ey bel'n- t' ea,( 't(er $n t(e synt(es$s '+ $ntu$t$'ns)
t(at $s t' say) t(ey bel'n- t' ea,( 't(er a,,'rd$n- t' *r$n,$*les '+
t(e 'b&e,t$0e determ$nat$'n '+ all 'ur re*resentat$'ns) $n s' +ar as
,'-n$t$'n ,an ar$se +r'm t(em) t(ese *r$n,$*les be$n- all dedu,ed +r'm
t(e ma$n *r$n,$*le '+ t(e trans,endental un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n! In
t($s /ay al'ne ,an t(ere ar$se +r'm t($s relat$'n a &ud-ement) t(at
$s) a relat$'n /($,( (as 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty) and $s *er+e,tly d$st$n,t
+r'm t(at relat$'n '+ t(e 0ery same re*resentat$'ns /($,( (as 'nly
sub&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty5 a relat$'n) t' /$t) /($,( $s *r'du,ed a,,'rd$n-
t' la/s '+ ass',$at$'n! A,,'rd$n- t' t(ese la/s) I ,'uld 'nly say6
92(en I ('ld $n my (and 'r ,arry a b'dy) I +eel an $m*ress$'n '+
/e$-(t94 but I ,'uld n't say6 9It) t(e b'dy) $s (ea0y94 +'r t($s $s
tantam'unt t' say$n- b't( t(ese re*resentat$'ns are ,'n&'$ned $n t(e
'b&e,t) t(at $s) /$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n as t' t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
sub&e,t) and d' n't merely stand t'-et(er $n my *er,e*t$'n) ('/e0er
+re.uently t(e *er,e*t$0e a,t may be re*eated! +
All Sensu'us Intu$t$'ns are sub&e,t t' t(e Cate-'r$es) as
C'nd$t$'ns under /($,( al'ne t(e man$+'ld C'ntent '+
t(em ,an be un$ted $n 'ne C'ns,$'usness! SS 1L
T(e man$+'ld ,'ntent -$0en $n a sensu'us $ntu$t$'n ,'mes ne,essar$ly
under t(e 'r$-$nal synt(et$,al un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) be,ause
t(ereby al'ne $s t(e un$ty '+ $ntu$t$'n *'ss$ble =SS 1I>! 3ut t(at a,t
'+ t(e understand$n-) by /($,( t(e man$+'ld ,'ntent '+ -$0en
re*resentat$'ns =/(et(er $ntu$t$'ns 'r ,'n,e*t$'ns> $s br'u-(t under
'ne a**er,e*t$'n) $s t(e l'-$,al +un,t$'n '+ &ud-ements =SS 1A>! All
t(e man$+'ld) t(ere+'re) $n s' +ar as $t $s -$0en $n 'ne em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n) $s determ$ned $n relat$'n t' 'ne '+ t(e l'-$,al +un,t$'ns
'+ &ud-ement) by means '+ /($,( $t $s br'u-(t $nt' un$'n $n 'ne
,'ns,$'usness! N'/ t(e ,ate-'r$es are n't($n- else t(an t(ese
+un,t$'ns '+ &ud-ement s' +ar as t(e man$+'ld $n a -$0en $ntu$t$'n
$s determ$ned $n relat$'n t' t(em =SS M>! C'nse.uently) t(e man$+'ld
$n a -$0en $ntu$t$'n $s ne,essar$ly sub&e,t t' t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ t(e
understand$n-! u
Obser0at$'n! SS 17
T(e man$+'ld $n an $ntu$t$'n) /($,( I ,all m$ne) $s re*resented by
means '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e understand$n-) as bel'n-$n- t' t(e
ne,essary un$ty '+ sel+5,'ns,$'usness) and t($s ta%es *la,e by means
'+ t(e ,ate-'ry!7 T(e ,ate-'ry $nd$,ates a,,'rd$n-ly t(at t(e
em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness '+ a -$0en man$+'ld $n an $ntu$t$'n $s sub&e,t
t' a *ure sel+5,'ns,$'usness a *r$'r$) $n t(e same manner as an
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n $s sub&e,t t' a *ure sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) /($,(
$s als' a *r$'r$! In t(e ab'0e *r'*'s$t$'n) t(en) l$es t(e be-$nn$n-
'+ a dedu,t$'n '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-! N'/) as
t(e ,ate-'r$es (a0e t(e$r 'r$-$n $n t(e understand$n- al'ne)
$nde*endently '+ sens$b$l$ty) I must $n my dedu,t$'n ma%e
abstra,t$'n '+ t(e m'de $n /($,( t(e man$+'ld '+ an em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n $s -$0en) $n 'rder t' +$1 my attent$'n e1,lus$0ely 'n t(e
un$ty /($,( $s br'u-(t by t(e understand$n- $nt' t(e $ntu$t$'n by
means '+ t(e ,ate-'ry! In /(at +'ll'/s =SS BB>) $t /$ll be s('/n) +r'm
t(e m'de $n /($,( t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n $s -$0en $n t(e +a,ulty '+
sens$b$l$ty) t(at t(e un$ty /($,( bel'n-s t' $t $s n' 't(er t(an
t(at /($,( t(e ,ate-'ry =a,,'rd$n- t' SS 1L> $m*'ses 'n t(e man$+'ld
$n a -$0en $ntu$t$'n) and t(us) $ts a *r$'r$ 0al$d$ty $n re-ard t' all
'b&e,ts '+ sense be$n- establ$s(ed) t(e *ur*'se '+ 'ur dedu,t$'n
/$ll be +ully atta$ned! /
7T(e *r''+ '+ t($s rests 'n t(e re*resented un$ty '+ $ntu$t$'n) by
means '+ /($,( an 'b&e,t $s -$0en) and /($,( al/ays $n,ludes $n $tsel+
a synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld t' be $ntu$ted) and als' t(e relat$'n '+
t($s latter t' un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n! t
3ut t(ere $s 'ne t($n- $n t(e ab'0e dem'nstrat$'n '+ /($,( I ,'uld
n't ma%e abstra,t$'n) namely) t(at t(e man$+'ld t' be $ntu$ted must be
-$0en *re0$'usly t' t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e understand$n-) and
$nde*endently '+ $t! H'/ t($s ta%es *la,e rema$ns (ere undeterm$ned!
F'r $+ I ,'-$tate an understand$n- /($,( /as $tsel+ $ntu$t$0e =as) +'r
e1am*le) a d$0$ne understand$n- /($,( s('uld n't re*resent -$0en
'b&e,ts) but by /('se re*resentat$'n t(e 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es s('uld
be -$0en 'r *r'du,ed>) t(e ,ate-'r$es /'uld *'ssess n' s$-n$+$,an,e $n
relat$'n t' su,( a +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n! T(ey are merely rules +'r
an understand$n-) /('se /('le *'/er ,'ns$sts $n t('u-(t) t(at $s) $n
t(e a,t '+ subm$tt$n- t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld /($,( $s *resented
t' $t $n $ntu$t$'n +r'm a 0ery d$++erent .uarter) t' t(e un$ty '+
a**er,e*t$'n4 a +a,ulty) t(ere+'re) /($,( ,'-n$;es n't($n- *er se) but
'nly ,'nne,ts and arran-es t(e mater$al '+ ,'-n$t$'n) t(e $ntu$t$'n)
namely) /($,( must be *resented t' $t by means '+ t(e 'b&e,t! 3ut t'
s('/ reas'ns +'r t($s *e,ul$ar ,(ara,ter '+ 'ur understand$n-s) t(at
$t *r'du,es un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n a *r$'r$ 'nly by means '+
,ate-'r$es) and a ,erta$n %$nd and number t(ere'+) $s as $m*'ss$ble as
t' e1*la$n /(y /e are end'/ed /$t( *re,$sely s' many +un,t$'ns '+
&ud-ement and n' m're) 'r /(y t$me and s*a,e are t(e 'nly +'rms '+ 'ur
$ntu$t$'n! $
In C'-n$t$'n) $ts A**l$,at$'n t' Ob&e,ts '+ E1*er$en,e $s
t(e 'nly le-$t$mate use '+ t(e Cate-'ry! SS 18
T' t($n% an 'b&e,t and t' ,'-n$;e an 'b&e,t are by n' means t(e same
t($n-! In ,'-n$t$'n t(ere are t/' elements6 +$rstly) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n)
/(ereby an 'b&e,t $s ,'-$tated =t(e ,ate-'ry>4 and) se,'ndly) t(e
$ntu$t$'n) /(ereby t(e 'b&e,t $s -$0en! F'r su**'s$n- t(at t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n a ,'rres*'nd$n- $ntu$t$'n ,'uld n't be -$0en) $t /'uld
st$ll be a t('u-(t as re-ards $ts +'rm) but /$t('ut any 'b&e,t) and n'
,'-n$t$'n '+ anyt($n- /'uld be *'ss$ble by means '+ $t) $nasmu,( as)
s' +ar as I %ne/) t(ere e1$sted and ,'uld e1$st n't($n- t' /($,( my
t('u-(t ,'uld be a**l$ed! N'/ all $ntu$t$'n *'ss$ble t' us $s
sensu'us4 ,'nse.uently) 'ur t('u-(t '+ an 'b&e,t by means '+ a *ure
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) ,an be,'me ,'-n$t$'n +'r us 'nly $n
s' +ar as t($s ,'n,e*t$'n $s a**l$ed t' 'b&e,ts '+ t(e senses!
Sensu'us $ntu$t$'n $s e$t(er *ure $ntu$t$'n =s*a,e and t$me> 'r
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n5 '+ t(at /($,( $s $mmed$ately re*resented $n s*a,e
and t$me by means '+ sensat$'n as real! T(r'u-( t(e determ$nat$'n '+
*ure $ntu$t$'n /e 'bta$n a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts) as $n
mat(emat$,s) but 'nly as re-ards t(e$r +'rm as *(en'mena4 /(et(er
t(ere ,an e1$st t($n-s /($,( must be $ntu$ted $n t($s +'rm $s n't
t(ereby establ$s(ed! All mat(emat$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(ere+'re) are
n't *er se ,'-n$t$'n) e1,e*t $n s' +ar as /e *resu**'se t(at t(ere
e1$st t($n-s /($,( ,an 'nly be re*resented ,'n+'rmably t' t(e +'rm
'+ 'ur *ure sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! 3ut t($n-s $n s*a,e and t$me are -$0en
'nly $n s' +ar as t(ey are *er,e*t$'ns =re*resentat$'ns a,,'m*an$ed
/$t( sensat$'n>) t(ere+'re 'nly by em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n!
C'nse.uently t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) e0en /(en t(ey
are a**l$ed t' $ntu$t$'ns a *r$'r$ =as $n mat(emat$,s>) *r'du,e
,'-n$t$'n 'nly $n s' +ar as t(ese =and t(ere+'re t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e understand$n- by means '+ t(em> ,an be a**l$ed t' em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'ns! C'nse.uently t(e ,ate-'r$es d' n't) e0en by means '+
*ure $ntu$t$'n a++'rd us any ,'-n$t$'n '+ t($n-s4 t(ey ,an 'nly d'
s' $n s' +ar as t(ey ,an be a**l$ed t' em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n! T(at $s t'
say) t(e) ,ate-'r$es ser0e 'nly t' render em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n
*'ss$ble! 3ut t($s $s /(at /e ,all e1*er$en,e! C'nse.uently) $n
,'-n$t$'n) t(e$r a**l$,at$'n t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e $s t(e 'nly
le-$t$mate use '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es! l
T(e +'re-'$n- *r'*'s$t$'n $s '+ t(e utm'st $m*'rtan,e) +'r $t
determ$nes t(e l$m$ts '+ t(e e1er,$se '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n- $n re-ard t' 'b&e,ts) &ust as trans,endental aest(et$,
determ$ned t(e l$m$ts '+ t(e e1er,$se '+ t(e *ure +'rm '+ 'ur sensu'us
$ntu$t$'n! S*a,e and t$me) as ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e
*resentat$'n '+ 'b&e,ts t' us) are 0al$d n' +urt(er t(an +'r 'b&e,ts
'+ sense) ,'nse.uently) 'nly +'r e1*er$en,e! 3ey'nd t(ese l$m$ts
t(ey re*resent t' us n't($n-) +'r t(ey bel'n- 'nly t' sense) and
(a0e n' real$ty a*art +r'm $t! T(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n- are +ree +r'm t($s l$m$tat$'n) and e1tend t' 'b&e,ts
'+ $ntu$t$'n $n -eneral) be t(e $ntu$t$'n l$%e 'r unl$%e t' 'urs)
*r'0$ded 'nly $t be sensu'us) and n't $ntelle,tual! 3ut t($s e1tens$'n
'+ ,'n,e*t$'ns bey'nd t(e ran-e '+ 'ur $ntu$t$'n $s '+ n' ad0anta-e4
+'r t(ey are t(en mere em*ty ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts) as t' t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty 'r $m*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ /($,( t(ey +urn$s( us
/$t( n' means '+ d$s,'0ery! T(ey are mere +'rms '+ t('u-(t) /$t('ut
'b&e,t$0e real$ty) be,ause /e (a0e n' $ntu$t$'n t' /($,( t(e
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) /($,( al'ne t(e ,ate-'r$es ,'nta$n)
,'uld be a**l$ed) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ determ$n$n- an 'b&e,t! Our
sensu'us and em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n ,an al'ne -$0e t(em s$-n$+$,an,e
and mean$n-! a
I+) t(en) /e su**'se an 'b&e,t '+ a n'n5sensu'us $ntu$t$'n t' be
-$0en /e ,an $n t(at ,ase re*resent $t by all t('se *red$,ates /($,(
are $m*l$ed $n t(e *resu**'s$t$'n t(at n't($n- a**erta$n$n- t'
sensu'us $ntu$t$'n bel'n-s t' $t4 +'r e1am*le) t(at $t $s n't
e1tended) 'r $n s*a,e4 t(at $ts durat$'n $s n't t$me4 t(at $n $t n'
,(an-e =t(e e++e,t '+ t(e determ$nat$'ns $n t$me> $s t' be met /$t()
and s' 'n! 3ut $t $s n' *r'*er %n'/led-e $+ I merely $nd$,ate /(at t(e
$ntu$t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t $s n't) /$t('ut be$n- able t' say /(at $s
,'nta$ned $n $t) +'r I (a0e n't s('/n t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ an 'b&e,t
t' /($,( my *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ understand$n- ,'uld be a**l$,able)
be,ause I (a0e n't been able t' +urn$s( any $ntu$t$'n ,'rres*'nd$n- t'
$t) but am 'nly able t' say t(at 'ur $ntu$t$'n $s n't 0al$d +'r $t!
3ut t(e m'st $m*'rtant *'$nt $s t($s) t(at t' a s'met($n- '+ t($s %$nd
n't 'ne ,ate-'ry ,an be +'und a**l$,able! Ta%e) +'r e1am*le) t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ substan,e) t(at $s) s'met($n- t(at ,an e1$st as sub&e,t)
but ne0er as mere *red$,ate4 $n re-ard t' t($s ,'n,e*t$'n I am .u$te
$-n'rant /(et(er t(ere ,an really be anyt($n- t' ,'rres*'nd t' su,(
a determ$nat$'n '+ t('u-(t) $+ em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n d$d n't a++'rd me
t(e ',,as$'n +'r $ts a**l$,at$'n! 3ut '+ t($s m're $n t(e se.uel! t
O+ t(e A**l$,at$'n '+ t(e Cate-'r$es t' Ob&e,ts '+ t(e
Senses $n -eneral! SS BN
T(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- a**ly t' 'b&e,ts '+
$ntu$t$'n $n -eneral) t(r'u-( t(e understand$n- al'ne) /(et(er t(e
$ntu$t$'n be 'ur '/n 'r s'me 't(er) *r'0$ded 'nly $t be sensu'us)
but are) +'r t($s 0ery reas'n) mere +'rms '+ t('u-(t) by means '+
/($,( al'ne n' determ$ned 'b&e,t ,an be ,'-n$;ed! T(e synt(es$s 'r
,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns relates) /e (a0e
sa$d) 'nly t' t(e un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) and $s +'r t($s reas'n t(e
-r'und '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n) $n s' +ar as t($s
,'-n$t$'n $s de*endent 'n t(e understand$n-! T($s synt(es$s $s)
t(ere+'re) n't merely trans,endental) but als' *urely $ntelle,tual!
3ut be,ause a ,erta$n +'rm '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n e1$sts $n t(e m$nd
a *r$'r$ /($,( rests 'n t(e re,e*t$0$ty '+ t(e re*resentat$0e
+a,ulty =sens$b$l$ty>) t(e understand$n-) as a s*'ntane$ty) $s able t'
determ$ne t(e $nternal sense by means '+ t(e d$0ers$ty '+ -$0en
re*resentat$'ns) ,'n+'rmably t' t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n)
and t(us t' ,'-$tate t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e a**er,e*t$'n '+
t(e man$+'ld '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n a *r$'r$) as t(e ,'nd$t$'n t' /($,(
must ne,essar$ly be subm$tted all 'b&e,ts '+ (uman $ntu$t$'n! And $n
t($s manner t(e ,ate-'r$es as mere +'rms '+ t('u-(t re,e$0e
'b&e,t$0e real$ty) t(at $s) a**l$,at$'n t' 'b&e,ts /($,( are -$0en
t' us $n $ntu$t$'n) but t(at 'nly as *(en'mena) +'r $t $s 'nly '+
*(en'mena t(at /e are ,a*able '+ a *r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n! *
T($s synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) /($,( $s
*'ss$ble and ne,essary a *r$'r$) may be ,alled +$-urat$0e =synt(es$s
s*e,$'sa>) $n ,'ntrad$st$n,t$'n t' t(at /($,( $s ,'-$tated $n t(e mere
,ate-'ry $n re-ard t' t(e man$+'ld '+ an $ntu$t$'n $n -eneral) and
$s ,alled ,'nne,t$'n 'r ,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- =synt(es$s
$ntelle,tual$s>! 3't( are trans,endental) n't merely be,ause t(ey
t(emsel0es *re,ede a *r$'r$ all e1*er$en,e) but als' be,ause t(ey +'rm
t(e bas$s +'r t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ 't(er ,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$! t
3ut t(e +$-urat$0e synt(es$s) /(en $t (as relat$'n 'nly t' t(e
'r$-$nally synt(et$,al un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) t(at $s t' t(e
trans,endental un$ty ,'-$tated $n t(e ,ate-'r$es) must) t' be
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e *urely $ntelle,tual ,'n&un,t$'n) be ent$tled
t(e trans,endental synt(es$s '+ $ma-$nat$'n! Ima-$nat$'n $s t(e
+a,ulty '+ re*resent$n- an 'b&e,t e0en /$t('ut $ts *resen,e $n
$ntu$t$'n! N'/) as all 'ur $ntu$t$'n $s sensu'us) $ma-$nat$'n) by
reas'n '+ t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n under /($,( al'ne $t ,an -$0e a
,'rres*'nd$n- $ntu$t$'n t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-)
bel'n-s t' sens$b$l$ty! 3ut $n s' +ar as t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e
$ma-$nat$'n $s an a,t '+ s*'ntane$ty) /($,( $s determ$nat$0e) and n't)
l$%e sense) merely determ$nable) and /($,( $s ,'nse.uently able t'
determ$ne sense a *r$'r$) a,,'rd$n- t' $ts +'rm) ,'n+'rmably t' t(e
un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) $n s' +ar $s t(e $ma-$nat$'n a +a,ulty '+
determ$n$n- sens$b$l$ty a *r$'r$) and $ts synt(es$s '+ $ntu$t$'ns
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e ,ate-'r$es must be t(e trans,endental synt(es$s '+
t(e $ma-$nat$'n! It $s an '*erat$'n '+ t(e understand$n- 'n
sens$b$l$ty) and t(e +$rst a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e understand$n- t' 'b&e,ts
'+ *'ss$ble $ntu$t$'n) and at t(e same t$me t(e bas$s +'r t(e e1er,$se
'+ t(e 't(er +un,t$'ns '+ t(at +a,ulty! As +$-urat$0e) $t $s
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e merely $ntelle,tual synt(es$s) /($,( $s
*r'du,ed by t(e understand$n- al'ne) /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ $ma-$nat$'n!
N'/) $n s' +ar as $ma-$nat$'n $s s*'ntane$ty) I s'met$mes ,all $t als'
t(e *r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n) and d$st$n-u$s( $t +r'm t(e
re*r'du,t$0e) t(e synt(es$s '+ /($,( $s sub&e,t ent$rely t'
em*$r$,al la/s) t('se '+ ass',$at$'n) namely) and /($,() t(ere+'re)
,'ntr$butes n't($n- t' t(e e1*lanat$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a
*r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n) and +'r t($s reas'n bel'n-s n't t' trans,endental
*($l's'*(y) but t' *sy,('l'-y! *
2e (a0e n'/ arr$0ed at t(e *r'*er *la,e +'r e1*la$n$n- t(e *arad'1
/($,( must (a0e stru,% e0ery 'ne $n 'ur e1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e $nternal
sense =SS L>) namely5 ('/ t($s sense re*resents us t' 'ur '/n
,'ns,$'usness) 'nly as /e a**ear t' 'ursel0es) n't as /e are $n
'ursel0es) be,ause) t' /$t) /e $ntu$te 'ursel0es 'nly as /e are
$n/ardly a++e,ted! N'/ t($s a**ears t' be ,'ntrad$,t'ry) $nasmu,( as
/e t(us stand $n a *ass$0e relat$'n t' 'ursel0es4 and t(ere+'re $n t(e
systems '+ *sy,('l'-y) t(e $nternal sense $s ,'mm'nly (eld t' be 'ne
/$t( t(e +a,ulty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) /($le /e) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) ,are+ully
d$st$n-u$s( t(em! d
T(at /($,( determ$nes t(e $nternal sense $s t(e understand$n-) and
$ts 'r$-$nal *'/er '+ ,'n&'$n$n- t(e man$+'ld '+ $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s)
'+ br$n-$n- t($s under an a**er,e*t$'n =u*'n /($,( rests t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e understand$n- $tsel+>! N'/) as t(e (uman
understand$n- $s n't $n $tsel+ a +a,ulty '+ $ntu$t$'n) and $s unable
t' e1er,$se su,( a *'/er) $n 'rder t' ,'n&'$n) as $t /ere) t(e
man$+'ld '+ $ts '/n $ntu$t$'n) t(e synt(es$s '+ understand$n- $s)
,'ns$dered *er se) n't($n- but t(e un$ty '+ a,t$'n) '+ /($,() as su,()
$t $s sel+5,'ns,$'us) e0en a*art +r'm sens$b$l$ty) by /($,() m're'0er)
$t $s able t' determ$ne 'ur $nternal sense $n res*e,t '+ t(e
man$+'ld /($,( may be *resented t' $t a,,'rd$n- t' t(e +'rm '+
sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! T(us) under t(e name '+ a trans,endental synt(es$s
'+ $ma-$nat$'n) t(e understand$n- e1er,$ses an a,t$0$ty u*'n t(e
*ass$0e sub&e,t) /('se +a,ulty $t $s4 and s' /e are r$-(t $n say$n-
t(at t(e $nternal sense $s a++e,ted t(ereby! A**er,e*t$'n and $ts
synt(et$,al un$ty are by n' means 'ne and t(e same /$t( t(e $nternal
sense! T(e +'rmer) as t(e s'ur,e '+ all 'ur synt(et$,al ,'n&un,t$'n)
a**l$es) under t(e name '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) t' t(e man$+'ld '+
$ntu$t$'n $n -eneral) *r$'r t' all sensu'us $ntu$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts!
T(e $nternal sense) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) ,'nta$ns merely t(e +'rm '+
$ntu$t$'n) but /$t('ut any synt(et$,al ,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld
t(ere$n) and ,'nse.uently d'es n't ,'nta$n any determ$ned $ntu$t$'n)
/($,( $s *'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e determ$nat$'n '+
t(e man$+'ld by t(e trans,endental a,t '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n =synt(et$,al
$n+luen,e '+ t(e understand$n- 'n t(e $nternal sense>) /($,( I (a0e
named +$-urat$0e synt(es$s! n
T($s /e ,an $ndeed al/ays *er,e$0e $n 'ursel0es! 2e ,ann't
,'-$tate a -e'metr$,al l$ne /$t('ut dra/$n- $t $n t('u-(t) n'r a
,$r,le /$t('ut des,r$b$n- $t) n'r re*resent t(e t(ree d$mens$'ns '+
s*a,e /$t('ut dra/$n- t(ree l$nes +r'm t(e same *'$nt *er*end$,ular t'
'ne an't(er! 2e ,ann't e0en ,'-$tate t$me) unless) $n dra/$n- a
stra$-(t l$ne =/($,( $s t' ser0e as t(e e1ternal +$-urat$0e
re*resentat$'n '+ t$me>) /e +$1 'ur attent$'n 'n t(e a,t '+ t(e
synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld) /(ereby /e determ$ne su,,ess$0ely t(e
$nternal sense) and t(us attend als' t' t(e su,,ess$'n '+ t($s
determ$nat$'n! "'t$'n as an a,t '+ t(e sub&e,t =n't as a determ$nat$'n
'+ an 'b&e,t>)7 ,'nse.uently t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld $n s*a,e)
$+ /e ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ s*a,e and attend merely t' t(e a,t by
/($,( /e determ$ne t(e $nternal sense a,,'rd$n- t' $ts +'rm) $s t(at
/($,( *r'du,es t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,,ess$'n! T(e understand$n-)
t(ere+'re) d'es by n' means +$nd $n t(e $nternal sense any su,(
synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld) but *r'du,es $t) $n t(at $t a++e,ts t($s
sense! At t(e same t$me) ('/ 9I /(' t($n%9 $s d$st$n,t +r'm t(e 9I9
/($,( $ntu$tes $tsel+ ='t(er m'des '+ $ntu$t$'n be$n- ,'-$table as
at least *'ss$ble>) and yet 'ne and t(e same /$t( t($s latter as t(e
same sub&e,t4 ('/) t(ere+'re) I am able t' say6 9I) as an $ntell$-en,e
and t($n%$n- sub&e,t) ,'-n$;e mysel+ as an 'b&e,t t('u-(t) s' +ar as I
am) m're'0er) -$0en t' mysel+ $n $ntu$t$'n5 'nly) l$%e 't(er
*(en'mena) n't as I am $n mysel+) and as ,'ns$dered by t(e
understand$n-) but merely as I a**ear95 $s a .uest$'n t(at (as $n $t
ne$t(er m're n'r less d$++$,ulty t(an t(e .uest$'n5 9H'/ ,an I be an
'b&e,t t' mysel+@9 'r t($s5 9H'/ I ,an be an 'b&e,t '+ my '/n
$ntu$t$'n and $nternal *er,e*t$'ns@9 3ut t(at su,( must be t(e +a,t)
$+ /e adm$t t(at s*a,e $s merely a *ure +'rm '+ t(e *(en'mena '+
e1ternal sense) ,an be ,learly *r'0ed by t(e ,'ns$derat$'n t(at /e
,ann't re*resent t$me) /($,( $s n't an 'b&e,t '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n)
$n any 't(er /ay t(an under t(e $ma-e '+ a l$ne) /($,( /e dra/ $n
t('u-(t) a m'de '+ re*resentat$'n /$t('ut /($,( /e ,'uld n't ,'-n$;e
t(e un$ty '+ $ts d$mens$'n) and als' t(at /e are ne,ess$tated t'
ta%e 'ur determ$nat$'n '+ *er$'ds '+ t$me) 'r '+ *'$nts '+ t$me) +'r
all 'ur $nternal *er,e*t$'ns +r'm t(e ,(an-es /($,( /e *er,e$0e $n
'ut/ard t($n-s! It +'ll'/s t(at /e must arran-e t(e determ$nat$'ns
'+ t(e $nternal sense) as *(en'mena $n t$me) e1a,tly $n t(e same
manner as /e arran-e t('se '+ t(e e1ternal senses $n s*a,e! And
,'nse.uently) $+ /e -rant) res*e,t$n- t($s latter) t(at by means '+
t(em /e %n'/ 'b&e,ts 'nly $n s' +ar as /e are a++e,ted e1ternally)
/e must als' ,'n+ess) /$t( re-ard t' t(e $nternal sense) t(at by means
'+ $t /e $ntu$te 'ursel0es 'nly as /e are $nternally a++e,ted by
'ursel0es4 $n 't(er /'rds) as re-ards $nternal $ntu$t$'n) /e ,'-n$;e
'ur '/n sub&e,t 'nly as *(en'men'n) and n't as $t $s $n $tsel+!78B: '
7"'t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t $n s*a,e d'es n't bel'n- t' a *ure s,$en,e)
,'nse.uently n't t' -e'metry4 be,ause) t(at a t($n- $s m'0able
,ann't be %n'/n a *r$'r$) but 'nly +r'm e1*er$en,e! 3ut m't$'n)
,'ns$dered as t(e des,r$*t$'n '+ a s*a,e) $s a *ure a,t '+ t(e
su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld $n e1ternal $ntu$t$'n by means '+
*r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n) and bel'n-s n't 'nly t' -e'metry) but e0en
t' trans,endental *($l's'*(y! t
78B: I d' n't see /(y s' mu,( d$++$,ulty s('uld be +'und $n
adm$tt$n- t(at 'ur $nternal sense $s a++e,ted by 'ursel0es! E0ery
a,t '+ attent$'n e1em*l$+$es $t! In su,( an a,t t(e understand$n-
determ$nes t(e $nternal sense by t(e synt(et$,al ,'n&un,t$'n /($,(
$t ,'-$tates) ,'n+'rmably t' t(e $nternal $ntu$t$'n /($,(
,'rres*'nds t' t(e man$+'ld $n t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e understand$n-! H'/
mu,( t(e m$nd $s usually a++e,ted t(ereby e0ery 'ne /$ll be able t'
*er,e$0e $n ($msel+! *
On t(e 't(er (and) $n t(e trans,endental synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld
,'ntent '+ re*resentat$'ns) ,'nse.uently $n t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+
a**er,e*t$'n) I am ,'ns,$'us '+ mysel+) n't as I a**ear t' mysel+) n'r
as I am $n mysel+) but 'nly t(at 9I am!9 T($s re*resentat$'n $s a
t('u-(t) n't an $ntu$t$'n! N'/) as $n 'rder t' ,'-n$;e 'ursel0es) $n
add$t$'n t' t(e a,t '+ t($n%$n-) /($,( sub&e,ts t(e man$+'ld '+
e0ery *'ss$ble $ntu$t$'n t' t(e un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) t(ere $s
ne,essary a determ$nate m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n) /(ereby t($s man$+'ld $s
-$0en4 alt('u-( my '/n e1$sten,e $s ,erta$nly n't mere *(en'men'n
=mu,( less mere $llus$'n>) t(e determ$nat$'n '+ my e1$sten,e7 Can 'nly
ta%e *la,e ,'n+'rmably t' t(e +'rm '+ t(e $nternal sense) a,,'rd$n- t'
t(e *art$,ular m'de $n /($,( t(e man$+'ld /($,( I ,'n&'$n $s -$0en
$n $nternal $ntu$t$'n) and I (a0e t(ere+'re n' %n'/led-e '+ mysel+
as I am) but merely as I a**ear t' mysel+! T(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ sel+
$s t(us 0ery +ar +r'm a %n'/led-e '+ sel+) $n /($,( I d' n't use t(e
,ate-'r$es) /(ereby I ,'-$tate an 'b&e,t) by means '+ t(e
,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n 'ne a**er,e*t$'n! In t(e same /ay as
I re.u$re) +'r t(e sa%e '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t d$st$n,t +r'm
mysel+) n't 'nly t(e t('u-(t '+ an 'b&e,t $n -eneral =$n t(e
,ate-'ry>) but als' an $ntu$t$'n by /($,( t' determ$ne t(at -eneral
,'n,e*t$'n) $n t(e same /ay d' I re.u$re) $n 'rder t' t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+
mysel+) n't 'nly t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ mysel+ 'r t(e t('u-(t t(at I
t($n% mysel+) but $n add$t$'n an $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n
mysel+) by /($,( t' determ$ne t($s t('u-(t! It $s true t(at I e1$st as
an $ntell$-en,e /($,( $s ,'ns,$'us 'nly '+ $ts +a,ulty '+
,'n&un,t$'n 'r synt(es$s) but sub&e,ted $n relat$'n t' t(e man$+'ld
/($,( t($s $ntell$-en,e (as t' ,'n&'$n t' a l$m$tat$0e ,'n&un,t$'n
,alled t(e $nternal sense! "y $ntell$-en,e =t(at $s) I> ,an render
t(at ,'n&un,t$'n 'r synt(es$s *er,e*t$ble 'nly a,,'rd$n- t' t(e
relat$'ns '+ t$me) /($,( are .u$te bey'nd t(e *r'*er s*(ere '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- and ,'nse.uently ,'-n$;e $tsel+ $n
res*e,t t' an $ntu$t$'n =/($,( ,ann't *'ss$bly be $ntelle,tual) n'r
-$0en by t(e understand$n->) 'nly as $t a**ears t' $tsel+) and n't
as $t /'uld ,'-n$;e $tsel+) $+ $ts $ntu$t$'n /ere $ntelle,tual! a
7T(e 9I t($n%9 e1*resses t(e a,t '+ determ$n$n- my '/n e1$sten,e! "y
e1$sten,e $s t(us already -$0en by t(e a,t '+ ,'ns,$'usness4 but t(e
m'de $n /($,( I must determ$ne my e1$sten,e) t(at $s) t(e m'de $n
/($,( I must *la,e t(e man$+'ld bel'n-$n- t' my e1$sten,e) $s n't
t(ereby -$0en! F'r t($s *ur*'se $ntu$t$'n '+ sel+ $s re.u$red) and
t($s $ntu$t$'n *'ssesses a +'rm -$0en a *r$'r$) namely) t$me) /($,( $s
sensu'us) and bel'n-s t' 'ur re,e*t$0$ty '+ t(e determ$nable! N'/)
as I d' n't *'ssess an't(er $ntu$t$'n '+ sel+ /($,( -$0es t(e
determ$n$n- $n me ='+ t(e s*'ntane$ty '+ /($,( I am ,'ns,$'us>)
*r$'r t' t(e a,t '+ determ$nat$'n) $n t(e same manner as t$me -$0es
t(e determ$nable) $t $s ,lear t(at I am unable t' determ$ne my '/n
e1$sten,e as t(at '+ a s*'ntane'us be$n-) but I am 'nly able t'
re*resent t' mysel+ t(e s*'ntane$ty '+ my t('u-(t) t(at $s) '+ my
determ$nat$'n) and my e1$sten,e rema$ns e0er determ$nable $n a
*urely sensu'us manner) t(at $s t' say) l$%e t(e e1$sten,e '+ a
*(en'men'n! 3ut $t $s be,ause '+ t($s s*'ntane$ty t(at I ,all mysel+
an $ntell$-en,e! a
Trans,endental #edu,t$'n '+ t(e un$0ersally *'ss$ble
em*l'yment $n e1*er$en,e '+ t(e Pure C'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e Understand$n-! SS BB
In t(e meta*(ys$,al dedu,t$'n) t(e a *r$'r$ 'r$-$n '+ ,ate-'r$es /as
*r'0ed by t(e$r ,'m*lete a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e -eneral l'-$,al '+
t('u-(t4 $n t(e trans,endental dedu,t$'n /as e1($b$ted t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ t(e ,ate-'r$es as a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts '+ an $ntu$t$'n $n
-eneral =SS 1L and 17>!At *resent /e are ab'ut t' e1*la$n t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'-n$;$n-) a *r$'r$) by means '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) all
'b&e,ts /($,( ,an *'ss$bly be *resented t' 'ur senses) n't) $ndeed)
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e +'rm '+ t(e$r $ntu$t$'n) but a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+
t(e$r ,'n&un,t$'n 'r synt(es$s) and t(us) as $t /ere) '+ *res,r$b$n-
la/s t' nature and e0en '+ render$n- nature *'ss$ble! F'r $+ t(e
,ate-'r$es /ere $nade.uate t' t($s tas%) $t /'uld n't be e0$dent t' us
/(y e0eryt($n- t(at $s *resented t' 'ur senses must be sub&e,t t'
t('se la/s /($,( (a0e an a *r$'r$ 'r$-$n $n t(e understand$n- $tsel+!
I *rem$se t(at by t(e term synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n I understand
t(e ,'mb$nat$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n an em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) /(ereby
*er,e*t$'n) t(at $s) em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e $ntu$t$'n =as
*(en'men'n>) $s *'ss$ble! *
2e (a0e a *r$'r$ +'rms '+ t(e e1ternal and $nternal sensu'us
$ntu$t$'n $n t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me) and t' t(ese
must t(e synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n a *(en'men'n
be al/ays ,'m+'rmable) be,ause t(e synt(es$s $tsel+ ,an 'nly ta%e
*la,e a,,'rd$n- t' t(ese +'rms! 3ut s*a,e and t$me are n't merely
+'rms '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) but $ntu$t$'ns t(emsel0es =/($,(
,'nta$n a man$+'ld>) and t(ere+'re ,'nta$n a *r$'r$ t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ t(e un$ty '+ t($s man$+'ld!7 =See t(e Trans,endent
Aest(et$,!> T(ere+'re $s un$ty '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld
/$t('ut 'r /$t($n us) ,'nse.uently als' a ,'n&un,t$'n t' /($,( all
t(at $s t' be re*resented as determ$ned $n s*a,e 'r t$me must
,'rres*'nd) -$0en a *r$'r$ al'n- /$t( =n't $n> t(ese $ntu$t$'ns) as
t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ all a**re(ens$'n '+ t(em! 3ut t($s
synt(et$,al un$ty ,an be n' 't(er t(an t(at '+ t(e ,'n&un,t$'n '+
t(e man$+'ld '+ a -$0en $ntu$t$'n $n -eneral) $n a *r$m$t$0e a,t '+
,'ns,$'usness) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e ,ate-'r$es) but a**l$ed t' 'ur
sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! C'nse.uently all synt(es$s) /(ereby al'ne $s
e0en *er,e*t$'n *'ss$ble) $s sub&e,t t' t(e ,ate-'r$es! And) as
e1*er$en,e $s ,'-n$t$'n by means '+ ,'n&'$ned *er,e*t$'ns) t(e
,ate-'r$es are ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e and are
t(ere+'re 0al$d a *r$'r$ +'r all 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e! t
7S*a,e re*resented as an 'b&e,t =as -e'metry really re.u$res $t t'
be> ,'nta$ns m're t(an t(e mere +'rm '+ t(e $ntu$t$'n4 namely) a
,'mb$nat$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld -$0en a,,'rd$n- t' t(e +'rm '+ sens$b$l$ty
$nt' a re*resentat$'n t(at ,an be $ntu$ted4 s' t(at t(e +'rm '+ t(e
$ntu$t$'n -$0es us merely t(e man$+'ld) but t(e +'rmal $ntu$t$'n -$0es
un$ty '+ re*resentat$'n! In t(e aest(et$,) I re-arded t($s un$ty as
bel'n-$n- ent$rely t' sens$b$l$ty) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ $nd$,at$n-
t(at $t ante,edes all ,'n,e*t$'ns) alt('u-( $t *resu**'ses a synt(es$s
/($,( d'es n't bel'n- t' sense) t(r'u-( /($,( al'ne) ('/e0er) all
'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me are *'ss$ble! F'r as by means '+
t($s un$ty al'ne =t(e understand$n- determ$n$n- t(e sens$b$l$ty> s*a,e
and t$me are -$0en as $ntu$t$'ns) $t +'ll'/s t(at t(e un$ty '+ t($s
$ntu$t$'n a *r$'r$ bel'n-s t' s*a,e and t$me) and n't t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- =SS BN>! ,
2(en) t(en) +'r e1am*le) I ma%e t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n '+ a ('use
by a**re(ens$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld ,'nta$ned t(ere$n $nt' a *er,e*t$'n)
t(e ne,essary un$ty '+ s*a,e and '+ my e1ternal sensu'us $ntu$t$'n
l$es at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t($s a,t) and I) as $t /ere) dra/ t(e +'rm
'+ t(e ('use ,'n+'rmably t' t($s synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e man$+'ld
$n s*a,e! 3ut t($s 0ery synt(et$,al un$ty rema$ns) e0en /(en I
abstra,t t(e +'rm '+ s*a,e) and (as $ts seat $n t(e understand$n-) and
$s $n +a,t t(e ,ate-'ry '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e ('m'-ene'us $n an
$ntu$t$'n4 t(at $s t' say) t(e ,ate-'ry '+ .uant$ty) t' /($,( t(e
a+'resa$d synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n) t(at $s) t(e *er,e*t$'n) must
be ,'m*letely ,'n+'rmable!7 b
7In t($s manner $t $s *r'0ed) t(at t(e synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n)
/($,( $s em*$r$,al) must ne,essar$ly be ,'n+'rmable t' t(e synt(es$s
'+ a**er,e*t$'n) /($,( $s $ntelle,tual) and ,'nta$ned a *r$'r$ $n
t(e ,ate-'ry! It $s 'ne and t(e same s*'ntane$ty /($,( at 'ne t$me)
under t(e name '+ $ma-$nat$'n) at an't(er under t(at '+ understand$n-)
*r'du,es ,'n&un,t$'n $n t(e man$+'ld '+ $ntu$t$'n! *
T' ta%e an't(er e1am*le) /(en I *er,e$0e t(e +ree;$n- '+ /ater) I
a**re(end t/' states =+lu$d$ty and s'l$d$ty>) /($,() as su,() stand
t'/ard ea,( 't(er mutually $n a relat$'n '+ t$me! 3ut $n t(e t$me)
/($,( I *la,e as an $nternal $ntu$t$'n) at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t($s
*(en'men'n) I re*resent t' mysel+ synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e man$+'ld)
/$t('ut /($,( t(e a+'resa$d relat$'n ,'uld n't be -$0en $n an
$ntu$t$'n as determ$ned =$n re-ard t' t(e su,,ess$'n '+ t$me>! N'/
t($s synt(et$,al un$ty) as t(e a *r$'r$ ,'nd$t$'n under /($,( I
,'n&'$n t(e man$+'ld '+ an $ntu$t$'n) $s) $+ I ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ t(e
*ermanent +'rm '+ my $nternal $ntu$t$'n =t(at $s t' say) '+ t$me>) t(e
,ate-'ry '+ ,ause) by means '+ /($,() /(en a**l$ed t' my
sens$b$l$ty) I determ$ne e0eryt($n- t(at ',,urs a,,'rd$n- t' relat$'ns
'+ t$me! C'nse.uently a**re(ens$'n $n su,( an e0ent) and t(e e0ent
$tsel+) as +ar as re-ards t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ $ts *er,e*t$'n) stands
under t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e relat$'n '+ ,ause and e++e,t6 and s' $n
all 't(er ,ases! a
Cate-'r$es are ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( *res,r$be la/s a *r$'r$ t'
*(en'mena) ,'nse.uently t' nature as t(e ,'m*le1 '+ all *(en'mena
=natura mater$al$ter s*e,tata>! And n'/ t(e .uest$'n ar$ses5
$nasmu,( as t(ese ,ate-'r$es are n't der$0ed +r'm nature) and d' n't
re-ulate t(emsel0es a,,'rd$n- t' (er as t(e$r m'del =+'r $n t(at
,ase t(ey /'uld be em*$r$,al>5 ('/ $t $s ,'n,e$0able t(at nature
must re-ulate (ersel+ a,,'rd$n- t' t(em) $n 't(er /'rds) ('/ t(e
,ate-'r$es ,an determ$ne a *r$'r$ t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld '+
nature) and yet n't der$0e t(e$r 'r$-$n +r'm (er! T(e +'ll'/$n- $s t(e
s'lut$'n '+ t($s en$-ma! s
It $s n't $n t(e least m're d$++$,ult t' ,'n,e$0e ('/ t(e la/s '+
t(e *(en'mena '+ nature must (arm'n$;e /$t( t(e understand$n- and /$t(
$ts a *r$'r$ +'rm5 t(at $s) $ts +a,ulty '+ ,'n&'$n$n- t(e man$+'ld5
t(an $t $s t' understand ('/ t(e *(en'mena t(emsel0es must
,'rres*'nd /$t( t(e a *r$'r$ +'rm '+ 'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! F'r
la/s d' n't e1$st $n t(e *(en'mena any m're t(an t(e *(en'mena e1$st
as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! <a/s d' n't e1$st e1,e*t by relat$'n t' t(e
sub&e,t $n /($,( t(e *(en'mena $n(ere) $n s' +ar as $t *'ssesses
understand$n-) &ust as *(en'mena (a0e n' e1$sten,e e1,e*t by
relat$'n t' t(e same e1$st$n- sub&e,t $n s' +ar as $t (as senses! T'
t($n-s as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) ,'n+'rmab$l$ty t' la/ must ne,essar$ly
bel'n- $nde*endently '+ an understand$n- t' ,'-n$;e t(em! 3ut
*(en'mena are 'nly re*resentat$'ns '+ t($n-s /($,( are utterly un%n'/n
$n res*e,t t' /(at t(ey are $n t(emsel0es! 3ut as mere
re*resentat$'ns) t(ey stand under n' la/ '+ ,'n&un,t$'n e1,e*t t(at
/($,( t(e ,'n&'$n$n- +a,ulty *res,r$bes! N'/ t(at /($,( ,'n&'$ns t(e
man$+'ld '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n $s $ma-$nat$'n) a mental a,t t' /($,(
understand$n- ,'ntr$butes un$ty '+ $ntelle,tual synt(es$s) and
sens$b$l$ty) man$+'ldness '+ a**re(ens$'n! N'/ as all *'ss$ble
*er,e*t$'n de*ends 'n t(e synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n) and t($s
em*$r$,al synt(es$s $tsel+ 'n t(e trans,endental) ,'nse.uently 'n
t(e ,ate-'r$es) $t $s e0$dent t(at all *'ss$ble *er,e*t$'ns) and
t(ere+'re e0eryt($n- t(at ,an atta$n t' em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness)
t(at $s) all *(en'mena '+ nature) must) as re-ards t(e$r
,'n&un,t$'n) be sub&e,t t' t(e ,ate-'r$es! And nature =,'ns$dered
merely as nature $n -eneral> $s de*endent 'n t(em! as t(e 'r$-$nal
-r'und '+ (er ne,essary ,'n+'rmab$l$ty t' la/ =as natura +'rmal$ter
s*e,tata>! 3ut t(e *ure +a,ulty ='+ t(e understand$n-> '+
*res,r$b$n- la/s a *r$'r$ t' *(en'mena by means '+ mere ,ate-'r$es) $s
n't ,'m*etent t' en'un,e 't(er 'r m're la/s t(an t('se 'n /($,( a
nature $n -eneral) as a ,'n+'rmab$l$ty t' la/ '+ *(en'mena '+ s*a,e
and t$me) de*ends! Part$,ular la/s) $nasmu,( as t(ey ,'n,ern
em*$r$,ally determ$ned *(en'mena) ,ann't be ent$rely dedu,ed +r'm *ure
la/s) alt('u-( t(ey all stand under t(em! E1*er$en,e must be
su*eradded $n 'rder t' %n'/ t(ese *art$,ular la/s4 but $n re-ard t'
e1*er$en,e $n -eneral) and e0eryt($n- t(at ,an be ,'-n$;ed as an
'b&e,t t(ere'+) t(ese a *r$'r$ la/s are 'ur 'nly rule and -u$de! '
Result '+ t($s #edu,t$'n '+ t(e C'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
Understand$n-! SS BI
2e ,ann't t($n% any 'b&e,t e1,e*t by means '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es4 /e
,ann't ,'-n$;e any t('u-(t e1,e*t by means '+ $ntu$t$'ns ,'rres*'nd$n-
t' t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns! N'/ all 'ur $ntu$t$'ns are sensu'us) and 'ur
,'-n$t$'n) $n s' +ar as t(e 'b&e,t '+ $t $s -$0en) $s em*$r$,al! 3ut
em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n $s e1*er$en,e4 ,'nse.uently n' a *r$'r$
,'-n$t$'n $s *'ss$ble +'r us) e1,e*t '+ 'b&e,ts '+ *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e!7 e
7<est my readers s('uld stumble at t($s assert$'n) and t(e
,'n,lus$'ns t(at may be t'' ras(ly dra/n +r'm $t) I must rem$nd t(em
t(at t(e ,ate-'r$es $n t(e a,t '+ t('u-(t are by n' means l$m$ted by
t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ 'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) but (a0e an unb'unded s*(ere
'+ a,t$'n! It $s 'nly t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t '+ t('u-(t) t(e
determ$n$n- '+ t(e 'b&e,t) /($,( re.u$res $ntu$t$'n! In t(e absen,e '+
$ntu$t$'n) 'ur t('u-(t '+ an 'b&e,t may st$ll (a0e true and use+ul
,'nse.uen,es $n re-ard t' t(e e1er,$se '+ reas'n by t(e sub&e,t! 3ut
as t($s e1er,$se '+ reas'n $s n't al/ays d$re,ted 'n t(e determ$nat$'n
'+ t(e 'b&e,t) $n 't(er /'rds) 'n ,'-n$t$'n t(ere'+) but als' 'n t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t and $ts 0'l$t$'n) I d' n't $ntend t'
treat '+ $t $n t($s *la,e! t
3ut t($s ,'-n$t$'n) /($,( $s l$m$ted t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) $s
n't +'r t(at reas'n der$0ed ent$rely) +r'm) e1*er$en,e) but5 and
t($s $s asserted '+ t(e *ure $ntu$t$'ns and t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e understand$n-5 t(ere are) un.uest$'nably) elements '+ ,'-n$t$'n)
/($,( e1$st $n t(e m$nd a *r$'r$! N'/ t(ere are 'nly t/' /ays $n /($,(
a ne,essary (arm'ny '+ e1*er$en,e /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ $ts
'b&e,ts ,an be ,'-$tated! E$t(er e1*er$en,e ma%es t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns
*'ss$ble) 'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns ma%e e1*er$en,e *'ss$ble! T(e +'rmer '+
t(ese statements /$ll n't b'ld -''d /$t( res*e,t t' t(e ,ate-'r$es
=n'r $n re-ard t' *ure sensu'us $ntu$t$'n>) +'r t(ey are a *r$'r$
,'n,e*t$'ns) and t(ere+'re $nde*endent '+ e1*er$en,e! T(e assert$'n '+
an em*$r$,al 'r$-$n /'uld attr$bute t' t(em a s'rt '+ -enerat$'
ae.u$0',a! C'nse.uently) n't($n- rema$ns but t' ad'*t t(e se,'nd
alternat$0e =/($,( *resents us /$t( a system) as $t /ere) '+ t(e
e*$-enes$s '+ *ure reas'n>) namely) t(at 'n t(e *art '+ t(e
understand$n- t(e ,ate-'r$es d' ,'nta$n t(e -r'unds '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ all e1*er$en,e! 3ut /$t( res*e,t t' t(e .uest$'ns ('/ t(ey ma%e
e1*er$en,e *'ss$ble) and /(at are t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
t(ere'+ /$t( /($,( t(ey *resent us $n t(e$r a**l$,at$'n t'
*(en'mena) t(e +'ll'/$n- se,t$'n 'n t(e trans,endental e1er,$se '+ t(e
+a,ulty '+ &ud-ement /$ll $n+'rm t(e reader!
It $s .u$te *'ss$ble t(at s'me'ne may *r'*'se a s*e,$es '+
*re+'rmat$'n5system '+ *ure reas'n5 a m$ddle /ay bet/een t(e t/'5 t'
/$t) t(at t(e ,ate-'r$es are ne$t(er $nnate and +$rst a *r$'r$
*r$n,$*les '+ ,'-n$t$'n) n'r der$0ed +r'm e1*er$en,e) but are merely
sub&e,t$0e a*t$tudes +'r t('u-(t $m*lanted $n us ,'ntem*'rane'usly
/$t( 'ur e1$sten,e) /($,( /ere s' 'rdered and d$s*'sed by 'ur Creat'r)
t(at t(e$r e1er,$se *er+e,tly (arm'n$;es /$t( t(e la/s '+ nature /($,(
re-ulate e1*er$en,e! N'/) n't t' ment$'n t(at /$t( su,( an
(y*'t(es$s $t $s $m*'ss$ble t' say at /(at *'$nt /e must st'* $n t(e
em*l'yment '+ *redeterm$ned a*t$tudes) t(e +a,t t(at t(e ,ate-'r$es
/'uld $n t($s ,ase ent$rely l'se t(at ,(ara,ter '+ ne,ess$ty /($,(
$s essent$ally $n0'l0ed $n t(e 0ery ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(em) $s a
,'n,lus$0e 'b&e,t$'n t' $t! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,ause) +'r e1am*le)
/($,( e1*resses t(e ne,ess$ty '+ an e++e,t under a *resu**'sed
,'nd$t$'n) /'uld be +alse) $+ $t rested 'nly u*'n su,( an arb$trary
sub&e,t$0e ne,ess$ty '+ un$t$n- ,erta$n em*$r$,al re*resentat$'ns
a,,'rd$n- t' su,( a rule '+ relat$'n! I ,'uld n't t(en say5 9T(e
e++e,t $s ,'nne,ted /$t( $ts ,ause $n t(e 'b&e,t =t(at $s)
ne,essar$ly>)9 but 'nly) 9I am s' ,'nst$tuted t(at I ,an t($n% t($s
re*resentat$'n as s' ,'nne,ted) and n't 't(er/$se!9 N'/ t($s $s &ust
/(at t(e s,e*t$, /ants! F'r $n t($s ,ase) all 'ur %n'/led-e) de*end$n-
'n t(e su**'sed 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty '+ 'ur &ud-ement) $s n't($n- but
mere $llus$'n4 n'r /'uld t(ere be /ant$n- *e'*le /(' /'uld deny any
su,( sub&e,t$0e ne,ess$ty $n res*e,t t' t(emsel0es) t('u-( t(ey must
+eel $t! At all e0ents) /e ,'uld n't d$s*ute /$t( any 'ne 'n t(at
/($,( merely de*ends 'n t(e manner $n /($,( ($s sub&e,t $s 'r-an$;ed! /
S('rt 0$e/ '+ t(e ab'0e #edu,t$'n!
T(e +'re-'$n- dedu,t$'n $s an e1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n- =and /$t( t(em '+ all t(e'ret$,al a *r$'r$
,'-n$t$'n>) as *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) but '+
e1*er$en,e as t(e determ$nat$'n '+ all *(en'mena $n s*a,e and t$me
$n -eneral5 '+ e1*er$en,e) +$nally) +r'm t(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(e 'r$-$nal
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) as t(e +'rm '+ t(e understand$n- $n
relat$'n t' t$me and s*a,e as 'r$-$nal +'rms '+ sens$b$l$ty! r
I ,'ns$der t(e d$0$s$'n by *ara-ra*(s t' be ne,essary 'nly u* t'
t($s *'$nt) be,ause /e (ad t' treat '+ t(e elementary ,'n,e*t$'ns!
As /e n'/ *r',eed t' t(e e1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e em*l'yment '+ t(ese) I
s(all n't des$-nate t(e ,(a*ters $n t($s manner any +urt(er! s
Analyt$, '+ Pr$n,$*les!
Ceneral l'-$, $s ,'nstru,ted u*'n a *lan /($,( ,'$n,$des e1a,tly
/$t( t(e d$0$s$'n '+ t(e ($-(er +a,ult$es '+ ,'-n$t$'n! T(ese are)
understand$n-) &ud-ement) and reas'n! T($s s,$en,e) a,,'rd$n-ly)
treats $n $ts analyt$, '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) &ud-ements) and ,'n,lus$'ns
$n e1a,t ,'rres*'nden,e /$t( t(e +un,t$'ns and 'rder '+ t('se mental
*'/ers /($,( /e $n,lude -enerally under t(e -ener$, den'm$nat$'n '+
understand$n-! u
As t($s merely +'rmal l'-$, ma%es abstra,t$'n '+ all ,'ntent '+
,'-n$t$'n) /(et(er *ure 'r em*$r$,al) and ',,u*$es $tsel+ /$t( t(e
mere +'rm '+ t('u-(t =d$s,urs$0e ,'-n$t$'n>) $t must ,'nta$n $n $ts
analyt$, a ,an'n +'r reas'n! F'r t(e +'rm '+ reas'n (as $ts la/)
/($,() /$t('ut ta%$n- $nt' ,'ns$derat$'n t(e *art$,ular nature '+
t(e ,'-n$t$'n ab'ut /($,( $t $s em*l'yed) ,an be d$s,'0ered a
*r$'r$) by t(e s$m*le analys$s '+ t(e a,t$'n '+ reas'n $nt' $ts
m'menta! m
Trans,endental l'-$,) l$m$ted as $t $s t' a determ$nate ,'ntent)
t(at '+ *ure a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns) t' /$t) ,ann't $m$tate -eneral l'-$,
$n t($s d$0$s$'n! F'r $t $s e0$dent t(at t(e trans,endental em*l'yment
'+ reas'n $s n't 'b&e,t$0ely 0al$d) and t(ere+'re d'es n't bel'n- t'
t(e l'-$, '+ trut( =t(at $s) t' analyt$,>) but as a l'-$, '+ $llus$'n)
',,u*$es a *art$,ular de*artment $n t(e s,('last$, system under t(e
name '+ trans,endental d$ale,t$,! n
Understand$n- and &ud-ement a,,'rd$n-ly *'ssess $n trans,endental
l'-$, a ,an'n '+ 'b&e,t$0ely 0al$d) and t(ere+'re true e1er,$se) and
are ,'m*re(ended $n t(e analyt$,al de*artment '+ t(at l'-$,! 3ut
reas'n) $n (er endea0'urs t' arr$0e by a *r$'r$ means at s'me true
statement ,'n,ern$n- 'b&e,ts and t' e1tend ,'-n$t$'n bey'nd t(e b'unds
'+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) $s alt'-et(er d$ale,t$,) and (er $llus'ry
assert$'ns ,ann't be ,'nstru,ted $nt' a ,an'n su,( as an analyt$,
'u-(t t' ,'nta$n! '
A,,'rd$n-ly) t(e analyt$, '+ *r$n,$*les /$ll be merely a ,an'n +'r
t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement) +'r t(e $nstru,t$'n '+ t($s +a,ulty $n $ts
a**l$,at$'n t' *(en'mena '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-)
/($,( ,'nta$n t(e ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n +'r t(e establ$s(ment '+ a
*r$'r$ la/s! On t($s a,,'unt) alt('u-( t(e sub&e,t '+ t(e +'ll'/$n-
,(a*ters $s t(e es*e,$al *r$n,$*les '+ understand$n-) I s(all ma%e use
'+ t(e term #',tr$ne '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement) $n 'rder t' de+$ne
m're *art$,ularly my *resent *ur*'se! m
INTRO#UCTION! O+ t(e Trans,endental Fa,ulty '+ &ud-ement $n Ceneral!
I+ understand$n- $n -eneral be de+$ned as t(e +a,ulty '+ la/s 'r
rules) t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement may be termed t(e +a,ulty '+
subsum*t$'n under t(ese rules4 t(at $s) '+ d$st$n-u$s($n- /(et(er t($s
'r t(at d'es 'r d'es n't stand under a -$0en rule =,asus datae le-$s>!
Ceneral l'-$, ,'nta$ns n' d$re,t$'ns 'r *re,e*ts +'r t(e +a,ulty '+
&ud-ement) n'r ,an $t ,'nta$n any su,(! F'r as $t ma%es abstra,t$'n '+
all ,'ntent '+ ,'-n$t$'n) n' duty $s le+t +'r $t) e1,e*t t(at '+
e1*'s$n- analyt$,ally t(e mere +'rm '+ ,'-n$t$'n $n ,'n,e*t$'ns)
&ud-ements) and ,'n,lus$'ns) and '+ t(ereby establ$s($n- +'rmal
rules +'r all e1er,$se '+ t(e understand$n-! N'/ $+ t($s l'-$,
/$s(ed t' -$0e s'me -eneral d$re,t$'n ('/ /e s('uld subsume under
t(ese rules) t(at $s) ('/ /e s('uld d$st$n-u$s( /(et(er t($s 'r t(at
d$d 'r d$d n't stand under t(em) t($s a-a$n ,'uld n't be d'ne
't(er/$se t(an by means '+ a rule! 3ut t($s rule) *re,$sely be,ause $t
$s a rule) re.u$res +'r $tsel+ d$re,t$'n +r'm t(e +a,ulty '+
&ud-ement! T(us) $t $s e0$dent t(at t(e understand$n- $s ,a*able '+
be$n- $nstru,ted by rules) but t(at t(e &ud-ement $s a *e,ul$ar
talent) /($,( d'es n't) and ,ann't re.u$re tu$t$'n) but 'nly e1er,$se!
T($s +a,ulty $s t(ere+'re t(e s*e,$+$, .ual$ty '+ t(e s'5,alled m't(er
/$t) t(e /ant '+ /($,( n' s,('last$, d$s,$*l$ne ,an ,'m*ensate! /
F'r alt('u-( edu,at$'n may +urn$s() and) as $t /ere) en-ra+t u*'n
a l$m$ted understand$n- rules b'rr'/ed +r'm 't(er m$nds) yet t(e *'/er
'+ em*l'y$n- t(ese rules ,'rre,tly must bel'n- t' t(e *u*$l ($msel+4
and n' rule /($,( /e ,an *res,r$be t' ($m /$t( t($s *ur*'se $s) $n t(e
absen,e 'r de+$,$en,y '+ t($s -$+t '+ nature) se,ure +r'm m$suse!7 A
*(ys$,$an t(ere+'re) a &ud-e 'r a statesman) may (a0e $n ($s (ead many
adm$rable *at('l'-$,al) &ur$d$,al) 'r *'l$t$,al rules) $n a de-ree
t(at may enable ($m t' be a *r'+'und tea,(er $n ($s *art$,ular
s,$en,e) and yet $n t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(ese rules (e may 0ery
*'ss$bly blunder5 e$t(er be,ause (e $s /ant$n- $n natural &ud-ement
=t('u-( n't $n understand$n-> and) /($lst (e ,an ,'m*re(end t(e
-eneral $n abstra,t') ,ann't d$st$n-u$s( /(et(er a *art$,ular ,ase
$n ,'n,ret' 'u-(t t' ran% under t(e +'rmer4 'r be,ause ($s +a,ulty
'+ &ud-ement bas n't been su++$,$ently e1er,$sed by e1am*les and
real *ra,t$,e! Indeed) t(e -rand and 'nly use '+ e1am*les) $s t'
s(ar*en t(e &ud-ement! F'r as re-ards t(e ,'rre,tness and *re,$s$'n '+
t(e $ns$-(t '+ t(e understand$n-) e1am*les are ,'mm'nly $n&ur$'us
rat(er t(an 't(er/$se) be,ause) as ,asus $n term$n$s t(ey seld'm
ade.uately +ul+$l t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e rule! 3es$des) t(ey '+ten
/ea%en t(e *'/er '+ 'ur understand$n- t' a**re(end rules 'r la/s $n
t(e$r un$0ersal$ty) $nde*endently '+ *art$,ular ,$r,umstan,es '+
e1*er$en,e4 and (en,e) a,,ust'm us t' em*l'y t(em m're as +'rmulae
t(an as *r$n,$*les! E1am*les are t(us t(e -'5,art '+ t(e &ud-ement)
/($,( (e /(' $s naturally de+$,$ent $n t(at +a,ulty ,ann't a++'rd t'
d$s*ense /$t(! d
7#e+$,$en,y $n &ud-ement $s *r'*erly t(at /($,( $s ,alled stu*$d$ty4
and +'r su,( a +a$l$n- /e %n'/ n' remedy! A dull 'r narr'/5m$nded
*ers'n) t' /('m n't($n- $s /ant$n- but a *r'*er de-ree '+
understand$n-) may be $m*r'0ed by tu$t$'n) e0en s' +ar as t' deser0e
t(e e*$t(et '+ learned! 3ut as su,( *ers'ns +re.uently lab'ur under
a de+$,$en,y $n t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement) $t $s n't un,'mm'n t' +$nd
men e1tremely learned /(' $n t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e$r s,$en,e betray a
lamentable de-ree t($s $rremed$able /ant! l
3ut alt('u-( -eneral l'-$, ,ann't -$0e d$re,t$'ns t' t(e +a,ulty
'+ &ud-ement) t(e ,ase $s 0ery d$++erent as re-ards trans,endental
l'-$,) $ns'mu,( t(at $t a**ears t' be t(e es*e,$al duty '+ t(e
latter t' se,ure and d$re,t) by means '+ determ$nate rules) t(e
+a,ulty '+ &ud-ement $n t(e em*l'yment '+ t(e *ure understand$n-! F'r)
as a d',tr$ne) t(at $s) as an endea0'ur t' enlar-e t(e s*(ere '+ t(e
understand$n- $n re-ard t' *ure a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns) *($l's'*(y $s
/'rse t(an useless) s$n,e +r'm all t(e attem*ts ($t(ert' made)
l$ttle 'r n' -r'und (as been -a$ned! 3ut) as a ,r$t$.ue) $n 'rder t'
-uard a-a$nst t(e m$sta%es '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement =la*sus
&ud$,$$> $n t(e em*l'yment '+ t(e +e/ *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n- /($,( /e *'ssess) alt('u-( $ts use $s $n t($s ,ase
*urely ne-at$0e) *($l's'*(y $s ,alled u*'n t' a**ly all $ts
a,uteness and *enetrat$'n! a
3ut trans,endental *($l's'*(y (as t($s *e,ul$ar$ty) t(at bes$des
$nd$,at$n- t(e rule) 'r rat(er t(e -eneral ,'nd$t$'n +'r rules)
/($,( $s -$0en $n t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) $t ,an) at
t(e same t$me) $nd$,ate a *r$'r$ t(e ,ase t' /($,( t(e rule must be
a**l$ed! T(e ,ause '+ t(e su*er$'r$ty /($,() $n t($s res*e,t)
trans,endental *($l's'*(y *'ssesses ab'0e all 't(er s,$en,es e1,e*t
mat(emat$,s) l$es $n t($s6 $t treats '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( must
relate a *r$'r$ t' t(e$r 'b&e,ts) /('se 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty
,'nse.uently ,ann't be dem'nstrated a *'ster$'r$) and $s) at t(e
same t$me) under t(e 'bl$-at$'n '+ *resent$n- $n -eneral but
su++$,$ent tests) t(e ,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( 'b&e,ts ,an be -$0en $n
(arm'ny /$t( t('se ,'n,e*t$'ns4 't(er/$se t(ey /'uld be mere l'-$,al
+'rms) /$t('ut ,'ntent) and n't *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-! +
Our trans,endental d',tr$ne '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement /$ll ,'nta$n
t/' ,(a*ters! T(e +$rst /$ll treat '+ t(e sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n under
/($,( al'ne *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- ,an be em*l'yed5
t(at $s) '+ t(e s,(emat$sm '+ t(e *ure understand$n-! T(e se,'nd
/$ll treat '+ t('se synt(et$,al &ud-ements /($,( are der$0ed a
*r$'r$ +r'm *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- under t('se
,'nd$t$'ns) and /($,( l$e a *r$'r$ at t(e +'undat$'n '+ all 't(er
,'-n$t$'ns) t(at $s t' say) $t /$ll treat '+ t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e
*ure understand$n-! *
CHAPTER I! O+ t(e S,(emat$sm at '+ t(e Pure C'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e Understand$n-!
In all subsum*t$'ns '+ an 'b&e,t under a ,'n,e*t$'n) t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t must be ('m'-ene'us /$t( t(e
,'n,e*t$'n4 $n 't(er /'rds) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n must ,'nta$n t(at /($,(
$s re*resented $n t(e 'b&e,t t' be subsumed under $t! F'r t($s $s
t(e mean$n- '+ t(e e1*ress$'n6 9An 'b&e,t $s ,'nta$ned under a
,'n,e*t$'n!9 T(us t(e em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a *late $s ('m'-ene'us
/$t( t(e *ure -e'metr$,al ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ,$r,le) $nasmu,( as t(e
r'undness /($,( $s ,'-$tated $n t(e +'rmer $s $ntu$ted $n t(e latter! r
3ut *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) /(en ,'m*ared /$t(
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'ns) 'r e0en /$t( sensu'us $ntu$t$'ns $n -eneral) are
.u$te (eter'-ene'us) and ne0er ,an be d$s,'0ered $n any $ntu$t$'n! H'/
t(en $s t(e subsum*t$'n '+ t(e latter under t(e +'rmer) and
,'nse.uently t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es t' *(en'mena)
*'ss$ble@5 F'r $t $s $m*'ss$ble t' say) +'r e1am*le6 9Causal$ty ,an be
$ntu$ted t(r'u-( t(e senses and $s ,'nta$ned $n t(e *(en'men'n!95 T($s
natural and $m*'rtant .uest$'n +'rms t(e real ,ause '+ t(e ne,ess$ty
'+ a trans,endental d',tr$ne '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement) /$t( t(e
*ur*'se) t' /$t) '+ s('/$n- ('/ *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n- ,an be a**l$ed t' *(en'mena! In all 't(er s,$en,es)
/(ere t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns by /($,( t(e 'b&e,t $s t('u-(t $n t(e -eneral
are n't s' d$++erent and (eter'-ene'us +r'm t('se /($,( re*resent
t(e 'b&e,t $n ,'n,ret'5 as $t $s -$0en) $t $s .u$te unne,essary t'
$nst$tute any s*e,$al $n.u$r$es ,'n,ern$n- t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e
+'rmer t' t(e latter! +
N'/ $t $s .u$te ,lear t(at t(ere must be s'me t($rd t($n-) /($,(
'n t(e 'ne s$de $s ('m'-ene'us /$t( t(e ,ate-'ry) and /$t( t(e
*(en'men'n 'n t(e 't(er) and s' ma%es t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e +'rmer t'
t(e latter *'ss$ble! T($s med$at$n- re*resentat$'n must be *ure
=/$t('ut any em*$r$,al ,'ntent>) and yet must 'n t(e 'ne s$de be
$ntelle,tual) 'n t(e 't(er sensu'us! Su,( a re*resentat$'n $s t(e
trans,endental s,(ema! t
T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- ,'nta$ns *ure synt(et$,al
un$ty '+ t(e man$+'ld $n -eneral! T$me) as t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
man$+'ld '+ t(e $nternal sense) ,'nse.uently '+ t(e ,'n&un,t$'n '+ all
re*resentat$'ns) ,'nta$ns a *r$'r$ a man$+'ld $n t(e *ure $ntu$t$'n!
N'/ a trans,endental determ$nat$'n '+ t$me $s s' +ar ('m'-ene'us
/$t( t(e ,ate-'ry) /($,( ,'nst$tutes t(e un$ty t(ere'+) t(at $t $s
un$0ersal and rests u*'n a rule a *r$'r$! On t(e 't(er (and) $t $s
s' +ar ('m'-ene'us /$t( t(e *(en'men'n) $nasmu,( as t$me $s
,'nta$ned $n e0ery em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld! T(us an
a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e ,ate-'ry t' *(en'mena be,'mes *'ss$ble) by means '+
t(e trans,endental determ$nat$'n '+ t$me) /($,() as t(e s,(ema '+
t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) med$ates t(e subsum*t$'n '+
t(e latter under t(e +'rmer! t
A+ter /(at (as been *r'0ed $n 'ur dedu,t$'n '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) n'
'ne) $t $s t' be ('*ed) ,an (es$tate as t' t(e *r'*er de,$s$'n '+
t(e .uest$'n) /(et(er t(e em*l'yment '+ t(ese *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e understand$n- 'u-(t t' be merely em*$r$,al 'r als' trans,endental4
$n 't(er /'rds) /(et(er t(e ,ate-'r$es) as ,'nd$t$'ns '+ a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e) relate a *r$'r$ s'lely t' *(en'mena) 'r /(et(er) as
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s $n -eneral) t(e$r
a**l$,at$'n ,an be e1tended t' 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! F'r /e
(a0e t(ere seen t(at ,'n,e*t$'ns are .u$te $m*'ss$ble) and utterly
/$t('ut s$-n$+$,at$'n) unless e$t(er t' t(em) 'r at least t' t(e
elements '+ /($,( t(ey ,'ns$st) an 'b&e,t be -$0en4 and t(at)
,'nse.uently) t(ey ,ann't *'ss$bly a**ly t' 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es /$t('ut re-ard t' t(e .uest$'n /(et(er and ('/ t(ese may be
-$0en t' us4 and) +urt(er) t(at t(e 'nly manner $n /($,( 'b&e,ts ,an
be -$0en t' us $s by means '+ t(e m'd$+$,at$'n '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty4
and) +$nally) t(at *ure a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns) $n add$t$'n t' t(e
+un,t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- $n t(e ,ate-'ry) must ,'nta$n a *r$'r$
+'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty ='+ t(e $nternal sense) namely>)
/($,( a-a$n ,'nta$n t(e -eneral ,'nd$t$'n under /($,( al'ne t(e
,ate-'ry ,an be a**l$ed t' any 'b&e,t! T($s +'rmal and *ure
,'nd$t$'n '+ sens$b$l$ty) t' /($,( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-
$s restr$,ted $n $ts em*l'yment) /e s(all name t(e s,(ema '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) and t(e *r',edure '+ t(e
understand$n- /$t( t(ese s,(emata /e s(all ,all t(e s,(emat$sm '+
t(e *ure understand$n-! t
T(e s,(ema $s) $n $tsel+) al/ays a mere *r'du,t '+ t(e
$ma-$nat$'n! 3ut) as t(e synt(es$s '+ $ma-$nat$'n (as +'r $ts a$m n'
s$n-le $ntu$t$'n) but merely un$ty $n t(e determ$nat$'n '+
sens$b$l$ty) t(e s,(ema $s ,learly d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm t(e $ma-e!
T(us) $+ I *la,e +$0e *'$nts 'ne a+ter an't(er!!!! t($s $s an $ma-e '+
t(e number +$0e! On t(e 't(er (and) $+ I 'nly t($n% a number $n
-eneral) /($,( may be e$t(er +$0e 'r a (undred) t($s t('u-(t $s rat(er
t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a met('d '+ re*resent$n- $n an $ma-e a sum
=e!-!) a t('usand> $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a ,'n,e*t$'n) t(an t(e $ma-e
$tsel+) an $ma-e /($,( I s('uld +$nd s'me l$ttle d$++$,ulty $n
re0$e/$n-) and ,'m*ar$n- /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n! N'/ t($s
re*resentat$'n '+ a -eneral *r',edure '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n t' *resent
$ts $ma-e t' a ,'n,e*t$'n) I ,all t(e s,(ema '+ t($s ,'n,e*t$'n! $
In trut() $t $s n't $ma-es '+ 'b&e,ts) but s,(emata) /($,( l$e at
t(e +'undat$'n '+ 'ur *ure sensu'us ,'n,e*t$'ns! N' $ma-e ,'uld e0er
be ade.uate t' 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a tr$an-le $n -eneral! F'r t(e
-eneralness '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $t ne0er ,'uld atta$n t') as t($s
$n,ludes under $tsel+ all tr$an-les) /(et(er r$-(t5an-led)
a,ute5an-led) et,!) /($lst t(e $ma-e /'uld al/ays be l$m$ted t' a
s$n-le *art '+ t($s s*(ere! T(e s,(ema '+ t(e tr$an-le ,an e1$st
n'/(ere else t(an $n t('u-(t) and $t $nd$,ates a rule '+ t(e synt(es$s
'+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n $n re-ard t' *ure +$-ures $n s*a,e! St$ll less $s
an 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e) 'r an $ma-e '+ t(e 'b&e,t) e0er t' t(e
em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n! On t(e ,'ntrary) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n al/ays relates
$mmed$ately t' t(e s,(ema '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n) as a rule +'r t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ 'ur $ntu$t$'n) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a ,erta$n -eneral
,'n,e*t$'n! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a d'- $nd$,ates a rule) a,,'rd$n- t'
/($,( my $ma-$nat$'n ,an del$neate t(e +$-ure '+ a +'ur5+''ted
an$mal $n -eneral) /$t('ut be$n- l$m$ted t' any *art$,ular
$nd$0$dual +'rm /($,( e1*er$en,e *resents t' me) 'r $ndeed t' any
*'ss$ble $ma-e t(at I ,an re*resent t' mysel+ $n ,'n,ret'! T($s
s,(emat$sm '+ 'ur understand$n- $n re-ard t' *(en'mena and t(e$r
mere +'rm) $s an art) ($dden $n t(e de*t(s '+ t(e (uman s'ul) /('se
true m'des '+ a,t$'n /e s(all 'nly /$t( d$++$,ulty d$s,'0er and
un0e$l! T(us mu,( 'nly ,an /e say6 9T(e $ma-e $s a *r'du,t '+ t(e
em*$r$,al +a,ulty '+ t(e *r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n5 t(e s,(ema '+
sensu'us ,'n,e*t$'ns ='+ +$-ures $n s*a,e) +'r e1am*le> $s a
*r'du,t) and) as $t /ere) a m'n'-ram '+ t(e *ure $ma-$nat$'n a *r$'r$)
/(ereby and a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( $ma-es +$rst be,'me *'ss$ble) /($,()
('/e0er) ,an be ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n 'nly med$ately by
means '+ t(e s,(ema /($,( t(ey $nd$,ate) and are $n t(emsel0es ne0er
+ully ade.uate t' $t!9 On t(e 't(er (and) t(e s,(ema '+ a *ure
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- $s s'met($n- t(at ,ann't be redu,ed
$nt' any $ma-e5 $t $s n't($n- else t(an t(e *ure synt(es$s e1*ressed
by t(e ,ate-'ry) ,'n+'rmably) t' a rule '+ un$ty a,,'rd$n- t'
,'n,e*t$'ns! It $s a trans,endental *r'du,t '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n) a
*r'du,t /($,( ,'n,erns t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e $nternal sense)
a,,'rd$n- t' ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ts +'rm =t$me> $n res*e,t t' all
re*resentat$'ns) $n s' +ar as t(ese re*resentat$'ns must be
,'n&'$ned a *r$'r$ $n 'ne ,'n,e*t$'n) ,'n+'rmably t' t(e un$ty '+
a**er,e*t$'n! a
2$t('ut enter$n- u*'n a dry and ted$'us analys$s '+ t(e essent$al
re.u$s$tes '+ trans,endental s,(emata '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n-) /e s(all rat(er *r',eed at 'n,e t' -$0e an
e1*lanat$'n '+ t(em a,,'rd$n- t' t(e 'rder '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) and $n
,'nne,t$'n t(ere/$t(! ,
F'r t(e e1ternal sense t(e *ure $ma-e '+ all .uant$t$es
=.uant'rum> $s s*a,e4 t(e *ure $ma-e '+ all 'b&e,ts '+ sense $n
-eneral) $s t$me! 3ut t(e *ure s,(ema '+ .uant$ty =.uant$tat$s> as a
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) $s number) a re*resentat$'n /($,(
,'m*re(ends t(e su,,ess$0e add$t$'n '+ 'ne t' 'ne =('m'-ene'us
.uant$t$es>! T(us) number $s n't($n- else t(an t(e un$ty '+ t(e
synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld $n a ('m'-ene'us $ntu$t$'n) by means '+ my
-enerat$n- t$me $tsel+ $n my a**re(ens$'n '+ t(e $ntu$t$'n! -
Real$ty) $n t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) $s t(at
/($,( ,'rres*'nds t' a sensat$'n $n -eneral4 t(at) ,'nse.uently) t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ /($,( $nd$,ates a be$n- =$n t$me>! Ne-at$'n $s t(at
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ /($,( re*resents a n't5be$n- =$n t$me>! T(e
'**'s$t$'n '+ t(ese t/' ,'ns$sts t(ere+'re $n t(e d$++eren,e '+ 'ne
and t(e same t$me) as a t$me +$lled 'r a t$me em*ty! N'/ as t$me $s
'nly t(e +'rm '+ $ntu$t$'n) ,'nse.uently '+ 'b&e,ts as *(en'mena) t(at
/($,( $n 'b&e,ts ,'rres*'nds t' sensat$'n $s t(e trans,endental matter
'+ all 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es =Sa,((e$t) real$ty>! N'/
e0ery sensat$'n (as a de-ree 'r .uant$ty by /($,( $t ,an +$ll t$me)
t(at $s t' say) t(e $nternal sense $n res*e,t '+ t(e re*resentat$'n '+
an 'b&e,t) m're 'r less) unt$l $t 0an$s(es $nt' n't($n- =E N E
ne-at$'>! T(us t(ere $s a relat$'n and ,'nne,t$'n bet/een real$ty
and ne-at$'n) 'r rat(er a trans$t$'n +r'm t(e +'rmer t' t(e latter)
/($,( ma%es e0ery real$ty re*resentable t' us as a .uantum4 and t(e
s,(ema '+ a real$ty as t(e .uant$ty '+ s'met($n- $n s' +ar as $t +$lls
t$me) $s e1a,tly t($s ,'nt$nu'us and un$+'rm -enerat$'n '+ t(e real$ty
$n t$me) as /e des,end $n t$me +r'm t(e sensat$'n /($,( (as a
,erta$n de-ree) d'/n t' t(e 0an$s($n- t(ere'+) 'r -radually as,end
+r'm ne-at$'n t' t(e .uant$ty t(ere'+! +
T(e s,(ema '+ substan,e $s t(e *ermanen,e '+ t(e real $n t$me4
t(at $s) t(e re*resentat$'n '+ $t as a substratum '+ t(e em*$r$,al
determ$nat$'n '+ t$me4 a substratum /($,( t(ere+'re rema$ns) /($lst
all else ,(an-es! =T$me *asses n't) but $n $t *asses t(e e1$sten,e
'+ t(e ,(an-eable! T' t$me) t(ere+'re) /($,( $s $tsel+ un,(an-eable
and *ermanent) ,'rres*'nds t(at /($,( $n t(e *(en'men'n $s
un,(an-eable $n e1$sten,e) t(at $s) substan,e) and $t $s 'nly by $t
t(at t(e su,,ess$'n and ,'e1$sten,e '+ *(en'mena ,an be determ$ned
$n re-ard t' t$me!> $
T(e s,(ema '+ ,ause and '+ t(e ,ausal$ty '+ a t($n- $s t(e real
/($,() /(en *'s$ted) $s al/ays +'ll'/ed by s'met($n- else! It
,'ns$sts) t(ere+'re) $n t(e su,,ess$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld) $n s' +ar as
t(at su,,ess$'n $s sub&e,ted t' a rule! t
T(e s,(ema '+ ,'mmun$ty =re,$*r',$ty '+ a,t$'n and rea,t$'n>) 'r t(e
re,$*r',al ,ausal$ty '+ substan,es $n res*e,t '+ t(e$r a,,$dents) $s
t(e ,'e1$sten,e '+ t(e determ$nat$'ns '+ t(e 'ne /$t( t('se '+ t(e
't(er) a,,'rd$n- t' a -eneral rule! '
T(e s,(ema '+ *'ss$b$l$ty $s t(e a,,'rdan,e '+ t(e synt(es$s '+
d$++erent re*resentat$'ns /$t( t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me $n -eneral
=as) +'r e1am*le) '**'s$tes ,ann't e1$st t'-et(er at t(e same t$me
$n t(e same t($n-) but 'nly a+ter ea,( 't(er>) and $s t(ere+'re t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a t($n- at any t$me! d
T(e s,(ema '+ real$ty $s e1$sten,e $n a determ$ned t$me!
T(e s,(ema '+ ne,ess$ty $s t(e e1$sten,e '+ an 'b&e,t $n all t$me!
It $s ,lear) +r'm all t($s) t(at t(e s,(ema '+ t(e ,ate-'ry '+
.uant$ty ,'nta$ns and re*resents t(e -enerat$'n =synt(es$s> '+ t$me
$tsel+) $n t(e su,,ess$0e a**re(ens$'n '+ an 'b&e,t4 t(e s,(ema '+
.ual$ty t(e synt(es$s '+ sensat$'n /$t( t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t$me) 'r
t(e +$ll$n- u* '+ t$me4 t(e s,(ema '+ relat$'n t(e relat$'n '+
*er,e*t$'ns t' ea,( 't(er $n all t$me =t(at $s) a,,'rd$n- t' a rule '+
t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t$me>6 and +$nally) t(e s,(ema '+ m'dal$ty and
$ts ,ate-'r$es) t$me $tsel+) as t(e ,'rrelat$0e '+ t(e determ$nat$'n
'+ an 'b&e,t5 /(et(er $t d'es bel'n- t' t$me) and ('/! T(e s,(emata)
t(ere+'re) are n't($n- but a *r$'r$ determ$nat$'ns '+ t$me a,,'rd$n-
t' rules) and t(ese) $n re-ard t' all *'ss$ble 'b&e,ts) +'ll'/$n-
t(e arran-ement '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) relate t' t(e ser$es $n t$me) t(e
,'ntent $n t$me) t(e 'rder $n t$me) and +$nally) t' t(e ,'m*le1 'r
t'tal$ty $n t$me! t
Hen,e $t $s a**arent t(at t(e s,(emat$sm '+ t(e understand$n-) by
means '+ t(e trans,endental synt(es$s '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n) am'unts t'
n't($n- else t(an t(e un$ty '+ t(e man$+'ld '+ $ntu$t$'n $n t(e
$nternal sense) and t(us $nd$re,tly t' t(e un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) as a
+un,t$'n ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e $nternal sense =a re,e*t$0$ty>! T(us)
t(e s,(emata '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- are t(e true
and 'nly ,'nd$t$'ns /(ereby 'ur understand$n- re,e$0es an
a**l$,at$'n t' 'b&e,ts) and ,'nse.uently s$-n$+$,an,e! F$nally)
t(ere+'re) t(e ,ate-'r$es are 'nly ,a*able '+ em*$r$,al use)
$nasmu,( as t(ey ser0e merely t' sub&e,t *(en'mena t' t(e un$0ersal
rules '+ synt(es$s) by means '+ an a *r$'r$ ne,essary un$ty ='n
a,,'unt '+ t(e ne,essary un$'n '+ all ,'ns,$'usness $n 'ne 'r$-$nal
a**er,e*t$'n>4 and s' t' render t(em sus,e*t$ble '+ a ,'m*lete
,'nne,t$'n $n 'ne e1*er$en,e! 3ut /$t($n t($s /('le '+ *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e l$e all 'ur ,'-n$t$'ns) and $n t(e un$0ersal relat$'n t'
t($s e1*er$en,e ,'ns$sts trans,endental trut() /($,( ante,edes all
em*$r$,al trut() and renders t(e latter *'ss$ble! e
It $s) ('/e0er) e0$dent at +$rst s$-(t) t(at alt('u-( t(e s,(emata
'+ sens$b$l$ty are t(e s'le a-ents $n real$;$n- t(e ,ate-'r$es) t(ey
d') ne0ert(eless) als' restr$,t t(em) t(at $s) t(ey l$m$t t(e
,ate-'r$es by ,'nd$t$'ns /($,( l$e bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ understand$n-5
namely) $n sens$b$l$ty! Hen,e t(e s,(ema $s *r'*erly 'nly t(e
*(en'men'n) 'r t(e sensu'us ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t $n (arm'ny /$t(
t(e ,ate-'ry! =Numerus est .uant$tas *(aen'men'n5 sensat$' real$tas
*(aen'men'n4 ,'nstans et *erdurab$le rerum substant$a *(aen'men'n5
aetern$tas) ne,ess$tas) *(aen'mena) et,!> N'/) $+ /e rem'0e a
restr$,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n) /e t(ereby am*l$+y) $t a**ears) t(e +'rmerly
l$m$ted ,'n,e*t$'n! In t($s /ay) t(e ,ate-'r$es $n t(e$r *ure
s$-n$+$,at$'n) +ree +r'm all ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty) 'u-(t t' be
0al$d '+ t($n-s as t(ey are) and n't) as t(e s,(emata re*resent
t(em) merely as t(ey a**ear4 and ,'nse.uently t(e ,ate-'r$es must (a0e
a s$-n$+$,an,e +ar m're e1tended) and /('lly $nde*endent '+ all
s,(emata! In trut() t(ere d'es al/ays rema$n t' t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n-) a+ter abstra,t$n- e0ery sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n) a
0alue and s$-n$+$,an,e) /($,( $s) ('/e0er) merely l'-$,al! 3ut $n t($s
,ase) n' 'b&e,t $s -$0en t(em) and t(ere+'re t(ey (a0e n' mean$n-
su++$,$ent t' a++'rd us a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t! T(e n't$'n '+
substan,e) +'r e1am*le) $+ /e lea0e 'ut t(e sensu'us determ$nat$'n
'+ *ermanen,e) /'uld mean n't($n- m're t(an a s'met($n- /($,( ,an be
,'-$tated as sub&e,t) /$t('ut t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ be,'m$n- a
*red$,ate t' anyt($n- else! O+ t($s re*resentat$'n I ,an ma%e n't($n-)
$nasmu,( as $t d'es n't $nd$,ate t' me /(at determ$nat$'ns t(e t($n-
*'ssesses /($,( must t(us be 0al$d as *rem$er sub&e,t! C'nse.uently)
t(e ,ate-'r$es) /$t('ut s,(emata are merely +un,t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n- +'r t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) but d' n't
re*resent any 'b&e,t! T($s s$-n$+$,an,e t(ey der$0e +r'm
sens$b$l$ty) /($,( at t(e same t$me real$;es t(e understand$n- and
restr$,ts $t! r
CHAPTER II! System '+ all Pr$n,$*les '+ t(e Pure Understand$n-!
In t(e +'re-'$n- ,(a*ter /e (a0e merely ,'ns$dered t(e -eneral
,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( al'ne t(e trans,endental +a,ulty '+ &ud-ement
$s &ust$+$ed $n us$n- t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- +'r
synt(et$,al &ud-ements! Our duty at *resent $s t' e1($b$t $n
systemat$, ,'nne,t$'n t('se &ud-ements /($,( t(e understand$n-
really *r'du,es a *r$'r$! F'r t($s *ur*'se) 'ur table '+ t(e
,ate-'r$es /$ll ,erta$nly a++'rd us t(e natural and sa+e -u$dan,e! F'r
$t $s *re,$sely t(e ,ate-'r$es /('se a**l$,at$'n t' *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e must ,'nst$tute all *ure a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e
understand$n-4 and t(e relat$'n '+ /($,( t' sens$b$l$ty /$ll) 'n
t(at 0ery a,,'unt) *resent us /$t( a ,'m*lete and systemat$, ,atal'-ue
'+ all t(e trans,endental *r$n,$*les '+ t(e use '+ t(e understand$n-! '
Pr$n,$*les a *r$'r$ are s' ,alled) n't merely be,ause t(ey ,'nta$n
$n t(emsel0es t(e -r'unds '+ 't(er &ud-ements) but als' be,ause t(ey
t(emsel0es are n't -r'unded $n ($-(er and m're -eneral ,'-n$t$'ns!
T($s *e,ul$ar$ty) ('/e0er) d'es n't ra$se t(em alt'-et(er ab'0e t(e
need '+ a *r''+! F'r alt('u-( t(ere ,'uld be +'und n' ($-(er
,'-n$t$'n) and t(ere+'re n' 'b&e,t$0e *r''+) and alt('u-( su,( a
*r$n,$*le rat(er ser0es as t(e +'undat$'n +'r all ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e
'b&e,t) t($s by n' means ($nders us +r'm dra/$n- a *r''+ +r'm t(e
sub&e,t$0e s'ur,es '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t!
Su,( a *r''+ $s ne,essary) m're'0er) be,ause /$t('ut $t t(e
*r$n,$*le m$-(t be l$able t' t(e $m*utat$'n '+ be$n- a mere -ratu$t'us
assert$'n! a
In t(e se,'nd *la,e) /e s(all l$m$t 'ur $n0est$-at$'ns t' t('se
*r$n,$*les /($,( relate t' t(e ,ate-'r$es! F'r as t' t(e *r$n,$*les '+
trans,endental aest(et$,) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( s*a,e and t$me are t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s as *(en'mena) as als' t(e
restr$,t$'n '+ t(ese *r$n,$*les) namely) t(at t(ey ,ann't be a**l$ed
t' 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es5 t(ese) '+ ,'urse) d' n't +all
/$t($n t(e s,'*e '+ 'ur *resent $n.u$ry! In l$%e manner) t(e
*r$n,$*les '+ mat(emat$,al s,$en,e +'rm n' *art '+ t($s system)
be,ause t(ey are all dra/n +r'm $ntu$t$'n) and n't +r'm t(e *ure
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-! T(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(ese
*r$n,$*les) ('/e0er) /$ll ne,essar$ly be ,'ns$dered (ere) $nasmu,(
as t(ey are synt(et$,al &ud-ements a *r$'r$) n't $ndeed +'r t(e
*ur*'se '+ *r'0$n- t(e$r a,,ura,y and a*'de$,t$, ,erta$nty) /($,( $s
unne,essary) but merely t' render ,'n,e$0able and dedu,e t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( e0$dent a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns! *
3ut /e s(all (a0e als' t' s*ea% '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+ analyt$,al
&ud-ements) $n '**'s$t$'n t' synt(et$,al &ud-ements) /($,( $s t(e
*r'*er sub&e,t '+ 'ur $n.u$r$es) be,ause t($s 0ery '**'s$t$'n /$ll
+ree t(e t(e'ry '+ t(e latter +r'm all amb$-u$ty) and *la,e $t ,learly
be+'re 'ur eyes $n $ts true nature! b
SECTION I! O+ t(e Su*reme Pr$n,$*le '+ all Analyt$,al ud-ements!
2(ate0er may be t(e ,'ntent '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n) and $n /(ate0er manner
'ur ,'-n$t$'n may be related t' $ts 'b&e,t) t(e un$0ersal) alt('u-(
'nly ne-at$0e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ all 'ur &ud-ements $s t(at t(ey d' n't
,'ntrad$,t t(emsel0es4 't(er/$se t(ese &ud-ements are $n t(emsel0es
=e0en /$t('ut res*e,t t' t(e 'b&e,t> n't($n-! 3ut alt('u-( t(ere may
e1$st n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n $n 'ur &ud-ement) $t may ne0ert(eless ,'nne,t
,'n,e*t$'ns $n su,( a manner t(at t(ey d' n't ,'rres*'nd t' t(e
'b&e,t) 'r /$t('ut any -r'unds e$t(er a *r$'r$ 'r a *'ster$'r$ +'r
arr$0$n- at su,( a &ud-ement) and t(us) /$t('ut be$n-
sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry) a &ud-ement may ne0ert(eless be e$t(er +alse 'r
-r'undless! -
N'/) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9N' sub&e,t ,an (a0e a *red$,ate t(at
,'ntrad$,ts $t)9 $s ,alled t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n) and $s a
un$0ersal but *urely ne-at$0e ,r$ter$'n '+ all trut(! 3ut $t bel'n-s
t' l'-$, al'ne) be,ause $t $s 0al$d '+ ,'-n$t$'ns) merely as
,'-n$t$'ns and /$t('ut res*e,t t' t(e$r ,'ntent) and de,lares t(at t(e
,'ntrad$,t$'n ent$rely null$+$es t(em! 2e ,an als') ('/e0er) ma%e a
*'s$t$0e use '+ t($s *r$n,$*le) t(at $s) n't merely t' ban$s(
+alse(''d and err'r =$n s' +ar as $t rests u*'n ,'ntrad$,t$'n>) but
als' +'r t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ trut(! F'r $+ t(e &ud-ement $s analyt$,al)
be $t a++$rmat$0e 'r ne-at$0e) $ts trut( must al/ays be re,'-n$;able
by means '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n! F'r t(e ,'ntrary '+ t(at
/($,( l$es and $s ,'-$tated as ,'n,e*t$'n $n t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e
'b&e,t /$ll be al/ays *r'*erly ne-at$0ed) but t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $tsel+
must al/ays be a++$rmed '+ t(e 'b&e,t) $nasmu,( as t(e ,'ntrary
t(ere'+ /'uld be $n ,'ntrad$,t$'n t' t(e 'b&e,t! t
2e must t(ere+'re ('ld t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n t' be t(e
un$0ersal and +ully su++$,$ent Pr$n,$*le '+ all analyt$,al
,'-n$t$'n! 3ut as a su++$,$ent ,r$ter$'n '+ trut() $t (as n' +urt(er
ut$l$ty 'r aut('r$ty! F'r t(e +a,t t(at n' ,'-n$t$'n ,an be at
0ar$an,e /$t( t($s *r$n,$*le /$t('ut null$+y$n- $tsel+) ,'nst$tutes
t($s *r$n,$*le t(e s$ne .ua n'n) but n't t(e determ$n$n- -r'und '+ t(e
trut( '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n! As 'ur bus$ness at *resent $s *r'*erly /$t(
t(e synt(et$,al *art '+ 'ur %n'/led-e 'nly) /e s(all al/ays be 'n
'ur -uard n't t' trans-ress t($s $n0$'lable *r$n,$*le4 but at t(e same
t$me n't t' e1*e,t +r'm $t any d$re,t ass$stan,e $n t(e
establ$s(ment '+ t(e trut( '+ any synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n! e
T(ere e1$sts) ('/e0er) a +'rmula '+ t($s ,elebrated *r$n,$*le5 a
*r$n,$*le merely +'rmal and ent$rely /$t('ut ,'ntent5 /($,( ,'nta$ns a
synt(es$s t(at (as been $nad0ertently and .u$te unne,essar$ly m$1ed u*
/$t( $t! It $s t($s6 9It $s $m*'ss$ble +'r a t($n- t' be and n't t' be
at t(e same t$me!9 N't t' ment$'n t(e su*er+lu'usness '+ t(e
add$t$'n '+ t(e /'rd $m*'ss$ble t' $nd$,ate t(e a*'de$,t$,
,erta$nty) /($,( 'u-(t t' be sel+5e0$dent +r'm t(e *r'*'s$t$'n $tsel+)
t(e *r'*'s$t$'n $s a++e,ted by t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t$me) and as $t /ere
says6 9A t($n- E A) /($,( $s s'met($n- E 3) ,ann't at t(e same t$me be
n'n53!9 3ut b't() 3 as /ell as n'n53) may .u$te /ell e1$st $n
su,,ess$'n! F'r e1am*le) a man /(' $s y'un- ,ann't at t(e same t$me be
'ld4 but t(e same man ,an 0ery /ell be at 'ne t$me y'un-) and at
an't(er n't y'un-) t(at $s) 'ld! N'/ t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n as
a merely l'-$,al *r'*'s$t$'n must n't by any means l$m$t $ts
a**l$,at$'n merely t' relat$'ns '+ t$me) and ,'nse.uently a +'rmula
l$%e t(e *re,ed$n- $s .u$te +'re$-n t' $ts true *ur*'se! T(e
m$sunderstand$n- ar$ses $n t($s /ay! 2e +$rst '+ all se*arate a
*red$,ate '+ a t($n- +r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e t($n-) and
a+ter/ards ,'nne,t /$t( t($s *red$,ate $ts '**'s$te) and (en,e d'
n't establ$s( any ,'ntrad$,t$'n /$t( t(e sub&e,t) but 'nly /$t( $ts
*red$,ate) /($,( (as been ,'n&'$ned /$t( t(e sub&e,t synt(et$,ally5
a ,'ntrad$,t$'n) m're'0er) /($,( 'bta$ns 'nly /(en t(e +$rst and
se,'nd *red$,ate are a++$rmed $n t(e same t$me! I+ I say6 9A man /('
$s $-n'rant $s n't learned)9 t(e ,'nd$t$'n 9at t(e same t$me9 must
be added) +'r (e /(' $s at 'ne t$me $-n'rant) may at an't(er be
learned! 3ut $+ I say6 9N' $-n'rant man $s a learned man)9 t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n $s analyt$,al) be,ause t(e ,(ara,ter$st$, $-n'ran,e $s n'/
a ,'nst$tuent *art '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t4 and $n t($s
,ase t(e ne-at$0e *r'*'s$t$'n $s e0$dent $mmed$ately +r'm t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n) /$t('ut t(e ne,ess$ty '+ add$n- t(e
,'nd$t$'n 9t(e same t$me!9 T($s $s t(e reas'n /(y I (a0e altered t(e
+'rmula '+ t($s *r$n,$*le5 an alterat$'n /($,( s('/s 0ery ,learly
t(e nature '+ an analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n!
SECTION II! O+ t(e Su*reme Pr$n,$*le '+ all Synt(et$,al ud-ements!
T(e e1*lanat$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ synt(et$,al &ud-ements $s a
tas% /$t( /($,( -eneral l'-$, (as n't($n- t' d'4 $ndeed s(e needs
n't e0en be a,.ua$nted /$t( $ts name! 3ut $n trans,endental l'-$, $t
$s t(e m'st $m*'rtant matter t' be dealt /$t(5 $ndeed t(e 'nly 'ne) $+
t(e .uest$'n $s '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ synt(et$,al &ud-ements a *r$'r$)
t(e ,'nd$t$'ns and e1tent '+ t(e$r 0al$d$ty! F'r /(en t($s .uest$'n $s
+ully de,$ded) $t ,an rea,( $ts a$m /$t( *er+e,t ease) t(e
determ$nat$'n) t' /$t) '+ t(e e1tent and l$m$ts '+ t(e *ure
understand$n-! u
In an analyt$,al &ud-ement I d' n't -' bey'nd t(e -$0en
,'n,e*t$'n) $n 'rder t' arr$0e at s'me de,$s$'n res*e,t$n- $t! I+
t(e &ud-ement $s a++$rmat$0e) I *red$,ate '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n 'nly
t(at /($,( /as already ,'-$tated $n $t4 $+ ne-at$0e) I merely
e1,lude +r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $ts ,'ntrary! 3ut $n synt(et$,al
&ud-ements) I must -' bey'nd t(e -$0en ,'n,e*t$'n) $n 'rder t'
,'-$tate) $n relat$'n /$t( $t) s'met($n- .u$te d$++erent +r'm t(at
/($,( /as ,'-$tated $n $t) a relat$'n /($,( $s ,'nse.uently ne0er
'ne e$t(er '+ $dent$ty 'r ,'ntrad$,t$'n) and by means '+ /($,( t(e
trut( 'r err'r '+ t(e &ud-ement ,ann't be d$s,erned merely +r'm t(e
&ud-ement $tsel+! &
Cranted) t(en) t(at /e must -' 'ut bey'nd a -$0en ,'n,e*t$'n) $n
'rder t' ,'m*are $t synt(et$,ally /$t( an't(er) a t($rd t($n- $s
ne,essary) $n /($,( al'ne t(e synt(es$s '+ t/' ,'n,e*t$'ns ,an
'r$-$nate! N'/ /(at $s t($s tert$um .u$d t(at $s t' be t(e med$um '+
all synt(et$,al &ud-ements@ It $s 'nly a ,'m*le1 $n /($,( all 'ur
re*resentat$'ns are ,'nta$ned) t(e $nternal sense t' /$t) and $ts +'rm
a *r$'r$) t$me! a
T(e synt(es$s '+ 'ur re*resentat$'ns rests u*'n t(e $ma-$nat$'n4
t(e$r synt(et$,al un$ty =/($,( $s re.u$s$te t' a &ud-ement>) u*'n
t(e un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n! In t($s) t(ere+'re) $s t' be s'u-(t t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ synt(et$,al &ud-ements) and as all t(ree ,'nta$n t(e
s'ur,es '+ a *r$'r$ re*resentat$'ns) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ *ure
synt(et$,al &ud-ements als'4 nay) t(ey are ne,essary u*'n t(ese
-r'unds) $+ /e are t' *'ssess a %n'/led-e '+ 'b&e,ts) /($,( rests
s'lely u*'n t(e synt(es$s '+ re*resentat$'ns! s
I+ a ,'-n$t$'n $s t' (a0e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty) t(at $s) t' relate t'
an 'b&e,t) and *'ssess sense and mean$n- $n res*e,t t' $t) $t $s
ne,essary t(at t(e 'b&e,t be -$0en $n s'me /ay 'r an't(er! 2$t('ut
t($s) 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns are em*ty) and /e may $ndeed (a0e t('u-(t by
means '+ t(em) but by su,( t($n%$n- /e (a0e n't) $n +a,t) ,'-n$;ed
anyt($n-) /e (a0e merely *layed /$t( re*resentat$'n! T' -$0e an
'b&e,t) $+ t($s e1*ress$'n be underst''d $n t(e sense '+ 9t'
*resent9 t(e 'b&e,t) n't med$ately but $mmed$ately $n $ntu$t$'n) means
n't($n- else t(an t' a**ly t(e re*resentat$'n '+ $t t' e1*er$en,e)
be t(at e1*er$en,e real 'r 'nly *'ss$ble! S*a,e and t$me t(emsel0es)
*ure as t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns are +r'm all t(at $s em*$r$,al) and
,erta$n as $t $s t(at t(ey are re*resented +ully a *r$'r$ $n t(e m$nd)
/'uld be ,'m*letely /$t('ut 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty) and /$t('ut sense
and s$-n$+$,an,e) $+ t(e$r ne,essary use $n t(e 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e /ere n't s('/n! Nay) t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(em $s a mere
s,(ema) t(at al/ays relates t' t(e re*r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n) /($,(
,alls u* t(e 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) /$t('ut /($,( t(ey (a0e n'
mean$n-! And s' $t $s /$t( all ,'n,e*t$'ns /$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n! m
T(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e $s) t(en) t(at /($,( -$0es 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty t' all 'ur a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns! N'/ e1*er$en,e de*ends u*'n
t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ *(en'mena) t(at $s) u*'n a synt(es$s
a,,'rd$n- t' ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e 'b&e,t '+ *(en'mena $n -eneral) a
synt(es$s /$t('ut /($,( e1*er$en,e ne0er ,'uld be,'me %n'/led-e) but
/'uld be merely a r(a*s'dy '+ *er,e*t$'ns) ne0er +$tt$n- t'-et(er $nt'
any ,'nne,ted te1t) a,,'rd$n- t' rules '+ a t('r'u-(ly un$ted
=*'ss$ble> ,'ns,$'usness) and t(ere+'re ne0er sub&e,ted t' t(e
trans,endental and ne,essary un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n! E1*er$en,e (as
t(ere+'re +'r a +'undat$'n) a *r$'r$ *r$n,$*les '+ $ts +'rm) t(at $s
t' say) -eneral rules '+ un$ty $n t(e synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena) t(e
'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ /($,( rules) as ne,essary ,'nd$t$'ns e0en '+
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e ,an /($,( rules) as ne,essary
,'nd$t$'ns5 e0en '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e5 ,an al/ays be s('/n
$n e1*er$en,e! 3ut a*art +r'm t($s relat$'n) a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'ns are abs'lutely $m*'ss$ble) be,ause t(ey (a0e n' t($rd
term) t(at $s) n' *ure 'b&e,t) $n /($,( t(e synt(et$,al un$ty ,an
e1($b$t t(e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ $ts ,'n,e*t$'ns! e
Alt('u-() t(en) res*e,t$n- s*a,e) 'r t(e +'rms /($,( *r'du,t$0e
$ma-$nat$'n des,r$bes t(ere$n) /e d' ,'-n$;e mu,( a *r$'r$ $n
synt(et$,al &ud-ements) and are really $n n' need '+ e1*er$en,e +'r
t($s *ur*'se) su,( %n'/led-e /'uld ne0ert(eless am'unt t' n't($n-
but a busy tr$+l$n- /$t( a mere ,($mera) /ere n't s*a,e t' be
,'ns$dered as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *(en'mena /($,( ,'nst$tute t(e
mater$al '+ e1ternal e1*er$en,e! Hen,e t('se *ure synt(et$,al
&ud-ements d' relate) t('u-( but med$ately) t' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) 'r
rat(er t' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) and u*'n t(at al'ne $s
+'unded t(e 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty '+ t(e$r synt(es$s! +
2($le t(en) 'n t(e 'ne (and) e1*er$en,e) as em*$r$,al synt(es$s)
$s t(e 'nly *'ss$ble m'de '+ ,'-n$t$'n /($,( -$0es real$ty t' all
't(er synt(es$s4 'n t(e 't(er (and) t($s latter synt(es$s) as
,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$) *'ssesses trut() t(at $s) a,,'rdan,e /$t( $ts
'b&e,t) 'nly $n s' +ar as $t ,'nta$ns n't($n- m're t(an /(at $s
ne,essary t' t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ e1*er$en,e! n
A,,'rd$n-ly) t(e su*reme *r$n,$*le '+ all synt(et$,al &ud-ements $s6
9E0ery 'b&e,t $s sub&e,t t' t(e ne,essary ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e man$+'ld '+ $ntu$t$'n $n a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e!9 e
A *r$'r$ synt(et$,al &ud-ements are *'ss$ble /(en /e a**ly t(e
+'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e a *r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n) t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e
$ma-$nat$'n) and t(e ne,essary un$ty '+ t(at synt(es$s $n a
trans,endental a**er,e*t$'n) t' a *'ss$ble ,'-n$t$'n '+ e1*er$en,e)
and say6 9T(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e $n -eneral
are at t(e same t$me ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e) and (a0e) +'r t(at reas'n) 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty $n an a
*r$'r$ synt(et$,al &ud-ement!9 *
SECTION III! Systemat$, Re*resentat$'n '+ all Synt(et$,al
Pr$n,$*les '+ t(e Pure Understand$n-!
T(at *r$n,$*les e1$st at all $s t' be as,r$bed s'lely t' t(e *ure
understand$n-) /($,( $s n't 'nly t(e +a,ulty '+ rules $n re-ard t'
t(at /($,( (a**ens) but $s e0en t(e s'ur,e '+ *r$n,$*les a,,'rd$n-
t' /($,( e0eryt($n- t(at ,an be *resented t' us as an 'b&e,t $s
ne,essar$ly sub&e,t t' rules) be,ause /$t('ut su,( rules /e ne0er
,'uld atta$n t' ,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t! E0en t(e la/s '+ nature) $+
t(ey are ,'ntem*lated as *r$n,$*les '+ t(e em*$r$,al use '+ t(e
understand$n-) *'ssess als' a ,(ara,ter$st$, '+ ne,ess$ty) and /e
may t(ere+'re at least e1*e,t t(em t' be determ$ned u*'n -r'unds /($,(
are 0al$d a *r$'r$ and ante,edent t' all e1*er$en,e! 3ut all la/s '+
nature) /$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n) are sub&e,t t' ($-(er *r$n,$*les '+ t(e
understand$n-) $nasmu,( as t(e +'rmer are merely a**l$,at$'ns '+ t(e
latter t' *art$,ular ,ases '+ e1*er$en,e! T(ese ($-(er *r$n,$*les
al'ne t(ere+'re -$0e t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e ne,essary
,'nd$t$'n) and) as $t /ere) t(e e1*'nent '+ a rule4 e1*er$en,e) 'n t(e
't(er (and) -$0es t(e ,ase /($,( ,'mes under t(e rule! '
T(ere $s n' dan-er '+ 'ur m$sta%$n- merely em*$r$,al *r$n,$*les
+'r *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) 'r ,'n0ersely4 +'r t(e
,(ara,ter '+ ne,ess$ty) a,,'rd$n- t' ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( d$st$n-u$s( t(e
latter) and t(e absen,e '+ t($s $n e0ery em*$r$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) ('/
e1tens$0ely 0al$d s'e0er $t may be) $s a *er+e,t sa+e-uard a-a$nst
,'n+'und$n- t(em! T(ere are) ('/e0er) *ure *r$n,$*les a *r$'r$)
/($,( ne0ert(eless I s('uld n't as,r$be t' t(e *ure understand$n-5 +'r
t($s reas'n) t(at t(ey are n't der$0ed +r'm *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns) but
=alt('u-( by t(e med$at$'n '+ t(e understand$n-> +r'm *ure $ntu$t$'ns!
3ut understand$n- $s t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns! Su,( *r$n,$*les
mat(emat$,al s,$en,e *'ssesses) but t(e$r a**l$,at$'n t' e1*er$en,e)
,'nse.uently t(e$r 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty) nay t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( a
*r$'r$ synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'ns =t(e dedu,t$'n t(ere'+> rests ent$rely
u*'n t(e *ure understand$n-! u
On t($s a,,'unt) I s(all n't re,%'n am'n- my *r$n,$*les t('se '+
mat(emat$,s4 t('u-( I s(all $n,lude t('se u*'n t(e *'ss$b$l$ty and
'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty a *r$'r$) '+ *r$n,$*les '+ t(e mat(emat$,al
s,$en,e) /($,() ,'nse.uently) are t' be l''%ed u*'n as t(e *r$n,$*le
'+ t(ese) and /($,( *r',eed +r'm ,'n,e*t$'ns t' $ntu$t$'n) and n't
+r'm $ntu$t$'n t' ,'n,e*t$'ns! +
In t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- t'
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t(e em*l'yment '+ t(e$r synt(es$s $s e$t(er
mat(emat$,al 'r dynam$,al) +'r $t $s d$re,ted *artly 'n t(e
$ntu$t$'n al'ne) *artly 'n t(e e1$sten,e '+ a *(en'men'n! 3ut t(e a
*r$'r$ ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ntu$t$'n are $n relat$'n t' a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e abs'lutely ne,essary) t('se '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ 'b&e,ts
'+ a *'ss$ble em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n are $n t(emsel0es ,'nt$n-ent!
Hen,e t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e mat(emat$,al use '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es /$ll
*'ssess a ,(ara,ter '+ abs'lute ne,ess$ty) t(at $s) /$ll be
a*'de$,t$,4 t('se) 'n t(e 't(er (and) '+ t(e dynam$,al use) t(e
,(ara,ter '+ an a *r$'r$ ne,ess$ty $ndeed) but 'nly under t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ em*$r$,al t('u-(t $n an e1*er$en,e) t(ere+'re 'nly
med$ately and $nd$re,tly! C'nse.uently t(ey /$ll n't *'ssess t(at
$mmed$ate e0$den,e /($,( $s *e,ul$ar t' t(e +'rmer) alt('u-( t(e$r
a**l$,at$'n t' e1*er$en,e d'es n't) +'r t(at reas'n) l'se $ts trut(
and ,ert$tude! 3ut '+ t($s *'$nt /e s(all be better able t' &ud-e at
t(e ,'n,lus$'n '+ t($s system '+ *r$n,$*les! t
T(e table '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es $s naturally 'ur -u$de t' t(e table '+
*r$n,$*les) be,ause t(ese are n't($n- else t(an rules +'r t(e
'b&e,t$0e em*l'yment '+ t(e +'rmer! A,,'rd$n-ly) all *r$n,$*les '+ t(e
*ure understand$n- are6 *
'+ Intu$t$'n
Ant$,$*at$'ns Anal'-$es
'+ Per,e*t$'n '+ E1*er$en,e
P'stulates '+
Em*$r$,al T('u-(t
$n -eneral
T(ese a**ellat$'ns I (a0e ,('sen ad0$sedly) $n 'rder t(at /e m$-(t
n't l'se s$-(t '+ t(e d$st$n,t$'ns $n res*e,t '+ t(e e0$den,e and
t(e em*l'yment '+ t(ese *r$n,$*les! It /$ll) ('/e0er) s''n a**ear
t(at5 a +a,t /($,( ,'n,erns b't( t(e e0$den,e '+ t(ese *r$n,$*les) and
t(e a *r$'r$ determ$nat$'n '+ *(en'mena5 a,,'rd$n- t' t(e ,ate-'r$es
'+ .uant$ty and .ual$ty =$+ /e attend merely t' t(e +'rm '+ t(ese>)
t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(ese ,ate-'r$es are d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm t('se '+
t(e t/' 't(ers) $n as mu,( as t(e +'rmer are *'ssessed '+ an
$ntu$t$0e) but t(e latter '+ a merely d$s,urs$0e) t('u-( $n b't(
$nstan,es a ,'m*lete) ,ert$tude! I s(all t(ere+'re ,all t(e +'rmer
mat(emat$,al) and t(e latter dynam$,al *r$n,$*les!7 It must be
'bser0ed) ('/e0er) t(at by t(ese terms I mean &ust as l$ttle $n t(e
'ne ,ase t(e *r$n,$*les '+ mat(emat$,s as t('se '+ -eneral
=*(ys$,al> dynam$,s $n t(e 't(er! I (a0e (ere $n 0$e/ merely t(e
*r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) $n t(e$r a**l$,at$'n t' t(e
$nternal sense =/$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n '+ t(e re*resentat$'ns -$0en
t(ere$n>) by means '+ /($,( t(e s,$en,es '+ mat(emat$,s and dynam$,s
be,'me *'ss$ble! A,,'rd$n-ly) I (a0e named t(ese *r$n,$*les rat(er
/$t( re+eren,e t' t(e$r a**l$,at$'n t(an t(e$r ,'ntent4 and I s(all
n'/ *r',eed t' ,'ns$der t(em $n t(e 'rder $n /($,( t(ey stand $n t(e
table! t
7All ,'mb$nat$'n =,'n&un,t$'> $s e$t(er ,'m*'s$t$'n =,'m*'s$t$'>
'r ,'nne,t$'n =ne1us>! T(e +'rmer $s t(e synt(es$s '+ a man$+'ld)
t(e *arts '+ /($,( d' n't ne,essar$ly bel'n- t' ea,( 't(er! F'r
e1am*le) t(e t/' tr$an-les $nt' /($,( a s.uare $s d$0$ded by a
d$a-'nal) d' n't ne,essar$ly bel'n- t' ea,( 't(er) and '+ t($s %$nd $s
t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e ('m'-ene'us $n e0eryt($n- t(at ,an be
mat(emat$,ally ,'ns$dered! T($s synt(es$s ,an be d$0$ded $nt' t('se '+
a--re-at$'n and ,'al$t$'n) t(e +'rmer '+ /($,( $s a**l$ed t'
e1tens$0e) t(e latter t' $ntens$0e .uant$t$es! T(e se,'nd s'rt '+
,'mb$nat$'n =ne1us> $s t(e synt(es$s '+ a man$+'ld) $n s' +ar as $ts
*arts d' bel'n- ne,essar$ly t' ea,( 't(er4 +'r e1am*le) t(e a,,$dent
t' a substan,e) 'r t(e e++e,t t' t(e ,ause! C'nse.uently $t $s a
synt(es$s '+ t(at /($,( t('u-( (eter'-ene'us) $s re*resented as
,'nne,ted a *r$'r$! T($s ,'mb$nat$'n5 n't an arb$trary 'ne5 I
ent$tle dynam$,al be,ause $t ,'n,erns t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ t(e man$+'ld! T($s) a-a$n) may be d$0$ded $nt' t(e
*(ys$,al synt(es$s) '+ t(e *(en'mena d$0$ded am'n- ea,( 't(er) and t(e
meta*(ys$,al synt(es$s) 'r t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ *(en'mena a *r$'r$ $n t(e
+a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n! +
T(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(ese $s6 All Intu$t$'ns are E1tens$0e
All *(en'mena ,'nta$n) as re-ards t(e$r +'rm) an $ntu$t$'n $n
s*a,e and t$me) /($,( l$es a *r$'r$ at t(e +'undat$'n '+ all /$t('ut
e1,e*t$'n! P(en'mena) t(ere+'re) ,ann't be a**re(ended) t(at $s)
re,e$0ed $nt' em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness 't(er/$se t(an t(r'u-( t(e
synt(es$s '+ a man$+'ld) t(r'u-( /($,( t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ a
determ$nate s*a,e 'r t$me are -enerated4 t(at $s t' say) t(r'u-( t(e
,'m*'s$t$'n '+ t(e ('m'-ene'us and t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t($s man$+'ld =('m'-ene'us>! N'/ t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ a ('m'-ene'us man$+'ld $n $ntu$t$'n) $n s' +ar as
t(ereby t(e re*resentat$'n '+ an 'b&e,t $s rendered *'ss$ble) $s t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a .uant$ty =.uant$>! C'nse.uently) e0en t(e *er,e*t$'n
'+ an 'b&e,t as *(en'men'n $s *'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( t(e same
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e man$+'ld '+ t(e -$0en sensu'us $ntu$t$'n)
t(r'u-( /($,( t(e un$ty '+ t(e ,'m*'s$t$'n '+ t(e ('m'-ene'us man$+'ld
$n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a .uant$ty $s ,'-$tated4 t(at $s t' say) all
*(en'mena are .uant$t$es) and e1tens$0e .uant$t$es) be,ause as
$ntu$t$'ns $n s*a,e 'r t$me t(ey must be re*resented by means '+ t(e
same synt(es$s t(r'u-( /($,( s*a,e and t$me t(emsel0es are determ$ned! s
An e1tens$0e .uant$ty I ,all t(at /(ere$n t(e re*resentat$'n '+
t(e *arts renders *'ss$ble =and t(ere+'re ne,essar$ly ante,edes> t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ t(e /('le! I ,ann't re*resent t' mysel+ any l$ne)
('/e0er small) /$t('ut dra/$n- $t $n t('u-(t) t(at $s) /$t('ut
-enerat$n- +r'm a *'$nt all $ts *arts 'ne a+ter an't(er) and $n t($s
/ay al'ne *r'du,$n- t($s $ntu$t$'n! Pre,$sely t(e same $s t(e ,ase
/$t( e0ery) e0en t(e smallest) *'rt$'n '+ t$me! I ,'-$tate t(ere$n
'nly t(e su,,ess$0e *r'-ress +r'm 'ne m'ment t' an't(er) and (en,e) by
means '+ t(e d$++erent *'rt$'ns '+ t$me and t(e add$t$'n '+ t(em) a
determ$nate .uant$ty '+ t$me $s *r'du,ed! As t(e *ure $ntu$t$'n $n all
*(en'mena $s e$t(er t$me 'r s*a,e) s' $s e0ery *(en'men'n $n $ts
,(ara,ter '+ $ntu$t$'n an e1tens$0e .uant$ty) $nasmu,( as $t ,an
'nly be ,'-n$;ed $n 'ur a**re(ens$'n by su,,ess$0e synt(es$s =+r'm
*art t' *art>! All *(en'mena are) a,,'rd$n-ly) t' be ,'ns$dered as
a--re-ates) t(at $s) as a ,'lle,t$'n '+ *re0$'usly -$0en *arts4
/($,( $s n't t(e ,ase /$t( e0ery s'rt '+ .uant$t$es) but 'nly /$t(
t('se /($,( are re*resented and a**re(ended by us as e1tens$0e! t
On t($s su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+ t(e *r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n) $n t(e
-enerat$'n '+ +$-ures) $s +'unded t(e mat(emat$,s '+ e1tens$'n) 'r
-e'metry) /$t( $ts a1$'ms) /($,( e1*ress t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sensu'us
$ntu$t$'n a *r$'r$) under /($,( al'ne t(e s,(ema '+ a *ure
,'n,e*t$'n '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n ,an e1$st4 +'r e1am*le) 9be t/een t/'
*'$nts 'nly 'ne stra$-(t l$ne $s *'ss$ble)9 9t/' stra$-(t l$nes ,ann't
en,l'se a s*a,e)9 et,! T(ese are t(e a1$'ms /($,( *r'*erly relate 'nly
t' .uant$t$es =.uanta> as su,(! t
3ut) as re-ards t(e .uant$ty '+ a t($n- =.uant$tas>) t(at $s t' say)
t(e ans/er t' t(e .uest$'n6 9H'/ lar-e $s t($s 'r t(at 'b&e,t@9
alt('u-() $n res*e,t t' t($s .uest$'n) /e (a0e 0ar$'us *r'*'s$t$'ns
synt(et$,al and $mmed$ately ,erta$n =$ndem'nstrab$l$a>4 /e (a0e) $n
t(e *r'*er sense '+ t(e term) n' a1$'ms! F'r e1am*le) t(e
*r'*'s$t$'ns6 9I+ e.uals be added t' e.uals) t(e /('les are e.ual94
9I+ e.uals be ta%en +r'm e.uals) t(e rema$nders are e.ual94 are
analyt$,al) be,ause I am $mmed$ately ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e $dent$ty '+
t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ t(e 'ne .uant$ty /$t( t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ t(e 't(er4
/(ereas a1$'ms must be a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns! On t(e 't(er
(and) t(e sel+5e0$dent *r'*'s$t$'ns as t' t(e relat$'n '+ numbers) are
,erta$nly synt(et$,al but n't un$0ersal) l$%e t('se '+ -e'metry) and
+'r t($s reas'n ,ann't be ,alled a1$'ms) but numer$,al +'rmulae!
T(at 7 G A E 1B $s n't an analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n! F'r ne$t(er $n t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ se0en) n'r '+ +$0e) n'r '+ t(e ,'m*'s$t$'n '+ t(e
t/' numbers) d' I ,'-$tate t(e number t/el0e! =2(et(er I ,'-$tate
t(e number $n t(e add$t$'n '+ b't() $s n't at *resent t(e .uest$'n4
+'r $n t(e ,ase '+ an analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) t(e 'nly *'$nt $s
/(et(er I really ,'-$tate t(e *red$,ate $n t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e
sub&e,t!> 3ut alt('u-( t(e *r'*'s$t$'n $s synt(et$,al) $t $s
ne0ert(eless 'nly a s$n-ular *r'*'s$t$'n! In s' +ar as re-ard $s
(ere (ad merely t' t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e ('m'-ene'us =t(e un$ts>) $t
,ann't ta%e *la,e e1,e*t $n 'ne manner) alt('u-( 'ur use '+ t(ese
numbers $s a+ter/ards -eneral! I+ I say6 9A tr$an-le ,an be
,'nstru,ted /$t( t(ree l$nes) any t/' '+ /($,( ta%en t'-et(er are
-reater t(an t(e t($rd)9 I e1er,$se merely t(e *ure +un,t$'n '+ t(e
*r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n) /($,( may dra/ t(e l$nes l'n-er 'r s('rter and
,'nstru,t t(e an-les at $ts *leasure! On t(e ,'ntrary) t(e number
se0en $s *'ss$ble 'nly $n 'ne manner) and s' $s l$%e/$se t(e number
t/el0e) /($,( results +r'm t(e synt(es$s '+ se0en and +$0e! Su,(
*r'*'s$t$'ns) t(en) ,ann't be termed a1$'ms =+'r $n t(at ,ase /e
s('uld (a0e an $n+$n$ty '+ t(ese>) but numer$,al +'rmulae! s
T($s trans,endental *r$n,$*le '+ t(e mat(emat$,s '+ *(en'mena
-reatly enlar-es 'ur a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'n! F'r $t $s by t($s *r$n,$*le
al'ne t(at *ure mat(emat$,s $s rendered a**l$,able $n all $ts
*re,$s$'n t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) and /$t('ut $t t(e 0al$d$ty '+
t($s a**l$,at$'n /'uld n't be s' sel+5e0$dent4 'n t(e ,'ntrary)
,'ntrad$,t$'ns and ,'n+us$'ns (a0e '+ten ar$sen 'n t($s 0ery *'$nt!
P(en'mena are n't t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! Em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n $s
*'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( *ure $ntu$t$'n ='+ s*a,e and t$me>4
,'nse.uently) /(at -e'metry a++$rms '+ t(e latter) $s $nd$s*utably
0al$d '+ t(e +'rmer! All e0as$'ns) su,( as t(e statement t(at
'b&e,ts '+ sense d' n't ,'n+'rm t' t(e rules '+ ,'nstru,t$'n $n
s*a,e =+'r e1am*le) t' t(e rule '+ t(e $n+$n$te d$0$s$b$l$ty '+
l$nes 'r an-les>) must +all t' t(e -r'und! F'r) $+ t(ese 'b&e,t$'ns
('ld -''d) /e deny t' s*a,e) and /$t( $t t' all mat(emat$,s) 'b&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty) and n' l'n-er %n'/ /(ere+'re) and ('/ +ar) mat(emat$,s ,an
be a**l$ed t' *(en'mena! T(e synt(es$s '+ s*a,es and t$mes as t(e
essent$al +'rm '+ all $ntu$t$'n) $s t(at /($,( renders *'ss$ble t(e
a**re(ens$'n '+ a *(en'men'n) and t(ere+'re e0ery e1ternal e1*er$en,e)
,'nse.uently all ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e4 and
/(ate0er mat(emat$,s $n $ts *ure use *r'0es '+ t(e +'rmer) must
ne,essar$ly ('ld -''d '+ t(e latter! All 'b&e,t$'ns are but t(e
,($,aner$es '+ an $ll5$nstru,ted reas'n) /($,( err'ne'usly t($n%s t'
l$berate t(e 'b&e,ts '+ sense +r'm t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ 'ur
sens$b$l$ty) and re*resents t(ese) alt('u-( mere *(en'mena) as
t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) *resented as su,( t' 'ur understand$n-! 3ut $n
t($s ,ase) n' a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(em ,'uld be
*'ss$ble) ,'nse.uently n't t(r'u-( *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ s*a,e and t(e
s,$en,e /($,( determ$nes t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(at $s t' say)
-e'metry) /'uld $tsel+ be $m*'ss$ble! -
T(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(ese $s6 In all *(en'mena t(e Real) t(at
/($,( $s an 'b&e,t '+ sensat$'n) (as Intens$0e Quant$ty)
t(at $s) (as a #e-ree!
Per,e*t$'n $s em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness) t(at $s t' say) a
,'ns,$'usness /($,( ,'nta$ns an element '+ sensat$'n! P(en'mena as
'b&e,ts '+ *er,e*t$'n are n't *ure) t(at $s) merely +'rmal $ntu$t$'ns)
l$%e s*a,e and t$me) +'r t(ey ,ann't be *er,e$0ed $n t(emsel0es!
T(ey ,'nta$n) t(en) '0er and ab'0e t(e $ntu$t$'n) t(e mater$als +'r an
'b&e,t =t(r'u-( /($,( $s re*resented s'met($n- e1$st$n- $n s*a,e 'r
t$me>) t(at $s t' say) t(ey ,'nta$n t(e real '+ sensat$'n) as a
re*resentat$'n merely sub&e,t$0e) /($,( -$0es us merely t(e
,'ns,$'usness t(at t(e sub&e,t $s a++e,ted) and /($,( /e re+er t' s'me
e1ternal 'b&e,t! N'/) a -radual trans$t$'n +r'm em*$r$,al
,'ns,$'usness t' *ure ,'ns,$'usness $s *'ss$ble) $nasmu,( as t(e
real $n t($s ,'ns,$'usness ent$rely 0an$s(es) and t(ere rema$ns a
merely +'rmal ,'ns,$'usness =a *r$'r$> '+ t(e man$+'ld $n t$me and
s*a,e4 ,'nse.uently t(ere $s *'ss$ble a synt(es$s als' '+ t(e
*r'du,t$'n '+ t(e .uant$ty '+ a sensat$'n +r'm $ts ,'mmen,ement)
t(at $s) +r'm t(e *ure $ntu$t$'n E N 'n/ards u* t' a ,erta$n
.uant$ty '+ t(e sensat$'n! N'/ as sensat$'n $n $tsel+ $s n't an
'b&e,t$0e re*resentat$'n) and $n $t $s t' be +'und ne$t(er t(e
$ntu$t$'n '+ s*a,e n'r '+ t$me) $t ,ann't *'ssess any e1tens$0e
.uant$ty) and yet t(ere d'es bel'n- t' $t a .uant$ty =and t(at by
means '+ $ts a**re(ens$'n) $n /($,( em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness ,an /$t($n
a ,erta$n t$me r$se +r'm n't($n- E N u* t' $ts -$0en am'unt>)
,'nse.uently an $ntens$0e .uant$ty! And t(us /e must as,r$be $ntens$0e
.uant$ty) t(at $s) a de-ree '+ $n+luen,e 'n sense t' all 'b&e,ts '+
*er,e*t$'n) $n s' +ar as t($s *er,e*t$'n ,'nta$ns sensat$'n! *
All ,'-n$t$'n) by means '+ /($,( I am enabled t' ,'-n$;e and
determ$ne a *r$'r$ /(at bel'n-s t' em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n) may be
,alled an ant$,$*at$'n4 and /$t('ut d'ubt t($s $s t(e sense $n /($,(
E*$,urus em*l'yed ($s e1*ress$'n *r('le*s$s! 3ut as t(ere $s $n
*(en'mena s'met($n- /($,( $s ne0er ,'-n$;ed a *r$'r$) /($,( 'n t($s
a,,'unt ,'nst$tutes t(e *r'*er d$++eren,e bet/een *ure and em*$r$,al
,'-n$t$'n) t(at $s t' say) sensat$'n =as t(e matter '+ *er,e*t$'n>) $t
+'ll'/s) t(at sensat$'n $s &ust t(at element $n ,'-n$t$'n /($,( ,ann't
be at all ant$,$*ated! On t(e 't(er (and) /e m$-(t 0ery /ell term
t(e *ure determ$nat$'ns $n s*a,e and t$me) as /ell $n re-ard t' +$-ure
as t' .uant$ty) ant$,$*at$'ns '+ *(en'mena) be,ause t(ey re*resent a
*r$'r$ t(at /($,( may al/ays be -$0en a *'ster$'r$ $n e1*er$en,e!
3ut su**'se t(at $n e0ery sensat$'n) as sensat$'n $n -eneral)
/$t('ut any *art$,ular sensat$'n be$n- t('u-(t '+) t(ere e1$sted
s'met($n- /($,( ,'uld be ,'-n$;ed a *r$'r$) t($s /'uld deser0e t' be
,alled ant$,$*at$'n $n a s*e,$al sense5 s*e,$al) be,ause $t may seem
sur*r$s$n- t' +'restall e1*er$en,e) $n t(at /($,( ,'n,erns t(e
matter '+ e1*er$en,e) and /($,( /e ,an 'nly der$0e +r'm $tsel+! Jet
su,( really $s t(e ,ase (ere! s
A**re(ens$'n) by means '+ sensat$'n al'ne) +$lls 'nly 'ne m'ment)
t(at $s) $+ I d' n't ta%e $nt' ,'ns$derat$'n a su,,ess$'n '+ many
sensat$'ns! As t(at $n t(e *(en'men'n) t(e a**re(ens$'n '+ /($,( $s
n't a su,,ess$0e synt(es$s ad0an,$n- +r'm *arts t' an ent$re
re*resentat$'n) sensat$'n (as t(ere+'re n' e1tens$0e .uant$ty4 t(e
/ant '+ sensat$'n $n a m'ment '+ t$me /'uld re*resent $t as em*ty)
,'nse.uently E O! T(at /($,( $n t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n ,'rres*'nds t'
sensat$'n $s real$ty =real$tas *(aen'men'n>4 t(at /($,( ,'rres*'nds t'
t(e absen,e '+ $t) ne-at$'n E O! N'/ e0ery sensat$'n $s ,a*able '+ a
d$m$nut$'n) s' t(at $t ,an de,rease) and t(us -radually d$sa**ear!
T(ere+'re) bet/een real$ty $n a *(en'men'n and ne-at$'n) t(ere
e1$sts a ,'nt$nu'us ,'n,atenat$'n '+ many *'ss$ble $ntermed$ate
sensat$'ns) t(e d$++eren,e '+ /($,( +r'm ea,( 't(er $s al/ays
smaller t(an t(at bet/een t(e -$0en sensat$'n and ;er') 'r ,'m*lete
ne-at$'n! T(at $s t' say) t(e real $n a *(en'men'n (as al/ays a
.uant$ty) /($,( ('/e0er $s n't d$s,'0erable $n a**re(ens$'n)
$nasmu,( as a**re(ens$'n ta%e *la,e by means '+ mere sensat$'n $n
'ne $nstant) and n't by t(e su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+ many sensat$'ns)
and t(ere+'re d'es n't *r'-ress +r'm *arts t' t(e /('le! C'nse.uently)
$t (as a .uant$ty) but n't an e1tens$0e .uant$ty! $
N'/ t(at .uant$ty /($,( $s a**re(ended 'nly as un$ty) and $n /($,(
*lural$ty ,an be re*resented 'nly by a**r'1$mat$'n t' ne-at$'n E O)
I term $ntens$0e .uant$ty! C'nse.uently) real$ty $n a *(en'men'n (as
$ntens$0e .uant$ty) t(at $s) a de-ree! $+ /e ,'ns$der t($s real$ty
as ,ause =be $t '+ sensat$'n 'r '+ an't(er real$ty $n t(e
*(en'men'n) +'r e1am*le) a ,(an-e>) /e ,all t(e de-ree '+ real$ty $n
$ts ,(ara,ter '+ ,ause a m'mentum) +'r e1am*le) t(e m'mentum '+
/e$-(t4 and +'r t($s reas'n) t(at t(e de-ree 'nly $nd$,ates t(at
.uant$ty t(e a**re(ens$'n '+ /($,( $s n't su,,ess$0e) but
$nstantane'us! T($s) ('/e0er) I t'u,( u*'n 'nly $n *ass$n-) +'r /$t(
,ausal$ty I (a0e at *resent n't($n- t' d'! ,
A,,'rd$n-ly) e0ery sensat$'n) ,'nse.uently e0ery real$ty $n
*(en'mena) ('/e0er small $t may be) (as a de-ree) t(at $s) an
$ntens$0e .uant$ty) /($,( may al/ays be lessened) and bet/een
real$ty and ne-at$'n t(ere e1$sts a ,'nt$nu'us ,'nne,t$'n '+
*'ss$ble real$t$es) and *'ss$ble smaller *er,e*t$'ns! E0ery ,'l'ur5
+'r e1am*le) red5 (as a de-ree) /($,() be $t e0er s' small) $s ne0er
t(e smallest) and s' $s $t al/ays /$t( (eat) t(e m'mentum '+ /e$-(t)
et,! e
T($s *r'*erty '+ .uant$t$es) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( n' *art '+ t(em $s
t(e smallest *'ss$ble =n' *art s$m*le>) $s ,alled t(e$r ,'nt$nu$ty!
S*a,e and t$me are .uanta ,'nt$nua) be,ause n' *art '+ t(em ,an be
-$0en) /$t('ut en,l's$n- $t /$t($n b'undar$es =*'$nts and m'ments>)
,'nse.uently) t($s -$0en *art $s $tsel+ a s*a,e 'r a t$me! S*a,e)
t(ere+'re) ,'ns$sts 'nly '+ s*a,es) and t$me '+ t$mes! P'$nts and
m'ments are 'nly b'undar$es) t(at $s) t(e mere *la,es 'r *'s$t$'ns
'+ t(e$r l$m$tat$'n! 3ut *la,es al/ays *resu**'se $ntu$t$'ns /($,( are
t' l$m$t 'r determ$ne t(em4 and /e ,ann't ,'n,e$0e e$t(er s*a,e 'r
t$me ,'m*'sed '+ ,'nst$tuent *arts /($,( are -$0en be+'re s*a,e 'r
t$me! Su,( .uant$t$es may als' be ,alled +l'/$n-) be,ause synt(es$s
='+ t(e *r'du,t$0e $ma-$nat$'n> $n t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ t(ese
.uant$t$es $s a *r'-ress$'n $n t$me) t(e ,'nt$nu$ty '+ /($,( /e are
a,,ust'med t' $nd$,ate by t(e e1*ress$'n +l'/$n-! a
All *(en'mena) t(en) are ,'nt$nu'us .uant$t$es) $n res*e,t b't( t'
$ntu$t$'n and mere *er,e*t$'n =sensat$'n) and /$t( $t real$ty>! In t(e
+'rmer ,ase t(ey are e1tens$0e .uant$t$es4 $n t(e latter) $ntens$0e!
2(en t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld '+ a *(en'men'n $s $nterru*ted)
t(ere results merely an a--re-ate '+ se0eral *(en'mena) and n't
*r'*erly a *(en'men'n as a .uant$ty) /($,( $s n't *r'du,ed by t(e mere
,'nt$nuat$'n '+ t(e *r'du,t$0e synt(es$s '+ a ,erta$n %$nd) but by t(e
re*et$t$'n '+ a synt(es$s al/ays ,eas$n-! F'r e1am*le) $+ I ,all
t($rteen d'llars a sum 'r .uant$ty '+ m'ney) I em*l'y t(e term .u$te
,'rre,tly) $nasmu,( as I understand by t($rteen d'llars t(e 0alue '+ a
mar% $n standard s$l0er) /($,( $s) t' be sure) a ,'nt$nu'us
.uant$ty) $n /($,( n' *art $s t(e smallest) but e0ery *art m$-(t
,'nst$tute a *$e,e '+ m'ney) /($,( /'uld ,'nta$n mater$al +'r st$ll
smaller *$e,es! I+) ('/e0er) by t(e /'rds t($rteen d'llars I
understand s' many ,'$ns =be t(e$r 0alue $n s$l0er /(at $t may>) $t
/'uld be .u$te err'ne'us t' use t(e e1*ress$'n a .uant$ty '+
d'llars4 'n t(e ,'ntrary) I must ,all t(em a--re-ate) t(at $s) a
number '+ ,'$ns! And as $n e0ery number /e must (a0e un$ty as t(e
+'undat$'n) s' a *(en'men'n ta%en as un$ty $s a .uant$ty) and as
su,( al/ays a ,'nt$nu'us .uant$ty =.uantum ,'nt$nuum>! s
N'/) see$n- all *(en'mena) /(et(er ,'ns$dered as e1tens$0e 'r
$ntens$0e) are ,'nt$nu'us .uant$t$es) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9All ,(an-e
=trans$t$'n '+ a t($n- +r'm 'ne state $nt' an't(er> $s ,'nt$nu'us)9
m$-(t be *r'0ed (ere eas$ly) and /$t( mat(emat$,al e0$den,e) /ere $t
n't t(at t(e ,ausal$ty '+ a ,(an-e l$es) ent$rely bey'nd t(e b'unds '+
a trans,endental *($l's'*(y) and *resu**'ses em*$r$,al *r$n,$*les! F'r
'+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a ,ause /($,( ,(an-es t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t($n-s)
t(at $s) /($,( determ$nes t(em t' t(e ,'ntrary t' a ,erta$n -$0en
state) t(e understand$n- -$0es us a *r$'r$ n' %n'/led-e4 n't merely
be,ause $t (as n' $ns$-(t $nt' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ $t =+'r su,( $ns$-(t
$s absent $n se0eral a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns>) but be,ause t(e n't$'n '+
,(an-e ,'n,erns 'nly ,erta$n determ$nat$'ns '+ *(en'mena) /($,(
e1*er$en,e al'ne ,an a,.ua$nt us /$t() /($le t(e$r ,ause l$es $n t(e
un,(an-eable! 3ut see$n- t(at /e (a0e n't($n- /($,( /e ,'uld (ere
em*l'y but t(e *ure +undamental ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ all *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e) am'n- /($,( '+ ,'urse n't($n- em*$r$,al ,an be adm$tted)
/e dare n't) /$t('ut $n&ur$n- t(e un$ty '+ 'ur system) ant$,$*ate
-eneral *(ys$,al s,$en,e) /($,( $s bu$lt u*'n ,erta$n +undamental
e1*er$en,es! e
Ne0ert(eless) /e are $n n' /ant '+ *r''+s '+ t(e -reat $n+luen,e
/($,( t(e *r$n,$*le ab'0e de0el'*ed e1er,$ses $n t(e ant$,$*at$'n '+
*er,e*t$'ns) and e0en $n su**ly$n- t(e /ant '+ t(em) s' +ar as t'
s($eld us a-a$nst t(e +alse ,'n,lus$'ns /($,( 't(er/$se /e m$-(t
ras(ly dra/! r
I+ all real$ty $n *er,e*t$'n (as a de-ree) bet/een /($,( and
ne-at$'n t(ere $s an endless se.uen,e '+ e0er smaller de-rees) and $+)
ne0ert(eless) e0ery sense must (a0e a determ$nate de-ree '+
re,e*t$0$ty +'r sensat$'ns4 n' *er,e*t$'n) and ,'nse.uently n'
e1*er$en,e $s *'ss$ble) /($,( ,an *r'0e) e$t(er $mmed$ately 'r
med$ately) an ent$re absen,e '+ all real$ty $n a *(en'men'n4 $n
't(er /'rds) $t $s $m*'ss$ble e0er t' dra/ +r'm e1*er$en,e a *r''+
'+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ em*ty s*a,e 'r '+ em*ty t$me! F'r $n t(e +$rst
*la,e) an ent$re absen,e '+ real$ty $n a sensu'us $ntu$t$'n ,ann't
'+ ,'urse be an 'b&e,t '+ *er,e*t$'n4 se,'ndly) su,( absen,e ,ann't be
dedu,ed +r'm t(e ,'ntem*lat$'n '+ any s$n-le *(en'men'n) and t(e
d$++eren,e '+ t(e de-rees $n $ts real$ty4 n'r 'u-(t $t e0er t' be
adm$tted $n e1*lanat$'n '+ any *(en'men'n! F'r $+ e0en t(e ,'m*lete
$ntu$t$'n '+ a determ$nate s*a,e 'r t$me $s t('r'u-(ly real) t(at
$s) $+ n' *art t(ere'+ $s em*ty) yet be,ause e0ery real$ty (as $ts
de-ree) /($,() /$t( t(e e1tens$0e .uant$ty '+ t(e *(en'men'n
un,(an-ed) ,an d$m$n$s( t(r'u-( endless -radat$'ns d'/n t' n't($n-
=t(e 0'$d>) t(ere must be $n+$n$tely -raduated de-rees) /$t( /($,(
s*a,e 'r t$me $s +$lled) and t(e $ntens$0e .uant$ty $n d$++erent
*(en'mena may be smaller 'r -reater) alt('u-( t(e e1tens$0e .uant$ty
'+ t(e $ntu$t$'n rema$ns e.ual and unaltered! '
2e s(all -$0e an e1am*le '+ t($s! Alm'st all natural *($l's'*(ers)
remar%$n- a -reat d$++eren,e $n t(e .uant$ty '+ t(e matter '+
d$++erent %$nds $n b'd$es /$t( t(e same 0'lume =*artly 'n a,,'unt '+
t(e m'mentum '+ -ra0$ty 'r /e$-(t) *artly 'n a,,'unt '+ t(e m'mentum
'+ res$stan,e t' 't(er b'd$es $n m't$'n>) ,'n,lude unan$m'usly t(at
t($s 0'lume =e1tens$0e .uant$ty '+ t(e *(en'men'n> must be 0'$d $n all
b'd$es) alt('u-( $n d$++erent *r'*'rt$'n! 3ut /(' /'uld sus*e,t t(at
t(ese +'r t(e m'st *art mat(emat$,al and me,(an$,al $n.u$rers $nt'
nature s('uld -r'und t($s ,'n,lus$'n s'lely 'n a meta*(ys$,al
(y*'t(es$s5 a s'rt '+ (y*'t(es$s /($,( t(ey *r'+ess t' d$s*ara-e and
a0'$d@ Jet t($s t(ey d') $n assum$n- t(at t(e real $n s*a,e =I must
n't (ere ,all $t $m*enetrab$l$ty 'r /e$-(t) be,ause t(ese are
em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns> $s al/ays $dent$,al) and ,an 'nly be
d$st$n-u$s(ed a,,'rd$n- t' $ts e1tens$0e .uant$ty) t(at $s)
mult$*l$,$ty! N'/ t' t($s *resu**'s$t$'n) +'r /($,( t(ey ,an (a0e n'
-r'und $n e1*er$en,e) and /($,( ,'nse.uently $s merely meta*(ys$,al) I
'**'se a trans,endental dem'nstrat$'n) /($,( $t $s true /$ll n't
e1*la$n t(e d$++eren,e $n t(e +$ll$n- u* '+ s*a,es) but /($,(
ne0ert(eless ,'m*letely d'es a/ay /$t( t(e su**'sed ne,ess$ty '+ t(e
ab'0e5ment$'ned *resu**'s$t$'n t(at /e ,ann't e1*la$n t(e sa$d
d$++eren,e 't(er/$se t(an by t(e (y*'t(es$s '+ em*ty s*a,es! T($s
dem'nstrat$'n) m're'0er) (as t(e mer$t '+ sett$n- t(e understand$n- at
l$berty t' ,'n,e$0e t($s d$st$n,t$'n $n a d$++erent manner) $+ t(e
e1*lanat$'n '+ t(e +a,t re.u$res any su,( (y*'t(es$s! F'r /e
*er,e$0e t(at alt('u-( t/' e.ual s*a,es may be ,'m*letely +$lled by
matters alt'-et(er d$++erent) s' t(at $n ne$t(er '+ t(em $s t(ere le+t
a s$n-le *'$nt /(ere$n matter $s n't *resent) ne0ert(eless) e0ery
real$ty (as $ts de-ree ='+ res$stan,e 'r '+ /e$-(t>) /($,() /$t('ut
d$m$nut$'n '+ t(e e1tens$0e .uant$ty) ,an be,'me less and less ad
$n+$n$tum) be+'re $t *asses $nt' n't($n-ness and d$sa**ears! T(us an
e1*ans$'n /($,( +$lls a s*a,e5 +'r e1am*le) ,al'r$,) 'r any 't(er
real$ty $n t(e *(en'menal /'rld5 ,an de,rease $n $ts de-rees t'
$n+$n$ty) yet /$t('ut lea0$n- t(e smallest *art '+ t(e s*a,e em*ty4 'n
t(e ,'ntrary) +$ll$n- $t /$t( t('se lesser de-rees as ,'m*letely as
an't(er *(en'men'n ,'uld /$t( -reater! "y $ntent$'n (ere $s by n'
means t' ma$nta$n t(at t($s $s really t(e ,ase /$t( t(e d$++eren,e
'+ matters) $n re-ard t' t(e$r s*e,$+$, -ra0$ty4 I /$s( 'nly t' *r'0e)
+r'm a *r$n,$*le '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) t(at t(e nature '+ 'ur
*er,e*t$'ns ma%es su,( a m'de '+ e1*lanat$'n *'ss$ble) and t(at $t
$s err'ne'us t' re-ard t(e real $n a *(en'men'n as e.ual .u'ad $ts
de-ree) and d$++erent 'nly .u'ad $ts a--re-at$'n and e1tens$0e
.uant$ty) and t($s) t'') 'n t(e *retended aut('r$ty '+ an a *r$'r$
*r$n,$*le '+ t(e understand$n-! *
Ne0ert(eless) t($s *r$n,$*le '+ t(e ant$,$*at$'n '+ *er,e*t$'n
must s'me/(at startle an $n.u$rer /('m $n$t$at$'n $nt'
trans,endental *($l's'*(y (as rendered ,aut$'us! 2e must naturally
enterta$n s'me d'ubt /(et(er 'r n't t(e understand$n- ,an en'un,e
any su,( synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n as t(at res*e,t$n- t(e de-ree '+
all real$ty $n *(en'mena) and ,'nse.uently t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e
$nternal d$++eren,e '+ sensat$'n $tsel+5 abstra,t$'n be$n- made '+ $ts
em*$r$,al .ual$ty! T(us $t $s a .uest$'n n't un/'rt(y '+ s'lut$'n6
9H'/ t(e understand$n- ,an *r'n'un,e synt(et$,ally and a *r$'r$
res*e,t$n- *(en'mena) and t(us ant$,$*ate t(ese) e0en $n t(at /($,( $s
*e,ul$arly and merely em*$r$,al) t(at) namely) /($,( ,'n,erns
sensat$'n $tsel+@9 s
T(e .ual$ty '+ sensat$'n $s $n all ,ases merely em*$r$,al) and
,ann't be re*resented a *r$'r$ =+'r e1am*le) ,'l'urs) taste) et,!>!
3ut t(e real5 t(at /($,( ,'rres*'nds t' sensat$'n5 $n '**'s$t$'n t'
ne-at$'n E O) 'nly re*resents s'met($n- t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ /($,( $n
$tsel+ ,'nta$ns a be$n- =e$n seyn>) and s$-n$+$es n't($n- but t(e
synt(es$s $n an em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness! T(at $s t' say) t(e em*$r$,al
,'ns,$'usness $n t(e $nternal sense ,an be ra$sed +r'm N t' e0ery
($-(er de-ree) s' t(at t(e 0ery same e1tens$0e .uant$ty '+
$ntu$t$'n) an $llum$nated sur+a,e) +'r e1am*le) e1,$tes as -reat a
sensat$'n as an a--re-ate '+ many 't(er sur+a,es less $llum$nated!
2e ,an t(ere+'re ma%e ,'m*lete abstra,t$'n '+ t(e e1tens$0e .uant$ty
'+ a *(en'men'n) and re*resent t' 'ursel0es $n t(e mere sensat$'n $n a
,erta$n m'mentum) a synt(es$s '+ ('m'-ene'us as,ens$'n +r'm N u* t'
t(e -$0en em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness) All sensat$'ns t(ere+'re as su,(
are -$0en 'nly a *'ster$'r$) but t($s *r'*erty t(ere'+) namely) t(at
t(ey (a0e a de-ree) ,an be %n'/n a *r$'r$! It $s /'rt(y '+ remar%)
t(at $n res*e,t t' .uant$t$es $n -eneral) /e ,an ,'-n$;e a *r$'r$ 'nly
a s$n-le .ual$ty) namely) ,'nt$nu$ty4 but $n res*e,t t' all .ual$ty
=t(e real $n *(en'mena>) /e ,ann't ,'-n$;e a *r$'r$ anyt($n- m're t(an
t(e $ntens$0e .uant$ty t(ere'+) namely) t(at t(ey (a0e a de-ree! All
else $s le+t t' e1*er$en,e! e
T(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(ese $s6 E1*er$en,e $s *'ss$ble 'nly
t(r'u-( t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a ne,essary ,'nne,t$'n
'+ Per,e*t$'ns!
E1*er$en,e $s an em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n4 t(at $s t' say) a ,'-n$t$'n
/($,( determ$nes an 'b&e,t by means '+ *er,e*t$'ns! It $s t(ere+'re
a synt(es$s '+ *er,e*t$'ns) a synt(es$s /($,( $s n't $tsel+
,'nta$ned $n *er,e*t$'n) but /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+
t(e man$+'ld '+ *er,e*t$'n $n a ,'ns,$'usness4 and t($s un$ty
,'nst$tutes t(e essent$al '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts '+ t(e senses)
t(at $s) '+ e1*er$en,e =n't merely '+ $ntu$t$'n 'r sensat$'n>! N'/
$n e1*er$en,e 'ur *er,e*t$'ns ,'me t'-et(er ,'nt$n-ently) s' t(at n'
,(ara,ter '+ ne,ess$ty $n t(e$r ,'nne,t$'n a**ears) 'r ,an a**ear +r'm
t(e *er,e*t$'ns t(emsel0es) be,ause a**re(ens$'n $s 'nly a *la,$n-
t'-et(er '+ t(e man$+'ld '+ em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) and n' re*resentat$'n
'+ a ne,ess$ty $n t(e ,'nne,ted e1$sten,e '+ t(e *(en'mena /($,(
a**re(ens$'n br$n-s t'-et(er) $s t' be d$s,'0ered t(ere$n! 3ut as
e1*er$en,e $s a ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts by means '+ *er,e*t$'ns) $t
+'ll'/s t(at t(e relat$'n '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e
man$+'ld must be re*resented $n e1*er$en,e n't as $t $s *ut t'-et(er
$n t$me) but as $t $s 'b&e,t$0ely $n t$me! And as t$me $tsel+ ,ann't
be *er,e$0ed) t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ 'b&e,ts $n t$me
,an 'nly ta%e *la,e by means '+ t(e$r ,'nne,t$'n $n t$me $n -eneral)
,'nse.uently 'nly by means '+ a *r$'r$ ,'nne,t$n- ,'n,e*t$'ns! N'/
as t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns al/ays *'ssess t(e ,(ara,ter '+ ne,ess$ty)
e1*er$en,e $s *'ss$ble 'nly by means '+ a re*resentat$'n '+ t(e
ne,essary ,'nne,t$'n '+ *er,e*t$'n! n
T(e t(ree m'd$ '+ t$me are *ermanen,e) su,,ess$'n) and
,'e1$sten,e! A,,'rd$n-ly) t(ere are t(ree rules '+ all relat$'ns '+
t$me $n *(en'mena) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( t(e e1$sten,e '+ e0ery
*(en'men'n $s determ$ned $n res*e,t '+ t(e un$ty '+ all t$me) and
t(ese ante,ede all e1*er$en,e and render $t *'ss$ble! t
T(e -eneral *r$n,$*le '+ all t(ree anal'-$es rests 'n t(e
ne,essary un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n $n relat$'n t' all *'ss$ble
em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness =*er,e*t$'n> at e0ery t$me) ,'nse.uently) as
t($s un$ty l$es a *r$'r$ at t(e +'undat$'n '+ all mental '*erat$'ns)
t(e *r$n,$*le rests 'n t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ all *(en'mena
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e$r relat$'n $n t$me! F'r t(e 'r$-$nal a**er,e*t$'n
relates t' 'ur $nternal sense =t(e ,'m*le1 '+ all re*resentat$'ns>)
and $ndeed relates a *r$'r$ t' $ts +'rm) t(at $s t' say) t(e
relat$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld em*$r$,al ,'ns,$'usness $n t$me! N'/ t($s
man$+'ld must be ,'mb$ned $n 'r$-$nal a**er,e*t$'n a,,'rd$n- t'
relat$'ns '+ t$me5 a ne,ess$ty $m*'sed by t(e a *r$'r$
trans,endental un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n) t' /($,( $s sub&e,ted all t(at
,an bel'n- t' my =$!e!) my '/n> ,'-n$t$'n) and t(ere+'re all t(at
,an be,'me an 'b&e,t +'r me! T($s synt(et$,al and a *r$'r$
determ$ned un$ty $n relat$'n '+ *er,e*t$'ns $n t$me $s t(ere+'re t(e
rule6 9All em*$r$,al determ$nat$'ns '+ t$me must be sub&e,t t' rules
'+ t(e -eneral determ$nat$'n '+ t$me94 and t(e anal'-$es '+
e1*er$en,e) '+ /($,( /e are n'/ ab'ut t' treat) must be rules '+
t($s nature! t
T(ese *r$n,$*les (a0e t($s *e,ul$ar$ty) t(at t(ey d' n't ,'n,ern
*(en'mena) and t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n t(ere'+) but
merely t(e e1$sten,e '+ *(en'mena and t(e$r relat$'n t' ea,( 't(er
$n re-ard t' t($s e1$sten,e! N'/ t(e m'de $n /($,( /e a**re(end a
t($n- $n a *(en'men'n ,an be determ$ned a *r$'r$ $n su,( a manner t(at
t(e rule '+ $ts synt(es$s ,an -$0e) t(at $s t' say) ,an *r'du,e t($s a
*r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n $n e0ery em*$r$,al e1am*le! 3ut t(e e1$sten,e '+
*(en'mena ,ann't be %n'/n a *r$'r$) and alt('u-( /e ,'uld arr$0e by
t($s *at( at a ,'n,lus$'n '+ t(e +a,t '+ s'me e1$sten,e) /e ,'uld
n't ,'-n$;e t(at e1$sten,e determ$nately) t(at $s t' say) /e s('uld be
$n,a*able '+ ant$,$*at$n- $n /(at res*e,t t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n '+
$t /'uld be d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm t(at '+ 't(ers! $
T(e t/' *r$n,$*les ab'0e ment$'ned) /($,( I ,alled mat(emat$,al)
$n ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(e +a,t '+ t(e$r aut('r$;$n- t(e a**l$,at$'n '+
mat(emat$, *(en'mena) relate t' t(ese *(en'mena 'nly $n re-ard t'
t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty) and $nstru,t us ('/ *(en'mena) as +ar as re-ards
t(e$r $ntu$t$'n 'r t(e real $n t(e$r *er,e*t$'n) ,an be -enerated
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e rules '+ a mat(emat$,al synt(es$s! C'nse.uently)
numer$,al .uant$t$es) and /$t( t(em t(e determ$nat$'n '+ a
*(en'men'n as a .uant$ty) ,an be em*l'yed $n t(e 'ne ,ase as /ell as
$n t(e 't(er! T(us) +'r e1am*le) 'ut '+ BNN)NNN $llum$nat$'ns by t(e
m''n) I m$-(t ,'m*'se and -$0e a *r$'r$) t(at $s ,'nstru,t) t(e de-ree
'+ 'ur sensat$'ns '+ t(e sunl$-(t! 2e may t(ere+'re ent$tle t(ese
t/' *r$n,$*les ,'nst$tut$0e! t
T(e ,ase $s 0ery d$++erent /$t( t('se *r$n,$*les /('se *r'0$n,e $t
$s t' sub&e,t t(e e1$sten,e '+ *(en'mena t' rules a *r$'r$! F'r as
e1$sten,e d'es n't adm$t '+ be$n- ,'nstru,ted) $t $s ,lear t(at t(ey
must 'nly ,'n,ern t(e relat$'ns '+ e1$sten,e and be merely
re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*les! In t($s ,ase) t(ere+'re) ne$t(er a1$'ms n'r
ant$,$*at$'ns are t' be t('u-(t '+! T(us) $+ a *er,e*t$'n $s -$0en us)
$n a ,erta$n relat$'n '+ t$me t' 't(er =alt('u-( undeterm$ned>
*er,e*t$'ns) /e ,ann't t(en say a *r$'r$) /(at and ('/ -reat =$n
.uant$ty> t(e 't(er *er,e*t$'n ne,essar$ly ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e +'rmer
$s) but 'nly ('/ $t $s ,'nne,ted) .u'ad $ts e1$sten,e) $n t($s -$0en
m'dus '+ t$me! Anal'-$es $n *($l's'*(y mean s'met($n- 0ery d$++erent
+r'm t(at /($,( t(ey re*resent $n mat(emat$,s! In t(e latter t(ey
are +'rmulae) /($,( en'un,e t(e e.ual$ty '+ t/' relat$'ns '+ .uant$ty)
and are al/ays ,'nst$tut$0e) s' t(at $+ t/' terms '+ t(e *r'*'rt$'n
are -$0en) t(e t($rd $s als' -$0en) t(at $s) ,an be ,'nstru,ted by t(e
a$d '+ t(ese +'rmulae! 3ut $n *($l's'*(y) anal'-y $s n't t(e
e.ual$ty '+ t/' .uant$tat$0e but '+ t/' .ual$tat$0e relat$'ns! In t($s
,ase) +r'm t(ree -$0en terms) I ,an -$0e a *r$'r$ and ,'-n$;e t(e
relat$'n t' a +'urt( member) but n't t($s +'urt( term $tsel+) alt('u-(
I ,erta$nly *'ssess a rule t' -u$de me $n t(e sear,( +'r t($s +'urt(
term $n e1*er$en,e) and a mar% t' ass$st me $n d$s,'0er$n- $t! An
anal'-y '+ e1*er$en,e $s t(ere+'re 'nly a rule a,,'rd$n- t' /($,(
un$ty '+ e1*er$en,e must ar$se 'ut '+ *er,e*t$'ns $n res*e,t t'
'b&e,ts =*(en'mena> n't as a ,'nst$tut$0e) but merely as a
re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*le! T(e same ('lds -''d als' '+ t(e *'stulates '+
em*$r$,al t('u-(t $n -eneral) /($,( relate t' t(e synt(es$s '+ mere
$ntu$t$'n =/($,( ,'n,erns t(e +'rm '+ *(en'mena>) t(e synt(es$s '+
*er,e*t$'n =/($,( ,'n,erns t(e matter '+ *(en'mena>) and t(e synt(es$s
'+ e1*er$en,e =/($,( ,'n,erns t(e relat$'n '+ t(ese *er,e*t$'ns>!
F'r t(ey are 'nly re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*les) and ,learly d$st$n-u$s(able
+r'm t(e mat(emat$,al) /($,( are ,'nst$tut$0e) n't $ndeed $n re-ard t'
t(e ,erta$nty /($,( b't( *'ssess a *r$'r$) but $n t(e m'de '+ e0$den,e
t(ere'+) ,'nse.uently als' $n t(e manner '+ dem'nstrat$'n! t
3ut /(at (as been 'bser0ed '+ all synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns) and must
be *art$,ularly remar%ed $n t($s *la,e) $s t($s) t(at t(ese
anal'-$es *'ssess s$-n$+$,an,e and 0al$d$ty) n't as *r$n,$*les '+
t(e trans,endental) but 'nly as *r$n,$*les '+ t(e em*$r$,al use '+ t(e
understand$n-) and t(e$r trut( ,an t(ere+'re be *r'0ed 'nly as su,()
and t(at ,'nse.uently t(e *(en'mena must n't be sub&'$ned d$re,tly
under t(e ,ate-'r$es) but 'nly under t(e$r s,(emata! F'r $+ t(e
'b&e,ts t' /($,( t('se *r$n,$*les must be a**l$ed /ere t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) $t /'uld be .u$te $m*'ss$ble t' ,'-n$;e au-(t ,'n,ern$n-
t(em synt(et$,ally a *r$'r$! 3ut t(ey are n't($n- but *(en'mena4 a
,'m*lete %n'/led-e '+ /($,(5 a %n'/led-e t' /($,( all *r$n,$*les a
*r$'r$ must at last relate5 $s t(e 'nly *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! It
+'ll'/s t(at t(ese *r$n,$*les ,an (a0e n't($n- else +'r t(e$r a$m t(an
t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n $n t(e un$ty '+ synt(es$s '+
*(en'mena! 3ut t($s synt(es$s $s ,'-$tated 'nly $n t(e s,(ema '+ t(e
*ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) '+ /('se un$ty) as t(at '+ a
synt(es$s $n -eneral) t(e ,ate-'ry ,'nta$ns t(e +un,t$'n
unrestr$,ted by any sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n! T(ese *r$n,$*les /$ll
t(ere+'re aut('r$;e us t' ,'nne,t *(en'mena a,,'rd$n- t' an anal'-y)
/$t( t(e l'-$,al and un$0ersal un$ty '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) and
,'nse.uently t' em*l'y t(e ,ate-'r$es $n t(e *r$n,$*les t(emsel0es4
but $n t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(em t' e1*er$en,e) /e s(all use 'nly
t(e$r s,(emata) as t(e %ey t' t(e$r *r'*er a**l$,at$'n) $nstead '+ t(e
,ate-'r$es) 'r rat(er t(e latter as restr$,t$n- ,'nd$t$'ns) under
t(e t$tle '+ 9+'rmulae9 '+ t(e +'rmer! t
Pr$n,$*le '+ t(e Permanen,e '+ Substan,e!
In all ,(an-es '+ *(en'mena) substan,e $s *ermanent) and t(e
.uantum t(ere'+ $n nature $s ne$t(er $n,reased n'r d$m$n$s(ed!
All *(en'mena e1$st $n t$me) /(ere$n al'ne as substratum) t(at $s)
as t(e *ermanent +'rm '+ t(e $nternal $ntu$t$'n) ,'e1$sten,e and
su,,ess$'n ,an be re*resented! C'nse.uently t$me) $n /($,( all ,(an-es
'+ *(en'mena must be ,'-$tated) rema$ns and ,(an-es n't) be,ause $t $s
t(at $n /($,( su,,ess$'n and ,'e1$sten,e ,an be re*resented 'nly as
determ$nat$'ns t(ere'+! N'/) t$me $n $tsel+ ,ann't be an 'b&e,t '+
*er,e*t$'n! It +'ll'/s t(at $n 'b&e,ts '+ *er,e*t$'n) t(at $s) $n
*(en'mena) t(ere must be +'und a substratum /($,( re*resents t$me $n
-eneral) and $n /($,( all ,(an-e 'r ,'e1$sten,e ,an be *er,e$0ed by
means '+ t(e relat$'n '+ *(en'mena t' $t! 3ut t(e substratum '+ all
real$ty) t(at $s) '+ all t(at *erta$ns t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s)
$s substan,e4 all t(at *erta$ns t' e1$sten,e ,an be ,'-$tated 'nly
as a determ$nat$'n '+ substan,e! C'nse.uently) t(e *ermanent) $n
relat$'n t' /($,( al'ne ,an all relat$'ns '+ t$me $n *(en'mena be
determ$ned) $s substan,e $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena) t(at $s) t(e
real $n *(en'mena) t(at /($,() as t(e substratum '+ all ,(an-e)
rema$ns e0er t(e same! A,,'rd$n-ly) as t($s ,ann't ,(an-e $n
e1$sten,e) $ts .uant$ty $n nature ,an ne$t(er be $n,reased n'r
d$m$n$s(ed! d
Our a**re(ens$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n a *(en'men'n $s al/ays
su,,ess$0e) $s C'nse.uently al/ays ,(an-$n-! 3y $t al'ne /e ,'uld)
t(ere+'re) ne0er determ$ne /(et(er t($s man$+'ld) as an 'b&e,t '+
e1*er$en,e) $s ,'e1$stent 'r su,,ess$0e) unless $t (ad +'r a
+'undat$'n s'met($n- +$1ed and *ermanent) '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ /($,(
all su,,ess$'n and ,'e1$sten,e are n't($n- but s' many m'des =m'd$
'+ t$me>! Only $n t(e *ermanent) t(en) are relat$'ns '+ t$me
*'ss$ble =+'r s$multane$ty and su,,ess$'n are t(e 'nly relat$'ns $n
t$me>4 t(at $s t' say) t(e *ermanent $s t(e substratum '+ 'ur
em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n '+ t$me $tsel+) $n /($,( al'ne all
determ$nat$'n '+ t$me $s *'ss$ble! Permanen,e $s) $n +a,t) &ust
an't(er e1*ress$'n +'r t$me) as t(e ab$d$n- ,'rrelate '+ all e1$sten,e
'+ *(en'mena) and '+ all ,(an-e) and '+ all ,'e1$sten,e! F'r ,(an-e
d'es n't a++e,t t$me $tsel+) but 'nly t(e *(en'mena $n t$me =&ust as
,'e1$sten,e ,ann't be re-arded as a m'dus '+ t$me $tsel+) see$n-
t(at $n t$me n' *arts are ,'e1$stent) but all su,,ess$0e>! I+ /e
/ere t' attr$bute su,,ess$'n t' t$me $tsel+) /e s('uld be 'bl$-ed t'
,'-$tate an't(er t$me) $n /($,( t($s su,,ess$'n /'uld be *'ss$ble!
It $s 'nly by means '+ t(e *ermanent t(at e1$sten,e $n d$++erent *arts
'+ t(e su,,ess$0e ser$es '+ t$me re,e$0es a .uant$ty) /($,( /e ent$tle
durat$'n! F'r $n mere su,,ess$'n) e1$sten,e $s *er*etually 0an$s($n-
and re,'mmen,$n-) and t(ere+'re ne0er (as e0en t(e least .uant$ty!
2$t('ut t(e *ermanent) t(en) n' relat$'n $n t$me $s *'ss$ble! N'/)
t$me $n $tsel+ $s n't an 'b&e,t '+ *er,e*t$'n4 ,'nse.uently t(e
*ermanent $n *(en'mena must be re-arded as t(e substratum '+ all
determ$nat$'n '+ t$me) and ,'nse.uently als' as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ all synt(et$,al un$ty '+ *er,e*t$'ns) t(at $s) '+
e1*er$en,e4 and all e1$sten,e and all ,(an-e $n t$me ,an 'nly be
re-arded as a m'de $n t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(at /($,( ab$des un,(an-eably!
T(ere+'re) $n all *(en'mena) t(e *ermanent $s t(e 'b&e,t $n $tsel+)
t(at $s) t(e substan,e =*(en'men'n>4 but all t(at ,(an-es 'r ,an
,(an-e bel'n-s 'nly t' t(e m'de '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($s substan,e
'r substan,es) ,'nse.uently t' $ts determ$nat$'ns! '
I +$nd t(at $n all a-es n't 'nly t(e *($l's'*(er) but e0en t(e
,'mm'n understand$n-) (as *re*'s$ted t($s *ermanen,e as a substratum
'+ all ,(an-e $n *(en'mena4 $ndeed) I am ,'m*elled t' bel$e0e t(at
t(ey /$ll al/ays a,,e*t t($s as an $ndub$table +a,t! Only t(e
*($l's'*(er e1*resses ($msel+ $n a m're *re,$se and de+$n$te manner)
/(en (e says6 9In all ,(an-es $n t(e /'rld) t(e substan,e rema$ns) and
t(e a,,$dents al'ne are ,(an-eable!9 3ut '+ t($s de,$dedly synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n) I n'/(ere meet /$t( e0en an attem*t at *r''+4 nay) $t
0ery rarely (as t(e -''d +'rtune t' stand) as $t deser0es t' d') at
t(e (ead '+ t(e *ure and ent$rely a *r$'r$ la/s '+ nature! In trut()
t(e statement t(at substan,e $s *ermanent) $s taut'l'-$,al! F'r t($s
0ery *ermanen,e $s t(e -r'und 'n /($,( /e a**ly t(e ,ate-'ry '+
substan,e t' t(e *(en'men'n4 and /e s('uld (a0e been 'bl$-ed t'
*r'0e t(at $n all *(en'mena t(ere $s s'met($n- *ermanent) '+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ /($,( t(e ,(an-eable $s n't($n- but a determ$nat$'n!
3ut be,ause a *r''+ '+ t($s nature ,ann't be d'-mat$,al) t(at $s)
,ann't be dra/n +r'm ,'n,e*t$'ns) $nasmu,( as $t ,'n,erns a
synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n a *r$'r$) and as *($l's'*(ers ne0er
re+le,ted t(at su,( *r'*'s$t$'ns are 0al$d 'nly $n relat$'n t'
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) and t(ere+'re ,ann't be *r'0ed e1,e*t by means '+
a dedu,t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) $t $s n' /'nder t(at
/($le $t (as ser0ed as t(e +'undat$'n '+ all e1*er$en,e =+'r /e +eel
t(e need '+ $t $n em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n>) $t (as ne0er been su**'rted by
*r''+! *
A *($l's'*(er /as as%ed6 92(at $s t(e /e$-(t '+ sm'%e@9 He ans/ered6
9Subtra,t +r'm t(e /e$-(t '+ t(e burnt /''d t(e /e$-(t '+ t(e
rema$n$n- as(es) and y'u /$ll (a0e t(e /e$-(t '+ t(e sm'%e!9 T(us (e
*resumed $t t' be $n,'ntr'0ert$ble t(at e0en $n +$re t(e matter
=substan,e> d'es n't *er$s() but t(at 'nly t(e +'rm '+ $t under-'es
a ,(an-e! In l$%e manner /as t(e say$n-6 9Fr'm n't($n- ,'mes n't($n-)9
'nly an't(er $n+eren,e +r'm t(e *r$n,$*le 'r *ermanen,e) 'r rat(er
'+ t(e e0er5ab$d$n- e1$sten,e '+ t(e true sub&e,t $n *(en'mena! F'r $+
t(at $n t(e *(en'men'n /($,( /e ,all substan,e $s t' be t(e *r'*er
substratum '+ all determ$nat$'n '+ t$me) $t +'ll'/s t(at all e1$sten,e
$n *ast as /ell as $n +uture t$me) must be determ$nable by means '+ $t
al'ne! Hen,e /e are ent$tled t' a**ly t(e term substan,e t' a
*(en'men'n) 'nly be,ause /e su**'se $ts e1$sten,e $n all t$me) a
n't$'n /($,( t(e /'rd *ermanen,e d'es n't +ully e1*ress) as $t seems
rat(er t' be re+erable t' +uture t$me! H'/e0er) t(e $nternal ne,ess$ty
*er*etually t' be) $s $nse*arably ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e ne,ess$ty
al/ays t' (a0e been) and s' t(e e1*ress$'n may stand as $t $s!
9C$-n$ de n$($l' n$($l4 $n n$($lum n$l *'sse re0ert$)97 are t/'
*r'*'s$t$'ns /($,( t(e an,$ents ne0er *arted) and /($,( *e'*le
n'/adays s'met$mes m$sta%enly d$s&'$n) be,ause t(ey $ma-$ne t(at t(e
*r'*'s$t$'ns a**ly t' 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) and t(at t(e
+'rmer m$-(t be $n$m$,al t' t(e de*enden,e =e0en $n res*e,t '+ $ts
substan,e als'> '+ t(e /'rld u*'n a su*reme ,ause! 3ut t($s
a**re(ens$'n $s ent$rely needless) +'r t(e .uest$'n $n t($s ,ase $s
'nly '+ *(en'mena $n t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e) t(e un$ty '+ /($,(
ne0er ,'uld be *'ss$ble) $+ /e adm$tted t(e *'ss$b$l$ty t(at ne/
t($n-s =$n res*e,t '+ t(e$r substan,e> s('uld ar$se! F'r $n t(at ,ase)
/e s('uld l'se alt'-et(er t(at /($,( al'ne ,an re*resent t(e un$ty
'+ t$me) t' /$t) t(e $dent$ty '+ t(e substratum) as t(at t(r'u-( /($,(
al'ne all ,(an-e *'ssesses ,'m*lete and t('r'u-( un$ty! T($s
*ermanen,e $s) ('/e0er) n't($n- but t(e manner $n /($,( /e re*resent
t' 'ursel0es t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s $n t(e *(en'menal /'rld! t
78Pers$us) Sat$rae) $$$!8I58K! 9N't($n- ,an be *r'du,ed +r'm
n't($n-4 n't($n- ,an be returned $nt' n't($n-!9: n
T(e determ$nat$'ns '+ a substan,e) /($,( are 'nly *art$,ular m'des
'+ $ts e1$sten,e) are ,alled a,,$dents! T(ey are al/ays real)
be,ause t(ey ,'n,ern t(e e1$sten,e '+ substan,e =ne-at$'ns are 'nly
determ$nat$'ns) /($,( e1*ress t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ s'met($n- $n t(e
substan,e>! N'/) $+ t' t($s real $n t(e substan,e /e as,r$be a
*art$,ular e1$sten,e =+'r e1am*le) t' m't$'n as an a,,$dent '+
matter>) t($s e1$sten,e $s ,alled $n(eren,e) $n ,'ntrad$st$n,t$'n t'
t(e e1$sten,e '+ substan,e) /($,( /e ,all subs$sten,e! 3ut (en,e ar$se
many m$s,'n,e*t$'ns) and $t /'uld be a m're a,,urate and &ust m'de
'+ e1*ress$'n t' des$-nate t(e a,,$dent 'nly as t(e m'de $n /($,(
t(e e1$sten,e '+ a substan,e $s *'s$t$0ely determ$ned! "ean/($le) by
reas'n '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e l'-$,al e1er,$se '+ 'ur understand$n-)
$t $s $m*'ss$ble t' a0'$d se*arat$n-) as $t /ere) t(at /($,( $n t(e
e1$sten,e '+ a substan,e $s sub&e,t t' ,(an-e) /($lst t(e substan,e
rema$ns) and re-ard$n- $t $n relat$'n t' t(at /($,( $s *r'*erly
*ermanent and rad$,al! On t($s a,,'unt) t($s ,ate-'ry '+ substan,e
stands under t(e t$tle '+ relat$'n) rat(er be,ause $t $s t(e ,'nd$t$'n
t(ere'+ t(an be,ause $t ,'nta$ns $n $tsel+ any relat$'n! t
N'/) u*'n t($s n't$'n '+ *ermanen,e rests t(e *r'*er n't$'n '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n ,(an-e! Or$-$n and e1t$n,t$'n are n't ,(an-es '+ t(at /($,(
'r$-$nates 'r be,'mes e1t$n,t! C(an-e $s but a m'de '+ e1$sten,e)
/($,( +'ll'/s 'n an't(er m'de '+ e1$sten,e '+ t(e same 'b&e,t4 (en,e
all t(at ,(an-es $s *ermanent) and 'nly t(e ,'nd$t$'n t(ere'+ ,(an-es!
N'/ s$n,e t($s mutat$'n a++e,ts 'nly determ$nat$'ns) /($,( ,an (a0e
a be-$nn$n- 'r an end) /e may say) em*l'y$n- an e1*ress$'n /($,( seems
s'me/(at *arad'1$,al6 9Only t(e *ermanent =substan,e> $s sub&e,t t'
,(an-e4 t(e mutable su++ers n' ,(an-e) but rat(er alternat$'n) t(at
$s) /(en ,erta$n determ$nat$'ns ,ease) 't(ers be-$n!9 $
C(an-e) /(en) ,ann't be *er,e$0ed by us e1,e*t $n substan,es) and
'r$-$n 'r e1t$n,t$'n $n an abs'lute sense) t(at d'es n't ,'n,ern
merely a determ$nat$'n '+ t(e *ermanent) ,ann't be a *'ss$ble
*er,e*t$'n) +'r $t $s t($s 0ery n't$'n '+ t(e *ermanent /($,(
renders *'ss$ble t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a trans$t$'n +r'm 'ne state
$nt' an't(er) and +r'm n'n5be$n- t' be$n-) /($,() ,'nse.uently) ,an be
em*$r$,ally ,'-n$;ed 'nly as alternat$n- determ$nat$'ns '+ t(at
/($,( $s *ermanent! Crant t(at a t($n- abs'lutely be-$ns t' be4 /e
must t(en (a0e a *'$nt '+ t$me $n /($,( $t /as n't! 3ut ('/ and by
/(at ,an /e +$1 and determ$ne t($s *'$nt '+ t$me) unless by t(at /($,(
already e1$sts@ F'r a 0'$d t$me5 *re,ed$n-5 $s n't an 'b&e,t '+
*er,e*t$'n4 but $+ /e ,'nne,t t($s be-$nn$n- /$t( 'b&e,ts /($,(
e1$sted *re0$'usly) and /($,( ,'nt$nue t' e1$st t$ll t(e 'b&e,t $n
.uest$'n $n .uest$'n be-$ns t' be) t(en t(e latter ,an 'nly be a
determ$nat$'n '+ t(e +'rmer as t(e *ermanent! T(e same ('lds -''d '+
t(e n't$'n '+ e1t$n,t$'n) +'r t($s *resu**'ses t(e em*$r$,al
re*resentat$'n '+ a t$me) $n /($,( a *(en'men'n n' l'n-er e1$sts! r
Substan,es =$n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena> are t(e substratum '+ all
determ$nat$'ns '+ t$me! T(e be-$nn$n- '+ s'me) and t(e ,eas$n- t' be
'+ 't(er substan,es) /'uld utterly d' a/ay /$t( t(e 'nly ,'nd$t$'n
'+ t(e em*$r$,al un$ty '+ t$me4 and $n t(at ,ase *(en'mena /'uld
relate t' t/' d$++erent t$mes) $n /($,() s$de by s$de) e1$sten,e /'uld
*ass4 /($,( $s absurd! F'r t(ere $s 'nly 'ne t$me $n /($,( all
d$++erent t$mes must be *la,ed) n't as ,'e1$stent) but as su,,ess$0e! d
A,,'rd$n-ly) *ermanen,e $s a ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n under /($,( al'ne
*(en'mena) as t($n-s 'r 'b&e,ts) are determ$nable $n a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e! 3ut as re-ards t(e em*$r$,al ,r$ter$'n '+ t($s ne,essary
*ermanen,e) and /$t( $t '+ t(e substant$al$ty '+ *(en'mena) /e s(all
+$nd su++$,$ent '**'rtun$ty t' s*ea% $n t(e se.uel! +
Pr$n,$*le '+ t(e Su,,ess$'n '+ T$me A,,'rd$n-
t' t(e <a/ '+ Causal$ty!
All ,(an-es ta%e *la,e a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/ '+ t(e
,'nne,t$'n '+ Cause and E++e,t!
=T(at all *(en'mena $n t(e su,,ess$'n '+ t$me are 'nly ,(an-es) t(at
$s) a su,,ess$0e be$n- and n'n5be$n- '+ t(e determ$nat$'ns '+
substan,e) /($,( $s *ermanent4 ,'nse.uently t(at a be$n- '+
substan,e $tsel+ /($,( +'ll'/s 'n t(e n'n5be$n- t(ere'+) 'r a
n'n5be$n- '+ substan,e /($,( +'ll'/s 'n t(e be$n- t(ere'+) $n 't(er
/'rds) t(at t(e 'r$-$n 'r e1t$n,t$'n '+ substan,e $tsel+) $s
$m*'ss$ble5 all t($s (as been +ully establ$s(ed $n treat$n- '+ t(e
+'re-'$n- *r$n,$*le! T($s *r$n,$*le m$-(t (a0e been e1*ressed as
+'ll'/s6 9All alterat$'n =su,,ess$'n> '+ *(en'mena $s merely
,(an-e94 +'r t(e ,(an-es '+ substan,e are n't 'r$-$n 'r e1t$n,t$'n)
be,ause t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,(an-e *resu**'ses t(e same sub&e,t as
e1$st$n- /$t( t/' '**'s$te determ$nat$'ns) and ,'nse.uently as
*ermanent! A+ter t($s *rem'n$t$'n) /e s(all *r',eed t' t(e *r''+!> *
I *er,e$0e t(at *(en'mena su,,eed 'ne an't(er) t(at $s t' say) a
state '+ t($n-s e1$sts at 'ne t$me) t(e '**'s$te '+ /($,( e1$sted $n a
+'rmer state! In t($s ,ase) t(en) I really ,'nne,t t'-et(er t/'
*er,e*t$'ns $n t$me! N'/ ,'nne,t$'n $s n't an '*erat$'n '+ mere
sense and $ntu$t$'n) but $s t(e *r'du,t '+ a synt(et$,al +a,ulty '+
$ma-$nat$'n) /($,( determ$nes t(e $nternal sense $n res*e,t '+ a
relat$'n '+ t$me! 3ut $ma-$nat$'n ,an ,'nne,t t(ese t/' states $n
t/' /ays) s' t(at e$t(er t(e 'ne 'r t(e 't(er may ante,ede $n t$me4
+'r t$me $n $tsel+ ,ann't be an 'b&e,t '+ *er,e*t$'n) and /(at $n an
'b&e,t *re,edes and /(at +'ll'/s ,ann't be em*$r$,ally determ$ned $n
relat$'n t' $t! I am 'nly ,'ns,$'us) t(en) t(at my $ma-$nat$'n
*la,es 'ne state be+'re and t(e 't(er a+ter4 n't t(at t(e 'ne state
ante,edes t(e 't(er $n t(e 'b&e,t! In 't(er /'rds) t(e 'b&e,t$0e
relat$'n '+ t(e su,,ess$0e *(en'mena rema$ns .u$te undeterm$ned by
means '+ mere *er,e*t$'n! N'/ $n 'rder t(at t($s relat$'n may be
,'-n$;ed as determ$ned) t(e relat$'n bet/een t(e t/' states must be s'
,'-$tated t(at $t $s t(ereby determ$ned as ne,essary) /($,( '+ t(em
must be *la,ed be+'re and /($,( a+ter) and n't ,'n0ersely! 3ut t(e
,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ,arr$es /$t( $t a ne,ess$ty '+ synt(et$,al un$ty) ,an
be n'ne 't(er t(an a *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- /($,( d'es
n't l$e $n mere *er,e*t$'n4 and $n t($s ,ase $t $s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
9t(e relat$'n '+ ,ause and e++e,t)9 t(e +'rmer '+ /($,( determ$nes t(e
latter $n t$me) as $ts ne,essary ,'nse.uen,e) and n't as s'met($n-
/($,( m$-(t *'ss$bly ante,ede ='r /($,( m$-(t $n s'me ,ases n't be
*er,e$0ed t' +'ll'/>! It +'ll'/s t(at $t $s 'nly be,ause /e sub&e,t
t(e se.uen,e '+ *(en'mena) and ,'nse.uently all ,(an-e) t' t(e la/
'+ ,ausal$ty) t(at e1*er$en,e $tsel+) t(at $s) em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n
'+ *(en'mena) be,'mes *'ss$ble4 and ,'nse.uently) t(at *(en'mena
t(emsel0es) as 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) are *'ss$ble 'nly by 0$rtue '+
t($s la/! t
Our a**re(ens$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld '+ *(en'mena $s al/ays
su,,ess$0e! T(e re*resentat$'ns '+ *arts su,,eed 'ne an't(er!
2(et(er t(ey su,,eed 'ne an't(er $n t(e 'b&e,t als') $s a se,'nd *'$nt
+'r re+le,t$'n) /($,( /as n't ,'nta$ned $n t(e +'rmer! N'/ /e may
,erta$nly -$0e t(e name '+ 'b&e,t t' e0eryt($n-) e0en t' e0ery
re*resentat$'n) s' +ar as /e are ,'ns,$'us t(ere'+4 but /(at t($s /'rd
may mean $n t(e ,ase '+ *(en'mena) n't merely $n s' +ar as t(ey =as
re*resentat$'ns> are 'b&e,ts) but 'nly $n s' +ar as t(ey $nd$,ate an
'b&e,t) $s a .uest$'n re.u$r$n- dee*er ,'ns$derat$'n! In s' +ar as
t(ey) re-arded merely as re*resentat$'ns) are at t(e same t$me 'b&e,ts
'+ ,'ns,$'usness) t(ey are n't t' be d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm
a**re(ens$'n) t(at $s) re,e*t$'n $nt' t(e synt(es$s '+ $ma-$nat$'n)
and /e must t(ere+'re say6 9T(e man$+'ld '+ *(en'mena $s al/ays
*r'du,ed su,,ess$0ely $n t(e m$nd!9 I+ *(en'mena /ere t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) n' man /'uld be able t' ,'n&e,ture +r'm t(e su,,ess$'n
'+ 'ur re*resentat$'ns ('/ t($s man$+'ld $s ,'nne,ted $n t(e 'b&e,t4
+'r /e (a0e t' d' 'nly /$t( 'ur re*resentat$'ns! H'/ t($n-s may be
$n t(emsel0es) /$t('ut re-ard t' t(e re*resentat$'ns t(r'u-( /($,(
t(ey a++e,t us) $s utterly bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n! N'/
alt('u-( *(en'mena are n't t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) and are
ne0ert(eless t(e 'nly t($n- -$0en t' us t' be ,'-n$;ed) $t $s my
duty t' s('/ /(at s'rt '+ ,'nne,t$'n $n t$me bel'n-s t' t(e man$+'ld
$n *(en'mena t(emsel0es) /($le t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t($s man$+'ld
$n a**re(ens$'n $s al/ays su,,ess$0e! F'r e1am*le) t(e a**re(ens$'n '+
t(e man$+'ld $n t(e *(en'men'n '+ a ('use /($,( stands be+'re me) $s
su,,ess$0e! N'/ ,'mes t(e .uest$'n /(et(er t(e man$+'ld '+ t($s
('use $s $n $tsel+ su,,ess$0e5 /($,( n' 'ne /$ll be at all /$ll$n-
t' -rant! 3ut) s' s''n as I ra$se my ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t t' t(e
trans,endental s$-n$+$,at$'n t(ere'+) I +$nd t(at t(e ('use $s n't a
t($n- $n $tsel+) but 'nly a *(en'men'n) t(at $s) a re*resentat$'n) t(e
trans,endental 'b&e,t '+ /($,( rema$ns utterly un%n'/n! 2(at t(en am I
t' understand by t(e .uest$'n6 9H'/ ,an t(e man$+'ld be ,'nne,ted $n
t(e *(en'men'n $tsel+5 n't ,'ns$dered as a t($n- $n $tsel+) but merely
as a *(en'men'n@9 Here t(at /($,( l$es $n my su,,ess$0e a**re(ens$'n
$s re-arded as re*resentat$'n) /($lst t(e *(en'men'n /($,( $s -$0en
me) n't/$t(stand$n- t(at $t $s n't($n- m're t(an a ,'m*le1 '+ t(ese
re*resentat$'ns) $s re-arded as t(e 'b&e,t t(ere'+) /$t( /($,( my
,'n,e*t$'n) dra/n +r'm t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ a**re(ens$'n) must
(arm'n$;e! It $s 0ery s''n seen t(at) as a,,'rdan,e '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n
/$t( $ts 'b&e,t ,'nst$tutes trut() t(e .uest$'n n'/ be+'re us ,an 'nly
relate t' t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ em*$r$,al trut(4 and t(at t(e
*(en'men'n) $n '**'s$t$'n t' t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ a**re(ens$'n)
,an 'nly be d$st$n-u$s(ed t(ere+r'm as t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(em) $+ $t $s
sub&e,t t' a rule /($,( d$st$n-u$s(es $t +r'm e0ery 't(er
a**re(ens$'n) and /($,( renders ne,essary a m'de '+ ,'nne,t$'n '+
t(e man$+'ld! T(at $n t(e *(en'men'n /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+
t($s ne,essary rule '+ a**re(ens$'n) $s t(e 'b&e,t! t
<et us n'/ *r',eed t' 'ur tas%! T(at s'met($n- (a**ens) t(at $s t'
say) t(at s'met($n- 'r s'me state e1$sts /($,( be+'re /as n't)
,ann't be em*$r$,ally *er,e$0ed) unless a *(en'men'n *re,edes) /($,(
d'es n't ,'nta$n $n $tsel+ t($s state! F'r a real$ty /($,( s('uld
+'ll'/ u*'n a 0'$d t$me) $n 't(er /'rds) a be-$nn$n-) /($,( n' state
'+ t($n-s *re,edes) ,an &ust as l$ttle be a**re(ended as t(e 0'$d t$me
$tsel+! E0ery a**re(ens$'n '+ an e0ent $s t(ere+'re a *er,e*t$'n /($,(
+'ll'/s u*'n an't(er *er,e*t$'n! 3ut as t($s $s t(e ,ase /$t( all
synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n) as I (a0e s('/n ab'0e $n t(e e1am*le '+ a
('use) my a**re(ens$'n '+ an e0ent $s n't yet su++$,$ently
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm 't(er a**re(ens$'ns! 3ut I remar% als' t(at $+ $n a
*(en'men'n /($,( ,'nta$ns an ',,urren,e) I ,all t(e ante,edent state
'+ my *er,e*t$'n) A) and t(e +'ll'/$n- state) 3) t(e *er,e*t$'n 3
,an 'nly +'ll'/ A $n a**re(ens$'n) and t(e *er,e*t$'n A ,ann't
+'ll'/ 3) but 'nly *re,ede $t! F'r e1am*le) I see a s($* +l'at d'/n
t(e stream '+ a r$0er! "y *er,e*t$'n '+ $ts *la,e l'/er d'/n +'ll'/s
u*'n my *er,e*t$'n '+ $ts *la,e ($-(er u* t(e ,'urse '+ t(e r$0er) and
$t $s $m*'ss$ble t(at) $n t(e a**re(ens$'n '+ t($s *(en'men'n) t(e
0essel s('uld be *er,e$0ed +$rst bel'/ and a+ter/ards ($-(er u* t(e
stream! Here) t(ere+'re) t(e 'rder $n t(e se.uen,e '+ *er,e*t$'ns $n
a**re(ens$'n $s determ$ned4 and by t($s 'rder a**re(ens$'n $s
re-ulated! In t(e +'rmer e1am*le) my *er,e*t$'ns $n t(e a**re(ens$'n
'+ a ('use m$-(t be-$n at t(e r''+ and end at t(e +'undat$'n) 'r
0$,e 0ersa4 'r I m$-(t a**re(end t(e man$+'ld $n t($s em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n) by -'$n- +r'm le+t t' r$-(t) and +r'm r$-(t t' le+t!
A,,'rd$n-ly) $n t(e ser$es '+ t(ese *er,e*t$'ns) t(ere /as n'
determ$ned 'rder) /($,( ne,ess$tated my be-$nn$n- at a ,erta$n
*'$nt) $n 'rder em*$r$,ally t' ,'nne,t t(e man$+'ld! 3ut t($s rule
$s al/ays t' be met /$t( $n t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ t(at /($,( (a**ens)
and $t ma%es t(e 'rder '+ t(e su,,ess$0e *er,e*t$'ns $n t(e
a**re(ens$'n '+ su,( a *(en'men'n ne,essary! a
I must) t(ere+'re) $n t(e *resent ,ase) dedu,e t(e sub&e,t$0e
se.uen,e '+ a**re(ens$'n +r'm t(e 'b&e,t$0e se.uen,e '+ *(en'mena) +'r
't(er/$se t(e +'rmer $s .u$te undeterm$ned) and 'ne *(en'men'n $s
n't d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm an't(er! T(e +'rmer al'ne *r'0es n't($n- as
t' t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld $n an 'b&e,t) +'r $t $s .u$te
arb$trary! T(e latter must ,'ns$st $n t(e 'rder '+ t(e man$+'ld $n a
*(en'men'n) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( 'rder t(e a**re(ens$'n '+ 'ne t($n-
=t(at /($,( (a**ens> +'ll'/s t(at '+ an't(er t($n- =/($,( *re,edes>)
$n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule! In t($s /ay al'ne ,an I be aut('r$;ed t'
say '+ t(e *(en'men'n $tsel+) and n't merely '+ my '/n a**re(ens$'n)
t(at a ,erta$n 'rder 'r se.uen,e $s t' be +'und t(ere$n! T(at $s) $n
't(er /'rds) I ,ann't arran-e my a**re(ens$'n 't(er/$se t(an $n t($s
'rder! '
In ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t($s rule) t(en) $t $s ne,essary t(at $n t(at
/($,( ante,edes an e0ent t(ere be +'und t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ a rule)
a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( $n t($s e0ent +'ll'/s al/ays and ne,essar$ly4 but I
,ann't re0erse t($s and -' ba,% +r'm t(e e0ent) and determ$ne =by
a**re(ens$'n> t(at /($,( ante,edes $t! F'r n' *(en'men'n -'es ba,%
+r'm t(e su,,eed$n- *'$nt '+ t$me t' t(e *re,ed$n- *'$nt) alt('u-(
$t d'es ,erta$nly relate t' a *re,ed$n- *'$nt '+ t$me4 +r'm a -$0en
t$me) 'n t(e 't(er (and) t(ere $s al/ays a ne,essary *r'-ress$'n t'
t(e determ$ned su,,eed$n- t$me! T(ere+'re) be,ause t(ere ,erta$nly
$s s'met($n- t(at +'ll'/s) I must '+ ne,ess$ty ,'nne,t $t /$t(
s'met($n- else) /($,( ante,edes) and u*'n /($,( $t +'ll'/s) $n
,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule) t(at $s ne,essar$ly) s' t(at t(e e0ent) as
,'nd$t$'ned) a++'rds ,erta$n $nd$,at$'n '+ a ,'nd$t$'n) and t($s
,'nd$t$'n determ$nes t(e e0ent! ,
<et us su**'se t(at n't($n- *re,edes an e0ent) u*'n /($,( t($s e0ent
must +'ll'/ $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule! All se.uen,e '+ *er,e*t$'n
/'uld t(en e1$st 'nly $n a**re(ens$'n) t(at $s t' say) /'uld be merely
sub&e,t$0e) and $t ,'uld n't t(ereby be 'b&e,t$0ely determ$ned /(at
t($n- 'u-(t t' *re,ede) and /(at 'u-(t t' +'ll'/ $n *er,e*t$'n! In
su,( a ,ase) /e s('uld (a0e n't($n- but a *lay '+ re*resentat$'ns)
/($,( /'uld *'ssess n' a**l$,at$'n t' any 'b&e,t! T(at $s t' say) $t
/'uld n't be *'ss$ble t(r'u-( *er,e*t$'n t' d$st$n-u$s( 'ne *(en'men'n
+r'm an't(er) as re-ards relat$'ns '+ t$me4 be,ause t(e su,,ess$'n
$n t(e a,t '+ a**re(ens$'n /'uld al/ays be '+ t(e same s'rt) and
t(ere+'re t(ere /'uld be n't($n- $n t(e *(en'men'n t' determ$ne t(e
su,,ess$'n) and t' render a ,erta$n se.uen,e 'b&e,t$0ely ne,essary!
And) $n t($s ,ase) I ,ann't say t(at t/' states $n a *(en'men'n +'ll'/
'ne u*'n t(e 't(er) but 'nly t(at 'ne a**re(ens$'n +'ll'/s u*'n
an't(er! 3ut t($s $s merely sub&e,t$0e) and d'es n't determ$ne an
'b&e,t) and ,'nse.uently ,ann't be (eld t' be ,'-n$t$'n '+ an
'b&e,t5 n't e0en $n t(e *(en'menal /'rld! '
A,,'rd$n-ly) /(en /e %n'/ $n e1*er$en,e t(at s'met($n- (a**ens) /e
al/ays *resu**'se t(at s'met($n- *re,edes) /(ereu*'n $t +'ll'/s $n
,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule! F'r 't(er/$se I ,'uld n't say '+ t(e 'b&e,t
t(at $t +'ll'/s4 be,ause t(e mere su,,ess$'n $n my a**re(ens$'n) $+ $t
be n't determ$ned by a rule $n relat$'n t' s'met($n- *re,ed$n-) d'es
n't aut('r$;e su,,ess$'n $n t(e 'b&e,t! Only) t(ere+'re) $n
re+eren,e t' a rule) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( *(en'mena are determ$ned $n
t(e$r se.uen,e) t(at $s) as t(ey (a**en) by t(e *re,ed$n- state) ,an I
ma%e my sub&e,t$0e synt(es$s ='+ a**re(ens$'n> 'b&e,t$0e) and $t $s
'nly under t($s *resu**'s$t$'n t(at e0en t(e e1*er$en,e '+ an e0ent $s
*'ss$ble! *
N' d'ubt $t a**ears as $+ t($s /ere $n t('r'u-( ,'ntrad$,t$'n t' all
t(e n't$'ns /($,( *e'*le (a0e ($t(ert' enterta$ned $n re-ard t' t(e
*r',edure '+ t(e (uman understand$n-! A,,'rd$n- t' t(ese '*$n$'ns)
$t $s by means '+ t(e *er,e*t$'n and ,'m*ar$s'n '+ s$m$lar
,'nse.uen,es +'ll'/$n- u*'n ,erta$n ante,edent *(en'mena t(at t(e
understand$n- $s led t' t(e d$s,'0ery '+ a rule) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,(
,erta$n e0ents al/ays +'ll'/ ,erta$n *(en'mena) and $t $s 'nly by t($s
*r',ess t(at /e atta$n t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,ause! U*'n su,( a
bas$s) $t $s ,lear t(at t($s ,'n,e*t$'n must be merely em*$r$,al)
and t(e rule /($,( $t +urn$s(es us /$t(5 9E0eryt($n- t(at (a**ens must
(a0e a ,ause95 /'uld be &ust as ,'nt$n-ent as e1*er$en,e $tsel+! T(e
un$0ersal$ty and ne,ess$ty '+ t(e rule 'r la/ /'uld be *er+e,tly
s*ur$'us attr$butes '+ $t! Indeed) $t ,'uld n't *'ssess un$0ersal
0al$d$ty) $nasmu,( as $t /'uld n't $n t($s ,ase be a *r$'r$) but
+'unded 'n dedu,t$'n! 3ut t(e same $s t(e ,ase /$t( t($s la/ as /$t(
't(er *ure a *r$'r$ re*resentat$'ns =e!-!) s*a,e and t$me>) /($,( /e
,an dra/ $n *er+e,t ,learness and ,'m*leteness +r'm e1*er$en,e) 'nly
be,ause /e (ad already *la,ed t(em t(ere$n) and by t(at means) and
by t(at al'ne) (ad rendered e1*er$en,e *'ss$ble! Indeed) t(e l'-$,al
,learness '+ t($s re*resentat$'n '+ a rule) determ$n$n- t(e ser$es
'+ e0ents) $s *'ss$ble 'nly /(en /e (a0e made use t(ere'+ $n
e1*er$en,e! Ne0ert(eless) t(e re,'-n$t$'n '+ t($s rule) as a ,'nd$t$'n
'+ t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ *(en'mena $n t$me) /as t(e -r'und '+
e1*er$en,e $tsel+ and ,'nse.uently *re,eded $t a *r$'r$! e
It $s n'/ 'ur duty t' s('/ by an e1am*le t(at /e ne0er) e0en $n
e1*er$en,e) attr$bute t' an 'b&e,t t(e n't$'n '+ su,,ess$'n 'r
e++e,t ='+ an e0ent5 t(at $s) t(e (a**en$n- '+ s'met($n- t(at d$d
n't e1$st be+'re>) and d$st$n-u$s( $t +r'm t(e sub&e,t$0e su,,ess$'n
'+ a**re(ens$'n) unless /(en a rule l$es at t(e +'undat$'n) /($,(
,'m*els us t' 'bser0e t($s 'rder '+ *er,e*t$'n $n *re+eren,e t' any
't(er) and t(at) $ndeed) $t $s t($s ne,ess$ty /($,( +$rst renders
*'ss$ble t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a su,,ess$'n $n t(e 'b&e,t! *
2e (a0e re*resentat$'ns /$t($n us) '+ /($,( als' /e ,an be
,'ns,$'us! 3ut) ('/e0er /$dely e1tended) ('/e0er a,,urate and
t('r'u-(-'$n- t($s ,'ns,$'usness may be) t(ese re*resentat$'ns are
st$ll n't($n- m're t(an re*resentat$'ns) t(at $s) $nternal
determ$nat$'ns '+ t(e m$nd $n t($s 'r t(at relat$'n '+ t$me! N'/ ('/
(a**ens $t t(at t' t(ese re*resentat$'ns /e s('uld set an 'b&e,t) 'r
t(at) $n add$t$'n t' t(e$r sub&e,t$0e real$ty) as m'd$+$,at$'ns) /e
s('uld st$ll +urt(er attr$bute t' t(em a ,erta$n un%n'/n 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty@ It $s ,lear t(at 'b&e,t$0e s$-n$+$,an,y ,ann't ,'ns$st $n a
relat$'n t' an't(er re*resentat$'n ='+ t(at /($,( /e des$re t' term
'b&e,t>) +'r $n t(at ,ase t(e .uest$'n a-a$n ar$ses6 9H'/ d'es t($s
't(er re*resentat$'n -' 'ut '+ $tsel+) and 'bta$n 'b&e,t$0e
s$-n$+$,an,y '0er and ab'0e t(e sub&e,t$0e) /($,( $s *r'*er t' $t)
as a determ$nat$'n '+ a state '+ m$nd@9 I+ /e try t' d$s,'0er /(at
s'rt '+ ne/ *r'*erty t(e relat$'n t' an 'b&e,t -$0es t' 'ur sub&e,t$0e
re*resentat$'ns) and /(at ne/ $m*'rtan,e t(ey t(ereby re,e$0e) /e
s(all +$nd t(at t($s relat$'n (as n' 't(er e++e,t t(an t(at '+
render$n- ne,essary t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ 'ur re*resentat$'ns $n a ,erta$n
manner) and '+ sub&e,t$n- t(em t' a rule4 and t(at ,'n0ersely) $t $s
'nly be,ause a ,erta$n 'rder $s ne,essary $n t(e relat$'ns '+ t$me
'+ 'ur re*resentat$'ns) t(at 'b&e,t$0e s$-n$+$,an,y $s as,r$bed t'
t(em! t
In t(e synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena) t(e man$+'ld '+ 'ur re*resentat$'ns
$s al/ays su,,ess$0e! N'/ (ereby $s n't re*resented an 'b&e,t) +'r
by means '+ t($s su,,ess$'n) /($,( $s ,'mm'n t' all a**re(ens$'n) n'
'ne t($n- $s d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm an't(er! 3ut s' s''n as I *er,e$0e
'r assume t(at $n t($s su,,ess$'n t(ere $s a relat$'n t' a state
ante,edent) +r'm /($,( t(e re*resentat$'n +'ll'/s $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( a
rule) s' s''n d' I re*resent s'met($n- as an e0ent) 'r as a t($n- t(at
(a**ens4 $n 't(er /'rds) I ,'-n$;e an 'b&e,t t' /($,( I must ass$-n
a ,erta$n determ$nate *'s$t$'n $n t$me) /($,( ,ann't be altered)
be,ause '+ t(e *re,ed$n- state $n t(e 'b&e,t! 2(en) t(ere+'re) I
*er,e$0e t(at s'met($n- (a**ens) t(ere $s ,'nta$ned $n t($s
re*resentat$'n) $n t(e +$rst *la,e) t(e +a,t) t(at s'met($n-
ante,edes4 be,ause) $t! $s 'nly $n relat$'n t' t($s t(at t(e
*(en'men'n 'bta$ns $ts *r'*er relat$'n '+ t$me) $n 't(er /'rds) e1$sts
a+ter an ante,edent t$me) $n /($,( $t d$d n't e1$st! 3ut $t ,an
re,e$0e $ts determ$ned *la,e $n t$me 'nly by t(e *resu**'s$t$'n t(at
s'met($n- e1$sted $n t(e +'re-'$n- state) u*'n /($,( $t +'ll'/s
$ne0$tably and al/ays) t(at $s) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule! Fr'm all
t($s $t $s e0$dent t(at) $n t(e +$rst *la,e) I ,ann't re0erse t(e
'rder '+ su,,ess$'n) and ma%e t(at /($,( (a**ens *re,ede t(at u*'n
/($,( $t +'ll'/s4 and t(at) $n t(e se,'nd *la,e) $+ t(e ante,edent
state be *'s$ted) a ,erta$n determ$nate e0ent $ne0$tably and
ne,essar$ly +'ll'/s! Hen,e $t +'ll'/s t(at t(ere e1$sts a ,erta$n
'rder $n 'ur re*resentat$'ns) /(ereby t(e *resent -$0es a sure
$nd$,at$'n '+ s'me *re0$'usly e1$st$n- state) as a ,'rrelate) t('u-(
st$ll undeterm$ned) '+ t(e e1$st$n- e0ent /($,( $s -$0en5 a
,'rrelate /($,( $tsel+ relates t' t(e e0ent as $ts ,'nse.uen,e)
,'nd$t$'ns $t) and ,'nne,ts $t ne,essar$ly /$t( $tsel+ $n t(e ser$es
'+ t$me! '
I+ t(en $t be adm$tted as a ne,essary la/ '+ sens$b$l$ty) and
,'nse.uently a +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+ all *er,e*t$'n) t(at t(e
*re,ed$n- ne,essar$ly determ$nes t(e su,,eed$n- t$me =$nasmu,( as I
,ann't arr$0e at t(e su,,eed$n- e1,e*t t(r'u-( t(e *re,ed$n->) $t must
l$%e/$se be an $nd$s*ensable la/ '+ em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n '+ t(e
ser$es '+ t$me t(at t(e *(en'mena '+ t(e *ast determ$ne all
*(en'mena $n t(e su,,eed$n- t$me) and t(at t(e latter) as e0ents)
,ann't ta%e *la,e) e1,e*t $n s' +ar as t(e +'rmer determ$ne t(e$r
e1$sten,e $n t$me) t(at $s t' say) establ$s( $t a,,'rd$n- t' a rule!
F'r $t $s '+ ,'urse 'nly $n *(en'mena t(at /e ,an em*$r$,ally
,'-n$;e t($s ,'nt$nu$ty $n t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ t$mes! ,
F'r all e1*er$en,e and +'r t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e)
understand$n- $s $nd$s*ensable) and t(e +$rst ste* /($,( $t ta%es $n
t($s s*(ere $s n't t' render t(e re*resentat$'n '+ 'b&e,ts ,lear)
but t' render t(e re*resentat$'n '+ an 'b&e,t $n -eneral) *'ss$ble! It
d'es t($s by a**ly$n- t(e 'rder '+ t$me t' *(en'mena) and t(e$r
e1$sten,e! In 't(er /'rds) $t ass$-ns t' ea,( *(en'men'n) as a
,'nse.uen,e) a *la,e $n relat$'n t' *re,ed$n- *(en'mena) determ$ned
a *r$'r$ $n t$me) /$t('ut /($,( $t ,'uld n't (arm'n$;e /$t( t$me
$tsel+) /($,( determ$nes a *la,e a *r$'r$ t' all $ts *arts! T($s
determ$nat$'n '+ *la,e ,ann't be der$0ed +r'm t(e relat$'n '+
*(en'mena t' abs'lute t$me =+'r $t $s n't an 'b&e,t '+ *er,e*t$'n>4
but) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) *(en'mena must re,$*r',ally determ$ne t(e *la,es
$n t$me '+ 'ne an't(er) and render t(ese ne,essary $n t(e 'rder '+
t$me! In 't(er /'rds) /(ate0er +'ll'/s 'r (a**ens) must +'ll'/ $n
,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a un$0ersal rule u*'n t(at /($,( /as ,'nta$ned $n
t(e +'re-'$n- state! Hen,e ar$ses a ser$es '+ *(en'mena) /($,() by
means '+ t(e understand$n-) *r'du,es and renders ne,essary e1a,tly t(e
same 'rder and ,'nt$nu'us ,'nne,t$'n $n t(e ser$es '+ 'ur *'ss$ble
*er,e*t$'ns) as $s +'und a *r$'r$ $n t(e +'rm '+ $nternal $ntu$t$'n
=t$me>) $n /($,( all 'ur *er,e*t$'ns must (a0e *la,e! =
T(at s'met($n- (a**ens) t(en) $s a *er,e*t$'n /($,( bel'n-s t' a
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) /($,( be,'mes real 'nly be,ause I l''% u*'n t(e
*(en'men'n as determ$ned $n re-ard t' $ts *la,e $n t$me)
,'nse.uently as an 'b&e,t) /($,( ,an al/ays be +'und by means '+ a
rule $n t(e ,'nne,ted ser$es '+ my *er,e*t$'ns! 3ut t($s rule '+ t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ a t($n- a,,'rd$n- t' su,,ess$'n $n t$me $s as
+'ll'/s6 9In /(at *re,edes may be +'und t(e ,'nd$t$'n) under /($,(
an e0ent al/ays =t(at $s) ne,essar$ly> +'ll'/s!9 Fr'm all t($s $t $s
'b0$'us t(at t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,ause and e++e,t $s t(e *r$n,$*le '+
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t(at $s) '+ 'b&e,t$0e ,'-n$t$'n '+ *(en'mena)
$n re-ard t' t(e$r relat$'ns $n t(e su,,ess$'n '+ t$me! $
T(e *r''+ '+ t($s +undamental *r'*'s$t$'n rests ent$rely 'n t(e
+'ll'/$n- m'menta '+ ar-ument! T' all em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n bel'n-s
t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld by t(e $ma-$nat$'n) a synt(es$s /($,( $s
al/ays su,,ess$0e) t(at $s) $n /($,( t(e re*resentat$'ns t(ere$n
al/ays +'ll'/ 'ne an't(er! 3ut t(e 'rder '+ su,,ess$'n $n
$ma-$nat$'n $s n't determ$ned) and t(e ser$es '+ su,,ess$0e
re*resentat$'ns may be ta%en retr'-ress$0ely as /ell as *r'-ress$0ely!
3ut $+ t($s synt(es$s $s a synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n ='+ t(e
man$+'ld '+ a -$0en *(en'men'n>)t(en t(e 'rder $s determ$ned $n t(e
'b&e,t) 'r t' s*ea% m're a,,urately) t(ere $s t(ere$n an 'rder '+
su,,ess$0e synt(es$s /($,( determ$nes an 'b&e,t) and a,,'rd$n- t'
/($,( s'met($n- ne,essar$ly *re,edes) and /(en t($s $s *'s$ted)
s'met($n- else ne,essar$ly +'ll'/s! I+) t(en) my *er,e*t$'n $s t'
,'nta$n t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ an e0ent) t(at $s) '+ s'met($n- /($,(
really (a**ens) $t must be an em*$r$,al &ud-ement) /(ere$n /e t($n%
t(at t(e su,,ess$'n $s determ$ned4 t(at $s) $t *resu**'ses an't(er
*(en'men'n) u*'n /($,( t($s e0ent +'ll'/s ne,essar$ly) 'r $n
,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule! I+) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) /(en I *'s$ted t(e
ante,edent) t(e e0ent d$d n't ne,essar$ly +'ll'/) I s('uld be
'bl$-ed t' ,'ns$der $t merely as a sub&e,t$0e *lay '+ my
$ma-$nat$'n) and $+ $n t($s I re*resented t' mysel+ anyt($n- as
'b&e,t$0e) I must l''% u*'n $t as a mere dream! T(us) t(e relat$'n
'+ *(en'mena =as *'ss$ble *er,e*t$'ns>) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( t(at
/($,( (a**ens $s) as t' $ts e1$sten,e) ne,essar$ly determ$ned $n
t$me by s'met($n- /($,( ante,edes) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule5 $n 't(er
/'rds) t(e relat$'n '+ ,ause and e++e,t5 $s t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty '+ 'ur em*$r$,al &ud-ements $n re-ard t' t(e
se.uen,e '+ *er,e*t$'ns) ,'nse.uently '+ t(e$r em*$r$,al trut() and
t(ere+'re '+ e1*er$en,e! T(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(e relat$'n '+ ,ausal$ty $n
t(e su,,ess$'n '+ *(en'mena $s t(ere+'re 0al$d +'r all 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e) be,ause $t $s $tsel+ t(e -r'und '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
e1*er$en,e! e
Here) ('/e0er) a d$++$,ulty ar$ses) /($,( must be res'l0ed! T(e
*r$n,$*le '+ t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ ,ausal$ty am'n- *(en'mena $s l$m$ted $n
'ur +'rmula t' t(e su,,ess$'n t(ere'+) alt('u-( $n *ra,t$,e /e +$nd
t(at t(e *r$n,$*le a**l$es als' /(en t(e *(en'mena e1$st t'-et(er $n
t(e same t$me) and t(at ,ause and e++e,t may be s$multane'us! F'r
e1am*le) t(ere $s (eat $n a r''m) /($,( d'es n't e1$st $n t(e '*en
a$r! I l''% ab'ut +'r t(e ,ause) and +$nd $t t' be t(e +$re) N'/ t(e
+$re as t(e ,ause $s s$multane'us /$t( $ts e++e,t) t(e (eat '+ t(e
r''m! In t($s ,ase) t(en) t(ere $s n' su,,ess$'n as re-ards t$me)
bet/een ,ause and e++e,t) but t(ey are s$multane'us4 and st$ll t(e la/
('lds -''d! T(e -reater *art '+ '*erat$n- ,auses $n nature are
s$multane'us /$t( t(e$r e++e,ts) and t(e su,,ess$'n $n t$me '+ t(e
latter $s *r'du,ed 'nly be,ause t(e ,ause ,ann't a,($e0e t(e t'tal
'+ $ts e++e,t $n 'ne m'ment! 3ut at t(e m'ment /(en t(e e++e,t +$rst
ar$ses) $t $s al/ays s$multane'us /$t( t(e ,ausal$ty '+ $ts ,ause)
be,ause) $+ t(e ,ause (ad but a m'ment be+'re ,eased t' be) t(e e++e,t
,'uld n't (a0e ar$sen! Here $t must be s*e,$ally remembered t(at /e
must ,'ns$der t(e 'rder '+ t$me and n't t(e la*se t(ere'+! T(e
relat$'n rema$ns) e0en t('u-( n' t$me (as ela*sed! T(e t$me bet/een
t(e ,ausal$ty '+ t(e ,ause and $ts $mmed$ate e++e,t may ent$rely
0an$s() and t(e ,ause and e++e,t be t(us s$multane'us) but t(e
relat$'n '+ t(e 'ne t' t(e 't(er rema$ns al/ays determ$nable a,,'rd$n-
t' t$me! I+) +'r e1am*le) I ,'ns$der a leaden ball) /($,( l$es u*'n
a ,us($'n and ma%es a ('ll'/ $n $t) as a ,ause) t(en $t $s
s$multane'us /$t( t(e e++e,t! 3ut I d$st$n-u$s( t(e t/' t(r'u-( t(e
relat$'n '+ t$me '+ t(e dynam$,al ,'nne,t$'n '+ b't(! F'r $+ I lay t(e
ball u*'n t(e ,us($'n) t(en t(e ('ll'/ +'ll'/s u*'n t(e be+'re
sm''t( sur+a,e4 but su**'s$n- t(e ,us($'n (as) +r'm s'me ,ause 'r
an't(er) a ('ll'/) t(ere d'es n't t(ereu*'n +'ll'/ a leaden ball! a
T(us) t(e la/ '+ su,,ess$'n '+ t$me $s $n all $nstan,es t(e 'nly
em*$r$,al ,r$ter$'n '+ e++e,t $n relat$'n t' t(e ,ausal$ty '+ t(e
ante,edent ,ause! T(e -lass $s t(e ,ause '+ t(e r$s$n- '+ t(e /ater
ab'0e $ts ('r$;'ntal sur+a,e) alt('u-( t(e t/' *(en'mena are
,'ntem*'rane'us! F'r) as s''n as I dra/ s'me /ater /$t( t(e -lass +r'm
a lar-er 0essel) an e++e,t +'ll'/s t(ereu*'n) namely) t(e ,(an-e '+
t(e ('r$;'ntal state /($,( t(e /ater (ad $n t(e lar-e 0essel $nt' a
,'n,a0e) /($,( $t assumes $n t(e -lass! ,
T($s ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,ausal$ty leads us t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a,t$'n4
t(at '+ a,t$'n) t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ +'r,e4 and t(r'u-( $t) t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ substan,e! As I d' n't /$s( t($s ,r$t$,al essay) t(e
s'le *ur*'se '+ /($,( $s t' treat '+ t(e s'ur,es '+ 'ur synt(et$,al
,'-n$t$'n a *r$'r$) t' be ,r'/ded /$t( analyses /($,( merely
e1*la$n) but d' n't enlar-e t(e s*(ere '+ 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns) I reser0e
t(e deta$led e1*lanat$'n '+ t(e ab'0e ,'n,e*t$'ns +'r a +uture
system '+ *ure reas'n! Su,( an analys$s) $ndeed) e1e,uted /$t( -reat
*art$,ular$ty) may already be +'und $n /ell5%n'/n /'r%s 'n t($s
sub&e,t! 3ut I ,ann't at *resent re+ra$n +r'm ma%$n- a +e/ remar%s
'n t(e em*$r$,al ,r$ter$'n '+ a substan,e) $n s' +ar as $t seems t' be
m're e0$dent and m're eas$ly re,'-n$;ed t(r'u-( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
a,t$'n t(an t(r'u-( t(at '+ t(e *ermanen,e '+ a *(en'men'n! a
2(ere a,t$'n =,'nse.uently a,t$0$ty and +'r,e> e1$sts) substan,e
als' must e1$st) and $n $t al'ne must be s'u-(t t(e seat '+ t(at
+ru$t+ul s'ur,e '+ *(en'mena! Dery /ell! 3ut $+ /e are ,alled u*'n
t' e1*la$n /(at /e mean by substan,e) and /$s( t' a0'$d t(e 0$,e '+
reas'n$n- $n a ,$r,le) t(e ans/er $s by n' means s' easy! H'/ s(all /e
,'n,lude $mmed$ately +r'm t(e a,t$'n t' t(e *ermanen,e '+ t(at /($,(
a,ts) t($s be$n- ne0ert(eless an essent$al and *e,ul$ar ,r$ter$'n '+
substan,e =*(en'men'n>@ 3ut a+ter /(at (as been sa$d ab'0e) t(e
s'lut$'n '+ t($s .uest$'n be,'mes easy en'u-() alt('u-( by t(e
,'mm'n m'de '+ *r',edure5 merely analys$n- 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns5 $t /'uld
be .u$te $m*'ss$ble! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a,t$'n $nd$,ates t(e relat$'n
'+ t(e sub&e,t '+ ,ausal$ty t' t(e e++e,t! N'/ be,ause all e++e,t
,'ns$sts $n t(at /($,( (a**ens) t(ere+'re $n t(e ,(an-eable) t(e
last sub&e,t t(ere'+ $s t(e *ermanent) as t(e substratum '+ all t(at
,(an-es) t(at $s) substan,e! F'r a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *r$n,$*le '+
,ausal$ty) a,t$'ns are al/ays t(e +$rst -r'und '+ all ,(an-e $n
*(en'mena and) ,'nse.uently) ,ann't be a *r'*erty '+ a sub&e,t /($,(
$tsel+ ,(an-es) be,ause $+ t($s /ere t(e ,ase) 't(er a,t$'ns and
an't(er sub&e,t /'uld be ne,essary t' determ$ne t($s ,(an-e! Fr'm
all t($s $t results t(at a,t$'n al'ne) as an em*$r$,al ,r$ter$'n) $s a
su++$,$ent *r''+ '+ t(e *resen,e '+ substant$al$ty) /$t('ut any
ne,ess$ty 'n my *art '+ endea0'ur$n- t' d$s,'0er t(e *ermanen,e '+
substan,e by a ,'m*ar$s'n! 3es$des) by t($s m'de '+ $ndu,t$'n /e ,'uld
n't atta$n t' t(e ,'m*leteness /($,( t(e ma-n$tude and str$,t
un$0ersal$ty '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n re.u$res! F'r t(at t(e *r$mary
sub&e,t '+ t(e ,ausal$ty '+ all ar$s$n- and *ass$n- a/ay) all 'r$-$n
and e1t$n,t$'n) ,ann't $tsel+ =$n t(e s*(ere '+ *(en'mena> ar$se and
*ass a/ay) $s a s'und and sa+e ,'n,lus$'n) a ,'n,lus$'n /($,( leads us
t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ em*$r$,al ne,ess$ty and *ermanen,e $n
e1$sten,e) and ,'nse.uently t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a substan,e as
*(en'men'n! *
2(en s'met($n- (a**ens) t(e mere +a,t '+ t(e ',,urren,e) /$t('ut
re-ard t' t(at /($,( ',,urs) $s an 'b&e,t re.u$r$n- $n0est$-at$'n! T(e
trans$t$'n +r'm t(e n'n5be$n- '+ a state $nt' t(e e1$sten,e '+ $t)
su**'s$n- t(at t($s state ,'nta$ns n' .ual$ty /($,( *re0$'usly e1$sted
$n t(e *(en'men'n) $s a +a,t '+ $tsel+ demand$n- $n.u$ry! Su,( an
e0ent) as (as been s('/n $n N'! A) d'es n't ,'n,ern substan,e =+'r
substan,e d'es n't t(us 'r$-$nate>) but $ts ,'nd$t$'n 'r state! It
$s t(ere+'re 'nly ,(an-e) and n't 'r$-$n +r'm n't($n-! I+ t($s
'r$-$n be re-arded as t(e e++e,t '+ a +'re$-n ,ause) $t $s termed
,reat$'n) /($,( ,ann't be adm$tted as an e0ent am'n- *(en'mena)
be,ause t(e 0ery *'ss$b$l$ty '+ $t /'uld ann$($late t(e un$ty '+
e1*er$en,e! I+) ('/e0er) I re-ard all t($n-s n't as *(en'mena) but
as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es and 'b&e,ts '+ understand$n- al'ne) t(ey)
alt('u-( substan,es) may be ,'ns$dered as de*endent) $n res*e,t '+
t(e$r e1$sten,e) 'n a +'re$-n ,ause! 3ut t($s /'uld re.u$re a 0ery
d$++erent mean$n- $n t(e /'rds) a mean$n- /($,( ,'uld n't a**ly t'
*(en'mena as 'b&e,ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! *
H'/ a t($n- ,an be ,(an-ed) ('/ $t $s *'ss$ble t(at u*'n 'ne state
e1$st$n- $n 'ne *'$nt '+ t$me) an '**'s$te state s('uld +'ll'/ $n
an't(er *'$nt '+ t$me5 '+ t($s /e (a0e n't t(e smallest ,'n,e*t$'n a
*r$'r$! T(ere $s re.u$s$te +'r t($s t(e %n'/led-e '+ real *'/ers)
/($,( ,an 'nly be -$0en em*$r$,ally4 +'r e1am*le) %n'/led-e '+
m'0$n- +'r,es) 'r) $n 't(er /'rds) '+ ,erta$n su,,ess$0e *(en'mena =as
m'0ements> /($,( $nd$,ate t(e *resen,e '+ su,( +'r,es! 3ut t(e +'rm '+
e0ery ,(an-e) t(e ,'nd$t$'n under /($,( al'ne $t ,an ta%e *la,e as t(e
,'m$n- $nt' e1$sten,e '+ an't(er state =be t(e ,'ntent '+ t(e
,(an-e) t(at $s) t(e state /($,( $s ,(an-ed) /(at $t may>) and
,'nse.uently t(e su,,ess$'n '+ t(e states t(emsel0es ,an 0ery /ell
be ,'ns$dered a *r$'r$) $n relat$'n t' t(e la/ '+ ,ausal$ty and t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me!7 ,
7It must be remar%ed t(at I d' n't s*ea% '+ t(e ,(an-e '+ ,erta$n
relat$'ns) but '+ t(e ,(an-e '+ t(e state! T(us) /(en a b'dy m'0es
$n a un$+'rm manner) $t d'es n't ,(an-e $ts state ='+ m't$'n>4 but
'nly /(en all m't$'n $n,reases 'r de,reases! '
2(en a substan,e *asses +r'm 'ne state) a) $nt' an't(er state) b)
t(e *'$nt '+ t$me $n /($,( t(e latter e1$sts $s d$++erent +r'm) and
subse.uent t' t(at $n /($,( t(e +'rmer e1$sted! In l$%e manner) t(e
se,'nd state) as real$ty =$n t(e *(en'men'n>) d$++ers +r'm t(e
+$rst) $n /($,( t(e real$ty '+ t(e se,'nd d$d n't e1$st) as b +r'm
;er'! T(at $s t' say) $+ t(e state) b) d$++ers +r'm t(e state) a) 'nly
$n res*e,t t' .uant$ty) t(e ,(an-e $s a ,'m$n- $nt' e1$sten,e '+ b 5
a) /($,( $n t(e +'rmer state d$d n't e1$st) and $n relat$'n t' /($,(
t(at state $s E O! t
N'/ t(e .uest$'n ar$ses ('/ a t($n- *asses +r'm 'ne state E a)
$nt' an't(er state E b! 3et/een t/' m'ments t(ere $s al/ays a
,erta$n t$me) and bet/een t/' states e1$st$n- $n t(ese m'ments t(ere
$s al/ays a d$++eren,e (a0$n- a ,erta$n .uant$ty =+'r all *arts '+
*(en'mena are $n t(e$r turn .uant$t$es>! C'nse.uently) e0ery
trans$t$'n +r'm 'ne state $nt' an't(er $s al/ays e++e,ted $n a t$me
,'nta$ned bet/een t/' m'ments) '+ /($,( t(e +$rst determ$nes t(e state
/($,( lea0es) and t(e se,'nd determ$nes t(e state $nt' t(e t($n-
*asses! t(e t($n- lea0es) and t(e se,'nd determ$nes t(e state $nt'
/($,( t(e t($n- 3't( m'ments) t(en) are l$m$tat$'ns '+ t(e t$me '+ a
,(an-e) ,'nse.uently '+ t(e $ntermed$ate state bet/een b't() and as
su,( t(ey bel'n- t' t(e t'tal '+ t(e ,(an-e! N'/ e0ery ,(an-e (as a
,ause) /($,( e0$den,es $ts ,ausal$ty $n t(e /('le t$me dur$n- /($,(
t(e ,(ar-e ta%es *la,e! T(e ,ause) t(ere+'re) d'es n't *r'du,e t(e
,(an-e all at 'n,e 'r $n 'ne m'ment) but $n a t$me) s' t(at) as t(e
t$me -radually $n,reases +r'm t(e ,'mmen,$n- $nstant) a) t' $ts
,'m*let$'n at b) $n l$%e manner als') t(e .uant$ty '+ t(e real$ty
=b 5 a> $s -enerated t(r'u-( t(e lesser de-rees /($,( are ,'nta$ned
bet/een t(e +$rst and last! All ,(an-e $s t(ere+'re *'ss$ble 'nly
t(r'u-( a ,'nt$nu'us a,t$'n '+ t(e ,ausal$ty) /($,() $n s' +ar as $t
$s un$+'rm) /e ,all a m'mentum! T(e ,(an-e d'es n't ,'ns$st '+ t(ese
m'menta) but $s -enerated 'r *r'du,ed by t(em as t(e$r e++e,t! m
Su,( $s t(e la/ '+ t(e ,'nt$nu$ty '+ all ,(an-e) t(e -r'und '+ /($,(
$s t(at ne$t(er t$me $tsel+ n'r any *(en'men'n $n t$me ,'ns$sts '+
*arts /($,( are t(e smallest *'ss$ble) but t(at) n't/$t(stand$n-)
t(e state '+ a t($n- *asses $n t(e *r',ess '+ a ,(an-e t(r'u-( all
t(ese *arts) as elements) t' $ts se,'nd state! T(ere $s n' smallest
de-ree '+ real$ty $n a *(en'men'n) &ust as t(ere $s n' smallest de-ree
$n t(e .uant$ty '+ t$me4 and s' t(e ne/ state '+ real$ty -r'/s u*
'ut '+ t(e +'rmer state) t(r'u-( all t(e $n+$n$te de-rees t(ere'+) t(e
d$++eren,es '+ /($,( 'ne +r'm an't(er) ta%en all t'-et(er) are less
t(an t(e d$++eren,e bet/een ' and a! t
It $s n't 'ur bus$ness t' $n.u$re (ere $nt' t(e ut$l$ty '+ t($s
*r$n,$*le $n t(e $n0est$-at$'n '+ nature! 3ut ('/ su,( a
*r'*'s$t$'n) /($,( a**ears s' -reatly t' e1tend 'ur %n'/led-e '+
nature) $s *'ss$ble ,'m*letely a *r$'r$) $s $ndeed a .uest$'n /($,(
deser0es $n0est$-at$'n) alt('u-( t(e +$rst 0$e/ seems t' dem'nstrate
t(e trut( and real$ty '+ t(e *r$n,$*le) and t(e .uest$'n) ('/ $t $s
*'ss$ble) may be ,'ns$dered su*er+lu'us! F'r t(ere are s' many
-r'undless *retens$'ns t' t(e enlar-ement '+ 'ur %n'/led-e by *ure
reas'n t(at /e must ta%e $t as a -eneral rule t' be m$strust+ul '+ all
su,() and /$t('ut a t('r'u-(-'$n- and rad$,al dedu,t$'n) t' bel$e0e
n't($n- '+ t(e s'rt e0en 'n t(e ,learest d'-mat$,al e0$den,e! n
E0ery add$t$'n t' 'ur em*$r$,al %n'/led-e) and e0ery ad0an,e made $n
t(e e1er,$se '+ 'ur *er,e*t$'n) $s n't($n- m're t(an an e1tens$'n '+
t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e $nternal sense) t(at $s t' say) a *r'-ress$'n
$n t$me) be 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es /(at t(ey may) *(en'mena) 'r *ure
$ntu$t$'ns! T($s *r'-ress$'n $n t$me determ$nes e0eryt($n-) and $s
$tsel+ determ$ned by n't($n- else! T(at $s t' say) t(e *arts '+ t(e
*r'-ress$'n e1$st 'nly $n t$me) and by means '+ t(e synt(es$s t(ere'+)
and are n't -$0en ante,edently t' $t! F'r t($s reas'n) e0ery
trans$t$'n $n *er,e*t$'n t' anyt($n- /($,( +'ll'/s u*'n an't(er $n
t$me) $s a determ$nat$'n '+ t$me by means '+ t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ t($s
*er,e*t$'n! And as t($s determ$nat$'n '+ t$me $s) al/ays and $n all
$ts *arts) a .uant$ty) t(e *er,e*t$'n *r'du,ed $s t' be ,'ns$dered
as a .uant$ty /($,( *r',eeds t(r'u-( all $ts de-rees5 n' 'ne '+
/($,( $s t(e smallest *'ss$ble5 +r'm ;er' u* t' $ts determ$ned de-ree!
Fr'm t($s /e *er,e$0e t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'-n$;$n- a *r$'r$ a la/ '+
,(an-es5 a la/) ('/e0er) /($,( ,'n,erns t(e$r +'rm merely! 2e merely
ant$,$*ate 'ur '/n a**re(ens$'n) t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+ /($,()
$nasmu,( as $t $s $tsel+ t' be +'und $n t(e m$nd ante,edently t' all
-$0en *(en'mena) must ,erta$nly be ,a*able '+ be$n- ,'-n$;ed a *r$'r$! -
T(us) as t$me ,'nta$ns t(e sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n a *r$'r$ '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ a ,'nt$nu'us *r'-ress$'n '+ t(at /($,( e1$sts t' t(at
/($,( +'ll'/s $t) t(e understand$n-) by 0$rtue '+ t(e un$ty '+
a**er,e*t$'n) ,'nta$ns t(e ,'nd$t$'n a *r$'r$ '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
a ,'nt$nu'us determ$nat$'n '+ t(e *'s$t$'n $n t$me '+ all *(en'mena)
and t($s by means '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,auses and e++e,ts) t(e +'rmer '+
/($,( ne,ess$tate t(e se.uen,e '+ t(e latter) and t(ereby render
un$0ersally and +'r all t$me) and by ,'nse.uen,e) 'b&e,t$0ely) 0al$d
t(e em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e relat$'ns '+ t$me! t
Pr$n,$*le '+ C'e1$sten,e) A,,'rd$n- t' t(e <a/
'+ Re,$*r',$ty 'r C'mmun$ty!
All substan,es) $n s' +ar as t(ey ,an be *er,e$0ed $n s*a,e
at t(e same t$me) e1$st $n a state '+ ,'m*lete re,$*r',$ty
'+ a,t$'n!
T($n-s are ,'e1$stent) /(en $n em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n t(e *er,e*t$'n '+
t(e 'ne ,an +'ll'/ u*'n t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ t(e 't(er) and 0$,e 0ersa5
/($,( ,ann't ',,ur $n t(e su,,ess$'n '+ *(en'mena) as /e (a0e s('/n $n
t(e e1*lanat$'n '+ t(e se,'nd *r$n,$*le! T(us I ,an *er,e$0e t(e
m''n and t(en t(e eart() 'r ,'n0ersely) +$rst t(e eart( and t(en t(e
m''n4 and +'r t(e reas'n t(at my *er,e*t$'ns '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts ,an
re,$*r',ally +'ll'/ ea,( 't(er) I say) t(ey e1$st ,'ntem*'rane'usly!
N'/ ,'e1$sten,e $s t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e man$+'ld $n t(e same t$me! 3ut
t$me $tsel+ $s n't an 'b&e,t '+ *er,e*t$'n4 and t(ere+'re /e ,ann't
,'n,lude +r'm t(e +a,t t(at t($n-s are *la,ed $n t(e same t$me) t(e
't(er +a,t) t(at t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ t(ese t($n-s ,an +'ll'/ ea,(
't(er re,$*r',ally! T(e synt(es$s '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n $n a**re(ens$'n
/'uld 'nly *resent t' us ea,( '+ t(ese *er,e*t$'ns as *resent $n t(e
sub&e,t /(en t(e 't(er $s n't *resent) and ,'ntrar$/$se4 but /'uld n't
s('/ t(at t(e 'b&e,ts are ,'e1$stent) t(at $s t' say) t(at) $+ t(e 'ne
e1$sts) t(e 't(er als' e1$sts $n t(e same t$me) and t(at t($s $s
ne,essar$ly s') $n 'rder t(at t(e *er,e*t$'ns may be ,a*able '+
+'ll'/$n- ea,( 't(er re,$*r',ally! It +'ll'/s t(at a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
understand$n- 'r ,ate-'ry '+ t(e re,$*r',al se.uen,e '+ t(e
determ$nat$'ns '+ *(en'mena =e1$st$n-) as t(ey d') a*art +r'm ea,(
't(er) and yet ,'ntem*'rane'usly>) $s re.u$s$te t' &ust$+y us $n
say$n- t(at t(e re,$*r',al su,,ess$'n '+ *er,e*t$'ns (as $ts
+'undat$'n $n t(e 'b&e,t) and t' enable us t' re*resent ,'e1$sten,e as
'b&e,t$0e! 3ut t(at relat$'n '+ substan,es $n /($,( t(e 'ne ,'nta$ns
determ$nat$'ns t(e -r'und '+ /($,( $s $n t(e 't(er substan,e) $s t(e
relat$'n '+ $n+luen,e! And) /(en t($s $n+luen,e $s re,$*r',al) $t $s
t(e relat$'n '+ ,'mmun$ty 'r re,$*r',$ty! C'nse.uently t(e ,'e1$sten,e
'+ substan,es $n s*a,e ,ann't be ,'-n$;ed $n e1*er$en,e 't(er/$se t(an
under t(e *re,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e$r re,$*r',al a,t$'n! T($s $s t(ere+'re
t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s t(emsel0es as 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e! e
T($n-s are ,'e1$stent) $n s' +ar as t(ey e1$st $n 'ne and t(e same
t$me! 3ut ('/ ,an /e %n'/ t(at t(ey e1$st $n 'ne and t(e same t$me@
Only by 'bser0$n- t(at t(e 'rder $n t(e synt(es$s '+ a**re(ens$'n '+
t(e man$+'ld $s arb$trary and a matter '+ $nd$++eren,e) t(at $s t'
say) t(at $t ,an *r',eed +r'm A) t(r'u-( 3) C) #) t' E) 'r
,'ntrar$/$se +r'm E t' A! F'r $+ t(ey /ere su,,ess$0e $n t$me =and
$n t(e 'rder) let us su**'se) /($,( be-$ns /$t( A>) $t $s .u$te
$m*'ss$ble +'r t(e a**re(ens$'n $n *er,e*t$'n t' be-$n /$t( E and -'
ba,%/ards t' A) $nasmu,( as A bel'n-s t' *ast t$me and) t(ere+'re)
,ann't be an 'b&e,t '+ a**re(ens$'n! ,
<et us assume t(at $n a number '+ substan,es ,'ns$dered as *(en'mena
ea,( $s ,'m*letely $s'lated) t(at $s) t(at n' 'ne a,ts u*'n an't(er!
T(en I say t(at t(e ,'e1$sten,e '+ t(ese ,ann't be an 'b&e,t '+
*'ss$ble *er,e*t$'n and t(at t(e e1$sten,e '+ 'ne ,ann't) by any
m'de '+ em*$r$,al synt(es$s) lead us t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ an't(er!
F'r /e $ma-$ne t(em $n t($s ,ase t' be se*arated by a ,'m*letely
0'$d s*a,e) and t(us *er,e*t$'n) /($,( *r',eeds +r'm t(e 'ne t' t(e
't(er $n t$me) /'uld $ndeed determ$ne t(e$r e1$sten,e by means '+ a
+'ll'/$n- *er,e*t$'n) but /'uld be .u$te unable t' d$st$n-u$s( /(et(er
t(e 'ne *(en'men'n +'ll'/s 'b&e,t$0ely u*'n t(e +$rst) 'r $s
,'e1$stent /$t( $t! ,
3es$des t(e mere +a,t '+ e1$sten,e) t(en) t(ere must be s'met($n- by
means '+ /($,( A determ$nes t(e *'s$t$'n '+ 3 $n t$me and) ,'n0ersely)
3 t(e *'s$t$'n '+ A4 be,ause 'nly under t($s ,'nd$t$'n ,an
substan,es be em*$r$,ally re*resented as e1$st$n- ,'ntem*'rane'usly!
N'/ t(at al'ne determ$nes t(e *'s$t$'n '+ an't(er t($n- $n t$me
/($,( $s t(e ,ause '+ $t 'r '+ $ts determ$nat$'ns! C'nse.uently
e0ery substan,e =$nasmu,( as $t ,an (a0e su,,ess$'n *red$,ated '+ $t
'nly $n res*e,t '+ $ts determ$nat$'ns> must ,'nta$n t(e ,ausal$ty '+
,erta$n determ$nat$'ns $n an't(er substan,e) and at t(e same t$me
t(e e++e,ts '+ t(e ,ausal$ty '+ t(e 't(er $n $tsel+! T(at $s t' say)
substan,es must stand =med$ately 'r $mmed$ately> $n dynam$,al
,'mmun$ty /$t( ea,( 't(er) $+ ,'e1$sten,e $s t' be ,'-n$;ed $n any
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! 3ut) $n re-ard t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) t(at
$s abs'lutely ne,essary /$t('ut /($,( t(e e1*er$en,e '+ t(ese
'b&e,ts /'uld $tsel+ be $m*'ss$ble! C'nse.uently $t $s abs'lutely
ne,essary t(at all substan,es $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena) $n s' +ar
as t(ey are ,'e1$stent) stand $n a relat$'n '+ ,'m*lete ,'mmun$ty '+
re,$*r',al a,t$'n t' ea,( 't(er! r
T(e /'rd ,'mmun$ty (as $n 'ur lan-ua-e7 t/' mean$n-s) and ,'nta$ns
t(e t/' n't$'ns ,'n0eyed $n t(e <at$n ,'mmun$' and ,'mmer,$um! 2e
em*l'y $t $n t($s *la,e $n t(e latter sense5 t(at '+ a dynam$,al
,'mmun$ty) /$t('ut /($,( e0en t(e ,'mmun$ty '+ *la,e =,'mmun$' s*at$$>
,'uld n't be em*$r$,ally ,'-n$;ed! In 'ur e1*er$en,es $t $s easy t'
'bser0e t(at $t $s 'nly t(e ,'nt$nu'us $n+luen,es $n all *arts '+
s*a,e t(at ,an ,'ndu,t 'ur senses +r'm 'ne 'b&e,t t' an't(er4 t(at t(e
l$-(t /($,( *lays bet/een 'ur eyes and t(e (ea0enly b'd$es *r'du,es
a med$at$n- ,'mmun$ty bet/een t(em and us) and t(ereby e0$den,es t(e$r
,'e1$sten,e /$t( us4 t(at /e ,ann't em*$r$,ally ,(an-e 'ur *'s$t$'n
=*er,e$0e t($s ,(an-e>) unless t(e e1$sten,e '+ matter t(r'u-('ut
t(e /('le '+ s*a,e rendered *'ss$ble t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ t(e *'s$t$'ns
/e ',,u*y4 and t(at t($s *er,e*t$'n ,an *r'0e t(e ,'ntem*'rane'us
e1$sten,e '+ t(ese *la,es 'nly t(r'u-( t(e$r re,$*r',al $n+luen,e) and
t(ereby als' t(e ,'e1$sten,e '+ e0en t(e m'st rem'te 'b&e,ts5 alt('u-(
$n t($s ,ase t(e *r''+ $s 'nly med$ate! 2$t('ut ,'mmun$ty) e0ery
*er,e*t$'n ='+ a *(en'men'n $n s*a,e> $s se*arated +r'm e0ery 't(er
and $s'lated) and t(e ,(a$n '+ em*$r$,al re*resentat$'ns) t(at $s)
'+ e1*er$en,e) must) /$t( t(e a**earan,e '+ a ne/ 'b&e,t) be-$n
ent$rely de n'0') /$t('ut t(e least ,'nne,t$'n /$t( *re,ed$n-
re*resentat$'ns) and /$t('ut stand$n- t'/ards t(ese e0en $n t(e
relat$'n '+ t$me! "y $ntent$'n (ere $s by n' means t' ,'mbat t(e
n't$'n '+ em*ty s*a,e4 +'r $t may e1$st /(ere 'ur *er,e*t$'ns ,ann't
e1$st) $nasmu,( as t(ey ,ann't rea,( t(eret') and /(ere) t(ere+'re) n'
em*$r$,al *er,e*t$'n '+ ,'e1$sten,e ta%es *la,e! 3ut $n t($s ,ase $t
$s n't an 'b&e,t '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! $
T(e +'ll'/$n- remar%s may be use+ul $n t(e /ay '+ e1*lanat$'n! In
t(e m$nd) all *(en'mena) as ,'ntents '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) must
e1$st $n ,'mmun$ty =,'mmun$'> '+ a**er,e*t$'n 'r ,'ns,$'usness) and $n
s' +ar as $t $s re.u$s$te t(at 'b&e,ts be re*resented as ,'e1$stent
and ,'nne,ted) $n s' +ar must t(ey re,$*r',ally determ$ne t(e *'s$t$'n
$n t$me '+ ea,( 't(er and t(ereby ,'nst$tute a /('le! I+ t($s
sub&e,t$0e ,'mmun$ty $s t' rest u*'n an 'b&e,t$0e bas$s) 'r t' be
a**l$ed t' substan,es as *(en'mena) t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ 'ne substan,e
must render *'ss$ble t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ an't(er) and ,'n0ersely! F'r
't(er/$se su,,ess$'n) /($,( $s al/ays +'und $n *er,e*t$'ns as
a**re(ens$'ns) /'uld be *red$,ated '+ e1ternal 'b&e,ts) and t(e$r
re*resentat$'n '+ t(e$r ,'e1$sten,e be t(us $m*'ss$ble! 3ut t($s $s
a re,$*r',al $n+luen,e) t(at $s t' say) a real ,'mmun$ty
=,'mmer,$um> '+ substan,es) /$t('ut /($,( t(ere+'re t(e em*$r$,al
relat$'n '+ ,'e1$sten,e /'uld be a n't$'n bey'nd t(e rea,( '+ 'ur
m$nds! 3y 0$rtue '+ t($s ,'mmer,$um) *(en'mena) $n s' +ar as t(ey
are a*art +r'm) and ne0ert(eless $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( ea,( 't(er)
,'nst$tute a ,'m*'s$tum reale! Su,( ,'m*'s$ta are *'ss$ble $n many
d$++erent /ays! T(e t(ree dynam$,al relat$'ns t(en) +r'm /($,( all
't(ers s*r$n-) are t('se '+ $n(eren,e) ,'nse.uen,e) and ,'m*'s$t$'n! '
T(ese) t(en) are t(e t(ree anal'-$es '+ e1*er$en,e! T(ey are n't($n-
m're t(an *r$n,$*les '+ t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+
*(en'mena $n t$me) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e t(ree m'd$ '+ t($s
determ$nat$'n4 t' /$t) t(e relat$'n t' t$me $tsel+ as a .uant$ty
=t(e .uant$ty '+ e1$sten,e) t(at $s) durat$'n>) t(e relat$'n $n t$me
as a ser$es 'r su,,ess$'n) +$nally) t(e relat$'n $n t$me as t(e
,'m*le1 '+ all e1$sten,e =s$multane$ty>! T($s un$ty '+ determ$nat$'n
$n re-ard t' t$me $s t('r'u-(ly dynam$,al4 t(at $s t' say) t$me $s n't
,'ns$dered as t(at $n /($,( e1*er$en,e determ$nes $mmed$ately t' e0ery
e1$sten,e $ts *'s$t$'n4 +'r t($s $s $m*'ss$ble) $nasmu,( as abs'lute
t$me $s n't an 'b&e,t '+ *er,e*t$'n) by means '+ /($,( *(en'mena ,an
be ,'nne,ted /$t( ea,( 't(er! On t(e ,'ntrary) t(e rule '+ t(e
understand$n-) t(r'u-( /($,( al'ne t(e e1$sten,e '+ *(en'mena ,an
re,e$0e synt(et$,al un$ty as re-ards relat$'ns '+ t$me) determ$nes +'r
e0ery *(en'men'n $ts *'s$t$'n $n t$me) and ,'nse.uently a *r$'r$)
and /$t( 0al$d$ty +'r all and e0ery t$me! a
3y nature) $n t(e em*$r$,al sense '+ t(e /'rd) /e understand t(e
t'tal$ty '+ *(en'mena ,'nne,ted) $n res*e,t '+ t(e$r e1$sten,e)
a,,'rd$n- t' ne,essary rules) t(at $s) la/s! T(ere are t(ere+'re
,erta$n la/s =/($,( are m're'0er a *r$'r$> /($,( ma%e nature *'ss$ble4
and all em*$r$,al la/s ,an e1$st 'nly by means '+ e1*er$en,e) and by
0$rtue '+ t('se *r$m$t$0e la/s t(r'u-( /($,( e1*er$en,e $tsel+ be,'mes
*'ss$ble! T(e *ur*'se '+ t(e anal'-$es $s t(ere+'re t' re*resent t' us
t(e un$ty '+ nature $n t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ all *(en'mena under ,erta$n
e1*'nents) t(e 'nly bus$ness '+ /($,( $s t' e1*ress t(e relat$'n '+
t$me =$n s' +ar as $t ,'nta$ns all e1$sten,e $n $tsel+> t' t(e un$ty
'+ a**er,e*t$'n) /($,( ,an e1$st $n synt(es$s 'nly a,,'rd$n- t' rules!
T(e ,'mb$ned e1*ress$'n '+ all $s t($s6 9All *(en'mena e1$st $n 'ne
nature) and must s' e1$st) $nasmu,( as /$t('ut t($s a *r$'r$ un$ty) n'
un$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) and ,'nse.uently n' determ$nat$'n '+ 'b&e,ts $n
e1*er$en,e) $s *'ss$ble!9 e
As re-ards t(e m'de '+ *r''+ /($,( /e (a0e em*l'yed $n treat$n- '+
t(ese trans,endental la/s '+ nature) and t(e *e,ul$ar ,(ara,ter '+
/e must ma%e 'ne remar%) /($,( /$ll at t(e same t$me be $m*'rtant as a
-u$de $n e0ery 't(er attem*t t' dem'nstrate t(e trut( '+
$ntelle,tual and l$%e/$se synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a *r$'r$! Had /e
endea0'ured t' *r'0e t(ese anal'-$es d'-mat$,ally) t(at $s) +r'm
,'n,e*t$'ns4 t(at $s t' say) (ad /e em*l'yed t($s met('d $n attem*t$n-
t' s('/ t(at e0eryt($n- /($,( e1$sts) e1$sts 'nly $n t(at /($,( $s
*ermanent5 t(at e0ery t($n- 'r e0ent *resu**'ses t(e e1$sten,e '+
s'met($n- $n a *re,ed$n- state) u*'n /($,( $t +'ll'/s $n ,'n+'rm$ty
/$t( a rule5 lastly) t(at $n t(e man$+'ld) /($,( $s ,'e1$stent) t(e
states ,'e1$st $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( ea,( 't(er a,,'rd$n- t' a rule5
all 'ur lab'ur /'uld (a0e been utterly $n 0a$n! F'r m're ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t($n-s) analyse t(em as /e may) ,ann't enable us t' ,'n,lude +r'm
t(e e1$sten,e '+ 'ne 'b&e,t t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ an't(er! 2(at 't(er
,'urse /as le+t +'r us t' *ursue@ T($s 'nly) t' dem'nstrate t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e as a ,'-n$t$'n $n /($,( at last all
'b&e,ts must be ,a*able '+ be$n- *resented t' us) $+ t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ t(em $s t' *'ssess any 'b&e,t$0e real$ty! N'/ $n
t($s t($rd) t($s med$at$n- term) t(e essent$al +'rm '+ /($,(
,'ns$sts $n t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+ t(e a**er,e*t$'n '+ all
*(en'mena) /e +'und a *r$'r$ ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e un$0ersal and ne,essary
determ$nat$'n as t' t$me '+ all e1$sten,es $n t(e /'rld '+
*(en'mena) /$t('ut /($,( t(e em*$r$,al determ$nat$'n t(ere'+ as t'
t$me /'uld $tsel+ be $m*'ss$ble) and /e als' d$s,'0ered rules '+
synt(et$,al un$ty a *r$'r$) by means '+ /($,( /e ,'uld ant$,$*ate
e1*er$en,e! F'r /ant '+ t($s met('d) and +r'm t(e +an,y t(at $t /as
*'ss$ble t' d$s,'0er a d'-mat$,al *r''+ '+ t(e synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'ns /($,( are re.u$s$te $n t(e em*$r$,al em*l'yment '+ t(e
understand$n-) (as $t (a**ened t(at a *r''+ '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+
su++$,$ent reas'n (as been s' '+ten attem*ted) and al/ays $n 0a$n! T(e
't(er t/' anal'-$es n'b'dy (as e0er t('u-(t '+) alt('u-( t(ey (a0e
al/ays been s$lently em*l'yed by t(e m$nd)7 be,ause t(e -u$d$n- t(read
+urn$s(ed by t(e ,ate-'r$es /as /ant$n-) t(e -u$de /($,( al'ne ,an
enable us t' d$s,'0er e0ery ($atus) b't( $n t(e system '+
,'n,e*t$'ns and '+ *r$n,$*les! ,
7T(e un$ty '+ t(e un$0erse) $n /($,( all *(en'mena t' be
,'nne,ted) $s e0$dently a mere ,'nse.uen,e '+ t(e adm$tted *r$n,$*le
'+ t(e ,'mmun$ty '+ all substan,es /($,( are ,'e1$stent! F'r /ere
substan,es $s'lated) t(ey ,'uld n't as *arts ,'nst$tute a /('le) and
/ere t(e$r ,'nne,t$'n =re,$*r',al a,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld> n't
ne,essary +r'm t(e 0ery +a,t '+ ,'e1$sten,e) /e ,'uld n't ,'n,lude
+r'm t(e +a,t '+ t(e latter as a merely $deal relat$'n t' t(e +'rmer
as a real 'ne! 2e (a0e) ('/e0er) s('/n $n $ts *la,e t(at ,'mmun$ty
$s t(e *r'*er -r'und '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ an em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+
,'e1$sten,e) and t(at /e may t(ere+'re *r'*erly reas'n +r'm t(e latter
t' t(e +'rmer as $ts ,'nd$t$'n! t
1! T(at /($,( a-rees /$t( t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns =$ntu$t$'n and
,'n,e*t$'n> '+ e1*er$en,e) $s *'ss$ble! ,
B! T(at /($,( ,'(eres /$t( t(e mater$al ,'nd$t$'ns '+ e1*er$en,e
=sensat$'n>) $s real! =
I! T(at /('se ,'(eren,e /$t( t(e real $s determ$ned a,,'rd$n- t'
un$0ersal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ e1*er$en,e $s =e1$sts> ne,essary! u
T(e ,ate-'r$es '+ m'dal$ty *'ssess t($s *e,ul$ar$ty) t(at t(ey d'
n't $n t(e least determ$ne t(e 'b&e,t) 'r enlar-e t(e ,'n,e*t$'n t'
/($,( t(ey are anne1ed as *red$,ates) but 'nly e1*ress $ts relat$'n t'
t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n! T('u-( my ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- $s $n $tsel+
,'m*lete) I am st$ll ent$tled t' as% /(et(er t(e 'b&e,t '+ $t $s
merely *'ss$ble) 'r /(et(er $t $s als' real) 'r) $+ t(e latter)
/(et(er $t $s als' ne,essary! 3ut (ereby t(e 'b&e,t $tsel+ $s n't m're
de+$n$tely determ$ned $n t('u-(t) but t(e .uest$'n $s 'nly $n /(at
relat$'n $t) $n,lud$n- all $ts determ$nat$'ns) stands t' t(e
understand$n- and $ts em*l'yment $n e1*er$en,e) t' t(e em*$r$,al
+a,ulty '+ &ud-ement) and t' t(e reas'n '+ $ts a**l$,at$'n t'
e1*er$en,e! e
F'r t($s 0ery reas'n) t'') t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ m'dal$ty are n't($n-
m're t(an e1*lanat$'ns '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ *'ss$b$l$ty) real$ty) and
ne,ess$ty) as em*l'yed $n e1*er$en,e) and at t(e same t$me)
restr$,t$'ns '+ all t(e ,ate-'r$es t' em*$r$,al use al'ne) n't
aut('r$;$n- t(e trans,endental em*l'yment '+ t(em! F'r $+ t(ey are
t' (a0e s'met($n- m're t(an a merely l'-$,al s$-n$+$,an,e) and t' be
s'met($n- m're t(an a mere analyt$,al e1*ress$'n '+ t(e +'rm '+
t('u-(t) and t' (a0e a relat$'n t' t($n-s and t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty)
real$ty) 'r ne,ess$ty) t(ey must ,'n,ern *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e and $ts
synt(et$,al un$ty) $n /($,( al'ne 'b&e,ts '+ ,'-n$t$'n ,an be -$0en! s
T(e *'stulate '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s re.u$res als') t(at t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e t($n-s a-ree /$t( t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ 'ur
e1*er$en,e $n -eneral! 3ut t($s) t(at $s t' say) t(e 'b&e,t$0e +'rm '+
e1*er$en,e) ,'nta$ns all t(e %$nds '+ synt(es$s /($,( are re.u$s$te
+'r t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts! A ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ,'nta$ns a
synt(es$s must be re-arded as em*ty and) /$t('ut re+eren,e t' an
'b&e,t) $+ $ts synt(es$s d'es n't bel'n- t' e1*er$en,e5 e$t(er as
b'rr'/ed +r'm $t) and $n t($s ,ase $t $s ,alled an em*$r$,al
,'n,e*t$'n) 'r su,( as $s t(e -r'und and a *r$'r$ ,'nd$t$'n '+
e1*er$en,e =$ts +'rm>) and $n t($s ,ase $t $s a *ure ,'n,e*t$'n) a
,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ne0ert(eless bel'n-s t' e1*er$en,e) $nasmu,( as $ts
'b&e,t ,an be +'und $n t($s al'ne! F'r /(ere s(all /e +$nd t(e
,r$ter$'n 'r ,(ara,ter '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ an 'b&e,t /($,( $s
,'-$tated by means '+ an a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al ,'n,e*t$'n) $+ n't $n
t(e synt(es$s /($,( ,'nst$tutes t(e +'rm '+ em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+
'b&e,ts@ T(at $n su,( a ,'n,e*t$'n n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n e1$sts $s $ndeed a
ne,essary l'-$,al ,'nd$t$'n) but 0ery +ar +r'm be$n- su++$,$ent t'
establ$s( t(e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) t(at $s) t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( an 'b&e,t as $s t('u-(t $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n! T(us)
$n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a +$-ure /($,( $s ,'nta$ned /$t($n t/' stra$-(t
l$nes) t(ere $s n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n) +'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t/'
stra$-(t l$nes and '+ t(e$r &un,t$'n ,'nta$n n' ne-at$'n '+ a
+$-ure! T(e $m*'ss$b$l$ty $n su,( a ,ase d'es n't rest u*'n t(e
,'n,e*t$'n $n $tsel+) but u*'n t(e ,'nstru,t$'n '+ $t $n s*a,e) t(at
$s t' say) u*'n t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ s*a,e and $ts determ$nat$'ns! 3ut
t(ese (a0e t(emsel0es 'b&e,t$0e real$ty) t(at $s) t(ey a**ly t'
*'ss$ble t($n-s) be,ause t(ey ,'nta$n a *r$'r$ t(e +'rm '+
e1*er$en,e $n -eneral! e
And n'/ /e s(all *r',eed t' *'$nt 'ut t(e e1tens$0e ut$l$ty and
$n+luen,e '+ t($s *'stulate '+ *'ss$b$l$ty! 2(en I re*resent t' mysel+
a t($n- t(at $s *ermanent) s' t(at e0eryt($n- $n $t /($,( ,(an-es
bel'n-s merely t' $ts state 'r ,'nd$t$'n) +r'm su,( a ,'n,e*t$'n al'ne
I ne0er ,an ,'-n$;e t(at su,( a t($n- $s *'ss$ble! Or) $+ I
re*resent t' mysel+ s'met($n- /($,( $s s' ,'nst$tuted t(at) /(en $t $s
*'s$ted) s'met($n- else +'ll'/s al/ays and $n+all$bly) my t('u-(t
,'nta$ns n' sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'n4 but /(et(er su,( a *r'*erty as
,ausal$ty $s t' be +'und $n any *'ss$ble t($n-) my t('u-(t al'ne
a++'rds n' means '+ &ud-$n-! F$nally) I ,an re*resent t' mysel+
d$++erent t($n-s =substan,es> /($,( are s' ,'nst$tuted t(at t(e
state 'r ,'nd$t$'n '+ 'ne ,auses a ,(an-e $n t(e state '+ t(e 't(er)
and re,$*r',ally4 but /(et(er su,( a relat$'n $s a *r'*erty '+
t($n-s ,ann't be *er,e$0ed +r'm t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( ,'nta$n a
merely arb$trary synt(es$s! Only +r'm t(e +a,t) t(ere+'re) t(at
t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns e1*ress a *r$'r$ t(e relat$'ns '+ *er,e*t$'ns $n
e0ery e1*er$en,e) d' /e %n'/ t(at t(ey *'ssess 'b&e,t$0e real$ty) t(at
$s) trans,endental trut(4 and t(at $nde*endent '+ e1*er$en,e) t('u-(
n't $nde*endent '+ all relat$'n t' +'rm '+ an e1*er$en,e $n -eneral
and $ts synt(et$,al un$ty) $n /($,( al'ne 'b&e,ts ,an be em*$r$,ally
,'-n$;ed! ,
3ut /(en /e +as($'n t' 'ursel0es ne/ ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ substan,es)
+'r,es) a,t$'n) and rea,t$'n) +r'm t(e mater$al *resented t' us by
*er,e*t$'n) /$t('ut +'ll'/$n- t(e e1am*le '+ e1*er$en,e $n t(e$r
,'nne,t$'n) /e ,reate mere ,($meras) '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ /($,( /e
,ann't d$s,'0er any ,r$ter$'n) be,ause /e (a0e n't ta%en e1*er$en,e
+'r 'ur $nstru,tress) t('u-( /e (a0e b'rr'/ed t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns +r'm
(er! Su,( +$,t$t$'us ,'n,e*t$'ns der$0e t(e$r ,(ara,ter '+ *'ss$b$l$ty
n't) l$%e t(e ,ate-'r$es) a *r$'r$) as ,'n,e*t$'ns 'n /($,( all
e1*er$en,e de*ends) but 'nly) a *'ster$'r$) as ,'n,e*t$'ns -$0en by
means '+ e1*er$en,e $tsel+) and t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty must e$t(er be
,'-n$;ed a *'ster$'r$ and em*$r$,ally) 'r $t ,ann't be ,'-n$;ed at
all! A substan,e /($,( $s *ermanently *resent $n s*a,e) yet /$t('ut
+$ll$n- $t =l$%e t(at tert$um .u$d bet/een matter and t(e t($n%$n-
sub&e,t /($,( s'me (a0e tr$ed t' $ntr'du,e $nt' meta*(ys$,s>) 'r a
*e,ul$ar +undamental *'/er '+ t(e m$nd '+ $ntu$t$n- t(e +uture by
ant$,$*at$'n =$nstead '+ merely $n+err$n- +r'm *ast and *resent
e0ents>) 'r) +$nally) a *'/er '+ t(e m$nd t' *la,e $tsel+ $n ,'mmun$ty
'+ t('u-(t /$t( 't(er men) ('/e0er d$stant t(ey may be5 t(ese are
,'n,e*t$'ns t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ /($,( (as n' -r'und t' rest u*'n! F'r
t(ey are n't based u*'n e1*er$en,e and $ts %n'/n la/s4 and) /$t('ut
e1*er$en,e) t(ey are a merely arb$trary ,'n&un,t$'n '+ t('u-(ts)
/($,() t('u-( ,'nta$n$n- n' $nternal ,'ntrad$,t$'n) (as n' ,la$m t'
'b&e,t$0e real$ty) ne$t(er) ,'nse.uently) t' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,(
an 'b&e,t as $s t('u-(t $n t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns! As +ar as ,'n,erns
real$ty) $t $s sel+5e0$dent t(at /e ,ann't ,'-$tate su,( a *'ss$b$l$ty
$n ,'n,ret' /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ e1*er$en,e4 be,ause real$ty $s
,'n,erned 'nly /$t( sensat$'n) as t(e matter '+ e1*er$en,e) and n't
/$t( t(e +'rm '+ t('u-(t) /$t( /($,( /e ,an n' d'ubt $ndul-e $n
s(a*$n- +an,$es! s
3ut I *ass by e0eryt($n- /($,( der$0es $ts *'ss$b$l$ty +r'm
real$ty $n e1*er$en,e) and I *ur*'se treat$n- (ere merely '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s by means '+ a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns! I ma$nta$n)
t(en) t(at t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s $s n't der$0ed +r'm su,(
,'n,e*t$'ns *er se) but 'nly /(en ,'ns$dered as +'rmal and 'b&e,t$0e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ an e1*er$en,e $n -eneral! ,
It seems) $ndeed) as $+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a tr$an-le ,'uld be
,'-n$;ed +r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t al'ne =/($,( $s ,erta$nly
$nde*endent '+ e1*er$en,e>4 +'r /e ,an ,erta$nly -$0e t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n a ,'rres*'nd$n- 'b&e,t ,'m*letely a *r$'r$) t(at $s t' say)
/e ,an ,'nstru,t $t! 3ut as a tr$an-le $s 'nly t(e +'rm '+ an
'b&e,t) $t must rema$n a mere *r'du,t '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n) and t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ an 'b&e,t ,'rres*'nd$n- t' $t must
rema$n d'ubt+ul) unless /e ,an d$s,'0er s'me 't(er -r'und) unless /e
%n'/ t(at t(e +$-ure ,an be ,'-$tated under t(e ,'nd$t$'ns u*'n
/($,( all 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e rest! N'/) t(e +a,ts t(at s*a,e $s a
+'rmal ,'nd$t$'n a *r$'r$ '+ e1ternal e1*er$en,e) t(at t(e +'rmat$0e
synt(es$s) by /($,( /e ,'nstru,t a tr$an-le $n $ma-$nat$'n) $s t(e
0ery same as t(at /e em*l'y $n t(e a**re(ens$'n '+ a *(en'men'n +'r
t(e *ur*'se '+ ma%$n- an em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t) are /(at al'ne
,'nne,t t(e n't$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( a t($n-) /$t( t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t! In t(e same manner) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'nt$nu'us
.uant$t$es) $ndeed '+ .uant$t$es $n -eneral) +'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(em are /$t('ut e1,e*t$'n synt(et$,al) $s ne0er e0$dent +r'm t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns $n t(emsel0es) but 'nly /(en t(ey are ,'ns$dered as t(e
+'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e determ$nat$'n '+ 'b&e,ts $n e1*er$en,e! And
/(ere) $ndeed) s('uld /e l''% +'r 'b&e,ts t' ,'rres*'nd t' 'ur
,'n,e*t$'ns) $+ n't $n e1*er$en,e) by /($,( al'ne 'b&e,ts are
*resented t' us@ It $s) ('/e0er) true t(at /$t('ut ante,edent
e1*er$en,e /e ,an ,'-n$;e and ,(ara,ter$;e t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
t($n-s) relat$0ely t' t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns) under /($,( s'met($n-
$s determ$ned $n e1*er$en,e as an 'b&e,t) ,'nse.uently) ,'m*letely a
*r$'r$! 3ut st$ll t($s $s *'ss$ble 'nly $n relat$'n t' e1*er$en,e
and /$t($n $ts l$m$ts! a
T(e *'stulate ,'n,ern$n- t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e real$ty '+ t($n-s
re.u$res *er,e*t$'n) ,'nse.uently ,'ns,$'us sensat$'n) n't $ndeed
$mmed$ately) t(at $s) '+ t(e 'b&e,t $tsel+) /('se e1$sten,e $s t' be
,'-n$;ed) but st$ll t(at t(e 'b&e,t (a0e s'me ,'nne,t$'n /$t( a real
*er,e*t$'n) $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e anal'-$es '+ e1*er$en,e) /($,(
e1($b$t all %$nds '+ real ,'nne,t$'n $n e1*er$en,e! e
Fr'm t(e mere ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- $t $s $m*'ss$ble t' ,'n,lude $ts
e1$sten,e! F'r) let t(e ,'n,e*t$'n be e0er s' ,'m*lete) and ,'nta$n$n-
a statement '+ all t(e determ$nat$'ns '+ t(e t($n-) t(e e1$sten,e '+
$t (as n't($n- t' d' /$t( all t($s) but 'nly /$t( t(e/ .uest$'n
/(et(er su,( a t($n- $s -$0en) s' t(at t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ $t ,an $n
e0ery ,ase *re,ede t(e ,'n,e*t$'n! F'r t(e +a,t t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
$t *re,edes t(e *er,e*t$'n) merely $nd$,ates t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ $ts
e1$sten,e4 $t $s *er,e*t$'n /($,( *resents matter t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n)
t(at $s t(e s'le ,r$ter$'n '+ real$ty! Pr$'r t' t(e *er,e*t$'n '+
t(e t($n-) ('/e0er) and t(ere+'re ,'m*arat$0ely a *r$'r$) /e are
able t' ,'-n$;e $ts e1$sten,e) *r'0$ded $t stands $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t(
s'me *er,e*t$'ns a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e em*$r$,al
,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(ese) t(at $s) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e anal'-$es '+
*er,e*t$'n! F'r) $n t($s ,ase) t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e su**'sed t($n-
$s ,'nne,ted /$t( 'ur *er,e*t$'n $n a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) and /e
are able) /$t( t(e -u$dan,e '+ t(ese anal'-$es) t' reas'n $n t(e
ser$es '+ *'ss$ble *er,e*t$'ns +r'm a t($n- /($,( /e d' really
*er,e$0e t' t(e t($n- /e d' n't *er,e$0e! T(us) /e ,'-n$;e t(e
e1$sten,e '+ a ma-net$, matter *enetrat$n- all b'd$es +r'm t(e
*er,e*t$'n '+ t(e attra,t$'n '+ t(e steel5+$l$n-s by t(e ma-net)
alt('u-( t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ 'ur 'r-ans renders an $mmed$ate
*er,e*t$'n '+ t($s matter $m*'ss$ble +'r us! F'r) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e
la/s '+ sens$b$l$ty and t(e ,'nne,ted ,'nte1t '+ 'ur *er,e*t$'ns) /e
s('uld $n an e1*er$en,e ,'me als' 'n an $mmed$ate em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n '+ t($s matter) $+ 'ur senses /ere m're a,ute5 but t($s
'btuseness (as n' $n+luen,e u*'n and ,ann't alter t(e +'rm '+ *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e $n -eneral! Our %n'/led-e '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s
rea,(es as +ar as 'ur *er,e*t$'ns) and /(at may be $n+erred +r'm
t(em a,,'rd$n- t' em*$r$,al la/s) e1tend! I+ /e d' n't set 'ut +r'm
e1*er$en,e) 'r d' n't *r',eed a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ t(e em*$r$,al
,'nne,t$'n '+ *(en'mena) 'ur *retens$'ns t' d$s,'0er t(e e1$sten,e
'+ a t($n- /($,( /e d' n't $mmed$ately *er,e$0e are 0a$n! Ideal$sm)
('/e0er) br$n-s +'r/ard *'/er+ul 'b&e,t$'ns t' t(ese rules +'r *r'0$n-
e1$sten,e med$ately! T($s $s) t(ere+'re) t(e *r'*er *la,e +'r $ts
re+utat$'n! r
Ideal$sm5 I mean mater$al $deal$sm5 $s t(e t(e'ry /($,( de,lares t(e
e1$sten,e '+ 'b&e,ts $n s*a,e /$t('ut us t' be e$t(er => d'ubt+ul
and $ndem'nstrable) 'r =B> +alse and $m*'ss$ble! T(e +$rst $s t(e
*r'blemat$,al $deal$sm '+ #es,artes) /(' adm$ts t(e und'ubted
,erta$nty '+ 'nly 'ne em*$r$,al assert$'n =assert$'>) t' /$t) 9I
am!9 T(e se,'nd $s t(e d'-mat$,al $deal$sm '+ 3er%eley) /('
ma$nta$ns t(at s*a,e) t'-et(er /$t( all t(e 'b&e,ts '+ /($,( $t $s t(e
$nse*arable ,'nd$t$'n) $s a t($n- /($,( $s $n $tsel+ $m*'ss$ble) and
t(at ,'nse.uently t(e 'b&e,ts $n s*a,e are mere *r'du,ts '+ t(e
$ma-$nat$'n! T(e d'-mat$,al t(e'ry '+ $deal$sm $s una0'$dable) $+ /e
re-ard s*a,e as a *r'*erty '+ t($n-s $n t(emsel0es4 +'r $n t(at ,ase
$t $s) /$t( all t' /($,( $t ser0es as ,'nd$t$'n) a n'nent$ty! 3ut
t(e +'undat$'n +'r t($s %$nd '+ $deal$sm /e (a0e already destr'yed
$n t(e trans,endental aest(et$,! Pr'blemat$,al $deal$sm) /($,( ma%es
n' su,( assert$'n) but 'nly alle-es 'ur $n,a*a,$ty t' *r'0e t(e
e1$sten,e '+ anyt($n- bes$des 'ursel0es by means '+ $mmed$ate
e1*er$en,e) $s a t(e'ry rat$'nal and e0$den,$n- a t('r'u-( and
*($l's'*($,al m'de '+ t($n%$n-) +'r $t 'bser0es t(e rule n't t' +'rm a
de,$s$0e &ud-ement be+'re su++$,$ent *r''+ be s('/n! T(e des$red *r''+
must t(ere+'re dem'nstrate t(at /e (a0e e1*er$en,e '+ e1ternal t($n-s)
and n't mere +an,$es! F'r t($s *ur*'se) /e must *r'0e) t(at 'ur
$nternal and) t' #es,artes) $ndub$table e1*er$en,e $s $tsel+
*'ss$ble 'nly under t(e *re0$'us assum*t$'n '+ e1ternal e1*er$en,e! *
T(e s$m*le but em*$r$,ally determ$ned ,'ns,$'usness '+
my '/n e1$sten,e *r'0es t(e e1$sten,e '+ e1ternal
'b&e,ts $n s*a,e!
I am ,'ns,$'us '+ my '/n e1$sten,e as determ$ned $n t$me! All
determ$nat$'n $n re-ard t' t$me *resu**'ses t(e e1$sten,e '+ s'met($n-
*ermanent $n *er,e*t$'n! 3ut t($s *ermanent s'met($n- ,ann't be
s'met($n- $n me) +'r t(e 0ery reas'n t(at my e1$sten,e $n t$me $s
$tsel+ determ$ned by t($s *ermanent s'met($n-! It +'ll'/s t(at t(e
*er,e*t$'n '+ t($s *ermanent e1$sten,e $s *'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( a
t($n- /$t('ut me and n't t(r'u-( t(e mere re*resentat$'n '+ a t($n-
/$t('ut me! C'nse.uently) t(e determ$nat$'n '+ my e1$sten,e $n t$me $s
*'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( t(e e1$sten,e '+ real t($n-s e1ternal t' me!
N'/) ,'ns,$'usness $n t$me $s ne,essar$ly ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($s determ$nat$'n $n t$me!
Hen,e $t +'ll'/s t(at ,'ns,$'usness $n t$me $s ne,essar$ly ,'nne,ted
als' /$t( t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s /$t('ut me) $nasmu,( as t(e
e1$sten,e '+ t(ese t($n-s $s t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ determ$nat$'n $n t$me!
T(at $s t' say) t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ my '/n e1$sten,e $s at t(e same
t$me an $mmed$ate ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ 't(er t($n-s
/$t('ut me!
Remar% I! T(e reader /$ll 'bser0e) t(at $n t(e +'re-'$n- *r''+ t(e
-ame /($,( $deal$sm *lays $s ret'rted u*'n $tsel+) and /$t( m're
&ust$,e! It assumed t(at t(e 'nly $mmed$ate e1*er$en,e $s $nternal and
t(at +r'm t($s /e ,an 'nly $n+er t(e e1$sten,e '+ e1ternal t($n-s!
3ut) as al/ays (a**ens) /(en /e reas'n +r'm -$0en e++e,ts t'
determ$ned ,auses) $deal$sm bas reas'ned /$t( t'' mu,( (aste and
un,erta$nty) +'r $t $s .u$te *'ss$ble t(at t(e ,ause '+ 'ur
re*resentat$'ns may l$e $n 'ursel0es) and t(at /e as,r$be $t +alsely
t' e1ternal t($n-s! 3ut 'ur *r''+ s('/s t(at e1ternal e1*er$en,e $s
*r'*erly $mmed$ate)7 t(at 'nly by 0$rtue '+ $t5 n't) $ndeed) t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ 'ur '/n e1$sten,e) but ,erta$nly t(e determ$nat$'n '+
'ur e1$sten,e $n t$me) t(at $s) $nternal e1*er$en,e5 $s *'ss$ble! It
$s true) t(at t(e re*resentat$'n 9I am)9 /($,( $s t(e e1*ress$'n '+
t(e ,'ns,$'usness /($,( ,an a,,'m*any all my t('u-(ts) $s t(at /($,(
$mmed$ately $n,ludes t(e e1$sten,e '+ a sub&e,t! 3ut $n t($s
re*resentat$'n /e ,ann't +$nd any %n'/led-e '+ t(e sub&e,t) and
t(ere+'re als' n' em*$r$,al %n'/led-e) t(at $s) e1*er$en,e! F'r
e1*er$en,e ,'nta$ns) $n add$t$'n t' t(e t('u-(t '+ s'met($n- e1$st$n-)
$ntu$t$'n) and $n t($s ,ase $t must be $nternal $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s)
t$me) $n relat$'n t' /($,( t(e sub&e,t must be determ$ned! 3ut t(e
e1$sten,e '+ e1ternal t($n-s $s abs'lutely re.u$s$te +'r t($s *ur*'se)
s' t(at $t +'ll'/s t(at $nternal e1*er$en,e $s $tsel+ *'ss$ble 'nly
med$ately and t(r'u-( e1ternal e1*er$en,e!
7T(e $mmed$ate ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ e1ternal t($n-s $s)
$n t(e *re,ed$n- t(e'rem) n't *resu**'sed) but *r'0ed) by t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($s ,'ns,$'usness underst''d by us 'r n't! T(e
.uest$'n as t' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ $t /'uld stand t(us6 9Ha0e /e an
$nternal sense) but n' e1ternal sense) and $s 'ur bel$e+ $n e1ternal
*er,e*t$'n a mere delus$'n@9 3ut $t $s e0$dent t(at) $n 'rder merely
t' +an,y t' 'ursel0es anyt($n- as e1ternal) t(at $s) t' *resent $t
t' t(e sense $n $ntu$t$'n /e must already *'ssess an e1ternal sense)
and must t(ereby d$st$n-u$s( $mmed$ately t(e mere re,e*t$0$ty '+ an
e1ternal $ntu$t$'n +r'm t(e s*'ntane$ty /($,( ,(ara,ter$;es e0ery
a,t '+ $ma-$nat$'n! F'r merely t' $ma-$ne als' an e1ternal sense)
/'uld ann$($late t(e +a,ulty '+ $ntu$t$'n $tsel+ /($,( $s t' be
determ$ned by t(e $ma-$nat$'n!
Remar% II! N'/ /$t( t($s 0$e/ all em*$r$,al use '+ 'ur +a,ulty '+
,'-n$t$'n $n t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t$me $s $n *er+e,t a,,'rdan,e! Its
trut( $s su**'rted by t(e +a,t t(at $t $s *'ss$ble t' *er,e$0e a
determ$nat$'n '+ t$me 'nly by means '+ a ,(an-e $n e1ternal
relat$'ns =m't$'n> t' t(e *ermanent $n s*a,e =+'r e1am*le) /e be,'me
a/are '+ t(e sun?s m't$'n by 'bser0$n- t(e ,(an-es '+ ($s relat$'n
t' t(e 'b&e,ts '+ t($s eart(>! 3ut t($s $s n't all! 2e +$nd t(at /e
*'ssess n't($n- *ermanent t(at ,an ,'rres*'nd and be subm$tted t'
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a substan,e as $ntu$t$'n) e1,e*t matter! T($s $dea
'+ *ermanen,e $s n't $tsel+ der$0ed +r'm e1ternal e1*er$en,e) but $s
an a *r$'r$ ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n '+ all determ$nat$'n '+ t$me)
,'nse.uently als' '+ t(e $nternal sense $n re+eren,e t' 'ur '/n
e1$sten,e) and t(at t(r'u-( t(e e1$sten,e '+ e1ternal t($n-s! In t(e
re*resentat$'n 9I)9 t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ mysel+ $s n't an $ntu$t$'n)
but a merely $ntelle,tual re*resentat$'n *r'du,ed by t(e s*'ntane'us
a,t$0$ty '+ a t($n%$n- sub&e,t! It +'ll'/s) t(at t($s 9I9 (as n't
any *red$,ate '+ $ntu$t$'n) /($,() $n $ts ,(ara,ter '+ *ermanen,e)
,'uld ser0e as ,'rrelate t' t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t$me $n t(e
$nternal sense5 $n t(e same /ay as $m*enetrab$l$ty $s t(e ,'rrelate '+
matter as an em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n!
Remar% III! Fr'm t(e +a,t t(at t(e e1$sten,e '+ e1ternal t($n-s $s a
ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a determ$ned ,'ns,$'usness
'+ 'ursel0es) $t d'es n't +'ll'/ t(at e0ery $ntu$t$0e re*resentat$'n
'+ e1ternal t($n-s $n0'l0es t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(ese t($n-s) +'r t(e$r
re*resentat$'ns may 0ery /ell be t(e mere *r'du,ts '+ t(e
$ma-$nat$'n =$n dreams as /ell as $n madness>4 t('u-() $ndeed) t(ese
are t(emsel0es ,reated by t(e re*r'du,t$'n '+ *re0$'us e1ternal
*er,e*t$'ns) /($,() as (as been s('/n) are *'ss$ble 'nly t(r'u-( t(e
real$ty '+ e1ternal 'b&e,ts! T(e s'le a$m '+ 'ur remar%s (as) ('/e0er)
been t' *r'0e t(at $nternal e1*er$en,e $n -eneral $s *'ss$ble 'nly
t(r'u-( e1ternal e1*er$en,e $n -eneral! 2(et(er t($s 'r t(at
su**'sed e1*er$en,e be *urely $ma-$nary must be d$s,'0ered +r'm $ts
*art$,ular determ$nat$'ns and by ,'m*ar$n- t(ese /$t( t(e ,r$ter$a
'+ all real e1*er$en,e!
F$nally) as re-ards t(e t($rd *'stulate) $t a**l$es t' mater$al
ne,ess$ty $n e1$sten,e) and n't t' merely +'rmal and l'-$,al ne,ess$ty
$n t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns! N'/ as /e ,ann't ,'-n$;e
,'m*letely a *r$'r$ t(e e1$sten,e '+ any 'b&e,t '+ sense) t('u-( /e
,an d' s' ,'m*arat$0ely a *r$'r$) t(at $s) relat$0ely t' s'me 't(er
*re0$'usly -$0en e1$sten,e5 a ,'-n$t$'n) ('/e0er) /($,( ,an 'nly be '+
su,( an e1$sten,e as must be ,'nta$ned $n t(e ,'m*le1 '+ e1*er$en,e)
'+ /($,( t(e *re0$'usly -$0en *er,e*t$'n $s a *art5 t(e ne,ess$ty '+
e1$sten,e ,an ne0er be ,'-n$;ed +r'm ,'n,e*t$'ns) but al/ays) 'n t(e
,'ntrary) +r'm $ts ,'nne,t$'n /$t( t(at /($,( $s an 'b&e,t '+
*er,e*t$'n! 3ut t(e 'nly e1$sten,e ,'-n$;ed) under t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+
't(er -$0en *(en'mena) as ne,essary) $s t(e e1$sten,e '+ e++e,ts
+r'm -$0en ,auses $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e la/s '+ ,ausal$ty! It $s
,'nse.uently n't t(e ne,ess$ty '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s =as
substan,es>) but t(e ne,ess$ty '+ t(e state '+ t($n-s t(at /e ,'-n$;e)
and t(at n't $mmed$ately) but by means '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ 't(er
states -$0en $n *er,e*t$'n) a,,'rd$n- t' em*$r$,al la/s '+
,ausal$ty! Hen,e $t +'ll'/s t(at t(e ,r$ter$'n '+ ne,ess$ty $s t' be
+'und 'nly $n t(e la/ '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e5 t(at e0eryt($n- /($,(
(a**ens $s determ$ned a *r$'r$ $n t(e *(en'men'n by $ts ,ause! T(us /e
,'-n$;e 'nly t(e ne,ess$ty '+ e++e,ts $n nature) t(e ,auses '+ /($,(
are -$0en us! "'re'0er) t(e ,r$ter$'n '+ ne,ess$ty $n e1$sten,e
*'ssesses n' a**l$,at$'n bey'nd t(e +$eld '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e)
and e0en $n t($s $t $s n't 0al$d '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s as
substan,es) be,ause t(ese ,an ne0er be ,'ns$dered as em*$r$,al
e++e,ts) 'r as s'met($n- t(at (a**ens and (as a be-$nn$n-!
Ne,ess$ty) t(ere+'re) re-ards 'nly t(e relat$'ns '+ *(en'mena
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e dynam$,al la/ '+ ,ausal$ty) and t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
-r'unded t(ere'n) '+ reas'n$n- +r'm s'me -$0en e1$sten,e ='+ a
,ause> a *r$'r$ t' an't(er e1$sten,e ='+ an e++e,t>! 9E0eryt($n-
t(at (a**ens $s (y*'t(et$,ally ne,essary)9 $s a *r$n,$*le /($,(
sub&e,ts t(e ,(an-es t(at ta%e *la,e $n t(e /'rld t' a la/) t(at $s)
t' a rule '+ ne,essary e1$sten,e) /$t('ut /($,( nature (ersel+ ,'uld
n't *'ss$bly e1$st! Hen,e t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9N't($n- (a**ens by bl$nd
,(an,e =$n mund' n'n datur ,asus>)9 $s an a *r$'r$ la/ '+ nature!
T(e ,ase $s t(e same /$t( t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9Ne,ess$ty $n nature $s n't
bl$nd)9 t(at $s) $t $s ,'nd$t$'ned) ,'nse.uently $ntell$-$ble
ne,ess$ty =n'n datur +atum>! 3't( la/s sub&e,t t(e *lay '+ ,(an-e t'
9a nature '+ t($n-s =as *(en'mena>)9 'r) /($,( $s t(e same t($n-) t'
t(e un$ty '+ t(e understand$n-) and t(r'u-( t(e understand$n- al'ne
,an ,(an-es bel'n- t' an e1*er$en,e) as t(e synt(et$,al un$ty '+
*(en'mena! 3't( bel'n- t' t(e ,lass '+ dynam$,al *r$n,$*les! T(e
+'rmer $s *r'*erly a ,'nse.uen,e '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,ausal$ty5 'ne '+
t(e anal'-$es '+ e1*er$en,e! T(e latter bel'n-s t' t(e *r$n,$*les '+
m'dal$ty) /($,( t' t(e determ$nat$'n '+ ,ausal$ty adds t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ ne,ess$ty) /($,( $s $tsel+) ('/e0er) sub&e,t t' a rule
'+ t(e understand$n-! T(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'nt$nu$ty +'rb$ds any lea*
$n t(e ser$es '+ *(en'mena re-arded as ,(an-es =$n mund' n'n datur
saltus>4 and l$%e/$se) $n t(e ,'m*le1 '+ all em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'ns $n
s*a,e) any brea% 'r ($atus bet/een t/' *(en'mena =n'n datur ($atus>5
+'r /e ,an s' e1*ress t(e *r$n,$*le) t(at e1*er$en,e ,an adm$t n't($n-
/($,( *r'0es t(e e1$sten,e '+ a 0a,uum) 'r /($,( e0en adm$ts $t as a
*art '+ an em*$r$,al synt(es$s! F'r) as re-ards a 0a,uum 'r 0'$d)
/($,( /e may ,'-$tate as 'ut and bey'nd t(e +$eld '+ *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e =t(e /'rld>) su,( a .uest$'n ,ann't ,'me be+'re t(e
tr$bunal '+ mere understand$n-) /($,( de,$des 'nly u*'n .uest$'ns t(at
,'n,ern t(e em*l'yment '+ -$0en *(en'mena +'r t(e ,'nstru,t$'n '+
em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n! It $s rat(er a *r'blem +'r $deal reas'n) /($,(
*asses bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e and a$ms at
+'rm$n- a &ud-ement '+ t(at /($,( surr'unds and ,$r,ums,r$bes $t)
and t(e *r'*er *la,e +'r t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ $t $s t(e trans,endental
d$ale,t$,! T(ese +'ur *r'*'s$t$'ns) 9In mund' n'n datur ($atus) n'n
datur saltus) n'n datur ,asus) n'n datur +atum)9 as /ell as all
*r$n,$*les '+ trans,endental 'r$-$n) /e ,'uld 0ery eas$ly e1($b$t $n
t(e$r *r'*er 'rder) t(at $s) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e 'rder '+ t(e
,ate-'r$es) and ass$-n t' ea,( $ts *r'*er *la,e! 3ut t(e already
*ra,t$sed reader /$ll d' t($s +'r ($msel+) 'r d$s,'0er t(e ,lue t'
su,( an arran-ement! 3ut t(e ,'mb$ned result '+ all $s s$m*ly t($s) t'
adm$t $nt' t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s n't($n- /($,( m$-(t ,ause a brea%
$n 'r be +'re$-n t' t(e understand$n- and t(e ,'nt$nu'us ,'nne,t$'n '+
all *(en'mena) t(at $s) t(e un$ty '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n-! F'r $n t(e understand$n- al'ne $s t(e un$ty '+
e1*er$en,e) $n /($,( all *er,e*t$'ns must (a0e t(e$r ass$-ned *la,e)
2(et(er t(e +$eld '+ *'ss$b$l$ty be -reater t(an t(at '+ real$ty)
and /(et(er t(e +$eld '+ t(e latter be $tsel+ -reater t(an t(at '+
ne,ess$ty) are $nterest$n- en'u-( .uest$'ns) and .u$te ,a*able '+
synt(et$, s'lut$'n) .uest$'ns) ('/e0er) /($,( ,'me under t(e
&ur$sd$,t$'n '+ reas'n al'ne! F'r t(ey are tantam'unt t' as%$n-
/(et(er all t($n-s as *(en'mena d' /$t('ut e1,e*t$'n bel'n- t' t(e
,'m*le1 and ,'nne,ted /('le '+ a s$n-le e1*er$en,e) '+ /($,( e0ery
-$0en *er,e*t$'n $s a *art /($,( t(ere+'re ,ann't be ,'n&'$ned /$t(
any 't(er *(en'mena5 'r) /(et(er my *er,e*t$'ns ,an bel'n- t' m're
t(an 'ne *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e@ T(e understand$n- -$0es t' e1*er$en,e)
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e sub&e,t$0e and +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns) '+ sens$b$l$ty as
/ell as '+ a**er,e*t$'n) t(e rules /($,( al'ne ma%e t($s e1*er$en,e
*'ss$ble! Ot(er +'rms '+ $ntu$t$'n bes$des t('se '+ s*a,e and t$me)
't(er +'rms '+ understand$n- bes$des t(e d$s,urs$0e +'rms '+
t('u-(t) 'r '+ ,'-n$t$'n by means '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) /e ,an ne$t(er
$ma-$ne n'r ma%e $ntell$-$ble t' 'ursel0es4 and e0en $+ /e ,'uld) t(ey
/'uld st$ll n't bel'n- t' e1*er$en,e) /($,( $s t(e 'nly m'de '+
,'-n$t$'n by /($,( 'b&e,ts are *resented t' us! 2(et(er 't(er
*er,e*t$'ns bes$des t('se /($,( bel'n- t' t(e t'tal '+ 'ur *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e) and ,'nse.uently /(et(er s'me 't(er s*(ere '+ matter
e1$sts) t(e understand$n- (as n' *'/er t' de,$de) $ts *r'*er
',,u*at$'n be$n- /$t( t(e synt(es$s '+ t(at /($,( $s -$0en!
"'re'0er) t(e *'0erty '+ t(e usual ar-uments /($,( -' t' *r'0e t(e
e1$sten,e '+ a 0ast s*(ere '+ *'ss$b$l$ty) '+ /($,( all t(at $s real
=e0ery 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e> $s but a small *art) $s 0ery
remar%able! 9All real $s *'ss$ble94 +r'm t($s +'ll'/s naturally)
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e l'-$,al la/s '+ ,'n0ers$'n) t(e *art$,ular
*r'*'s$t$'n6 9S'me *'ss$ble $s real!9 N'/ t($s seems t' be
e.u$0alent t'6 9"u,( $s *'ss$ble t(at $s n't real!9 N' d'ubt $t d'es
seem as $+ /e 'u-(t t' ,'ns$der t(e sum '+ t(e *'ss$ble t' be
-reater t(an t(at '+ t(e real) +r'm t(e +a,t t(at s'met($n- must be
added t' t(e +'rmer t' ,'nst$tute t(e latter! 3ut t($s n't$'n '+
add$n- t' t(e *'ss$ble $s absurd! F'r t(at /($,( $s n't $n t(e sum
'+ t(e *'ss$ble) and ,'nse.uently re.u$res t' be added t' $t) $s
man$+estly $m*'ss$ble! In add$t$'n t' a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e +'rmal
,'nd$t$'ns '+ e1*er$en,e) t(e understand$n- re.u$res a ,'nne,t$'n /$t(
s'me *er,e*t$'n4 but t(at /($,( $s ,'nne,ted /$t( t($s *er,e*t$'n $s
real) e0en alt('u-( $t $s n't $mmed$ately *er,e$0ed! 3ut t(at
an't(er ser$es '+ *(en'mena) $n ,'m*lete ,'(eren,e /$t( t(at /($,(
$s -$0en $n *er,e*t$'n) ,'nse.uently m're t(an 'ne all5embra,$n-
e1*er$en,e $s *'ss$ble) $s an $n+eren,e /($,( ,ann't be ,'n,luded +r'm
t(e data -$0en us by e1*er$en,e) and st$ll less /$t('ut any data at
all! T(at /($,( $s *'ss$ble 'nly under ,'nd$t$'ns /($,( are t(emsel0es
merely *'ss$ble) $s n't *'ss$ble $n any res*e,t! And yet /e ,an +$nd
n' m're ,erta$n -r'und 'n /($,( t' base t(e d$s,uss$'n '+ t(e .uest$'n
/(et(er t(e s*(ere '+ *'ss$b$l$ty $s /$der t(an t(at '+ e1*er$en,e!
I (a0e merely ment$'ned t(ese .uest$'ns) t(at $n treat$n- '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-) t(ere m$-(t be n' 'm$ss$'n '+
anyt($n- t(at) $n t(e ,'mm'n '*$n$'n) bel'n-s t' t(em! In real$ty)
('/e0er) t(e n't$'n '+ abs'lute *'ss$b$l$ty =*'ss$b$l$ty /($,( $s
0al$d $n e0ery res*e,t> $s n't a mere ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-)
/($,( ,an be em*l'yed em*$r$,ally) but bel'n-s t' reas'n al'ne)
/($,( *asses t(e b'unds '+ all em*$r$,al use '+ t(e understand$n-!
2e (a0e) t(ere+'re) ,'ntented 'ursel0es /$t( a merely ,r$t$,al remar%)
lea0$n- t(e sub&e,t t' be e1*la$ned $n t(e se.uel!
3e+'re ,'n,lud$n- t($s +'urt( se,t$'n) and at t(e same t$me t(e
system '+ all *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) $t seems *r'*er t'
ment$'n t(e reas'ns /($,( $ndu,ed me t' term t(e *r$n,$*les '+
m'dal$ty *'stulates! T($s e1*ress$'n I d' n't (ere use $n t(e sense
/($,( s'me m're re,ent *($l's'*(ers) ,'ntrary t' $ts mean$n- /$t(
mat(emat$,$ans) t' /('m t(e /'rd *r'*erly bel'n-s) atta,( t' $t5
t(at '+ a *r'*'s$t$'n) namely) $mmed$ately ,erta$n) re.u$r$n-
ne$t(er dedu,t$'n n'r *r''+! F'r $+) $n t(e ,ase '+ synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'ns) ('/e0er e0$dent t(ey may be) /e a,,'rd t' t(em /$t('ut
dedu,t$'n) and merely 'n t(e stren-t( '+ t(e$r '/n *retens$'ns)
un.ual$+$ed bel$e+) all ,r$t$.ue '+ t(e understand$n- $s ent$rely
l'st4 and) as t(ere $s n' /ant '+ b'ld *retens$'ns) /($,( t(e ,'mm'n
bel$e+ =t('u-( +'r t(e *($l's'*(er t($s $s n' ,redent$al> d'es n't
re&e,t) t(e understand$n- l$es e1*'sed t' e0ery delus$'n and
,'n,e$t) /$t('ut t(e *'/er '+ re+us$n- $ts assent t' t('se assert$'ns)
/($,() t('u-( $lle-$t$mate) demand a,,e*tan,e as 0er$table a1$'ms!
2(en) t(ere+'re) t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- an a *r$'r$
determ$nat$'n $s synt(et$,ally added) su,( a *r'*'s$t$'n must
'bta$n) $+ n't a *r''+) at least a dedu,t$'n '+ t(e le-$t$ma,y '+
$ts assert$'n!
T(e *r$n,$*les '+ m'dal$ty are) ('/e0er) n't 'b&e,t$0ely
synt(et$,al) +'r t(e *red$,ates '+ *'ss$b$l$ty) real$ty) and ne,ess$ty
d' n't $n t(e least au-ment t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(at '+ /($,( t(ey are
a++$rmed) $nasmu,( as t(ey ,'ntr$bute n't($n- t' t(e re*resentat$'n '+
t(e 'b&e,t! 3ut as t(ey are) ne0ert(eless) al/ays synt(et$,al) t(ey
are s' merely sub&e,t$0ely! T(at $s t' say) t(ey (a0e a re+le,t$0e
*'/er) and a**ly t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n-) '+ /($,() $n 't(er
res*e,ts) t(ey a++$rm n't($n-) t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n $n /($,( t(e
,'n,e*t$'n 'r$-$nates and (as $ts seat! S' t(at $+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
merely a-ree /$t( t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ e1*er$en,e) $ts 'b&e,t $s
,alled *'ss$ble4 $+ $t $s $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( *er,e*t$'n) and
determ$ned t(ereby) t(e 'b&e,t $s real4 $+ $t $s determ$ned
a,,'rd$n- t' ,'n,e*t$'ns by means '+ t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ *er,e*t$'ns)
t(e 'b&e,t $s ,alled ne,essary! T(e *r$n,$*les '+ m'dal$ty t(ere+'re
*red$,ate '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n n't($n- m're t(an t(e *r',edure '+ t(e
+a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n /($,( -enerated $t! N'/ a *'stulate $n
mat(emat$,s $s a *ra,t$,al *r'*'s$t$'n /($,( ,'nta$ns n't($n- but
t(e synt(es$s by /($,( /e *resent an 'b&e,t t' 'ursel0es) and
*r'du,e t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t) +'r e1am*le5 92$t( a -$0en l$ne) t'
des,r$be a ,$r,le u*'n a *lane) +r'm a -$0en *'$nt94 and su,( a
*r'*'s$t$'n d'es n't adm$t '+ *r''+) be,ause t(e *r',edure) /($,( $t
re.u$res) $s e1a,tly t(at by /($,( al'ne $t $s *'ss$ble t' -enerate
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a +$-ure! 2$t( t(e same r$-(t) a,,'rd$n-ly) ,an
/e *'stulate t(e *r$n,$*les '+ m'dal$ty) be,ause t(ey d' n't
au-ment7 t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- but merely $nd$,ate t(e manner $n
/($,( $t $s ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n!
72(en I t($n% t(e real$ty '+ a t($n-) I d' really t($n% m're t(an
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty) but n't $n t(e t($n-4 +'r t(at ,an ne0er ,'nta$n m're
$n real$ty t(an /as ,'nta$ned $n $ts ,'m*lete *'ss$b$l$ty! 3ut /($le
t(e n't$'n '+ *'ss$b$l$ty $s merely t(e n't$'n '+ a *'s$t$'n '+
t($n- $n relat$'n t' t(e understand$n- =$ts em*$r$,al use>) real$ty $s
t(e ,'n&un,t$'n '+ t(e t($n- /$t( *er,e*t$'n!

It $s 0ery remar%able t(at /e ,ann't *er,e$0e t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a
t($n- +r'm t(e ,ate-'ry al'ne) but must al/ays (a0e an $ntu$t$'n) by
/($,( t' ma%e e0$dent t(e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ t(e understand$n-! Ta%e) +'r e1am*le) t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ relat$'n!
H'/ =1> a t($n- ,an e1$st 'nly as a sub&e,t) and n't as a mere
determ$nat$'n '+ 't(er t($n-s) t(at $s) ,an be substan,e4 'r ('/
=B>) be,ause s'met($n- e1$sts) s'me 't(er t($n- must e1$st)
,'nse.uently ('/ a t($n- ,an be a ,ause4 'r ('/ =I>) /(en se0eral
t($n-s e1$st) +r'm t(e +a,t t(at 'ne '+ t(ese t($n-s e1$sts) s'me
,'nse.uen,e t' t(e 't(ers +'ll'/s) and re,$*r',ally) and $n t($s /ay a
,'mmun$ty '+ substan,es ,an be *'ss$ble5 are .uest$'ns /('se
s'lut$'n ,ann't be 'bta$ned +r'm mere ,'n,e*t$'ns! T(e 0ery same $s
t(e ,ase /$t( t(e 't(er ,ate-'r$es4 +'r e1am*le) ('/ a t($n- ,an be '+
t(e same s'rt /$t( many 't(ers) t(at $s) ,an be a .uant$ty) and s' 'n!
S' l'n- as /e (a0e n't $ntu$t$'n /e ,ann't %n'/ /(et(er /e d' really
t($n% an 'b&e,t by t(e ,ate-'r$es) and /(ere an 'b&e,t ,an any/(ere be
+'und t' ,'(ere /$t( t(em) and t(us t(e trut( $s establ$s(ed) t(at t(e
,ate-'r$es are n't $n t(emsel0es ,'-n$t$'ns) but mere +'rms '+ t('u-(t
+'r t(e ,'nstru,t$'n '+ ,'-n$t$'ns +r'm -$0en $ntu$t$'ns! F'r t(e same
reas'n $s $t true t(at +r'm ,ate-'r$es al'ne n' synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n ,an be made! F'r e1am*le6 9In e0ery e1$sten,e t(ere $s
substan,e)9 t(at $s) s'met($n- t(at ,an e1$st 'nly as a sub&e,t and
n't as mere *red$,ate4 'r) 9E0eryt($n- $s a .uant$ty95 t' ,'nstru,t
*r'*'s$t$'ns su,( as t(ese) /e re.u$re s'met($n- t' enable us t' -'
'ut bey'nd t(e -$0en ,'n,e*t$'n and ,'nne,t an't(er /$t( $t! F'r t(e
same reas'n t(e attem*t t' *r'0e a synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n by means '+
mere ,'n,e*t$'ns) +'r e1am*le6 9E0eryt($n- t(at e1$sts ,'nt$n-ently
(as a ,ause)9 (as ne0er su,,eeded! 2e ,'uld ne0er -et +urt(er t(an
*r'0$n- t(at) /$t('ut t($s relat$'n t' ,'n,e*t$'ns) /e ,'uld n't
,'n,e$0e t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e ,'nt$n-ent) t(at $s) ,'uld n't a
*r$'r$ t(r'u-( t(e understand$n- ,'-n$;e t(e e1$sten,e '+ su,( a
t($n-4 but $t d'es n't (en,e +'ll'/ t(at t($s $s als' t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e t($n- $tsel+ t(at $s sa$d t' be ,'nt$n-ent! I+)
a,,'rd$n-ly4 /e l''% ba,% t' 'ur *r''+ '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+
,ausal$ty) /e s(all +$nd t(at /e /ere able t' *r'0e $t as 0al$d 'nly
'+ 'b&e,ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) and) $ndeed) 'nly as $tsel+ t(e
*r$n,$*le '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) C'nse.uently '+ t(e
,'-n$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t -$0en $n em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) and n't +r'm mere
,'n,e*t$'ns! T(at) ('/e0er) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9E0eryt($n- t(at $s
,'nt$n-ent must (a0e a ,ause)9 $s e0$dent t' e0ery 'ne merely +r'm
,'n,e*t$'ns) $s n't t' be den$ed! 3ut $n t($s ,ase t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
t(e ,'nt$n-ent $s ,'-$tated as $n0'l0$n- n't t(e ,ate-'ry '+
m'dal$ty =as t(at t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ /($,( ,an be ,'n,e$0e but
t(at '+ relat$'n =as t(at /($,( ,an e1$st 'nly as t(e ,'nse.uen,e '+
s'met($n- else>) and s' $t $s really an $dent$,al *r'*'s$t$'n6 9T(at
/($,( ,an e1$st 'nly as a ,'nse.uen,e) (as a ,ause!9 In +a,t) /(en
/e (a0e t' -$0e e1am*les '+ ,'nt$n-ent e1$sten,e) /e al/ays re+er t'
,(an-es) and n't merely t' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'n,e$0$n- t(e
'**'s$te!7 3ut ,(an-e $s an e0ent) /($,() as su,() $s *'ss$ble 'nly
t(r'u-( a ,ause) and ,'ns$dered *er se $ts n'n5e1$sten,e $s
t(ere+'re *'ss$ble) and /e be,'me ,'-n$;ant '+ $ts ,'nt$n-en,y +r'm
t(e +a,t t(at $t ,an e1$st 'nly as t(e e++e,t '+ a ,ause! Hen,e) $+
a t($n- $s assumed t' be ,'nt$n-ent) $t $s an analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n
t' say) $t (as a ,ause!
72e ,an eas$ly ,'n,e$0e t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ matter4 but t(e
an,$ents d$d n't t(en,e $n+er $ts ,'nt$n-en,y! 3ut e0en t(e
alternat$'n '+ t(e e1$sten,e and n'n5e1$sten,e '+ a -$0en state $n a
t($n-) $n /($,( all ,(an-e ,'ns$sts) by n' means *r'0es t(e
,'nt$n-en,y '+ t(at state5 t(e -r'und '+ *r''+ be$n- t(e real$ty '+
$ts '**'s$te! F'r e1am*le) a b'dy $s $n a state '+ rest a+ter
m't$'n) but /e ,ann't $n+er t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ t(e m't$'n +r'm t(e
+a,t t(at t(e +'rmer $s t(e '**'s$te '+ t(e latter! F'r t($s
'**'s$te $s merely a l'-$,al and n't a real '**'s$te t' t(e 't(er!
I+ /e /$s( t' dem'nstrate t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ t(e m't$'n) /(at /e 'u-(t
t' *r'0e $s t(at) $nstead '+ t(e m't$'n /($,( t''% *la,e $n t(e
*re,ed$n- *'$nt '+ t$me) $t /as *'ss$ble +'r t(e b'dy t' (a0e been
t(en $n rest) n't) t(at $t $s a+ter/ards $n rest4 +'r $n t($s ,ase)
b't( '**'s$tes are *er+e,tly ,'ns$stent /$t( ea,( 't(er!
3ut $t $s st$ll m're remar%able t(at) t' understand t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s a,,'rd$n- t' t(e ,ate-'r$es and t(us t'
dem'nstrate t(e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ t(e latter) /e re.u$re n't merely
$ntu$t$'ns) but e1ternal $ntu$t$'ns! I+) +'r e1am*le) /e ta%e t(e *ure
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ relat$'n) /e +$nd t(at =1> +'r t(e *ur*'se '+
*resent$n- t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ substan,e s'met($n- *ermanent $n
$ntu$t$'n ,'rres*'nd$n- t(eret' and t(us '+ dem'nstrat$n- t(e
'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ t($s ,'n,e*t$'n) /e re.u$re an $ntu$t$'n ='+
matter> $n s*a,e) be,ause s*a,e al'ne $s *ermanent and determ$nes
t($n-s as su,() /($le t$me) and /$t( $t all t(at $s $n t(e $nternal
sense) $s $n a state '+ ,'nt$nual +l'/4 =B> $n 'rder t' re*resent
,(an-e as t(e $ntu$t$'n ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
,ausal$ty) /e re.u$re t(e re*resentat$'n '+ m't$'n as ,(an-e $n s*a,e4
$n +a,t) $t $s t(r'u-( $t al'ne t(at ,(an-es) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ /($,(
n' *ure understand$n- ,an *er,e$0e) are ,a*able '+ be$n- $ntu$ted!
C(an-e $s t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ determ$nat$'ns ,'ntrad$,t'r$ly '**'sed
t' ea,( 't(er $n t(e e1$sten,e '+ 'ne and t(e same t($n-! N'/) ('/
$t $s *'ss$ble t(at 'ut '+ a -$0en state 'ne .u$te '**'s$te t' $t $n
t(e same t($n- s('uld +'ll'/) reas'n /$t('ut an e1am*le ,an n't 'nly
n't ,'n,e$0e) but ,ann't e0en ma%e $ntell$-$ble /$t('ut $ntu$t$'n4 and
t($s $ntu$t$'n $s t(e m't$'n '+ a *'$nt $n s*a,e4 t(e e1$sten,e '+
/($,( $n d$++erent s*a,es =as a ,'nse.uen,e '+ '**'s$te
determ$nat$'ns> al'ne ma%es t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ ,(an-e *'ss$ble! F'r)
$n 'rder t' ma%e e0en $nternal ,(an-e ,'-n$table) /e re.u$re t'
re*resent t$me) as t(e +'rm '+ t(e $nternal sense) +$-urat$0ely by a
l$ne) and t(e $nternal ,(an-e by t(e dra/$n- '+ t(at l$ne =m't$'n>)
and ,'nse.uently are 'bl$-ed t' em*l'y e1ternal $ntu$t$'n t' be able
t' re*resent t(e su,,ess$0e e1$sten,e '+ 'ursel0es $n d$++erent
states! T(e *r'*er -r'und '+ t($s +a,t $s t(at all ,(an-e t' be
*er,e$0ed as ,(an-e *resu**'ses s'met($n- *ermanent $n $ntu$t$'n)
/($le $n t(e $nternal sense n' *ermanent $ntu$t$'n $s t' be +'und!
<astly) t(e 'b&e,t$0e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e ,ate-'ry '+ ,'mmun$ty
,ann't be ,'n,e$0ed by mere reas'n) and ,'nse.uently $ts 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty ,ann't be dem'nstrated /$t('ut an $ntu$t$'n) and t(at e1ternal
$n s*a,e! F'r ('/ ,an /e ,'n,e$0e t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'mmun$ty) t(at
$s) /(en se0eral substan,es e1$st) t(at s'me e++e,t 'n t(e e1$sten,e
'+ t(e 'ne +'ll'/s +r'm t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e 't(er) and
re,$*r',ally) and t(ere+'re t(at) be,ause s'met($n- e1$sts $n t(e
latter) s'met($n- else must e1$st $n t(e +'rmer) /($,( ,'uld n't be
underst''d +r'm $ts '/n e1$sten,e al'ne@ F'r t($s $s t(e 0ery
essen,e '+ ,'mmun$ty5 /($,( $s $n,'n,e$0able as a *r'*erty '+ t($n-s
/($,( are *er+e,tly $s'lated! Hen,e) <e$bn$t;) $n attr$but$n- t' t(e
substan,es '+ t(e /'rld5 as ,'-$tated by t(e understand$n- al'ne5 a
,'mmun$ty) re.u$red t(e med$at$n- a$d '+ a d$0$n$ty4 +'r) +r'm t(e$r
e1$sten,e) su,( a *r'*erty seemed t' ($m /$t( &ust$,e $n,'n,e$0able!
3ut /e ,an 0ery eas$ly ,'n,e$0e t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'mmun$ty ='+
substan,es as *(en'mena> $+ /e re*resent t(em t' 'ursel0es as $n
s*a,e) ,'nse.uently $n e1ternal $ntu$t$'n! F'r e1ternal $ntu$t$'n
,'nta$ns $n $tsel+ a *r$'r$ +'rmal e1ternal relat$'ns) as t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e real relat$'ns '+ a,t$'n and
rea,t$'n) and t(ere+'re '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ,'mmun$ty! 2$t( t(e same
ease ,an $t be dem'nstrated) t(at t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s as
.uant$t$es) and ,'nse.uently t(e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ t(e ,ate-'ry
'+ .uant$ty) ,an be -r'unded 'nly $n e1ternal $ntu$t$'n) and t(at by
$ts means al'ne $s t(e n't$'n '+ .uant$ty a**r'*r$ated by t(e $nternal
sense! 3ut I must a0'$d *r'l$1$ty) and lea0e t(e tas% '+
$llustrat$n- t($s by e1am*les t' t(e reader?s '/n re+le,t$'n!
T(e ab'0e remar%s are '+ t(e -reatest $m*'rtan,e) n't 'nly +'r t(e
,'n+$rmat$'n '+ 'ur *re0$'us ,'n+utat$'n '+ $deal$sm) but st$ll m're
/(en t(e sub&e,t '+ sel+5,'-n$t$'n by mere $nternal ,'ns,$'usness
and t(e determ$nat$'n '+ 'ur '/n nature /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ e1ternal
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'ns $s under d$s,uss$'n) +'r t(e $nd$,at$'n '+ t(e
-r'unds '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( a ,'-n$t$'n!
T(e result '+ t(e /('le '+ t($s *art '+ t(e analyt$, '+ *r$n,$*les
$s) t(ere+'re6 9All *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n- are n't($n-
m're t(an a *r$'r$ *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) and t'
e1*er$en,e al'ne d' all a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns a**ly and
relate94 $ndeed) t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty $tsel+ rests ent$rely 'n t($s
CHAPTER III O+ t(e Cr'und '+ t(e #$0$s$'n '+ all Ob&e,ts

$nt' P(en'mena and N'umena!

2e (a0e n'/ n't 'nly tra0ersed t(e re-$'n '+ t(e *ure
understand$n- and ,are+ully sur0eyed e0ery *art '+ $t) but /e (a0e
als' measured $t) and ass$-ned t' e0eryt($n- t(ere$n $ts *r'*er *la,e!
3ut t($s land $s an $sland) and en,l'sed by nature (ersel+ /$t($n
un,(an-eable l$m$ts! It $s t(e land '+ trut( =an attra,t$0e /'rd>)
surr'unded by a /$de and st'rmy ',ean) t(e re-$'n '+ $llus$'n) /(ere
many a +'-5ban%) many an $,eber-) seems t' t(e mar$ner) 'n ($s
0'ya-e '+ d$s,'0ery) a ne/ ,'untry) and) /($le ,'nstantly delud$n- ($m
/$t( 0a$n ('*es) en-a-es ($m $n dan-er'us ad0entures) +r'm /($,( (e
ne0er ,an des$st) and /($,( yet (e ne0er ,an br$n- t' a term$nat$'n!
3ut be+'re 0entur$n- u*'n t($s sea) $n 'rder t' e1*l're $t $n $ts
/('le e1tent) and t' arr$0e at a ,erta$nty /(et(er anyt($n- $s t' be
d$s,'0ered t(ere) $t /$ll n't be /$t('ut ad0anta-e $+ /e ,ast 'ur eyes
u*'n t(e ,(art '+ t(e land t(at /e are ab'ut t' lea0e) and t' as%
'ursel0es) +$rstly) /(et(er /e ,ann't rest *er+e,tly ,'ntented /$t(
/(at $t ,'nta$ns) 'r /(et(er /e must n't '+ ne,ess$ty be ,'ntented
/$t( $t) $+ /e ,an +$nd n'/(ere else a s'l$d +'undat$'n t' bu$ld u*'n4
and) se,'ndly) by /(at t$tle /e *'ssess t($s land $tsel+) and ('/ /e
('ld $t se,ure a-a$nst all ('st$le ,la$ms@ Alt('u-() $n t(e ,'urse
'+ 'ur analyt$,) /e (a0e already -$0en su++$,$ent ans/ers t' t(ese
.uest$'ns) yet a summary re,a*$tulat$'n '+ t(ese s'lut$'ns may be
use+ul $n stren-t(en$n- 'ur ,'n0$,t$'n) by un$t$n- $n 'ne *'$nt t(e
m'menta '+ t(e ar-uments!
2e (a0e seen t(at e0eryt($n- /($,( t(e understand$n- dra/s +r'm
$tsel+) /$t('ut b'rr'/$n- +r'm e1*er$en,e) $t ne0ert(eless *'ssesses
'nly +'r t(e be(''+ and use '+ e1*er$en,e! T(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e
*ure understand$n-) /(et(er ,'nst$tut$0e a *r$'r$ =as t(e mat(emat$,al
*r$n,$*les>) 'r merely re-ulat$0e =as t(e dynam$,al>) ,'nta$n
n't($n- but t(e *ure s,(ema) as $t /ere) '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! F'r
e1*er$en,e *'ssesses $ts un$ty +r'm t(e synt(et$,al un$ty /($,( t(e
understand$n-) 'r$-$nally and +r'm $tsel+) $m*arts t' t(e synt(es$s '+
t(e $ma-$nat$'n $n relat$'n t' a**er,e*t$'n) and $n a *r$'r$
relat$'n t' and a-reement /$t( /($,( *(en'mena) as data +'r a *'ss$ble
,'-n$t$'n) must stand! 3ut alt('u-( t(ese rules '+ t(e understand$n-
are n't 'nly a *r$'r$ true) but t(e 0ery s'ur,e '+ all trut() t(at $s)
'+ t(e a,,'rdan,e '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n /$t( 'b&e,ts) and 'n t($s -r'und)
t(at t(ey ,'nta$n t(e bas$s '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) as t(e
ensemble '+ all ,'-n$t$'n) $t seems t' us n't en'u-( t' *r'*'und
/(at $s true5 /e des$re als' t' be t'ld /(at /e /ant t' %n'/! I+)
t(en) /e learn n't($n- m're by t($s ,r$t$,al e1am$nat$'n t(an /(at
/e s('uld (a0e *ra,t$sed $n t(e merely em*$r$,al use '+ t(e
understand$n-) /$t('ut any su,( subtle $n.u$ry) t(e *resum*t$'n $s
t(at t(e ad0anta-e /e rea* +r'm $t $s n't /'rt( t(e lab'ur best'/ed
u*'n $t! It may ,erta$nly be ans/ered t(at n' ras( ,ur$'s$ty $s m're
*re&ud$,$al t' t(e enlar-ement '+ 'ur %n'/led-e t(an t(at /($,( must
%n'/ be+'re(and t(e ut$l$ty '+ t($s 'r t(at *$e,e '+ $n+'rmat$'n /($,(
/e see%) be+'re /e (a0e entered 'n t(e need+ul $n0est$-at$'ns) and
be+'re 'ne ,'uld +'rm t(e least ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $ts ut$l$ty) e0en t('u-(
$t /ere *la,ed be+'re 'ur eyes! 3ut t(ere $s 'ne ad0anta-e $n su,(
trans,endental $n.u$r$es /($,( ,an be made ,'m*re(ens$ble t' t(e
dullest and m'st relu,tant learner5 t($s) namely) t(at t(e
understand$n- /($,( $s ',,u*$ed merely /$t( em*$r$,al e1er,$se) and
d'es n't re+le,t 'n t(e s'ur,es '+ $ts '/n ,'-n$t$'n) may e1er,$se $ts
+un,t$'ns 0ery /ell and 0ery su,,ess+ully) but $s .u$te unable t' d'
'ne t($n-) and t(at '+ 0ery -reat $m*'rtan,e) t' determ$ne) namely)
t(e b'unds t(at l$m$t $ts em*l'yment) and t' %n'/ /(at l$es /$t($n
'r /$t('ut $ts '/n s*(ere! T($s *ur*'se ,an be 'bta$ned 'nly by su,(
*r'+'und $n0est$-at$'ns as /e (a0e $nst$tuted! 3ut $+ $t ,ann't
d$st$n-u$s( /(et(er ,erta$n .uest$'ns l$e /$t($n $ts ('r$;'n 'r n't)
$t ,an ne0er be sure e$t(er as t' $ts ,la$ms 'r *'ssess$'ns) but
must lay $ts a,,'unt /$t( many (um$l$at$n- ,'rre,t$'ns) /(en $t
trans-resses) as $t una0'$dably /$ll) t(e l$m$ts '+ $ts '/n terr$t'ry)
and l'ses $tsel+ $n +an,$+ul '*$n$'ns and bl$nd$n- $llus$'ns!
T(at t(e understand$n-) t(ere+'re) ,ann't ma%e '+ $ts a *r$'r$
*r$n,$*les) 'r e0en '+ $ts ,'n,e*t$'ns) 't(er t(an an em*$r$,al use)
$s a *r'*'s$t$'n /($,( leads t' t(e m'st $m*'rtant results! A
trans,endental use $s made '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n $n a +undamental
*r'*'s$t$'n 'r *r$n,$*le) /(en $t $s re+erred t' t($n-s $n -eneral and
,'ns$dered as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es4 an em*$r$,al use) /(en $t $s
re+erred merely t' *(en'mena) t(at $s) t' 'b&e,ts '+ a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e! T(at t(e latter use '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n $s t(e 'nly adm$ss$ble
'ne $s e0$dent +r'm t(e reas'ns +'ll'/$n-! F'r e0ery ,'n,e*t$'n are
re.u$s$te) +$rstly) t(e l'-$,al +'rm '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n ='+ t('u-(t>
-eneral4 and) se,'ndly) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ *resent$n- t' t($s an
'b&e,t t' /($,( $t may a**ly! Fa$l$n- t($s latter) $t (as n' sense)
and utterly 0'$d '+ ,'ntent) alt('u-( $t may ,'nta$n t(e l'-$,al
+un,t$'n +'r ,'nstru,t$n- a ,'n,e*t$'n +r'm ,erta$n data! N'/)
'b&e,t ,ann't be -$0en t' a ,'n,e*t$'n 't(er/$se t(an by $ntu$t$'n)
and) e0en $+ a *ure $ntu$t$'n ante,edent t' t(e 'b&e,t $s a *r$'r$
*'ss$ble) t($s *ure $ntu$t$'n ,an $tsel+ 'bta$n 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty
'nly +r'm em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) '+ /($,( $t $s $tsel+ but t(e +'rm! All
,'n,e*t$'ns) t(ere+'re) and /$t( t(em all *r$n,$*les) ('/e0er ($-( t(e
de-ree '+ t(e$r a *r$'r$ *'ss$b$l$ty) relate t' em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'ns) t(at $s) t' data t'/ards a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! 2$t('ut
t($s t(ey *'ssess n' 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty) but are mere *lay '+
$ma-$nat$'n 'r '+ understand$n- /$t( $ma-es 'r n't$'ns! <et us ta%e)
+'r e1am*le) t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ mat(emat$,s) and +$rst $n $ts *ure
$ntu$t$'ns! 9S*a,e (as t(ree d$mens$'ns95 93et/een t/' *'$nts t(ere
,an be 'nly 'ne stra$-(t l$ne)9 et,! Alt('u-( all t(ese *r$n,$*les)
and t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t /$t( /($,( t($s s,$en,e
',,u*$es $tsel+) are -enerated $n t(e m$nd ent$rely a *r$'r$) t(ey
/'uld ne0ert(eless (a0e n' s$-n$+$,an,e $+ /e /ere n't al/ays able
t' e1($b$t t(e$r s$-n$+$,an,e $n and by means '+ *(en'mena
=em*$r$,al 'b&e,ts>! Hen,e $t $s re.u$s$te t(at an abstra,t ,'n,e*t$'n
be made sensu'us) t(at $s) t(at an 'b&e,t ,'rres*'nd$n- t' $t $n
$ntu$t$'n be +'rt(,'m$n-) 't(er/$se t(e ,'n,e*t$'n rema$ns) as /e say)
/$t('ut sense) t(at $s) /$t('ut mean$n-! "at(emat$,s +ul+$ls t($s
re.u$rement by t(e ,'nstru,t$'n '+ t(e +$-ure) /($,( $s a *(en'men'n
e0$dent t' t(e senses! T(e same s,$en,e +$nds su**'rt and s$-n$+$,an,e
$n number4 t($s $n $ts turn +$nds $t $n t(e +$n-ers) 'r $n ,'unters)
'r $n l$nes and *'$nts! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n $tsel+ $s al/ays *r'du,ed a
*r$'r$) t'-et(er /$t( t(e synt(et$,al *r$n,$*les 'r +'rmulas +r'm su,(
,'n,e*t$'ns4 but t(e *r'*er em*l'yment '+ t(em) and t(e$r
a**l$,at$'n t' 'b&e,ts) ,an e1$st n'/(ere but $n e1*er$en,e) t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ /($,() as re-ards $ts +'rm) t(ey ,'nta$n a *r$'r$!
T(at t($s $s als' t(e ,ase /$t( all '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es and t(e
*r$n,$*les based u*'n t(em $s e0$dent +r'm t(e +a,t t(at /e ,ann't
render $ntell$-$ble t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ an 'b&e,t ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(em
/$t('ut (a0$n- re,'urse t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty)
,'nse.uently) t' t(e +'rm '+ *(en'mena) t' /($,() as t(e$r 'nly *r'*er
'b&e,ts) t(e$r use must t(ere+'re be ,'n+$ned) $nasmu,( as) $+ t($s
,'nd$t$'n $s rem'0ed) all s$-n$+$,an,e) t(at $s) all relat$'n t' an
'b&e,t) d$sa**ears) and n' e1am*le ,an be +'und t' ma%e $t
,'m*re(ens$ble /(at s'rt '+ t($n-s /e 'u-(t t' t($n% under su,(
T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ .uant$ty ,ann't be e1*la$ned e1,e*t by say$n- t(at
$t $s t(e determ$nat$'n '+ a t($n- /(ereby $t ,an be ,'-$tated ('/
many t$mes 'ne $s *la,ed $n $t! 3ut t($s 9('/ many t$mes9 $s based
u*'n su,,ess$0e re*et$t$'n) ,'nse.uently u*'n t$me and t(e synt(es$s
'+ t(e ('m'-ene'us t(ere$n! Real$ty) $n ,'ntrad$st$n,t$'n t' ne-at$'n)
,an be e1*la$ned 'nly by ,'-$tat$n- a t$me /($,( $s e$t(er +$lled
t(ere/$t( 'r $s 0'$d! I+ I lea0e 'ut t(e n't$'n '+ *ermanen,e =/($,(
$s e1$sten,e $n all t$me>) t(ere rema$ns $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
substan,e n't($n- but t(e l'-$,al n't$'n '+ sub&e,t) a n't$'n '+ /($,(
I endea0'ur t' real$;e by re*resent$n- t' mysel+ s'met($n- t(at ,an
e1$st 'nly as a sub&e,t! 3ut n't 'nly am I *er+e,tly $-n'rant '+ any
,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( t($s l'-$,al *rer'-at$0e ,an bel'n- t' a t($n-)
I ,an ma%e n't($n- 'ut '+ t(e n't$'n) and dra/ n' $n+eren,e +r'm $t)
be,ause n' 'b&e,t t' /($,( t' a**ly t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $s determ$ned)
and /e ,'nse.uently d' n't %n'/ /(et(er $t (as any mean$n- at all!
In l$%e manner) $+ I lea0e 'ut t(e n't$'n '+ t$me) $n /($,(
s'met($n- +'ll'/s u*'n s'me 't(er t($n- $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule) I
,an +$nd n't($n- $n t(e *ure ,ate-'ry) e1,e*t t(at t(ere $s a
s'met($n- '+ su,( a s'rt t(at +r'm $t a ,'n,lus$'n may be dra/n as
t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ s'me 't(er t($n-! 3ut $n t($s ,ase $t /'uld n't
'nly be $m*'ss$ble t' d$st$n-u$s( bet/een a ,ause and an e++e,t)
but) as t($s *'/er t' dra/ ,'n,lus$'ns re.u$res ,'nd$t$'ns '+ /($,(
I am .u$te $-n'rant) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $s n't determ$ned as t' t(e m'de
$n /($,( $t 'u-(t t' a**ly t' an 'b&e,t! T(e s'5,alled *r$n,$*le6
9E0eryt($n- t(at $s ,'nt$n-ent (as a ,ause)9 ,'mes /$t( a -ra0$ty
and sel+5assumed aut('r$ty t(at seems t' re.u$re n' su**'rt +r'm
/$t('ut! 3ut) I as%) /(at $s meant by ,'nt$n-ent@ T(e ans/er $s t(at
t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ /($,( $s *'ss$ble! 3ut I s('uld l$%e 0ery /ell t'
%n'/ by /(at means t($s *'ss$b$l$ty '+ n'n5e1$sten,e $s t' be
,'-n$;ed) $+ /e d' n't re*resent t' 'ursel0es a su,,ess$'n $n t(e
ser$es '+ *(en'mena) and $n t($s su,,ess$'n an e1$sten,e /($,( +'ll'/s
a n'n5e1$sten,e) 'r ,'n0ersely) ,'nse.uently) ,(an-e! F'r t' say) t(at
t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ a t($n- $s n't sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry $s a lame
a**eal t' a l'-$,al ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( $s n' d'ubt a ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n
'+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) but $s +ar +r'm be$n- su++$,$ent
+'r t(e real 'b&e,t$0e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ n'n5e1$sten,e! I ,an
ann$($late $n t('u-(t e0ery e1$st$n- substan,e /$t('ut
sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'n) but I ,ann't $n+er +r'm t($s t(e$r 'b&e,t$0e
,'nt$n-en,y $n e1$sten,e) t(at $s t' say) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e$r
n'n5e1$sten,e $n $tsel+! As re-ards t(e ,ate-'ry '+ ,'mmun$ty) $t
may eas$ly be $n+erred t(at) as t(e *ure ,ate-'r$es '+ substan,e and
,ausal$ty are $n,a*able '+ a de+$n$t$'n and e1*lanat$'n su++$,$ent
t' determ$ne t(e$r 'b&e,t /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ $ntu$t$'n) t(e ,ate-'ry
'+ re,$*r',al ,ausal$ty $n t(e relat$'n '+ substan,es t' ea,( 't(er
=,'mmer,$um> $s &ust as l$ttle sus,e*t$ble t(ere'+! P'ss$b$l$ty)
e1$sten,e) and ne,ess$ty n'b'dy (as e0er yet been able t' e1*la$n
/$t('ut be$n- -u$lty '+ man$+est taut'l'-y) /(en t(e de+$n$t$'n (as
been dra/n ent$rely +r'm t(e *ure understand$n-! F'r t(e
subst$tut$'n '+ t(e l'-$,al *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n5 t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ /($,( $s t(at $t be n't sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry) +'r t(e
trans,endental *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s5 t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ /($,( $s t(at
t(ere be an 'b&e,t ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) $s a tr$,% /($,(
,an 'nly de,e$0e t(e $ne1*er$en,ed!7
7In 'ne /'rd) t' n'ne '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns bel'n-s a ,'rres*'nd$n-
'b&e,t) and ,'nse.uently t(e$r real *'ss$b$l$ty ,ann't be
dem'nstrated) $+ /e ta%e a/ay sensu'us $ntu$t$'n5 t(e 'nly $ntu$t$'n
/($,( /e *'ssess5 and t(ere t(en rema$ns n't($n- but t(e l'-$,al
*'ss$b$l$ty) t(at $s) t(e +a,t t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n 'r t('u-(t $s
*'ss$ble5 /($,() ('/e0er) $s n't t(e .uest$'n4 /(at /e /ant t' %n'/
be$n-) /(et(er $t relates t' an 'b&e,t and t(us *'ssesses any mean$n-!
It +'ll'/s $n,'ntestably) t(at t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n- are $n,a*able '+ trans,endental) and must al/ays be '+
em*$r$,al use al'ne) and t(at t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n-
relate 'nly t' t(e -eneral ,'nd$t$'ns '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t'
'b&e,ts '+ t(e senses) and ne0er t' t($n-s $n -eneral) a*art +r'm
t(e m'de $n /($,( /e $ntu$te t(em!
Trans,endental analyt$, (as a,,'rd$n-ly t($s $m*'rtant result) t'
/$t) t(at t(e understand$n- $s ,'m*etent? e++e,t n't($n- a *r$'r$)
e1,e*t t(e ant$,$*at$'n '+ t(e +'rm '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e $n
-eneral) and t(at) as t(at /($,( $s n't *(en'men'n ,ann't be an 'b&e,t
'+ e1*er$en,e) $t ,an ne0er '0erste* t(e l$m$ts '+ sens$b$l$ty) /$t($n
/($,( al'ne 'b&e,ts are *resented t' us! Its *r$n,$*les are merely
*r$n,$*les '+ t(e e1*'s$t$'n '+ *(en'mena) and t(e *r'ud name '+ an
'nt'l'-y) /($,( *r'+esses t' *resent synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'ns a *r$'r$
'+ t($n-s $n -eneral $n a systemat$, d',tr$ne) must -$0e *la,e t'
t(e m'dest t$tle '+ analyt$, '+ t(e *ure understand$n-!
T('u-(t $s t(e a,t '+ re+err$n- a -$0en $ntu$t$'n t' an 'b&e,t! I+
t(e m'de '+ t($s $ntu$t$'n $s un%n'/n t' us) t(e 'b&e,t $s merely
trans,endental) and t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- $s em*l'yed
'nly trans,endentally) t(at $s) t' *r'du,e un$ty $n t(e t('u-(t '+ a
man$+'ld $n -eneral! N'/ a *ure ,ate-'ry) $n /($,( all ,'nd$t$'ns '+
sensu'us $ntu$t$'n5 as t(e 'nly $ntu$t$'n /e *'ssess5 are
abstra,ted) d'es n't determ$ne an 'b&e,t) but merely e1*resses t(e
t('u-(t '+ an 'b&e,t $n -eneral) a,,'rd$n- t' d$++erent m'des! N'/) t'
em*l'y a ,'n,e*t$'n) t(e +un,t$'n '+ &ud-ement $s re.u$red) by /($,(
an 'b&e,t $s subsumed under t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) ,'nse.uently t(e at
least +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n) under /($,( s'met($n- ,an be -$0en $n
$ntu$t$'n! Fa$l$n- t($s ,'nd$t$'n '+ &ud-ement =s,(ema>) subsum*t$'n
$s $m*'ss$ble4 +'r t(ere $s $n su,( a ,ase n't($n- -$0en) /($,( may be
subsumed under t(e ,'n,e*t$'n! T(e merely trans,endental use '+ t(e
,ate-'r$es $s t(ere+'re) $n +a,t) n' use at all and (as n' determ$ned)
'r e0en) as re-ards $ts +'rm) determ$nable 'b&e,t! Hen,e $t +'ll'/s
t(at t(e *ure ,ate-'ry $s $n,'m*etent t' establ$s( a synt(et$,al a
*r$'r$ *r$n,$*le) and t(at t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n-
are 'nly '+ em*$r$,al and ne0er '+ trans,endental use) and t(at bey'nd
t(e s*(ere '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e n' synt(et$,al a *r$'r$ *r$n,$*les
are *'ss$ble!
It may be ad0$sable) t(ere+'re) t' e1*ress 'ursel0es t(us! T(e
*ure ,ate-'r$es) a*art +r'm t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty) (a0e
a merely trans,endental mean$n-) but are ne0ert(eless n't '+
trans,endental use) be,ause t($s $s $n $tsel+ $m*'ss$ble) $nasmu,(
as all t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ any em*l'yment 'r use '+ t(em =$n &ud-ements>
are absent) t' /$t) t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e subsum*t$'n '+ an
'b&e,t under t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns! As) t(ere+'re) $n t(e ,(ara,ter '+
*ure ,ate-'r$es) t(ey must be em*l'yed em*$r$,ally) and ,ann't be
em*l'yed trans,endentally) t(ey are '+ n' use at all) /(en se*arated
+r'm sens$b$l$ty) t(at $s) t(ey ,ann't be a**l$ed t' an 'b&e,t! T(ey
are merely t(e *ure +'rm '+ t(e em*l'yment '+ t(e understand$n- $n
res*e,t '+ 'b&e,ts $n -eneral and '+ t('u-(t) /$t('ut $ts be$n- at t(e
same t$me *'ss$ble t' t($n% 'r t' determ$ne any 'b&e,t by t(e$r means!
3ut t(ere lur%s at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t($s sub&e,t an $llus$'n
/($,( $t $s 0ery d$++$,ult t' a0'$d! T(e ,ate-'r$es are n't based)
as re-ards t(e$r 'r$-$n) u*'n sens$b$l$ty) l$%e t(e +'rms '+
$ntu$t$'n) s*a,e) and t$me4 t(ey seem) t(ere+'re) t' be ,a*able '+
an a**l$,at$'n bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ sensu'us 'b&e,ts! 3ut t($s $s
n't t(e ,ase! T(ey are n't($n- but mere +'rms '+ t('u-(t) /($,(
,'nta$n 'nly t(e l'-$,al +a,ulty '+ un$t$n- a *r$'r$ $n
,'ns,$'usness t(e man$+'ld -$0en $n $ntu$t$'n! A*art) t(en) +r'm t(e
'nly $ntu$t$'n *'ss$ble +'r us) t(ey (a0e st$ll less mean$n- t(an
t(e *ure sensu'us +'rms) s*a,e and t$me) +'r t(r'u-( t(em an 'b&e,t $s
at least -$0en) /($le a m'de '+ ,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e man$+'ld) /(en t(e
$ntu$t$'n /($,( al'ne -$0es t(e man$+'ld $s /ant$n-) (as n' mean$n- at
all! At t(e same t$me) /(en /e des$-nate ,erta$n 'b&e,ts as
*(en'mena 'r sensu'us e1$sten,es) t(us d$st$n-u$s($n- 'ur m'de '+
$ntu$t$n- t(em +r'm t(e$r '/n nature as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) $t $s
e0$dent t(at by t($s 0ery d$st$n,t$'n /e as $t /ere *la,e t(e
latter) ,'ns$dered $n t($s t(e$r '/n nature) alt('u-( /e d' n't s'
$ntu$te t(em) $n '**'s$t$'n t' t(e +'rmer) 'r) 'n t(e 't(er (and) /e
d' s' *la,e 't(er *'ss$ble t($n-s) /($,( are n't 'b&e,ts '+ 'ur
senses) but are ,'-$tated by t(e understand$n- al'ne) and ,all t(em
$ntell$-$ble e1$sten,es =n'umena>! N'/ t(e .uest$'n ar$ses /(et(er t(e
*ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ 'ur understand$n- d' *'ssess s$-n$+$,an,e $n
res*e,t '+ t(ese latter) and may *'ss$bly be a m'de '+ ,'-n$;$n- t(em!
3ut /e are met at t(e 0ery ,'mmen,ement /$t( an amb$-u$ty) /($,( may
eas$ly ',,as$'n -reat m$sa**re(ens$'n! T(e understand$n-) /(en $t
terms an 'b&e,t $n a ,erta$n relat$'n *(en'men'n) at t(e same t$me
+'rms 'ut '+ t($s relat$'n a re*resentat$'n 'r n't$'n '+ an 'b&e,t
$n $tsel+) and (en,e bel$e0es t(at $t ,an +'rm als' ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
su,( 'b&e,ts! N'/ as t(e understand$n- *'ssesses n' 't(er
+undamental ,'n,e*t$'ns bes$des t(e ,ate-'r$es) $t ta%es +'r -ranted
t(at an 'b&e,t ,'ns$dered as a t($n- $n $tsel+ must be ,a*able '+
be$n- t('u-(t by means '+ t(ese *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns) and $s t(ereby led
t' ('ld t(e *er+e,tly undeterm$ned ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an $ntell$-$ble
e1$sten,e) a s'met($n- 'ut '+ t(e s*(ere '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty) +'r a
determ$nate ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an e1$sten,e /($,( /e ,an ,'-n$;e $n s'me
/ay 'r 't(er by means '+ t(e understand$n-!
I+) by t(e term n'umen'n) /e understand a t($n- s' +ar as $t $s
n't an 'b&e,t '+ 'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) t(us ma%$n- abstra,t$'n '+
'ur m'de '+ $ntu$t$n- $t) t($s $s a n'umen'n $n t(e ne-at$0e sense
'+ t(e /'rd! 3ut $+ /e understand by $t an 'b&e,t '+ a n'n5sensu'us
$ntu$t$'n) /e $n t($s ,ase assume a *e,ul$ar m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n) an
$ntelle,tual $ntu$t$'n) t' /$t) /($,( d'es n't) ('/e0er) bel'n- t' us)
'+ t(e 0ery *'ss$b$l$ty '+ /($,( /e (a0e n' n't$'n5 and t($s $s a
n'umen'n $n t(e *'s$t$0e sense!
T(e d',tr$ne '+ sens$b$l$ty $s als' t(e d',tr$ne '+ n'umena $n t(e
ne-at$0e sense) t(at $s) '+ t($n-s /($,( t(e understand$n- $s
'bl$-ed t' ,'-$tate a*art +r'm any relat$'n t' 'ur m'de '+
$ntu$t$'n) ,'nse.uently n't as mere *(en'mena) but as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es! 3ut t(e understand$n- at t(e same t$me ,'m*re(ends t(at $t
,ann't em*l'y $ts ,ate-'r$es +'r t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) be,ause t(ese *'ssess s$-n$+$,an,e 'nly $n relat$'n t' t(e
un$ty '+ $ntu$t$'ns $n s*a,e and t$me) and t(at t(ey are ,'m*etent
t' determ$ne t($s un$ty by means '+ -eneral a *r$'r$ ,'nne,t$n-
,'n,e*t$'ns 'nly 'n a,,'unt '+ t(e *ure $deal$ty '+ s*a,e and t$me!
2(ere t($s un$ty '+ t$me $s n't t' be met /$t() as $s t(e ,ase /$t(
n'umena) t(e /('le use) $ndeed t(e /('le mean$n- '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es
$s ent$rely l'st) +'r e0en t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s t' ,'rres*'nd
t' t(e ,ate-'r$es $s $n t($s ,ase $n,'m*re(ens$ble! On t($s *'$nt) I
need 'nly re+er t(e reader t' /(at I (a0e sa$d at t(e ,'mmen,ement
'+ t(e Ceneral Remar% a**ended t' t(e +'re-'$n- ,(a*ter! N'/) t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ a t($n- ,an ne0er be *r'0ed +r'm t(e +a,t t(at t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t $s n't sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry) but 'nly by means '+ an
$ntu$t$'n ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n! I+) t(ere+'re) /e /$s( t'
a**ly t(e ,ate-'r$es t' 'b&e,ts /($,( ,ann't be re-arded as *(en'mena)
/e must (a0e an $ntu$t$'n d$++erent +r'm t(e sensu'us) and $n t($s
,ase t(e 'b&e,ts /'uld be a n'umena $n t(e *'s$t$0e sense '+ t(e /'rd!
N'/) as su,( an $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s) an $ntelle,tual $ntu$t$'n) $s n'
*art '+ 'ur +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n) $t $s abs'lutely $m*'ss$ble +'r
t(e ,ate-'r$es t' *'ssess any a**l$,at$'n bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+
e1*er$en,e! It may be true t(at t(ere are $ntell$-$ble e1$sten,es t'
/($,( 'ur +a,ulty '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n (as n' relat$'n) and ,ann't be
a**l$ed) but 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) as mere +'rms '+
t('u-(t +'r 'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) d' n't e1tend t' t(ese! 2(at)
t(ere+'re) /e ,all n'umen'n must be underst''d by us as su,( $n a
ne-at$0e sense!
I+ I ta%e a/ay +r'm an em*$r$al $ntu$t$'n all t('u-(t =by means '+
t(e ,ate-'r$es>) t(ere rema$ns n' ,'-n$t$'n '+ any 'b&e,t4 +'r by
means '+ mere $ntu$t$'n n't($n- $s ,'-$tated) and) +r'm t(e
e1$sten,e '+ su,( 'r su,( an a++e,t$'n '+ sens$b$l$ty $n me) $t d'es
n't +'ll'/ t(at t($s a++e,t$'n 'r re*resentat$'n (as any relat$'n t'
an 'b&e,t /$t('ut me! 3ut $+ I ta%e a/ay all $ntu$t$'n) t(ere st$ll
rema$ns t(e +'rm '+ t('u-(t) t(at $s) t(e m'de '+ determ$n$n- an
'b&e,t +'r t(e man$+'ld '+ a *'ss$ble $ntu$t$'n! T(us t(e ,ate-'r$es
d' $n s'me measure really e1tend +urt(er t(an sensu'us $ntu$t$'n)
$nasmu,( as t(ey t($n% 'b&e,ts $n -eneral) /$t('ut re-ard t' t(e
m'de ='+ sens$b$l$ty> $n /($,( t(ese 'b&e,ts are -$0en! 3ut t(ey d'
n't +'r t($s reas'n a**ly t' and determ$ne a /$der s*(ere '+
'b&e,ts) be,ause /e ,ann't assume t(at su,( ,an be -$0en) /$t('ut
*resu**'s$n- t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ an't(er t(an t(e sensu'us m'de '+
$ntu$t$'n) a su**'s$t$'n /e are n't &ust$+$ed $n ma%$n-!
I ,all a ,'n,e*t$'n *r'blemat$,al /($,( ,'nta$ns $n $tsel+ n'
,'ntrad$,t$'n) and /($,( $s ,'nne,ted /$t( 't(er ,'-n$t$'ns as a
l$m$tat$'n '+ -$0en ,'n,e*t$'ns) but /('se 'b&e,t$0e real$ty ,ann't be
,'-n$;ed $n any manner! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a n'umen'n) t(at $s) '+ a
t($n- /($,( must be ,'-$tated n't as an 'b&e,t '+ sense) but as a
t($n- $n $tsel+ =s'lely t(r'u-( t(e *ure understand$n->) $s n't
sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry) +'r /e are n't ent$tled t' ma$nta$n t(at
sens$b$l$ty $s t(e 'nly *'ss$ble m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n! Nay) +urt(er) t($s
,'n,e*t$'n $s ne,essary t' restra$n sensu'us $ntu$t$'n /$t($n t(e
b'unds '+ *(en'mena) and t(us t' l$m$t t(e 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty '+
sensu'us ,'-n$t$'n4 +'r t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) /($,( l$e bey'nd $ts
*r'0$n,e) are ,alled n'umena +'r t(e 0ery *ur*'se '+ $nd$,at$n- t(at
t($s ,'-n$t$'n d'es n't e1tend $ts a**l$,at$'n t' all t(at t(e
understand$n- t($n%s! 3ut) a+ter all) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,(
n'umena $s .u$te $n,'m*re(ens$ble) and bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ *(en'mena)
all $s +'r us a mere 0'$d4 t(at $s t' say) /e *'ssess an understand$n-
/('se *r'0$n,e d'es *r'blemat$,ally e1tend bey'nd t($s s*(ere) but
/e d' n't *'ssess an $ntu$t$'n) $ndeed) n't e0en t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a
*'ss$ble $ntu$t$'n) by means '+ /($,( 'b&e,ts bey'nd t(e re-$'n '+
sens$b$l$ty ,'uld be -$0en us) and $n re+eren,e t' /($,( t(e
understand$n- m$-(t be em*l'yed assert'r$,ally! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a
n'umen'n $s t(ere+'re merely a l$m$tat$0e ,'n,e*t$'n and t(ere+'re
'nly '+ ne-at$0e use! 3ut $t $s n't an arb$trary 'r +$,t$t$'us n't$'n)
but $s ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e l$m$tat$'n '+ sens$b$l$ty) /$t('ut) ('/e0er)
be$n- ,a*able '+ *resent$n- us /$t( any *'s$t$0e datum bey'nd t($s
T(e d$0$s$'n '+ 'b&e,ts $nt' *(en'mena and n'umena) and '+ t(e /'rld
$nt' a mundus sens$b$l$s and $ntell$-$b$l$s $s t(ere+'re .u$te
$nadm$ss$ble $n a *'s$t$0e sense) alt('u-( ,'n,e*t$'ns d' ,erta$nly
adm$t '+ su,( a d$0$s$'n4 +'r t(e ,lass '+ n'umena (a0e n' determ$nate
'b&e,t ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(em) and ,ann't t(ere+'re *'ssess 'b&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty! I+ /e aband'n t(e senses) ('/ ,an $t be made ,'n,e$0able
t(at t(e ,ate-'r$es =/($,( are t(e 'nly ,'n,e*t$'ns t(at ,'uld ser0e
as ,'n,e*t$'ns +'r n'umena> (a0e any sense 'r mean$n- at all) $nasmu,(
as s'met($n- m're t(an t(e mere un$ty '+ t('u-(t) namely) a *'ss$ble
$ntu$t$'n) $s re.u$s$te +'r t(e$r a**l$,at$'n t' an 'b&e,t@ T(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a n'umen'n) ,'ns$dered as merely *r'blemat$,al) $s)
('/e0er) n't 'nly adm$ss$ble) but) as a l$m$tat$0e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
sens$b$l$ty) abs'lutely ne,essary! 3ut) $n t($s ,ase) a n'umen'n $s
n't a *art$,ular $ntell$-$ble 'b&e,t +'r 'ur understand$n-4 'n t(e
,'ntrary) t(e %$nd '+ understand$n- t' /($,( $t ,'uld bel'n- $s $tsel+
a *r'blem) +'r /e ,ann't +'rm t(e m'st d$stant ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ an understand$n- /($,( s('uld ,'-n$;e an 'b&e,t) n't
d$s,urs$0ely by means '+ ,ate-'r$es) but $ntu$t$0ely $n a n'n5sensu'us
$ntu$t$'n! Our understand$n- atta$ns $n t($s /ay a s'rt '+ ne-at$0e
e1tens$'n! T(at $s t' say) $t $s n't l$m$ted by) but rat(er l$m$ts)
sens$b$l$ty) by -$0$n- t(e name '+ n'umena t' t($n-s) n't ,'ns$dered
as *(en'mena) but as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! 3ut $t at t(e same t$me
*res,r$bes l$m$ts t' $tsel+) +'r $t ,'n+esses $tsel+ unable t' ,'-n$;e
t(ese by means '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) and (en,e $s ,'m*elled t' ,'-$tate
t(em merely as an un%n'/n s'met($n-!
I +$nd) ('/e0er) $n t(e /r$t$n-s '+ m'dern aut('rs) an ent$rely
d$++erent use '+ t(e e1*ress$'ns) mundus sens$b$l$s and
$ntell$-$b$l$s) /($,( .u$te de*arts +r'm t(e mean$n- '+ t(e
an,$ents5 an a,,e*tat$'n $n /($,() $ndeed) t(ere $s t' be +'und n'
d$++$,ulty) but /($,( at t(e same t$me de*ends 'n mere 0erbal
.u$bbl$n-! A,,'rd$n- t' t($s mean$n-) s'me (a0e ,('sen t' ,all t(e
,'m*le1 '+ *(en'mena) $n s' +ar as $t $s $ntu$ted) mundus
sens$b$l$s) but $n s' +ar as t(e ,'nne,t$'n t(ere'+ $s ,'-$tated
a,,'rd$n- t' -eneral la/s '+ t('u-(t) mundus $ntell$-$b$l$s!
Astr'n'my) $n s' +ar as /e mean by t(e /'rd t(e mere 'bser0at$'n '+
t(e starry (ea0en) may re*resent t(e +'rmer4 a system '+ astr'n'my)
su,( as t(e C'*ern$,an 'r Ne/t'n$an) t(e latter! 3ut su,( t/$st$n-
'+ /'rds $s a mere s'*($st$,al subter+u-e) t' a0'$d a d$++$,ult
.uest$'n) by m'd$+y$n- $ts mean$n- t' su$t 'ur '/n ,'n0en$en,e! T'
be sure) understand$n- and reas'n are em*l'yed $n t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+
*(en'mena4 but t(e .uest$'n $s) /(et(er t(ese ,an be a**l$ed /(en
t(e 'b&e,t $s n't a *(en'men'n and $n t($s sense /e re-ard $t $+ $t $s
,'-$tated as -$0en t' t(e understand$n- al'ne) and n't t' t(e
senses! T(e .uest$'n t(ere+'re $s /(et(er) '0er and ab'0e t(e
em*$r$,al use '+ t(e understand$n-) a trans,endental use $s
*'ss$ble) /($,( a**l$es t' t(e n'umen'n as an 'b&e,t! T($s .uest$'n /e
(a0e ans/ered $n t(e ne-at$0e!
2(en t(ere+'re /e say) t(e senses re*resent 'b&e,ts as t(ey
a**ear) t(e understand$n- as t(ey are) t(e latter statement must n't
be underst''d $n a trans,endental) but 'nly $n an em*$r$,al
s$-n$+$,at$'n) t(at $s) as t(ey must be re*resented $n t(e ,'m*lete
,'nne,t$'n '+ *(en'mena) and n't a,,'rd$n- t' /(at t(ey may be)
a*art +r'm t(e$r relat$'n t' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) ,'nse.uently n't
as 'b&e,ts '+ t(e *ure understand$n-! F'r t($s must e0er rema$n
un%n'/n t' us! Nay) $t $s als' .u$te un%n'/n t' us /(et(er any su,(
trans,endental 'r e1tra'rd$nary ,'-n$t$'n $s *'ss$ble under any
,$r,umstan,es) at least) /(et(er $t $s *'ss$ble by means '+ 'ur
,ate-'r$es! Understand$n- and sens$b$l$ty) /$t( us) ,an determ$ne
'b&e,ts 'nly $n ,'n&un,t$'n! I+ /e se*arate t(em) /e (a0e $ntu$t$'ns
/$t('ut ,'n,e*t$'ns) 'r ,'n,e*t$'ns /$t('ut $ntu$t$'ns4 $n b't( ,ases)
re*resentat$'ns) /($,( /e ,ann't a**ly t' any determ$nate 'b&e,t!
I+) a+ter all 'ur $n.u$r$es and e1*lanat$'ns) any 'ne st$ll
(es$tates t' aband'n t(e mere trans,endental use '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es)
let ($m attem*t t' ,'nstru,t /$t( t(em a synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n! It
/'uld) '+ ,'urse) be unne,essary +'r t($s *ur*'se t' ,'nstru,t an
analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) +'r t(at d'es n't e1tend t(e s*(ere '+ t(e
understand$n-) but) be$n- ,'n,erned 'nly ab'ut /(at $s ,'-$tated $n
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $tsel+) $t lea0es $t .u$te unde,$ded /(et(er t(e
,'n,e*t$'n (as any relat$'n t' 'b&e,ts) 'r merely $nd$,ates t(e
un$ty '+ t('u-(t5 ,'m*lete abstra,t$'n be$n- made '+ t(e m'd$ $n /($,(
an 'b&e,t may be -$0en6 $n su,( a *r'*'s$t$'n) $t $s su++$,$ent +'r
t(e understand$n- t' %n'/ /(at l$es $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n5 t' /(at $t
a**l$es $s t' $t $nd$++erent! T(e attem*t must t(ere+'re be made
/$t( a synt(et$,al and s'5,alled trans,endental *r$n,$*le) +'r
e1am*le6 9E0eryt($n- t(at e1$sts) e1$sts as substan,e)9 'r)
9E0eryt($n- t(at $s ,'nt$n-ent e1$sts as an e++e,t '+ s'me 't(er
t($n-) 0$;!) '+ $ts ,ause!9 N'/ I as%) /(en,e ,an t(e understand$n-
dra/ t(ese synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns) /(en t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns ,'nta$ned
t(ere$n d' n't relate t' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e but t' t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es =n'umena>@ 2(ere $s t' be +'und t(e t($rd term) /($,( $s
al/ays re.u$s$te PURE s$te $n a synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) /($,( may
,'nne,t $n t(e same *r'*'s$t$'n ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( (a0e n' l'-$,al
=analyt$,al> ,'nne,t$'n /$t( ea,( 't(er@ T(e *r'*'s$t$'n ne0er /$ll be
dem'nstrated) nay) m're) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ any su,( *ure assert$'n
ne0er ,an be s('/n) /$t('ut ma%$n- re+eren,e t' t(e em*$r$,al use '+
t(e understand$n-) and t(us) $*s' +a,t') ,'m*letely ren'un,$n- *ure
and n'n5sensu'us &ud-ement! T(us t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ *ure and merely
$ntell$-$ble 'b&e,ts $s ,'m*letely 0'$d '+ all *r$n,$*les '+ $ts
a**l$,at$'n) be,ause /e ,ann't $ma-$ne any m'de $n /($,( t(ey m$-(t be
-$0en) and t(e *r'blemat$,al t('u-(t /($,( lea0es a *la,e '*en +'r
t(em ser0es 'nly) l$%e a 0'$d s*a,e) t' l$m$t t(e use '+ em*$r$,al
*r$n,$*les) /$t('ut ,'nta$n$n- at t(e same t$me any 't(er 'b&e,t '+
,'-n$t$'n bey'nd t(e$r s*(ere!

O+ t(e E.u$0',al Nature 'r Am*($b'ly '+ t(e C'n,e*t$'ns '+

Re+le,t$'n +r'm t(e C'n+us$'n '+ t(e Trans,endental /$t(

t(e Em*$r$,al use '+ t(e Understand$n-!

Re+le,t$'n =re+le1$'> $s n't ',,u*$ed ab'ut 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es)
+'r t(e *ur*'se '+ d$re,tly 'bta$n$n- ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(em) but $s t(at
state '+ t(e m$nd $n /($,( /e set 'ursel0es t' d$s,'0er t(e sub&e,t$0e
,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( /e 'bta$n ,'n,e*t$'ns! It $s t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e relat$'n '+ -$0en re*resentat$'ns t' t(e
d$++erent s'ur,es 'r +a,ult$es '+ ,'-n$t$'n) by /($,( al'ne t(e$r
relat$'n t' ea,( 't(er ,an be r$-(tly determ$ned! T(e +$rst .uest$'n
/($,( ',,urs $n ,'ns$der$n- 'ur re*resentat$'ns $s t' /(at +a,ulty
'+ ,'-n$t$'n d' t(ey bel'n-@ T' t(e understand$n- 'r t' t(e senses@
"any &ud-ements are adm$tted t' be true +r'm mere (ab$t 'r
$n,l$nat$'n4 but) be,ause re+le,t$'n ne$t(er *re,edes n'r +'ll'/s)
$t $s (eld t' be a &ud-ement t(at (as $ts 'r$-$n $n t(e understand$n-!
All &ud-ements d' n't re.u$re e1am$nat$'n) t(at $s) $n0est$-at$'n $nt'
t(e -r'unds '+ t(e$r trut(! F'r) /(en t(ey are $mmed$ately ,erta$n
=+'r e1am*le6 93et/een t/' *'$nts t(ere ,an be 'nly 'ne stra$-(t
l$ne9>) n' better 'r less med$ate test '+ t(e$r trut( ,an be +'und
t(an t(at /($,( t(ey t(emsel0es ,'nta$n and e1*ress! 3ut all
&ud-ement) nay) all ,'m*ar$s'ns re.u$re re+le,t$'n) t(at $s) a
d$st$n,t$'n '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n t' /($,( t(e -$0en ,'n,e*t$'ns
bel'n-! T(e a,t /(ereby I ,'m*are my re*resentat$'ns /$t( t(e
+a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n /($,( 'r$-$nates t(em) and /(ereby I
d$st$n-u$s( /(et(er t(ey are ,'m*ared /$t( ea,( 't(er as bel'n-$n-
t' t(e *ure understand$n- 'r t' sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) I term
trans,endental re+le,t$'n! N'/) t(e relat$'ns $n /($,( ,'n,e*t$'ns ,an
stand t' ea,( 't(er are t('se '+ $dent$ty and d$++eren,e) a-reement
and '**'s$t$'n) '+ t(e $nternal and e1ternal) +$nally) '+ t(e
determ$nable and t(e determ$n$n- =matter and +'rm>! T(e *r'*er
determ$nat$'n '+ t(ese relat$'ns rests 'n t(e .uest$'n) t' /(at
+a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n t(ey sub&e,t$0ely bel'n-) /(et(er t'
sens$b$l$ty 'r understand$n-@ F'r) 'n t(e manner $n /($,( /e s'l0e
t($s .uest$'n de*ends t(e manner $n /($,( /e must ,'-$tate t(ese
3e+'re ,'nstru,t$n- any 'b&e,t$0e &ud-ement) /e ,'m*are t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns t(at are t' be *la,ed $n t(e &ud-ement) and 'bser0e
/(et(er t(ere e1$sts $dent$ty ='+ many re*resentat$'ns $n 'ne
,'n,e*t$'n>) $+ a -eneral &ud-ement $s t' be ,'nstru,ted) 'r
d$++eren,e) $+ a *art$,ular4 /(et(er t(ere $s a-reement /(en
a++$rmat$0e4 and '**'s$t$'n /(en ne-at$0e &ud-ements are t' be
,'nstru,ted) and s' 'n! F'r t($s reas'n /e 'u-(t t' ,all t(ese
,'n,e*t$'ns) ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ ,'m*ar$s'n =,'n,e*tus ,'m*arat$'n$s>!
3ut as) /(en t(e .uest$'n $s n't as t' t(e l'-$,al +'rm) but as t' t(e
,'ntent '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(at $s t' say) /(et(er t(e t($n-s
t(emsel0es are $dent$,al 'r d$++erent) $n a-reement 'r '**'s$t$'n) and
s' 'n) t(e t($n-s ,an (a0e a t/'+'ld relat$'n t' 'ur +a,ulty '+
,'-n$t$'n) t' /$t) a relat$'n e$t(er t' sens$b$l$ty 'r t' t(e
understand$n-) and as 'n t($s relat$'n de*ends t(e$r relat$'n t'
ea,( 't(er) trans,endental re+le,t$'n) t(at $s) t(e relat$'n '+
-$0en re*resentat$'ns t' 'ne 'r t(e 't(er +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n) ,an
al'ne determ$ne t($s latter relat$'n! T(us /e s(all n't be able t'
d$s,'0er /(et(er t(e t($n-s are $dent$,al 'r d$++erent) $n a-reement
'r '**'s$t$'n) et,!) +r'm t(e mere ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e t($n-s by means
'+ ,'m*ar$s'n =,'m*arat$'>) but 'nly by d$st$n-u$s($n- t(e m'de '+
,'-n$t$'n t' /($,( t(ey bel'n-) $n 't(er /'rds) by means '+
trans,endental re+le,t$'n! 2e may) t(ere+'re) /$t( &ust$,e say) t(at
l'-$,al re+le,t$'n $s mere ,'m*ar$s'n) +'r $n $t n' a,,'unt $s ta%en
'+ t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n t' /($,( t(e -$0en ,'n,e*t$'ns bel'n-) and
t(ey are ,'nse.uently) as +ar as re-ards t(e$r 'r$-$n) t' be treated
as ('m'-ene'us4 /($le trans,endental re+le,t$'n =/($,( a**l$es t'
t(e 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es> ,'nta$ns t(e -r'und '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
'b&e,t$0e ,'m*ar$s'n '+ re*resentat$'ns /$t( ea,( 't(er) and $s
t(ere+'re 0ery d$++erent +r'm t(e +'rmer) be,ause t(e +a,ult$es '+
,'-n$t$'n t' /($,( t(ey bel'n- are n't e0en t(e same! Trans,endental
re+le,t$'n $s a duty /($,( n' 'ne ,an ne-le,t /(' /$s(es t'
establ$s( an a *r$'r$ &ud-ement u*'n t($n-s! 2e s(all n'/ *r',eed t'
+ul+$l t($s duty) and t(ereby t(r'/ n't a l$ttle l$-(t 'n t(e .uest$'n
as t' t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e *r'*er bus$ness '+ t(e understand$n-!
1! Ident$ty and #$++eren,e! 2(en an 'b&e,t $s *resented t' us
se0eral t$mes) but al/ays /$t( t(e same $nternal determ$nat$'ns
=.ual$tas et .uant$tas>) $t) $+ an 'b&e,t '+ *ure understand$n-) $s
al/ays t(e same) n't se0eral t($n-s) but 'nly 'ne t($n- =numer$,a
$dent$tas>4 but $+ a *(en'men'n) /e d' n't ,'n,ern 'ursel0es /$t(
,'m*ar$n- t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e t($n- /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ s'me
't(er) but) alt('u-( t(ey may be $n t($s res*e,t *er+e,tly t(e same)
t(e d$++eren,e '+ *la,e at t(e same t$me $s a su++$,$ent -r'und +'r
assert$n- t(e numer$,al d$++eren,e '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts ='+ sense>!
T(us) $n t(e ,ase '+ t/' dr'*s '+ /ater) /e may ma%e ,'m*lete
abstra,t$'n '+ all $nternal d$++eren,e =.ual$ty and .uant$ty>) and)
t(e +a,t t(at t(ey are $ntu$ted at t(e same t$me $n d$++erent
*la,es) $s su++$,$ent t' &ust$+y us $n ('ld$n- t(em t' be
numer$,ally d$++erent! <e$bn$t; re-arded *(en'mena as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) ,'nse.uently as $ntell$-$b$l$a) t(at $s) 'b&e,ts '+ *ure
understand$n- =alt('u-() 'n a,,'unt '+ t(e ,'n+used nature '+ t(e$r
re*resentat$'ns) (e -a0e t(em t(e name '+ *(en'mena>) and $n t($s ,ase
($s *r$n,$*le '+ t(e $nd$s,ern$ble =*r$n,$*$um $dentat$s
$nd$s,ern$b$l$um> $s n't t' be $m*u-ned! 3ut) as *(en'mena are 'b&e,ts
'+ sens$b$l$ty) and) as t(e understand$n-) $n res*e,t '+ t(em) must be
em*l'yed em*$r$,ally and n't *urely 'r trans,endentally) *lural$ty and
numer$,al d$++eren,e are -$0en by s*a,e $tsel+ as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+
e1ternal *(en'mena! F'r 'ne *art '+ s*a,e) alt('u-( $t may be
*er+e,tly s$m$lar and e.ual t' an't(er *art) $s st$ll /$t('ut $t)
and +'r t($s reas'n al'ne $s d$++erent +r'm t(e latter) /($,( $s added
t' $t $n 'rder t' ma%e u* a -reater s*a,e! It +'ll'/s t(at t($s must
('ld -''d '+ all t($n-s t(at are $n t(e d$++erent *arts '+ s*a,e at
t(e same t$me) ('/e0er s$m$lar and e.ual 'ne may be t' an't(er!
B! A-reement and O**'s$t$'n! 2(en real$ty $s re*resented by t(e *ure
understand$n- =real$tas n'umen'n>) '**'s$t$'n bet/een real$t$es $s
$n,'-$table5 su,( a relat$'n) t(at $s) t(at /(en t(ese real$t$es are
,'nne,ted $n 'ne sub&e,t) t(ey ann$($late t(e e++e,ts '+ ea,( 't(er
and may be re*resented $n t(e +'rmula I 5 I E N! On t(e 't(er (and)
t(e real $n a *(en'men'n =real$tas *(aen'men'n> may 0ery /ell be $n
mutual '**'s$t$'n) and) /(en un$ted $n t(e same sub&e,t) t(e 'ne may
,'m*letely 'r $n *art ann$($late t(e e++e,t 'r ,'nse.uen,e '+ t(e
't(er4 as $n t(e ,ase '+ t/' m'0$n- +'r,es $n t(e same stra$-(t l$ne
dra/$n- 'r $m*ell$n- a *'$nt $n '**'s$te d$re,t$'ns) 'r $n t(e ,ase '+
a *leasure ,'unterbalan,$n- a ,erta$n am'unt '+ *a$n!
I! T(e Internal and E1ternal! In an 'b&e,t '+ t(e *ure
understand$n-) 'nly t(at $s $nternal /($,( (as n' relat$'n =as re-ards
$ts e1$sten,e> t' anyt($n- d$++erent +r'm $tsel+! On t(e 't(er (and)
t(e $nternal determ$nat$'ns '+ a substant$a *(aen'men'n $n s*a,e are
n't($n- but relat$'ns) and $t $s $tsel+ n't($n- m're t(an a ,'m*le1 '+
mere relat$'ns! Substan,e $n s*a,e /e are ,'-n$;ant '+ 'nly t(r'u-(
+'r,es '*erat$0e $n $t) e$t(er dra/$n- 't(ers t'/ards $tsel+
=attra,t$'n>) 'r *re0ent$n- 't(ers +r'm +'r,$n- $nt' $tsel+ =re*uls$'n
and $m*enetrab$l$ty>! 2e %n'/ n' 't(er *r'*ert$es t(at ma%e u* t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ substan,e *(en'menal $n s*a,e) and /($,( /e term matter!
On t(e 't(er (and) as an 'b&e,t '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) e0ery
substan,e must (a0e $nternal determ$nat$'n and +'r,es! 3ut /(at
't(er $nternal attr$butes '+ su,( an 'b&e,t ,an I t($n% t(an t('se
/($,( my $nternal sense *resents t' me@ T(at) t' /$t) /($,( $n
e$t(er $tsel+ t('u-(t) 'r s'met($n- anal'-'us t' $t! Hen,e <e$bn$t;)
/(' l''%ed u*'n t($n-s as n'umena) a+ter deny$n- t(em e0eryt($n-
l$%e e1ternal relat$'n) and t(ere+'re als' ,'m*'s$t$'n 'r ,'mb$nat$'n)
de,lared t(at all substan,es) e0en t(e ,'m*'nent *arts '+ matter) /ere
s$m*le substan,es /$t( *'/ers '+ re*resentat$'n) $n 'ne /'rd) m'nads!
K! "atter and F'rm! T(ese t/' ,'n,e*t$'ns l$e at t(e +'undat$'n '+
all 't(er re+le,t$'n) s' $nse*arably are t(ey ,'nne,ted /$t( e0ery
m'de '+ e1er,$s$n- t(e understand$n-! T(e +'rmer den'tes t(e
determ$nable $n -eneral) t(e se,'nd $ts determ$nat$'n) b't( $n a
trans,endental sense) abstra,t$'n be$n- made '+ e0ery d$++eren,e $n
t(at /($,( $s -$0en) and '+ t(e m'de $n /($,( $t $s determ$ned!
<'-$,$ans +'rmerly termed t(e un$0ersal) matter) t(e s*e,$+$,
d$++eren,e '+ t($s 'r t(at *art '+ t(e un$0ersal) +'rm! In a &ud-ement
'ne may ,all t(e -$0en ,'n,e*t$'ns l'-$,al matter =+'r t(e &ud-ement>)
t(e relat$'n '+ t(ese t' ea,( 't(er =by means '+ t(e ,'*ula>) t(e +'rm
'+ t(e &ud-ement! In an 'b&e,t) t(e ,'m*'s$te *arts t(ere'+
=essent$al$a> are t(e matter4 t(e m'de $n /($,( t(ey are ,'nne,ted
$n t(e 'b&e,t) t(e +'rm! In res*e,t t' t($n-s $n -eneral) unl$m$ted
real$ty /as re-arded as t(e matter '+ all *'ss$b$l$ty) t(e
l$m$tat$'n t(ere'+ =ne-at$'n> as t(e +'rm) by /($,( 'ne t($n- $s
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm an't(er a,,'rd$n- t' trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'ns!
T(e understand$n- demands t(at s'met($n- be -$0en =at least $n t(e
,'n,e*t$'n>) $n 'rder t' be able t' determ$ne $t $n a ,erta$n
manner! Hen,e) $n a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) t(e matter
*re,edes t(e +'rm) and +'r t($s reas'n <e$bn$t; +$rst assumed t(e
e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s =m'nads> and '+ an $nternal *'/er '+
re*resentat$'n $n t(em) $n 'rder t' +'und u*'n t($s t(e$r e1ternal
relat$'n and t(e ,'mmun$ty t(e$r state =t(at $s) '+ t(e$r
re*resentat$'ns>! Hen,e) /$t( ($m) s*a,e and t$me /ere *'ss$ble5 t(e
+'rmer t(r'u-( t(e relat$'n '+ substan,es) t(e latter t(r'u-( t(e
,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e$r determ$nat$'ns /$t( ea,( 't(er) as ,auses and
e++e,ts! And s' /'uld $t really be) $+ t(e *ure understand$n- /ere
,a*able '+ an $mmed$ate a**l$,at$'n t' 'b&e,ts) and $+ s*a,e and
t$me /ere determ$nat$'ns '+ t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! 3ut be$n- merely
sensu'us $ntu$t$'ns) $n /($,( /e determ$ne all 'b&e,ts s'lely as
*(en'mena) t(e +'rm '+ $ntu$t$'n =as a sub&e,t$0e *r'*erty '+
sens$b$l$ty> must ante,ede all matter =sensat$'ns>) ,'nse.uently s*a,e
and t$me must ante,ede all *(en'mena and all data '+ e1*er$en,e) and
rat(er ma%e e1*er$en,e $tsel+ *'ss$ble! 3ut t(e $ntelle,tual
*($l's'*(er ,'uld n't endure t(at t(e +'rm s('uld *re,ede t(e t($n-s
t(emsel0es and determ$ne t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty4 an 'b&e,t$'n *er+e,tly
,'rre,t) $+ /e assume t(at /e $ntu$te t($n-s as t(ey are) alt('u-(
/$t( ,'n+used re*resentat$'n! 3ut as sensu'us $ntu$t$'n $s a
*e,ul$ar sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( $s a *r$'r$ at t(e +'undat$'n
'+ all *er,e*t$'n) and t(e +'rm '+ /($,( $s *r$m$t$0e) t(e +'rm must
be -$0en *er se) and s' +ar +r'm matter ='r t(e t($n-s t(emsel0es
/($,( a**ear> ly$n- at t(e +'undat$'n '+ e1*er$en,e =as /e must
,'n,lude) $+ /e &ud-e by mere ,'n,e*t$'ns>) t(e 0ery *'ss$b$l$ty '+
$tsel+ *resu**'ses) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) a -$0en +'rmal $ntu$t$'n =s*a,e
and t$me>!

<et me be all'/ed t' term t(e *'s$t$'n /($,( /e ass$-n t' a
,'n,e*t$'n e$t(er $n t(e sens$b$l$ty 'r $n t(e *ure understand$n-) t(e
trans,endental *la,e! In t($s manner) t(e a**'$ntment '+ t(e
*'s$t$'n /($,( must be ta%en by ea,( ,'n,e*t$'n a,,'rd$n- t' t(e
d$++eren,e $n $ts use) and t(e d$re,t$'ns +'r determ$n$n- t($s *la,e
t' all ,'n,e*t$'ns a,,'rd$n- t' rules) /'uld be a trans,endental
t'*$,) a d',tr$ne /($,( /'uld t('r'u-(ly s($eld us +r'm t(e
surre*t$t$'us de0$,es '+ t(e *ure understand$n- and t(e delus$'ns
/($,( t(en,e ar$se) as $t /'uld al/ays d$st$n-u$s( t' /(at +a,ulty
'+ ,'-n$t$'n ea,( ,'n,e*t$'n *r'*erly bel'n-ed! E0ery ,'n,e*t$'n)
e0ery t$tle) under /($,( many ,'-n$t$'ns ran% t'-et(er) may be
,alled a l'-$,al *la,e! U*'n t($s $s based t(e l'-$,al t'*$, '+
Ar$st'tle) '+ /($,( tea,(ers and r(et'r$,$ans ,'uld a0a$l
t(emsel0es) $n 'rder) under ,erta$n t$tles '+ t('u-(t) t' 'bser0e /(at
/'uld best su$t t(e matter t(ey (ad t' treat) and t(us enable
t(emsel0es t' .u$bble and tal% /$t( +luen,y and an a**earan,e '+
Trans,endental t'*$,) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) ,'nta$ns n't($n- m're t(an
t(e ab'0e5ment$'ned +'ur t$tles '+ all ,'m*ar$s'n and d$st$n,t$'n)
/($,( d$++er +r'm ,ate-'r$es $n t($s res*e,t) t(at t(ey d' n't
re*resent t(e 'b&e,t a,,'rd$n- t' t(at /($,( ,'nst$tutes $ts
,'n,e*t$'n =.uant$ty) real$ty>) but set +'rt( merely t(e ,'m*ar$s'n '+
re*resentat$'ns) /($,( *re,edes 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t($n-s! 3ut t($s
,'m*ar$s'n re.u$res a *re0$'us re+le,t$'n) t(at $s) a determ$nat$'n '+
t(e *la,e t' /($,( t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ t(e t($n-s /($,( are
,'m*ared bel'n-) /(et(er) t' /$t) t(ey are ,'-$tated by t(e *ure
understand$n-) 'r -$0en by sens$b$l$ty!
C'n,e*t$'ns may be l'-$,ally ,'m*ared /$t('ut t(e tr'uble '+
$n.u$r$n- t' /(at +a,ulty t(e$r 'b&e,ts bel'n-) /(et(er as n'umena) t'
t(e understand$n-) 'r as *(en'mena) t' sens$b$l$ty! I+) ('/e0er) /e
/$s( t' em*l'y t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns $n res*e,t '+ 'b&e,ts) *re0$'us
trans,endental re+le,t$'n $s ne,essary! 2$t('ut t($s re+le,t$'n I
s('uld ma%e a 0ery unsa+e use '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) and ,'nstru,t
*retended synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns /($,( ,r$t$,al reas'n ,ann't
a,%n'/led-e and /($,( are based s'lely u*'n a trans,endental
am*($b'ly) t(at $s) u*'n a subst$tut$'n '+ an 'b&e,t '+ *ure
understand$n- +'r a *(en'men'n!
F'r /ant '+ t($s d',tr$ne '+ trans,endental t'*$,) and
,'nse.uently de,e$0ed by t(e am*($b'ly '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
re+le,t$'n) t(e ,elebrated <e$bn$t; ,'nstru,ted an $ntelle,tual system
'+ t(e /'rld) 'r rat(er) bel$e0ed ($msel+ ,'m*etent t' ,'-n$;e t(e
$nternal nature '+ t($n-s) by ,'m*ar$n- all 'b&e,ts merely /$t( t(e
understand$n- and t(e abstra,t +'rmal ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t('u-(t! Our
table '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ re+le,t$'n -$0es us t(e une1*e,ted
ad0anta-e '+ be$n- able t' e1($b$t t(e d$st$n,t$0e *e,ul$ar$t$es '+
($s system $n all $ts *arts) and at t(e same t$me '+ e1*'s$n- t(e
+undamental *r$n,$*le '+ t($s *e,ul$ar m'de '+ t('u-(t) /($,( rested
u*'n nau-(t but a m$s,'n,e*t$'n! He ,'m*ared all t($n-s /$t( ea,(
't(er merely by means '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) and naturally +'und n' 't(er
d$++eren,es t(an t('se by /($,( t(e understand$n- d$st$n-u$s(es $ts
*ure ,'n,e*t$'ns 'ne +r'm an't(er! T(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sensu'us
$ntu$t$'n) /($,( ,'nta$n $n t(emsel0es t(e$r '/n means '+ d$st$n,t$'n)
(e d$d n't l''% u*'n as *r$m$t$0e) be,ause sens$b$l$ty /as t' ($m
but a ,'n+used m'de '+ re*resentat$'n and n't any *art$,ular s'ur,e '+
re*resentat$'ns! A *(en'men'n /as +'r ($m t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e
t($n- $n $tsel+) alt('u-( d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm ,'-n$t$'n by t(e
understand$n- 'nly $n res*e,t '+ t(e l'-$,al +'rm5 t(e +'rmer /$t( $ts
usual /ant '+ analys$s ,'nta$n$n-) a,,'rd$n- t' ($m) a ,erta$n m$1ture
'+ ,'llateral re*resentat$'ns $n $ts ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n-) /($,( $t
$s t(e duty '+ t(e understand$n- t' se*arate and d$st$n-u$s(! In 'ne
/'rd) <e$bn$t; $ntelle,tual$;ed *(en'mena) &ust as <',%e) $n ($s
system '+ n''-'ny =$+ I may be all'/ed t' ma%e use '+ su,(
e1*ress$'ns>) sensual$;ed t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) t(at
$s t' say) de,lared t(em t' be n't($n- m're t(an em*$r$,al 'r abstra,t
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ re+le,t$'n! Instead '+ see%$n- $n t(e understand$n- and
sens$b$l$ty t/' d$++erent s'ur,es '+ re*resentat$'ns) /($,()
('/e0er) ,an *resent us /$t( 'b&e,t$0e &ud-ements '+ t($n-s 'nly $n
,'n&un,t$'n) ea,( '+ t(ese -reat men re,'-n$;ed but 'ne '+ t(ese
+a,ult$es) /($,() $n t(e$r '*$n$'n) a**l$ed $mmed$ately t' t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) t(e 't(er (a0$n- n' duty but t(at '+ ,'n+us$n- 'r
arran-$n- t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ t(e +'rmer!
A,,'rd$n-ly) t(e 'b&e,ts '+ sense /ere ,'m*ared by <e$bn$t; as
t($n-s $n -eneral merely $n t(e understand$n-!
1st! He ,'m*ares t(em $n re-ard t' t(e$r $dent$ty 'r d$++eren,e5
as &ud-ed by t(e understand$n-! As) t(ere+'re) (e ,'ns$dered merely
t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts) and n't t(e$r *'s$t$'n $n $ntu$t$'n) $n
/($,( al'ne 'b&e,ts ,an be -$0en) and le+t .u$te 'ut '+ s$-(t t(e
trans,endental l',ale '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns5 /(et(er) t(at $s) t(e$r
'b&e,t 'u-(t t' be ,lassed am'n- *(en'mena) 'r am'n- t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) $t /as t' be e1*e,ted t(at (e s('uld e1tend t(e
a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+ $nd$s,ern$bles) /($,( $s 0al$d
s'lely '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t($n-s $n -eneral) t' 'b&e,ts '+ sense
=mundus *(aen'men'n>) and t(at (e s('uld bel$e0e t(at (e (ad t(ereby
,'ntr$buted $n n' small de-ree t' e1tend 'ur %n'/led-e '+ nature! In
trut() $+ I ,'-n$;e $n all $ts $nner determ$nat$'ns a dr'* '+ /ater as
a t($n- $n $tsel+) I ,ann't l''% u*'n 'ne dr'* as d$++erent +r'm
an't(er) $+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e 'ne $s ,'m*letely $dent$,al /$t(
t(at '+ t(e 't(er! 3ut $+ $t $s a *(en'men'n $n s*a,e) $t (as a
*la,e n't merely $n t(e understand$n- =am'n- ,'n,e*t$'ns>) but als' $n
sensu'us e1ternal $ntu$t$'n =$n s*a,e>) and $n t($s ,ase) t(e *(ys$,al
l',ale $s a matter '+ $nd$++eren,e $n re-ard t' t(e $nternal
determ$nat$'ns '+ t($n-s) and 'ne *la,e) 3) may ,'nta$n a t($n-
/($,( $s *er+e,tly s$m$lar and e.ual t' an't(er $n a *la,e) A) &ust as
/ell as $+ t(e t/' t($n-s /ere $n e0ery res*e,t d$++erent +r'm ea,(
't(er! #$++eren,e '+ *la,e /$t('ut any 't(er ,'nd$t$'ns) ma%es t(e
*lural$ty and d$st$n,t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts as *(en'mena) n't 'nly *'ss$ble
$n $tsel+) but e0en ne,essary! C'nse.uently) t(e ab'0e s'5,alled la/
$s n't a la/ '+ nature! It $s merely an analyt$,al rule +'r t(e
,'m*ar$s'n '+ t($n-s by means '+ mere ,'n,e*t$'ns!
Bnd! T(e *r$n,$*le6 9Real$t$es =as s$m*le a++$rmat$'ns> ne0er
l'-$,ally ,'ntrad$,t ea,( 't(er)9 $s a *r'*'s$t$'n *er+e,tly true
res*e,t$n- t(e relat$'n '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns) but) /(et(er as re-ards
nature) 'r t($n-s $n t(emsel0es ='+ /($,( /e (a0e n't t(e sl$-(test
,'n,e*t$'n>) $s /$t('ut any t(e least mean$n-! F'r real '**'s$t$'n) $n
/($,( A 5 3 $s E N) e1$sts e0ery/(ere) an '**'s$t$'n) t(at $s) $n
/($,( 'ne real$ty un$ted /$t( an't(er $n t(e same sub&e,t
ann$($lates t(e e++e,ts '+ t(e 't(er5 a +a,t /($,( $s ,'nstantly
br'u-(t be+'re 'ur eyes by t(e d$++erent anta-'n$st$, a,t$'ns and
'*erat$'ns $n nature) /($,() ne0ert(eless) as de*end$n- 'n real
+'r,es) must be ,alled real$tates *(aen'mena! Ceneral me,(an$,s ,an
e0en *resent us /$t( t(e em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'n '+ t($s '**'s$t$'n $n
an a *r$'r$ rule) as $t d$re,ts $ts attent$'n t' t(e '**'s$t$'n $n t(e
d$re,t$'n '+ +'r,es5 a ,'nd$t$'n '+ /($,( t(e trans,endental
,'n,e*t$'n '+ real$ty ,an tell us n't($n-! Alt('u-( "! <e$bn$t; d$d
n't ann'un,e t($s *r'*'s$t$'n /$t( *re,$sely t(e *'m* '+ a ne/
*r$n,$*le) (e yet em*l'yed $t +'r t(e establ$s(ment '+ ne/
*r'*'s$t$'ns) and ($s +'ll'/ers $ntr'du,ed $t $nt' t(e$r
<e$bn$t;$'52'l+$an system '+ *($l's'*(y! A,,'rd$n- t' t($s
*r$n,$*le) +'r e1am*le) all e0$ls are but ,'nse.uen,es '+ t(e
l$m$ted nature '+ ,reated be$n-s) t(at $s) ne-at$'ns) be,ause t(ese
are t(e 'nly '**'s$te '+ real$ty! =In t(e mere ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n-
$n -eneral t($s $s really t(e ,ase) but n't $n t($n-s as *(en'mena!>
In l$%e manner) t(e u*('lders '+ t($s system deem $t n't 'nly
*'ss$ble) but natural als') t' ,'nne,t and un$te all real$ty $n 'ne
be$n-) be,ause t(ey a,%n'/led-e n' 't(er s'rt '+ '**'s$t$'n t(an
t(at '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n =by /($,( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $tsel+ '+ a t($n- $s
ann$($lated>) and +$nd t(emsel0es unable t' ,'n,e$0e an '**'s$t$'n
'+ re,$*r',al destru,t$'n) s' t' s*ea%) $n /($,( 'ne real ,ause
destr'ys t(e e++e,t '+ an't(er) and t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ /('se
re*resentat$'n /e meet /$t( 'nly $n sens$b$l$ty!
Ird! T(e <e$bn$t;$an m'nad'l'-y (as really n' better +'undat$'n t(an
'n t($s *($l's'*(er?s m'de '+ +alsely re*resent$n- t(e d$++eren,e '+
t(e $nternal and e1ternal s'lely $n relat$'n t' t(e understand$n-!
Substan,es) $n -eneral) must (a0e s'met($n- $n/ard) /($,( $s t(ere+'re
+ree +r'm e1ternal relat$'ns) ,'nse.uently +r'm t(at '+ ,'m*'s$t$'n
als'! T(e s$m*le5 t(at /($,( ,an be re*resented by a un$t5 $s
t(ere+'re t(e +'undat$'n '+ t(at /($,( $s $nternal $n t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es! T(e $nternal state '+ substan,es ,ann't t(ere+'re
,'ns$st $n *la,e) s(a*e) ,'nta,t) 'r m't$'n) determ$nat$'ns /($,(
are all e1ternal relat$'ns) and /e ,an as,r$be t' t(em n' 't(er t(an
t(at /(ereby /e $nternally determ$ne 'ur +a,ulty '+ sense $tsel+) t(at
$s t' say) t(e state '+ re*resentat$'n! T(us) t(en) /ere ,'nstru,ted
t(e m'nads) /($,( /ere t' +'rm t(e elements '+ t(e un$0erse) t(e
a,t$0e +'r,e '+ /($,( ,'ns$sts $n re*resentat$'n) t(e e++e,ts '+
t($s +'r,e be$n- t(us ent$rely ,'n+$ned t' t(emsel0es!
F'r t(e same reas'n) ($s 0$e/ '+ t(e *'ss$ble ,'mmun$ty '+
substan,es ,'uld n't re*resent $t but as a *redeterm$ned (arm'ny)
and by n' means as a *(ys$,al $n+luen,e! F'r $nasmu,( as e0eryt($n- $s
',,u*$ed 'nly $nternally) t(at $s) /$t( $ts '/n re*resentat$'ns) t(e
state '+ t(e re*resentat$'ns '+ 'ne substan,e ,'uld n't stand $n
a,t$0e and l$0$n- ,'nne,t$'n /$t( t(at '+ an't(er) but s'me t($rd
,ause '*erat$n- 'n all /$t('ut e1,e*t$'n /as ne,essary t' ma%e t(e
d$++erent states ,'rres*'nd /$t( 'ne an't(er! And t($s d$d n't
(a**en by means '+ ass$stan,e a**l$ed $n ea,( *art$,ular ,ase =systema
ass$stent$ae>) but t(r'u-( t(e un$ty '+ t(e $dea '+ a ,ause ',,u*$ed
and ,'nne,ted /$t( all substan,es) $n /($,( t(ey ne,essar$ly
re,e$0e) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e <e$bn$t;$an s,(''l) t(e$r e1$sten,e and
*ermanen,e) ,'nse.uently als' re,$*r',al ,'rres*'nden,e) a,,'rd$n-
t' un$0ersal la/s!
Kt(! T($s *($l's'*(er?s ,elebrated d',tr$ne '+ s*a,e and t$me) $n
/($,( (e $ntelle,tual$;ed t(ese +'rms '+ sens$b$l$ty) 'r$-$nated $n
t(e same delus$'n '+ trans,endental re+le,t$'n! I+ I attem*t t'
re*resent by t(e mere understand$n-) t(e e1ternal relat$'ns '+ t($n-s)
I ,an d' s' 'nly by em*l'y$n- t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e$r re,$*r',al
a,t$'n) and $+ I /$s( t' ,'nne,t 'ne state '+ t(e same t($n- /$t(
an't(er state) I must a0a$l mysel+ '+ t(e n't$'n '+ t(e 'rder '+ ,ause
and e++e,t! And t(us <e$bn$t; re-arded s*a,e as a ,erta$n 'rder $n t(e
,'mmun$ty '+ substan,es) and t$me as t(e dynam$,al se.uen,e '+ t(e$r
states! T(at /($,( s*a,e and t$me *'ssess *r'*er t' t(emsel0es and
$nde*endent '+ t($n-s) (e as,r$bed t' a ne,essary ,'n+us$'n $n 'ur
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(em) /(ereby t(at /($,( $s a mere +'rm '+ dynam$,al
relat$'ns $s (eld t' be a sel+5e1$stent $ntu$t$'n) ante,edent e0en
t' t($n-s t(emsel0es! T(us s*a,e and t$me /ere t(e $ntell$-$ble +'rm
'+ t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ t($n-s =substan,es and t(e$r states> $n
t(emsel0es! 3ut t($n-s /ere $ntell$-$ble substan,es =substant$ae
n'umena>! At t(e same t$me) (e made t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns 0al$d '+
*(en'mena) be,ause (e d$d n't all'/ t' sens$b$l$ty a *e,ul$ar m'de
'+ $ntu$t$'n) but s'u-(t all) e0en t(e em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n '+
'b&e,ts) $n t(e understand$n-) and le+t t' sense nau-(t but t(e
des*$,able tas% '+ ,'n+us$n- and d$sarran-$n- t(e re*resentat$'ns '+
t(e +'rmer!
3ut e0en $+ /e ,'uld +rame any synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n ,'n,ern$n-
t($n-s $n t(emsel0es by means '+ t(e *ure understand$n- =/($,( $s
$m*'ss$ble>) $t ,'uld n't a**ly t' *(en'mena) /($,( d' n't re*resent
t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! In su,( a ,ase I s('uld be 'bl$-ed $n
trans,endental re+le,t$'n t' ,'m*are my ,'n,e*t$'ns 'nly under t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty) and s' s*a,e and t$me /'uld n't be
determ$nat$'ns '+ t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) but '+ *(en'mena! 2(at
t($n-s may be $n t(emsel0es) I %n'/ n't and need n't %n'/) be,ause a
t($n- $s ne0er *resented t' me 't(er/$se t(an as a *(en'men'n!
I must ad'*t t(e same m'de '+ *r',edure /$t( t(e 't(er ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ re+le,t$'n! "atter $s substant$a *(aen'men'n! T(at $n $t /($,( $s
$nternal I see% t' d$s,'0er $n all *arts '+ s*a,e /($,( $t ',,u*$es)
and $n all t(e +un,t$'ns and '*erat$'ns $t *er+'rms) and /($,( are
$ndeed ne0er anyt($n- but *(en'mena '+ t(e e1ternal sense! I ,ann't
t(ere+'re +$nd anyt($n- t(at $s abs'lutely) but 'nly /(at $s
,'m*arat$0ely $nternal) and /($,( $tsel+ ,'ns$sts '+ e1ternal
relat$'ns! T(e abs'lutely $nternal $n matter) and as $t s('uld be
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *ure understand$n-) $s a mere ,($mera) +'r matter
$s n't an 'b&e,t +'r t(e *ure understand$n-! 3ut t(e trans,endental
'b&e,t) /($,( $s t(e +'undat$'n '+ t(e *(en'men'n /($,( /e ,all
matter) $s a mere nes,$' .u$d) t(e nature '+ /($,( /e ,'uld n't
understand) e0en t('u-( s'me'ne /ere +'und able t' tell us! F'r /e ,an
understand n't($n- t(at d'es n't br$n- /$t( $t s'met($n- $n
$ntu$t$'n ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e e1*ress$'ns em*l'yed! I+) by t(e
,'m*la$nt '+ be$n- unable t' *er,e$0e t(e $nternal nature '+ t($n-s)
$t $s meant t(at /e d' n't ,'m*re(end by t(e *ure understand$n- /(at
t(e t($n-s /($,( a**ear t' us may be $n t(emsel0es) $t $s a s$lly
and unreas'nable ,'m*la$nt4 +'r t('se /(' tal% t(us really des$re t(at
/e s('uld be able t' ,'-n$;e) ,'nse.uently t' $ntu$te) t($n-s
/$t('ut senses) and t(ere+'re /$s( t(at /e *'ssessed a +a,ulty '+
,'-n$t$'n *er+e,tly d$++erent +r'm t(e (uman +a,ulty) n't merely $n
de-ree) but e0en as re-ards $ntu$t$'n and t(e m'de t(ere'+) s' t(at
t(us /e s('uld n't be men) but bel'n- t' a ,lass '+ be$n-s) t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ /('se e1$sten,e) mu,( less t(e$r nature and
,'nst$tut$'n) /e (a0e n' means '+ ,'-n$;$n-! 3y 'bser0at$'n and
analys$s '+ *(en'mena /e *enetrate $nt' t(e $nter$'r '+ nature) and n'
'ne ,an say /(at *r'-ress t($s %n'/led-e may ma%e $n t$me! 3ut t('se
trans,endental .uest$'ns /($,( *ass bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ nature) /e
,'uld ne0er ans/er) e0en alt('u-( all nature /ere la$d '*en t' us)
be,ause /e (a0e n't t(e *'/er '+ 'bser0$n- 'ur '/n m$nd /$t( any 't(er
$ntu$t$'n t(an t(at '+ 'ur $nternal sense! F'r (ere$n l$es t(e mystery
'+ t(e 'r$-$n and s'ur,e '+ 'ur +a,ulty '+ sens$b$l$ty! Its
a**l$,at$'n t' an 'b&e,t) and t(e trans,endental -r'und '+ t($s
un$ty '+ sub&e,t$0e and 'b&e,t$0e) l$e t'' dee*ly ,'n,ealed +'r us)
/(' ,'-n$;e 'ursel0es 'nly t(r'u-( t(e $nternal sense) ,'nse.uently as
*(en'mena) t' be able t' d$s,'0er $n 'ur e1$sten,e anyt($n- but
*(en'mena) t(e n'n5sensu'us ,ause '+ /($,( /e at t(e same t$me
earnestly des$re t' *enetrate t'!
T(e -reat ut$l$ty '+ t($s ,r$t$.ue '+ ,'n,lus$'ns arr$0ed at by
t(e *r',esses '+ mere re+le,t$'n ,'ns$sts $n $ts ,lear dem'nstrat$'n
'+ t(e null$ty '+ all ,'n,lus$'ns res*e,t$n- 'b&e,ts /($,( are
,'m*ared /$t( ea,( 't(er $n t(e understand$n- al'ne) /($le $t at t(e
same t$me ,'n+$rms /(at /e *art$,ularly $ns$sted 'n) namely) t(at)
alt('u-( *(en'mena are n't $n,luded as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es am'n-
t(e 'b&e,ts '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) t(ey are ne0ert(eless t(e
'nly t($n-s by /($,( 'ur ,'-n$t$'n ,an *'ssess 'b&e,t$0e real$ty) t(at
$s t' say) /($,( -$0e us $ntu$t$'ns t' ,'rres*'nd /$t( 'ur
2(en /e re+le,t $n a *urely l'-$,al manner) /e d' n't($n- m're
t(an ,'m*are ,'n,e*t$'ns $n 'ur understand$n-) t' d$s,'0er /(et(er
b't( (a0e t(e same ,'ntent) /(et(er t(ey are sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry 'r
n't) /(et(er anyt($n- $s ,'nta$ned $n e$t(er ,'n,e*t$'n) /($,( '+
t(e t/' $s -$0en) and /($,( $s merely a m'de '+ t($n%$n- t(at -$0en!
3ut $+ I a**ly t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns t' an 'b&e,t $n -eneral =$n t(e
trans,endental sense>) /$t('ut +$rst determ$n$n- /(et(er $t $s an
'b&e,t '+ sensu'us 'r $ntelle,tual $ntu$t$'n) ,erta$n l$m$tat$'ns
*resent t(emsel0es) /($,( +'rb$d us t' *ass bey'nd t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns and
render all em*$r$,al use '+ t(em $m*'ss$ble! And t(us t(ese
l$m$tat$'ns *r'0e t(at t(e re*resentat$'n '+ an 'b&e,t as a t($n- $n
-eneral $s n't 'nly $nsu++$,$ent) but) /$t('ut sensu'us
determ$nat$'n and $nde*endently '+ em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns)
sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry4 t(at /e must t(ere+'re ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ all
'b&e,ts) as $n l'-$,) 'r) adm$tt$n- t(em) must t($n% t(em under
,'nd$t$'ns '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n4 t(at) ,'nse.uently) t(e $ntell$-$ble
re.u$res an alt'-et(er *e,ul$ar $ntu$t$'n) /($,( /e d' n't *'ssess)
and $n t(e absen,e '+ /($,( $t $s +'r us n't($n-4 /($le) 'n t(e
't(er (and *(en'mena ,ann't be 'b&e,ts $n t(emsel0es! F'r) /(en I
merely t($n% t($n-s $n -eneral) t(e d$++eren,e $n t(e$r e1ternal
relat$'ns ,ann't ,'nst$tute a d$++eren,e $n t(e t($n-s t(emsel0es4
'n t(e ,'ntrary) t(e +'rmer *resu**'ses t(e latter) and $+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ 'ne '+ t/' t($n-s $s n't $nternally d$++erent +r'm
t(at '+ t(e 't(er) I am merely t($n%$n- t(e same t($n- $n d$++erent
relat$'ns! Furt(er) by t(e add$t$'n '+ 'ne a++$rmat$'n =real$ty> t'
t(e 't(er) t(e *'s$t$0e t(ere$n $s really au-mented) and n't($n- $s
abstra,ted 'r /$t(dra/n +r'm $t4 (en,e t(e real $n t($n-s ,ann't be $n
,'ntrad$,t$'n /$t( 'r '**'s$t$'n t' $tsel+5 and s' 'n!
T(e true use '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ re+le,t$'n $n t(e em*l'yment '+
t(e understand$n- (as) as /e (a0e s('/n) been s' m$s,'n,e$0ed by
<e$bn$t;) 'ne '+ t(e m'st a,ute *($l's'*(ers '+ e$t(er an,$ent 'r
m'dern t$mes) t(at (e (as been m$sled $nt' t(e ,'nstru,t$'n '+ a
baseless system '+ $ntelle,tual ,'-n$t$'n) /($,( *r'+esses t'
determ$ne $ts 'b&e,ts /$t('ut t(e $nter0ent$'n '+ t(e senses! F'r t($s
reas'n) t(e e1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e ,ause '+ t(e am*($b'ly '+ t(ese
,'n,e*t$'ns) as t(e 'r$-$n '+ t(ese +alse *r$n,$*les) $s '+ -reat
ut$l$ty $n determ$n$n- /$t( ,erta$nty t(e *r'*er l$m$ts '+ t(e
It $s r$-(t t' say /(ate0er $s a++$rmed 'r den$ed '+ t(e /('le '+
a ,'n,e*t$'n ,an be a++$rmed 'r den$ed '+ any *art '+ $t =d$,tum de
'mn$ et null'>4 but $t /'uld be absurd s' t' alter t($s l'-$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n as t' say /(ate0er $s n't ,'nta$ned $n a -eneral
,'n,e*t$'n $s l$%e/$se n't ,'nta$ned $n t(e *art$,ular ,'n,e*t$'ns
/($,( ran% under $t4 +'r t(e latter are *art$,ular ,'n,e*t$'ns) +'r
t(e 0ery reas'n t(at t(e$r ,'ntent $s -reater t(an t(at /($,( $s
,'-$tated $n t(e -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n! And yet t(e /('le $ntelle,tual
system '+ <e$bn$t; $s based u*'n t($s +alse *r$n,$*le) and /$t( $t
must ne,essar$ly +all t' t(e -r'und) t'-et(er /$t( all t(e amb$-u'us
*r$n,$*les $n re+eren,e t' t(e em*l'yment '+ t(e understand$n- /($,(
(a0e t(en,e 'r$-$nated!
<e$bn$t;?s *r$n,$*le '+ t(e $dent$ty '+ $nd$s,ern$bles 'r
$nd$st$n-u$s(ables $s really based 'n t(e *resu**'s$t$'n t(at) $+ $n
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- a ,erta$n d$st$n,t$'n $s n't t' be +'und) $t
$s als' n't t' be met /$t( $n t($n-s t(emsel0es4 t(at) ,'nse.uently)
all t($n-s are ,'m*letely $dent$,al =numer' eadem> /($,( are n't
d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm ea,( 't(er =as t' .ual$ty 'r .uant$ty> $n 'ur
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(em! 3ut) as $n t(e mere ,'n,e*t$'n '+ anyt($n-
abstra,t$'n (as been made '+ many ne,essary ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ntu$t$'n)
t(at '+ /($,( abstra,t$'n (as been made $s ras(ly (eld t' be
n'n5e1$stent) and n't($n- $s attr$buted t' t(e t($n- but /(at $s
,'nta$ned $n $ts ,'n,e*t$'n!
T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ,ub$, +''t '+ s*a,e) ('/e0er I may t($n% $t)
$s $n $tsel+ ,'m*letely $dent$,al! 3ut t/' ,ub$, +eet $n s*a,e are
ne0ert(eless d$st$n,t +r'm ea,( 't(er +r'm t(e s'le +a,t '+ t(e$r
be$n- $n d$++erent *la,es =t(ey are numer' d$0ersa>4 and t(ese
*la,es are ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ntu$t$'n) /(ere$n t(e 'b&e,t '+ t($s
,'n,e*t$'n $s -$0en) and /($,( d' n't bel'n- t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) but t'
t(e +a,ulty '+ sens$b$l$ty! In l$%e manner) t(ere $s $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ a t($n- n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n /(en a ne-at$0e $s n't ,'nne,ted /$t( an
a++$rmat$0e4 and merely a++$rmat$0e ,'n,e*t$'ns ,ann't) $n
,'n&un,t$'n) *r'du,e any ne-at$'n! 3ut $n sensu'us $ntu$t$'n)
/(ere$n real$ty =ta%e +'r e1am*le) m't$'n> $s -$0en) /e +$nd
,'nd$t$'ns ='**'s$te d$re,t$'ns>5 '+ /($,( abstra,t$'n (as been made
$n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ m't$'n $n -eneral5 /($,( render *'ss$ble a
,'ntrad$,t$'n 'r '**'s$t$'n =n't $ndeed '+ a l'-$,al %$nd>5 and
/($,( +r'm *ure *'s$t$0es *r'du,e ;er' E N! 2e are t(ere+'re n't
&ust$+$ed $n say$n- t(at all real$ty $s $n *er+e,t a-reement and
(arm'ny) be,ause n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n $s d$s,'0erable am'n- $ts
,'n,e*t$'ns!7 A,,'rd$n- t' mere ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(at /($,( $s $nternal $s
t(e substratum '+ all relat$'ns 'r e1ternal determ$nat$'ns! 2(en)
t(ere+'re) I abstra,t all ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ntu$t$'n) and ,'n+$ne
mysel+ s'lely t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- $n -eneral) I ,an ma%e
abstra,t$'n '+ all e1ternal relat$'ns) and t(ere must ne0ert(eless
rema$n a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(at /($,( $nd$,ates n' relat$'n) but merely
$nternal determ$nat$'ns! N'/ $t seems t' +'ll'/ t(at $n e0eryt($n-
=substan,e> t(ere $s s'met($n- /($,( $s abs'lutely $nternal and
/($,( ante,edes all e1ternal determ$nat$'ns) $nasmu,( as $t renders
t(em *'ss$ble4 and t(at t(ere+'re t($s substratum $s s'met($n- /($,(
d'es n't ,'nta$n any e1ternal relat$'ns and $s ,'nse.uently s$m*le
=+'r ,'r*'real t($n-s are ne0er anyt($n- but relat$'ns) at least '+
t(e$r *arts e1ternal t' ea,( 't(er>4 and) $nasmu,( as /e %n'/ '+ n'
't(er abs'lutely $nternal determ$nat$'ns t(an t('se '+ t(e $nternal
sense) t($s substratum $s n't 'nly s$m*le) but als') anal'-'usly
/$t( 'ur $nternal sense) determ$ned t(r'u-( re*resentat$'ns) t(at $s
t' say) all t($n-s are *r'*erly m'nads) 'r s$m*le be$n-s end'/ed
/$t( t(e *'/er '+ re*resentat$'n! N'/ all t($s /'uld be *er+e,tly
,'rre,t) $+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- /ere t(e 'nly ne,essary
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *resentat$'n '+ 'b&e,ts '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n! It $s)
'n t(e ,'ntrary) man$+est t(at a *ermanent *(en'men'n $n s*a,e
=$m*enetrable e1tens$'n> ,an ,'nta$n mere relat$'ns) and n't($n-
t(at $s abs'lutely $nternal) and yet be t(e *r$mary substratum '+
all e1ternal *er,e*t$'n! 3y mere ,'n,e*t$'ns I ,ann't t($n% anyt($n-
e1ternal) /$t('ut) at t(e same t$me) t($n%$n- s'met($n- $nternal)
+'r t(e reas'n t(at ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ relat$'ns *resu**'se -$0en
t($n-s) and /$t('ut t(ese are $m*'ss$ble! 3ut) as an $ntu$t$'n t(ere
$s s'met($n- =t(at $s) s*a,e) /($,() /$t( all $t ,'nta$ns) ,'ns$sts '+
*urely +'rmal) 'r) $ndeed) real relat$'ns> /($,( $s n't +'und $n t(e
mere ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- $n -eneral) and t($s *resents t' us t(e
substratum /($,( ,'uld n't be ,'-n$;ed t(r'u-( ,'n,e*t$'ns al'ne) I
,ann't say6 be,ause a t($n- ,ann't be re*resented by mere
,'n,e*t$'ns /$t('ut s'met($n- abs'lutely $nternal) t(ere $s als') $n
t(e t($n-s t(emsel0es /($,( are ,'nta$ned under t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) and
$n t(e$r $ntu$t$'n n't($n- e1ternal t' /($,( s'met($n- abs'lutely
$nternal d'es n't ser0e as t(e +'undat$'n! F'r) /(en /e (a0e made
abstra,t$'n '+ all t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ntu$t$'n) t(ere ,erta$nly
rema$ns $n t(e mere ,'n,e*t$'n n't($n- but t(e $nternal $n -eneral)
t(r'u-( /($,( al'ne t(e e1ternal $s *'ss$ble! 3ut t($s ne,ess$ty)
/($,( $s -r'unded u*'n abstra,t$'n al'ne) d'es n't 'bta$n $n t(e
,ase '+ t($n-s t(emsel0es) $n s' +ar as t(ey are -$0en $n $ntu$t$'n
/$t( su,( determ$nat$'ns as e1*ress mere relat$'ns) /$t('ut (a0$n-
anyt($n- $nternal as t(e$r +'undat$'n4 +'r t(ey are n't t($n-s '+ a
t($n- '+ /($,( /e ,an ne$t(er +'r t(ey are n't t($n-s $n t(emsel0es)
but 'nly *(en'mena! 2(at /e ,'-n$;e $n matter $s n't($n- but relat$'ns
=/(at /e ,all $ts $nternal determ$nat$'ns are but ,'m*arat$0ely
$nternal>! 3ut t(ere are s'me sel+5subs$stent and *ermanent) t(r'u-(
/($,( a determ$ned 'b&e,t $s -$0en! T(at I) /(en abstra,t$'n $s made
'+ t(ese relat$'ns) (a0e n't($n- m're t' t($n%) d'es n't destr'y t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- as *(en'men'n) n'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t
$n abstra,t') but $t d'es a/ay /$t( t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ an 'b&e,t
t(at $s determ$nable a,,'rd$n- t' mere ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(at $s) '+ a
n'umen'n! It $s ,erta$nly startl$n- t' (ear t(at a t($n- ,'ns$sts
s'lely '+ relat$'ns4 but t($s t($n- $s s$m*ly a *(en'men'n) and ,ann't
be ,'-$tated by means '+ t(e mere ,ate-'r$es6 $t d'es $tsel+ ,'ns$st
$n t(e mere relat$'n '+ s'met($n- $n -eneral t' t(e senses! In t(e
same /ay) /e ,ann't ,'-$tate relat$'ns '+ t($n-s $n abstra,t') $+ /e
,'mmen,e /$t( ,'n,e*t$'ns al'ne) $n any 't(er manner t(an t(at 'ne
$s t(e ,ause '+ determ$nat$'ns $n t(e 't(er4 +'r t(at $s $tsel+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- 'r ,ate-'ry '+ relat$'n! 3ut) as $n
t($s ,ase /e ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ all $ntu$t$'n) /e l'se alt'-et(er t(e
m'de $n /($,( t(e man$+'ld determ$nes t' ea,( '+ $ts *arts $ts
*la,e) t(at $s) t(e +'rm '+ sens$b$l$ty =s*a,e>4 and yet t($s m'de
ante,edes all em*$r$,al ,ausal$ty!
7I+ any 'ne /$s(es (ere t' (a0e re,'urse t' t(e usual subter+u-e)
and t' say) t(at at least real$tates n'umena ,ann't be $n '**'s$t$'n
t' ea,( 't(er) $t /$ll be re.u$s$te +'r ($m t' addu,e an e1am*le '+
t($s *ure and n'n5sensu'us real$ty) t(at $t may be underst''d
/(et(er t(e n't$'n re*resents s'met($n- 'r n't($n-! 3ut an e1am*le
,ann't be +'und e1,e*t $n e1*er$en,e) /($,( ne0er *resents t' us
anyt($n- m're t(an *(en'mena4 and t(us t(e *r'*'s$t$'n means n't($n-
m're t(an t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ,'nta$ns 'nly a++$rmat$0es d'es
n't ,'nta$n anyt($n- ne-at$0e5 a *r'*'s$t$'n n'b'dy e0er d'ubted!
I+ by $ntell$-$ble 'b&e,ts /e understand t($n-s /($,( ,an be t('u-(t
by means '+ t(e *ure ,ate-'r$es) /$t('ut t(e need '+ t(e s,(emata '+
sens$b$l$ty) su,( 'b&e,ts are $m*'ss$ble! F'r t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
'b&e,t$0e use '+ all 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ understand$n- $s t(e m'de '+
'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) /(ereby 'b&e,ts are -$0en4 and) $+ /e ma%e
abstra,t$'n '+ t(e latter) t(e +'rmer ,an (a0e n' relat$'n t' an
'b&e,t! And e0en $+ /e s('uld su**'se a d$++erent %$nd '+ $ntu$t$'n
+r'm 'ur '/n) st$ll 'ur +un,t$'ns '+ t('u-(t /'uld (a0e n' use 'r
s$-n$+$,at$'n $n res*e,t t(ere'+! 3ut $+ /e understand by t(e term)
'b&e,ts '+ a n'n5sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) $n res*e,t '+ /($,( 'ur
,ate-'r$es are n't 0al$d) and '+ /($,( /e ,an a,,'rd$n-ly (a0e n'
%n'/led-e =ne$t(er $ntu$t$'n n'r ,'n,e*t$'n>) $n t($s merely
ne-at$0e sense n'umena must be adm$tted! F'r t($s $s n' m're t(an
say$n- t(at 'ur m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n $s n't a**l$,able t' all t($n-s) but
'nly t' 'b&e,ts '+ 'ur senses) t(at ,'nse.uently $ts 'b&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty $s l$m$ted) and t(at r''m $s t(ere+'re le+t +'r an't(er
%$nd '+ $ntu$t$'n) and t(us als' +'r t($n-s t(at may be 'b&e,ts '+ $t!
3ut $n t($s sense t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a n'umen'n $s *r'blemat$,al)
t(at $s t' say) $t $s t(e n't$'n '+ t(at $t t(at $t $s *'ss$ble) n'r
t(at $t $s $m*'ss$ble) $nasmu,( as /e d' n't %n'/ '+ any m'de '+
$ntu$t$'n bes$des t(e sensu'us) 'r '+ any 't(er s'rt '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns
t(an t(e ,ate-'r$es5 a m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n and a %$nd '+ ,'n,e*t$'n
ne$t(er '+ /($,( $s a**l$,able t' a n'n5sensu'us 'b&e,t! 2e are 'n
t($s a,,'unt $n,'m*etent t' e1tend t(e s*(ere '+ 'ur 'b&e,ts '+
t('u-(t bey'nd t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty) and t' assume t(e
e1$sten,e '+ 'b&e,ts '+ *ure t('u-(t) t(at $s) '+ n'umena) $nasmu,( as
t(ese (a0e n' true *'s$t$0e s$-n$+$,at$'n! F'r $t must be ,'n+essed '+
t(e ,ate-'r$es t(at t(ey are n't '+ t(emsel0es su++$,$ent +'r t(e
,'-n$t$'n '+ t($n-s $n t(emsel0es and) /$t('ut t(e data '+
sens$b$l$ty) are mere sub&e,t$0e +'rms '+ t(e un$ty '+ t(e
understand$n-! T('u-(t $s ,erta$nly n't a *r'du,t '+ t(e senses) and
$n s' +ar $s n't l$m$ted by t(em) but $t d'es n't t(ere+'re +'ll'/
t(at $t may be em*l'yed *urely and /$t('ut t(e $nter0ent$'n '+
sens$b$l$ty) +'r $t /'uld t(en be /$t('ut re+eren,e t' an 'b&e,t!
And /e ,ann't ,all a n'umen'n an 'b&e,t '+ *ure t('u-(t4 +'r t(e
re*resentat$'n t(ere'+ $s but t(e *r'blemat$,al ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an
'b&e,t +'r a *er+e,tly d$++erent $ntu$t$'n and a *er+e,tly d$++erent
understand$n- +r'm 'urs) b't( '+ /($,( are ,'nse.uently t(emsel0es
*r'blemat$,al! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a n'umen'n $s t(ere+'re n't t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t) but merely a *r'blemat$,al ,'n,e*t$'n
$nse*arably ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e l$m$tat$'n '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty! T(at
$s t' say) t($s ,'n,e*t$'n ,'nta$ns t(e ans/er t' t(e .uest$'n6 9Are
t(ere 'b&e,ts .u$te un,'nne,ted /$t() and $nde*endent '+) 'ur
$ntu$t$'n@95 a .uest$'n t' /($,( 'nly an $ndeterm$nate ans/er ,an be
-$0en! T(at ans/er $s6 9Inasmu,( as sensu'us $ntu$t$'n d'es n't
a**ly t' all t($n-s /$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n) t(ere rema$ns r''m +'r
't(er and d$++erent 'b&e,ts!9 T(e e1$sten,e '+ t(ese *r'blemat$,al
'b&e,ts $s t(ere+'re n't abs'lutely den$ed) $n t(e absen,e '+ a
determ$nate ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(em) but) as n' ,ate-'ry $s 0al$d $n
res*e,t '+ t(em) ne$t(er must t(ey be adm$tted as 'b&e,ts +'r 'ur
Understand$n- a,,'rd$n-ly l$m$ts sens$b$l$ty) /$t('ut at t(e same
t$me enlar-$n- $ts '/n +$eld! 2($le) m're'0er) $t +'rb$ds
sens$b$l$ty t' a**ly $ts +'rms and m'des t' t($n-s $n t(emsel0es and
restr$,ts $t t' t(e s*(ere '+ *(en'mena) $t ,'-$tates an 'b&e,t $n
$tsel+) 'nly) ('/e0er) as a trans,endental 'b&e,t) /($,( $s t(e
,ause '+ a *(en'men'n =,'nse.uently n't $tsel+ a *(en'men'n>) and
/($,( ,ann't be t('u-(t e$t(er as a .uant$ty 'r as real$ty) 'r as
substan,e =be,ause t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns al/ays re.u$re sensu'us +'rms
$n /($,( t' determ$ne an 'b&e,t>5 an 'b&e,t) t(ere+'re) '+ /($,( /e
are .u$te unable t' say /(et(er $t ,an be met /$t( $n 'ursel0es 'r 'ut
'+ us) /(et(er $t /'uld be ann$($lated t'-et(er /$t( sens$b$l$ty)
'r) $+ t($s /ere ta%en a/ay) /'uld ,'nt$nue t' e1$st! I+ /e /$s( t'
,all t($s 'b&e,t a n'umen'n) be,ause t(e re*resentat$'n '+ $t $s
n'n5sensu'us) /e are at l$berty t' d' s'! 3ut as /e ,an a**ly t' $t
n'ne '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ 'ur understand$n-) t(e re*resentat$'n $s
+'r us .u$te 0'$d) and $s a0a$lable 'nly +'r t(e $nd$,at$'n '+ t(e
l$m$ts '+ 'ur sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) t(ereby lea0$n- at t(e same t$me
an em*ty s*a,e) /($,( /e are ,'m*etent t' +$ll by t(e a$d ne$t(er '+
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) n'r '+ t(e *ure understand$n-!
T(e ,r$t$.ue '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) a,,'rd$n-ly) d'es n't *erm$t
us t' ,reate +'r 'ursel0es a ne/ +$eld '+ 'b&e,ts bey'nd t('se /($,(
are *resented t' us as *(en'mena) and t' stray $nt' $ntell$-$ble
/'rlds4 nay) $t d'es n't e0en all'/ us t' endea0'ur t' +'rm s' mu,( as
a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(em! T(e s*e,$'us err'r /($,( leads t' t($s5 and
/($,( $s a *er+e,tly e1,usable 'ne5 l$es $n t(e +a,t t(at t(e
em*l'yment '+ t(e understand$n-) ,'ntrary t' $ts *r'*er *ur*'se and
dest$nat$'n) $s made trans,endental) and 'b&e,ts) t(at $s) *'ss$ble
$ntu$t$'ns) are made t' re-ulate t(emsel0es a,,'rd$n- t'
,'n,e*t$'ns) $nstead '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns arran-$n- t(emsel0es a,,'rd$n-
t' t(e $ntu$t$'ns) 'n /($,( al'ne t(e$r '/n 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty
rests! N'/ t(e reas'n '+ t($s a-a$n $s t(at a**er,e*t$'n) and /$t(
$t t('u-(t) ante,edes all *'ss$ble determ$nate arran-ement '+
re*resentat$'ns! A,,'rd$n-ly /e t($n% s'met($n- $n -eneral and
determ$ne $t 'n t(e 'ne (and sensu'usly) but) 'n t(e 't(er)
d$st$n-u$s( t(e -eneral and $n abstra,t' re*resented 'b&e,t +r'm
t($s *art$,ular m'de '+ $ntu$t$n- $t! In t($s ,ase t(ere rema$ns a
m'de '+ determ$n$n- t(e 'b&e,t by mere t('u-(t) /($,( $s really but
a l'-$,al +'rm /$t('ut ,'ntent) /($,() ('/e0er) seems t' us t' be a
m'de '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e 'b&e,t $n $tsel+ =n'umen'n>) /$t('ut
re-ard t' $ntu$t$'n /($,( $s l$m$ted t' 'ur senses!
3e+'re end$n- t($s trans,endental analyt$,) /e must ma%e an
add$t$'n) /($,() alt('u-( $n $tsel+ '+ n' *art$,ular $m*'rtan,e) seems
t' be ne,essary t' t(e ,'m*leteness '+ t(e system! T(e ($-(est
,'n,e*t$'n) /$t( /($,( a trans,endental *($l's'*(y ,'mm'nly be-$ns) $s
t(e d$0$s$'n $nt' *'ss$ble and $m*'ss$ble! 3ut as all d$0$s$'n
*resu**'ses a d$0$ded ,'n,e*t$'n) a st$ll ($-(er 'ne must e1$st) and
t($s $s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t $n -eneral5 *r'blemat$,ally
underst''d and /$t('ut $ts be$n- de,$ded /(et(er $t $s s'met($n- 'r
n't($n-! As t(e ,ate-'r$es are t(e 'nly ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( a**ly t'
'b&e,ts $n -eneral) t(e d$st$n-u$s($n- '+ an 'b&e,t) /(et(er $t $s
s'met($n- 'r n't($n-) must *r',eed a,,'rd$n- t' t(e 'rder and
d$re,t$'n '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es!
1! T' t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ .uant$ty) t(at $s) t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ all)
many) and 'ne) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ann$($lates all) t(at $s) t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ n'ne) $s '**'sed! And t(us t(e 'b&e,t '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n)
t' /($,( n' $ntu$t$'n ,an be +'und t' ,'rres*'nd) $s E n't($n-! T(at
$s) $t $s a ,'n,e*t$'n /$t('ut an 'b&e,t =ens rat$'n$s>) l$%e n'umena)
/($,( ,ann't be ,'ns$dered *'ss$ble $n t(e s*(ere '+ real$ty) t('u-(
t(ey must n't t(ere+'re be (eld t' be $m*'ss$ble5 'r l$%e ,erta$n
ne/ +undamental +'r,es $n matter) t(e e1$sten,e '+ /($,( $s
,'-$table /$t('ut ,'ntrad$,t$'n) t('u-() as e1am*les +r'm e1*er$en,e
are n't +'rt(,'m$n-) t(ey must n't be re-arded as *'ss$ble!
B! Real$ty $s s'met($n-4 ne-at$'n $s n't($n-) t(at $s) a
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e absen,e '+ an 'b&e,t) as ,'ld) a s(ad'/ =n$($l
I! T(e mere +'rm '+ $ntu$t$'n) /$t('ut substan,e) $s $n $tsel+ n'
'b&e,t) but t(e merely +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t =as
*(en'men'n>) as *ure s*a,e and *ure t$me! T(ese are ,erta$nly
s'met($n-) as +'rms '+ $ntu$t$'n) but are n't t(emsel0es 'b&e,ts /($,(
are $ntu$ted =ens $ma-$nar$um>!
K! T(e 'b&e,t '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( $s sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry) $s
n't($n-) be,ause t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $s n't($n-5 $s $m*'ss$ble) as a +$-ure
,'m*'sed '+ t/' stra$-(t l$nes =n$($l ne-at$0um>!
T(e table '+ t($s d$0$s$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ n't($n- =t(e
,'rres*'nd$n- d$0$s$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ s'met($n- d'es n't re.u$re
s*e,$al des,r$*t$'n> must t(ere+'re be arran-ed as +'ll'/s6



As Em*ty C'n,e*t$'n

/$t('ut 'b&e,t)

ens rat$'n$s


Em*ty 'b&e,t '+ Em*ty $ntu$t$'n

a ,'n,e*t$'n) /$t('ut 'b&e,t)

n$($l *r$0at$0um ens $ma-$nar$um


Em*ty 'b&e,t

/$t('ut ,'n,e*t$'n)

n$($l ne-at$0um

2e see t(at t(e ens rat$'n$s $s d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e n$($l
ne-at$0um 'r *ure n't($n- by t(e ,'ns$derat$'n t(at t(e +'rmer must
n't be re,%'ned am'n- *'ss$b$l$t$es) be,ause $t $s a mere +$,t$'n5
t('u-( n't sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry) /($le t(e latter $s ,'m*letely
'**'sed t' all *'ss$b$l$ty) $nasmu,( as t(e ,'n,e*t$'n ann$($lates
$tsel+! 3't() ('/e0er) are em*ty ,'n,e*t$'ns! On t(e 't(er (and)
t(e n$($l *r$0at$0um and ens $ma-$nar$um are em*ty data +'r
,'n,e*t$'ns! I+ l$-(t be n't -$0en t' t(e senses) /e ,ann't
re*resent t' 'ursel0es dar%ness) and $+ e1tended 'b&e,ts are n't
*er,e$0ed) /e ,ann't re*resent s*a,e! Ne$t(er t(e ne-at$'n) n'r t(e
mere +'rm '+ $ntu$t$'n ,an) /$t('ut s'met($n- real) be an 'b&e,t!


I! O+ Trans,endental Illus'ry A**earan,e!

2e termed d$ale,t$, $n -eneral a l'-$, '+ a**earan,e! T($s d'es
n't s$-n$+y a d',tr$ne '+ *r'bab$l$ty4 +'r *r'bab$l$ty $s trut()
'nly ,'-n$;ed u*'n $nsu++$,$ent -r'unds) and t('u-( t(e $n+'rmat$'n $t
-$0es us $s $m*er+e,t) $t $s n't t(ere+'re de,e$t+ul! Hen,e $t must
n't be se*arated +r'm t(e analyt$,al *art '+ l'-$,! St$ll less must
*(en'men'n and a**earan,e be (eld t' be $dent$,al! F'r trut( 'r
$llus'ry a**earan,e d'es n't res$de $n t(e 'b&e,t) $n s' +ar as $t
$s $ntu$ted) but $n t(e &ud-ement u*'n t(e 'b&e,t) $n s' +ar as $t
$s t('u-(t! It $s) t(ere+'re) .u$te ,'rre,t t' say t(at t(e senses
d' n't err) n't be,ause t(ey al/ays &ud-e ,'rre,tly) but be,ause
t(ey d' n't &ud-e at all! Hen,e trut( and err'r) ,'nse.uently als')
$llus'ry a**earan,e as t(e ,ause '+ err'r) are 'nly t' be +'und $n a
&ud-ement) t(at $s) $n t(e relat$'n '+ an 'b&e,t t' 'ur understand$n-!
In a ,'-n$t$'n /($,( ,'m*letely (arm'n$;es /$t( t(e la/s '+ t(e
understand$n-) n' err'r ,an e1$st! In a re*resentat$'n '+ t(e
senses5 as n't ,'nta$n$n- any &ud-ement5 t(ere $s als' n' err'r! 3ut
n' *'/er '+ nature ,an '+ $tsel+ de0$ate +r'm $ts '/n la/s! Hen,e
ne$t(er t(e understand$n- *er se =/$t('ut t(e $n+luen,e '+ an't(er
,ause>) n'r t(e senses *er se) /'uld +all $nt' err'r4 t(e +'rmer ,'uld
n't) be,ause) $+ $t a,ts 'nly a,,'rd$n- t' $ts '/n la/s) t(e e++e,t
=t(e &ud-ement> must ne,essar$ly a,,'rd /$t( t(ese la/s! 3ut $n
a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e la/s '+ t(e understand$n- ,'ns$sts t(e +'rmal
element $n all trut(! In t(e senses t(ere $s n' &ud-ement5 ne$t(er a
true n'r a +alse 'ne! 3ut) as /e (a0e n' s'ur,e '+ ,'-n$t$'n bes$des
t(ese t/') $t +'ll'/s t(at err'r $s ,aused s'lely by t(e un'bser0ed
$n+luen,e '+ t(e sens$b$l$ty u*'n t(e understand$n-! And t(us $t
(a**ens t(at t(e sub&e,t$0e -r'unds '+ a &ud-ement and are
,'n+'unded /$t( t(e 'b&e,t$0e) and ,ause t(em t' de0$ate +r'm t(e$r
*r'*er determ$nat$'n)7 &ust as a b'dy $n m't$'n /'uld al/ays '+ $tsel+
*r',eed $n a stra$-(t l$ne) but $+ an't(er $m*etus -$0es t' $t a
d$++erent d$re,t$'n) $t /$ll t(en start '++ $nt' a ,ur0$l$near l$ne '+
m't$'n! T' d$st$n-u$s( t(e *e,ul$ar a,t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- +r'm
t(e *'/er /($,( m$n-les /$t( $t) $t $s ne,essary t' ,'ns$der an
err'ne'us &ud-ement as t(e d$a-'nal bet/een t/' +'r,es) t(at determ$ne
t(e &ud-ement $n t/' d$++erent d$re,t$'ns) /($,() as $t /ere) +'rm
an an-le) and t' res'l0e t($s ,'m*'s$te '*erat$'n $nt' t(e s$m*le 'nes
'+ t(e understand$n- and t(e sens$b$l$ty! In *ure a *r$'r$
&ud-ements t($s must be d'ne by means '+ trans,endental re+le,t$'n)
/(ereby) as (as been already s('/n) ea,( re*resentat$'n (as $ts
*la,e a**'$nted $n t(e ,'rres*'nd$n- +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n) and
,'nse.uently t(e $n+luen,e '+ t(e 'ne +a,ulty u*'n t(e 't(er $s made
7Sens$b$l$ty) sub&e,ted t' t(e understand$n-) as t(e 'b&e,t u*'n
/($,( t(e understand$n- em*l'ys $ts +un,t$'ns) $s t(e s'ur,e '+ real
,'-n$t$'ns! 3ut) $n s' +ar as $t e1er,$ses an $n+luen,e u*'n t(e
a,t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- and determ$nes $t t' &ud-ement)
sens$b$l$ty $s $tsel+ t(e ,ause '+ err'r!
It $s n't at *resent 'ur bus$ness t' treat '+ em*$r$,al $llus'ry
a**earan,e =+'r e1am*le) '*t$,al $llus$'n>) /($,( ',,urs $n t(e
em*$r$,al a**l$,at$'n '+ 't(er/$se ,'rre,t rules '+ t(e understand$n-)
and $n /($,( t(e &ud-ement $s m$sled by t(e $n+luen,e '+
$ma-$nat$'n! Our *ur*'se $s t' s*ea% '+ trans,endental $llus'ry
a**earan,e) /($,( $n+luen,es *r$n,$*les5 t(at are n't e0en a**l$ed
t' e1*er$en,e) +'r $n t($s ,ase /e s('uld *'ssess a sure test '+ t(e$r
,'rre,tness5 but /($,( leads us) $n d$sre-ard '+ all t(e /arn$n-s '+
,r$t$,$sm) ,'m*letely bey'nd t(e em*$r$,al em*l'yment '+ t(e
,ate-'r$es and deludes us /$t( t(e ,($mera '+ an e1tens$'n '+ t(e
s*(ere '+ t(e *ure understand$n-! 2e s(all term t('se *r$n,$*les t(e
a**l$,at$'n '+ /($,( $s ,'n+$ned ent$rely /$t($n t(e l$m$ts '+
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) $mmanent4 t('se) 'n t(e 't(er (and) /($,(
trans-ress t(ese l$m$ts) /e s(all ,all trans,endent *r$n,$*les! 3ut by
t(ese latter I d' n't understand *r$n,$*les '+ t(e trans,endental
use 'r m$suse '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) /($,( $s $n real$ty a mere +ault '+
t(e &ud-ement /(en n't under due restra$nt +r'm ,r$t$,$sm) and
t(ere+'re n't *ay$n- su++$,$ent attent$'n t' t(e l$m$ts '+ t(e
s*(ere $n /($,( t(e *ure understand$n- $s all'/ed t' e1er,$se $ts
+un,t$'ns4 but real *r$n,$*les /($,( e1('rt us t' brea% d'/n all t('se
barr$ers) and t' lay ,la$m t' a *er+e,tly ne/ +$eld '+ ,'-n$t$'n)
/($,( re,'-n$;es n' l$ne '+ demar,at$'n! T(us trans,endental and
trans,endent are n't $dent$,al terms! T(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure
understand$n-) /($,( /e (a0e already *r'*'unded) 'u-(t t' be '+
em*$r$,al and n't '+ trans,endental use) t(at $s) t(ey are n't
a**l$,able t' any 'b&e,t bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e! A
*r$n,$*le /($,( rem'0es t(ese l$m$ts) nay) /($,( aut('r$;es us t'
'0erste* t(em) $s ,alled trans,endent! I+ 'ur ,r$t$,$sm ,an su,,eed $n
e1*'s$n- t(e $llus$'n $n t(ese *retended *r$n,$*les) t('se /($,( are
l$m$ted $n t(e$r em*l'yment t' t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e may be ,alled)
$n '**'s$t$'n t' t(e 't(ers) $mmanent *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure
<'-$,al $llus$'n) /($,( ,'ns$sts merely $n t(e $m$tat$'n '+ t(e +'rm
'+ reas'n =t(e $llus$'n $n s'*($st$,al syll'-$sms>) ar$ses ent$rely
+r'm a /ant '+ due attent$'n t' l'-$,al rules! S' s''n as t(e
attent$'n $s a/a%ened t' t(e ,ase be+'re us) t($s $llus$'n t'tally
d$sa**ears! Trans,endental $llus$'n) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) d'es n't ,ease
t' e1$st) e0en a+ter $t (as been e1*'sed) and $ts n't($n-ness
,learly *er,e$0ed by means '+ trans,endental ,r$t$,$sm! Ta%e) +'r
e1am*le) t(e $llus$'n $n t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9T(e /'rld must (a0e a
be-$nn$n- $n t$me!9 T(e ,ause '+ t($s $s as +'ll'/s! In 'ur reas'n)
sub&e,t$0ely ,'ns$dered as a +a,ulty '+ (uman ,'-n$t$'n) t(ere e1$st
+undamental rules and ma1$ms '+ $ts e1er,$se) /($,( (a0e ,'m*letely
t(e a**earan,e '+ 'b&e,t$0e *r$n,$*les! N'/ +r'm t($s ,ause $t (a**ens
t(at t(e sub&e,t$0e ne,ess$ty '+ a ,erta$n ,'nne,t$'n '+ 'ur
,'n,e*t$'ns) $s re-arded as an 'b&e,t$0e ne,ess$ty '+ t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! T($s $llus$'n $t $s
$m*'ss$ble t' a0'$d) &ust as /e ,ann't a0'$d *er,e$0$n- t(at t(e sea
a**ears t' be ($-(er at a d$stan,e t(an $t $s near t(e s('re)
be,ause /e see t(e +'rmer by means '+ ($-(er rays t(an t(e latter) 'r)
/($,( $s a st$ll str'n-er ,ase) as e0en t(e astr'n'mer ,ann't
*re0ent ($msel+ +r'm see$n- t(e m''n lar-er at $ts r$s$n- t(an s'me
t$me a+ter/ards) alt('u-( (e $s n't de,e$0ed by t($s $llus$'n!
Trans,endental d$ale,t$, /$ll t(ere+'re ,'ntent $tsel+ /$t( e1*'s$n-
t(e $llus'ry a**earan,e $n trans,endental &ud-ements) and -uard$n-
us a-a$nst $t4 but t' ma%e $t) as $n t(e ,ase '+ l'-$,al $llus$'n)
ent$rely d$sa**ear and ,ease t' be $llus$'n $s utterly bey'nd $ts
*'/er! F'r /e (a0e (ere t' d' /$t( a natural and una0'$dable $llus$'n)
/($,( rests u*'n sub&e,t$0e *r$n,$*les and $m*'ses t(ese u*'n us as
'b&e,t$0e) /($le l'-$,al d$ale,t$,) $n t(e dete,t$'n '+ s'*($sms)
(as t' d' merely /$t( an err'r $n t(e l'-$,al ,'nse.uen,e '+ t(e
*r'*'s$t$'ns) 'r /$t( an art$+$,$ally ,'nstru,ted $llus$'n) $n
$m$tat$'n '+ t(e natural err'r! T(ere $s) t(ere+'re) a natural and
una0'$dable d$ale,t$, '+ *ure reas'n5 n't t(at $n /($,( t(e bun-ler)
+r'm /ant '+ t(e re.u$s$te %n'/led-e) $n0'l0es ($msel+) n'r t(at /($,(
t(e s'*($st de0$ses +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ m$slead$n-) but t(at /($,( $s
an $nse*arable ad&un,t '+ (uman reas'n) and /($,() e0en a+ter $ts
$llus$'ns (a0e been e1*'sed) d'es n't ,ease t' de,e$0e) and
,'nt$nually t' lead reas'n $nt' m'mentary err'rs) /($,( $t be,'mes
ne,essary ,'nt$nually t' rem'0e!
II! O+ Pure Reas'n as t(e Seat '+ Trans,endental Illus'ry



All 'ur %n'/led-e be-$ns /$t( sense) *r',eeds t(en,e t'
understand$n-) and ends /$t( reas'n) bey'nd /($,( n't($n- ($-(er ,an
be d$s,'0ered $n t(e (uman m$nd +'r elab'rat$n- t(e matter '+
$ntu$t$'n and sub&e,t$n- $t t' t(e ($-(est un$ty '+ t('u-(t! At t($s
sta-e '+ 'ur $n.u$ry $t $s my duty t' -$0e an e1*lanat$'n '+ t($s) t(e
($-(est +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n) and I ,'n+ess I +$nd mysel+ (ere $n s'me
d$++$,ulty! O+ reas'n) as '+ t(e understand$n-) t(ere $s a merely
+'rmal) t(at $s) l'-$,al use) $n /($,( $t ma%es abstra,t$'n '+ all
,'ntent '+ ,'-n$t$'n4 but t(ere $s als' a real use) $nasmu,( as $t
,'nta$ns $n $tsel+ t(e s'ur,e '+ ,erta$n ,'n,e*t$'ns and *r$n,$*les)
/($,( $t d'es n't b'rr'/ e$t(er +r'm t(e senses 'r t(e
understand$n-! T(e +'rmer +a,ulty (as been l'n- de+$ned by l'-$,$ans
as t(e +a,ulty '+ med$ate ,'n,lus$'n $n ,'ntrad$st$n,t$'n t' $mmed$ate
,'n,lus$'ns =,'nse.uent$ae $mmed$atae>4 but t(e nature '+ t(e
latter) /($,( $tsel+ -enerates ,'n,e*t$'ns) $s n't t' be underst''d
+r'm t($s de+$n$t$'n! N'/ as a d$0$s$'n '+ reas'n $nt' a l'-$,al and a
trans,endental +a,ulty *resents $tsel+ (ere) $t be,'mes ne,essary t'
see% +'r a ($-(er ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t($s s'ur,e '+ ,'-n$t$'n /($,( s(all
,'m*re(end b't( ,'n,e*t$'ns! In t($s /e may e1*e,t) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e
anal'-y '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) t(at t(e l'-$,al
,'n,e*t$'n /$ll -$0e us t(e %ey t' t(e trans,endental) and t(at t(e
table '+ t(e +un,t$'ns '+ t(e +'rmer /$ll *resent us /$t( t(e ,lue
t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n!
In t(e +'rmer *art '+ 'ur trans,endental l'-$,) /e de+$ned t(e
understand$n- t' be t(e +a,ulty '+ rules4 reas'n may be
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm understand$n- as t(e +a,ulty '+ *r$n,$*les!
T(e term *r$n,$*le $s amb$-u'us) and ,'mm'nly s$-n$+$es merely a
,'-n$t$'n t(at may be em*l'yed as a *r$n,$*le) alt('u-( $t $s n't $n
$tsel+) and as re-ards $ts *r'*er 'r$-$n) ent$tled t' t(e d$st$n,t$'n!
E0ery -eneral *r'*'s$t$'n) e0en $+ der$0ed +r'm e1*er$en,e by t(e
*r',ess '+ $ndu,t$'n) may ser0e as t(e ma&'r $n a syll'-$sm4 but $t $s
n't +'r t(at reas'n a *r$n,$*le! "at(emat$,al a1$'ms =+'r e1am*le)
t(ere ,an be 'nly 'ne stra$-(t l$ne bet/een t/' *'$nts> are -eneral
a *r$'r$ ,'-n$t$'ns) and are t(ere+'re r$-(tly den'm$nated *r$n,$*les)
relat$0ely t' t(e ,ases /($,( ,an be subsumed under t(em! 3ut I ,ann't
+'r t($s reas'n say t(at I ,'-n$;e t($s *r'*erty '+ a stra$-(t l$ne
+r'm *r$n,$*les5 I ,'-n$;e $t 'nly $n *ure $ntu$t$'n!
C'-n$t$'n +r'm *r$n,$*les) t(en) $s t(at ,'-n$t$'n $n /($,( I
,'-n$;e t(e *art$,ular $n t(e -eneral by means '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns! T(us
e0ery syll'-$sm $s a +'rm '+ t(e dedu,t$'n '+ a ,'-n$t$'n +r'm a
*r$n,$*le! F'r t(e ma&'r al/ays -$0es a ,'n,e*t$'n) t(r'u-( /($,(
e0eryt($n- t(at $s subsumed under t(e ,'nd$t$'n t(ere'+ $s ,'-n$;ed
a,,'rd$n- t' a *r$n,$*le! N'/ as e0ery -eneral ,'-n$t$'n may ser0e
as t(e ma&'r $n a syll'-$sm) and t(e understand$n- *resents us /$t(
su,( -eneral a *r$'r$ *r'*'s$t$'ns) t(ey may be termed *r$n,$*les)
$n res*e,t '+ t(e$r *'ss$ble use!
3ut $+ /e ,'ns$der t(ese *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n- $n
relat$'n t' t(e$r 'r$-$n) /e s(all +$nd t(em t' be anyt($n- rat(er
t(an ,'-n$t$'ns +r'm ,'n,e*t$'ns! F'r t(ey /'uld n't e0en be
*'ss$ble a *r$'r$) $+ /e ,'uld n't rely 'n t(e ass$stan,e '+ *ure
$ntu$t$'n =$n mat(emat$,s>) 'r 'n t(at '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e! T(at e0eryt($n- t(at (a**ens (as a ,ause) ,ann't be
,'n,luded +r'm t(e -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(at /($,( (a**ens4 'n t(e
,'ntrary t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,ausal$ty $nstru,ts us as t' t(e m'de '+
'bta$n$n- +r'm t(at /($,( (a**ens a determ$nate em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n!
Synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'ns +r'm ,'n,e*t$'ns t(e understand$n- ,ann't
su**ly) and t(ey al'ne are ent$tled t' be ,alled *r$n,$*les! At t(e
same t$me) all -eneral *r'*'s$t$'ns may be termed ,'m*arat$0e
It (as been a l'n-5,(er$s(ed /$s(5 t(at =/(' %n'/s ('/ late>) may
'ne day) be (a**$ly a,,'m*l$s(ed5 t(at t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e endless
0ar$ety '+ ,$0$l la/s s('uld be $n0est$-ated and e1*'sed4 +'r $n
t($s /ay al'ne ,an /e +$nd t(e se,ret '+ s$m*l$+y$n- le-$slat$'n!
3ut $n t($s ,ase) la/s are n't($n- m're t(an l$m$tat$'ns '+ 'ur
+reed'm u*'n ,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( $t subs$sts $n *er+e,t (arm'ny
/$t( $tsel+4 t(ey ,'nse.uently (a0e +'r t(e$r 'b&e,t t(at /($,( $s
,'m*letely 'ur '/n /'r%) and '+ /($,( /e 'ursel0es may be t(e ,ause by
means '+ t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns! 3ut ('/ 'b&e,ts as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es5
('/ t(e nature '+ t($n-s $s sub'rd$nated t' *r$n,$*les and $s t' be
determ$ned! a,,'rd$n- t' ,'n,e*t$'ns) $s a .uest$'n /($,( $t seems
/ell n$-( $m*'ss$ble t' ans/er! 3e t($s) ('/e0er) as $t may5 +'r 'n
t($s *'$nt 'ur $n0est$-at$'n $s yet t' be made5 $t $s at least
man$+est +r'm /(at /e (a0e sa$d t(at ,'-n$t$'n +r'm *r$n,$*les $s
s'met($n- 0ery d$++erent +r'm ,'-n$t$'n by means '+ t(e understand$n-)
/($,( may $ndeed *re,ede 't(er ,'-n$t$'ns $n t(e +'rm '+ a
*r$n,$*le) but $n $tsel+5 $n s' +ar as $t $s synt(et$,al5 $s ne$t(er
based u*'n mere t('u-(t) n'r ,'nta$ns a -eneral *r'*'s$t$'n dra/n +r'm
,'n,e*t$'ns al'ne s(all ,'m*re(end
T(e understand$n- may be a +a,ulty +'r t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ un$ty '+
*(en'mena by 0$rtue '+ rules4 t(e reas'n $s a +a,ulty +'r t(e
*r'du,t$'n '+ un$ty '+ rules ='+ t(e understand$n-> under
*r$n,$*les! Reas'n) t(ere+'re) ne0er a**l$es d$re,tly t' e1*er$en,e)
'r t' any sensu'us 'b&e,t4 $ts 'b&e,t $s) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) t(e
understand$n-) t' t(e man$+'ld ,'-n$t$'n '+ /($,( $t -$0es a un$ty a
*r$'r$ by means '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns5 a un$ty /($,( may be ,alled rat$'nal
un$ty) and /($,( $s '+ a nature 0ery d$++erent +r'm t(at '+ t(e
un$ty *r'du,ed by t(e understand$n-!
T(e ab'0e $s t(e -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ reas'n) $n
s' +ar as $t (as been *'ss$ble t' ma%e $t ,'m*re(ens$ble $n t(e
absen,e '+ e1am*les! T(ese /$ll be -$0en $n t(e se.uel!

A d$st$n,t$'n $s ,'mm'nly made bet/een t(at /($,( $s $mmed$ately
,'-n$;ed and t(at /($,( $s $n+erred 'r ,'n,luded! T(at $n a +$-ure
/($,( $s b'unded by t(ree stra$-(t l$nes t(ere are t(ree an-les) $s an
$mmed$ate ,'-n$t$'n4 but t(at t(ese an-les are t'-et(er e.ual t' t/'
r$-(t an-les) $s an $n+eren,e 'r ,'n,lus$'n! N'/) as /e are ,'nstantly
em*l'y$n- t($s m'de '+ t('u-(t and (a0e t(us be,'me .u$te a,,ust'med
t' $t) /e n' l'n-er remar% t(e ab'0e d$st$n,t$'n) and) as $n t(e
,ase '+ t(e s'5,alled de,e*t$'ns '+ sense) ,'ns$der as $mmed$ately
*er,e$0ed) /(at (as really been $n+erred! In e0ery reas'n$n- 'r
syll'-$sm) t(ere $s a +undamental *r'*'s$t$'n) a+ter/ards a se,'nd
dra/n +r'm $t) and +$nally t(e ,'n,lus$'n) /($,( ,'nne,ts t(e trut( $n
t(e +$rst /$t( t(e trut( $n t(e se,'nd5 and t(at $n+all$bly! I+ t(e
&ud-ement ,'n,luded $s s' ,'nta$ned $n t(e +$rst *r'*'s$t$'n t(at $t
,an be dedu,ed +r'm $t /$t('ut t(e med$tat$'n '+ a t($rd n't$'n) t(e
,'n,lus$'n $s ,alled $mmed$ate =,'nse.uent$a $mmed$ata>4 I *re+er
t(e term ,'n,lus$'n '+ t(e understand$n-! 3ut $+) $n add$t$'n t' t(e
+undamental ,'-n$t$'n) a se,'nd &ud-ement $s ne,essary +'r t(e
*r'du,t$'n '+ t(e ,'n,lus$'n) $t $s ,alled a ,'n,lus$'n '+ t(e reas'n!
In t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 All men are m'rtal) are ,'nta$ned t(e
*r'*'s$t$'ns6 S'me men are m'rtal) N't($n- t(at $s n't m'rtal $s a
man) and t(ese are t(ere+'re $mmed$ate ,'n,lus$'ns +r'm t(e +$rst!
On t(e 't(er (and) t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 all t(e learned are m'rtal) $s n't
,'nta$ned $n t(e ma$n *r'*'s$t$'n =+'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a learned man
d'es n't ',,ur $n $t>) and $t ,an be dedu,ed +r'm t(e ma$n *r'*'s$t$'n
'nly by means '+ a med$at$n- &ud-ement!
In e0ery syll'-$sm I +$rst ,'-$tate a rule =t(e ma&'r> by means '+
t(e understand$n-! In t(e ne1t *la,e I subsume a ,'-n$t$'n under t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e rule =and t($s $s t(e m$n'r> by means '+ t(e
&ud-ement! And +$nally I determ$ne my ,'-n$t$'n by means '+ t(e
*red$,ate '+ t(e rule =t($s $s t(e ,'n,lus$'>) ,'nse.uently) I
determ$ne $t a *r$'r$ by means '+ t(e reas'n! T(e relat$'ns)
t(ere+'re) /($,( t(e ma&'r *r'*'s$t$'n) as t(e rule) re*resents
bet/een a ,'-n$t$'n and $ts ,'nd$t$'n) ,'nst$tute t(e d$++erent
%$nds '+ syll'-$sms! T(ese are &ust t(ree+'ld5 anal'-'usly /$t( all
&ud-ements) $n s' +ar as t(ey d$++er $n t(e m'de '+ e1*ress$n- t(e
relat$'n '+ a ,'-n$t$'n $n t(e understand$n-5 namely) ,ate-'r$,al)
(y*'t(et$,al) and d$s&un,t$0e!
2(en as '+ten (a**ens) t(e ,'n,lus$'n $s a &ud-ement /($,( may
+'ll'/ +r'm 't(er -$0en &ud-ements) t(r'u-( /($,( a *er+e,tly
d$++erent 'b&e,t $s ,'-$tated) I endea0'ur t' d$s,'0er $n t(e
understand$n- /(et(er t(e assert$'n $n t($s ,'n,lus$'n d'es n't
stand under ,erta$n ,'nd$t$'ns a,,'rd$n- t' a -eneral rule! I+ I
+$nd su,( a ,'nd$t$'n) and $+ t(e 'b&e,t ment$'ned $n t(e ,'n,lus$'n
,an be subsumed under t(e -$0en ,'nd$t$'n) t(en t($s ,'n,lus$'n
+'ll'/s +r'm a rule /($,( $s als' 0al$d +'r 't(er 'b&e,ts '+
,'-n$t$'n! Fr'm t($s /e see t(at reas'n endea0'urs t' sub&e,t t(e
-reat 0ar$ety '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- t' t(e smallest
*'ss$ble number '+ *r$n,$*les =-eneral ,'nd$t$'ns>) and t(us t'
*r'du,e $n $t t(e ($-(est un$ty!

Can /e $s'late reas'n) and) $+ s') $s $t $n t($s ,ase a *e,ul$ar
s'ur,e '+ ,'n,e*t$'ns and &ud-ements /($,( s*r$n- +r'm $t al'ne) and
t(r'u-( /($,( $t ,an be a**l$ed t' 'b&e,ts4 'r $s $t merely a
sub'rd$nate +a,ulty) /('se duty $t $s t' -$0e a ,erta$n +'rm t'
-$0en ,'-n$t$'ns5 a +'rm /($,( $s ,alled l'-$,al) and t(r'u-( /($,(
t(e ,'-n$t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- are sub'rd$nated t' ea,( 't(er)
and l'/er rules t' ($-(er =t('se) t' /$t) /('se ,'nd$t$'n ,'m*r$ses $n
$ts s*(ere t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e 't(ers>) $n s' +ar as t($s ,an be d'ne
by ,'m*ar$s'n@ T($s $s t(e .uest$'n /($,( /e (a0e at *resent t'
ans/er! "an$+'ld 0ar$ety '+ rules and un$ty '+ *r$n,$*les $s a
re.u$rement '+ reas'n) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ br$n-$n- t(e understand$n-
$nt' ,'m*lete a,,'rdan,e /$t( $tsel+) &ust as understand$n- sub&e,ts
t(e man$+'ld ,'ntent '+ $ntu$t$'n t' ,'n,e*t$'ns) and t(ereby
$ntr'du,es ,'nne,t$'n $nt' $t! 3ut t($s *r$n,$*le *res,r$bes n' la/ t'
'b&e,ts) and d'es n't ,'nta$n any -r'und '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
,'-n$;$n- 'r '+ determ$n$n- t(em as su,() but $s merely a sub&e,t$0e
la/ +'r t(e *r'*er arran-ement '+ t(e ,'ntent '+ t(e understand$n-!
T(e *ur*'se '+ t($s la/ $s) by a ,'m*ar$s'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
t(e understand$n-) t' redu,e t(em t' t(e smallest *'ss$ble number)
alt('u-() at t(e same t$me) $t d'es n't &ust$+y us $n demand$n- +r'm
'b&e,ts t(emsel0es su,( a un$+'rm$ty as m$-(t ,'ntr$bute t' t(e
,'n0en$en,e and t(e enlar-ement '+ t(e s*(ere '+ t(e understand$n-) 'r
$n e1*e,t$n- t(at $t /$ll $tsel+ t(us re,e$0e +r'm t(em 'b&e,t$0e
0al$d$ty! In 'ne /'rd) t(e .uest$'n $s6 9d'es reas'n $n $tsel+) t(at
$s) d'es *ure reas'n ,'nta$n a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al *r$n,$*les and
rules) and /(at are t('se *r$n,$*les@9
T(e +'rmal and l'-$,al *r',edure '+ reas'n $n syll'-$sms -$0es us
su++$,$ent $n+'rmat$'n $n re-ard t' t(e -r'und 'n /($,( t(e
trans,endental *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n $n $ts *ure synt(et$,al ,'-n$t$'n
/$ll rest!
1! Reas'n) as 'bser0ed $n t(e syll'-$st$, *r',ess) $s n't a**l$,able
t' $ntu$t$'ns) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ sub&e,t$n- t(em t' rules5 +'r t($s
$s t(e *r'0$n,e '+ t(e understand$n- /$t( $ts ,ate-'r$es5 but t'
,'n,e*t$'ns and &ud-ements! I+ *ure reas'n d'es a**ly t' 'b&e,ts and
t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ t(em) $t d'es s' n't $mmed$ately) but med$ately5
t(r'u-( t(e understand$n- and $ts &ud-ements) /($,( (a0e a d$re,t
relat$'n t' t(e senses and t(e$r $ntu$t$'n) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+
determ$n$n- t(e$r 'b&e,ts! T(e un$ty '+ reas'n $s t(ere+'re n't t(e
un$ty '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) but $s essent$ally d$++erent +r'm t($s
un$ty) /($,( $s t(at '+ t(e understand$n-! T(at e0eryt($n- /($,(
(a**ens (as a ,ause) $s n't a *r$n,$*le ,'-n$;ed and *res,r$bed by
reas'n! T($s *r$n,$*le ma%es t(e un$ty '+ e1*er$en,e *'ss$ble and
b'rr'/s n't($n- +r'm reas'n) /($,() /$t('ut a re+eren,e t' *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e) ,'uld ne0er (a0e *r'du,ed by means '+ mere ,'n,e*t$'ns any
su,( synt(et$,al un$ty!
B! Reas'n) $n $ts l'-$,al use) endea0'urs t' d$s,'0er t(e -eneral
,'nd$t$'n '+ $ts &ud-ement =t(e ,'n,lus$'n>) and a syll'-$sm $s $tsel+
n't($n- but a &ud-ement by means '+ t(e subsum*t$'n '+ $ts ,'nd$t$'n
under a -eneral rule =t(e ma&'r>! N'/ as t($s rule may $tsel+ be
sub&e,ted t' t(e same *r',ess '+ reas'n) and t(us t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'n be s'u-(t =by means '+ a *r'syll'-$sm> as l'n- as t(e
*r',ess ,an be ,'nt$nued) $t $s 0ery man$+est t(at t(e *e,ul$ar
*r$n,$*le '+ reas'n $n $ts l'-$,al use $s t' +$nd +'r t(e
,'nd$t$'ned ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- t(e un,'nd$t$'ned /(ereby
t(e un$ty '+ t(e +'rmer $s ,'m*leted!
3ut t($s l'-$,al ma1$m ,ann't be a *r$n,$*le '+ *ure reas'n)
unless /e adm$t t(at) $+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $s -$0en) t(e /('le ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns sub'rd$nated t' 'ne an't(er5 a ser$es /($,( $s ,'nse.uently
$tsel+ un,'nd$t$'ned5 $s als' -$0en) t(at $s) ,'nta$ned $n t(e
'b&e,t and $ts ,'nne,t$'n!
3ut t($s *r$n,$*le '+ *ure reas'n $s e0$dently synt(et$,al4 +'r)
analyt$,ally) t(e ,'nd$t$'ned ,erta$nly relates t' s'me ,'nd$t$'n) but
n't t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned! Fr'm t($s *r$n,$*le als' t(ere must
'r$-$nate d$++erent synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns) '+ /($,( t(e *ure
understand$n- $s *er+e,tly $-n'rant) +'r $t (as t' d' 'nly /$t(
'b&e,ts '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t(e ,'-n$t$'n and synt(es$s '+ /($,(
$s al/ays ,'nd$t$'ned! T(e un,'nd$t$'ned) $+ $t d'es really e1$st)
must be es*e,$ally ,'ns$dered $n re-ard t' t(e determ$nat$'ns /($,(
d$st$n-u$s( $t +r'm /(ate0er $s ,'nd$t$'ned) and /$ll t(us a++'rd us
mater$al +'r many a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns!
T(e *r$n,$*les result$n- +r'm t($s ($-(est *r$n,$*le '+ *ure
reas'n /$ll) ('/e0er) be trans,endent $n relat$'n t' *(en'mena) t(at
$s t' say) $t /$ll be $m*'ss$ble t' ma%e any ade.uate em*$r$,al use '+
t($s *r$n,$*le! It $s t(ere+'re ,'m*letely d$++erent +r'm all
*r$n,$*les '+ t(e understand$n-) t(e use made '+ /($,( $s ent$rely
$mmanent) t(e$r 'b&e,t and *ur*'se be$n- merely t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
e1*er$en,e! N'/ 'ur duty $n t(e trans,endental d$ale,t$, $s as
+'ll'/s! T' d$s,'0er /(et(er t(e *r$n,$*le t(at t(e ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns =$n t(e synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena) 'r '+ t('u-(t $n -eneral>
e1tends t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned $s 'b&e,t$0ely true) 'r n't4 /(at
,'nse.uen,es result t(ere+r'm a++e,t$n- t(e em*$r$,al use '+ t(e
understand$n-) 'r rat(er /(et(er t(ere e1$sts any su,( 'b&e,t$0ely
0al$d *r'*'s$t$'n '+ reas'n) and /(et(er $t $s n't) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) a
merely l'-$,al *re,e*t /($,( d$re,ts us t' as,end *er*etually t' st$ll
($-(er ,'nd$t$'ns) t' a**r'a,( ,'m*leteness $n t(e ser$es '+ t(em) and
t(us t' $ntr'du,e $nt' 'ur ,'-n$t$'n t(e ($-(est *'ss$ble un$ty '+
reas'n! 2e must as,erta$n) I say) /(et(er t($s re.u$rement '+ reas'n
(as n't been re-arded) by a m$sunderstand$n-) as a trans,endental
*r$n,$*le '+ *ure reas'n) /($,( *'stulates a t('r'u-( ,'m*leteness
$n t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $n 'b&e,ts t(emsel0es! 2e must s('/)
m're'0er) t(e m$s,'n,e*t$'ns and $llus$'ns t(at $ntrude $nt'
syll'-$sms) t(e ma&'r *r'*'s$t$'n '+ /($,( *ure reas'n (as su**l$ed5 a
*r'*'s$t$'n /($,( (as *er(a*s m're '+ t(e ,(ara,ter '+ a *et$t$'
t(an '+ a *'stulatum5 and t(at *r',eed +r'm e1*er$en,e u*/ards t'
$ts ,'nd$t$'ns! T(e s'lut$'n '+ t(ese *r'blems $s 'ur tas% $n
trans,endental d$ale,t$,) /($,( /e are ab'ut t' e1*'se e0en at $ts
s'ur,e) t(at l$es dee* $n (uman reas'n! 2e s(all d$0$de $t $nt' t/'
*arts) t(e +$rst '+ /($,( /$ll treat '+ t(e trans,endent ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ *ure reas'n) t(e se,'nd '+ trans,endent and d$ale,t$,al syll'-$sms!


T(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ *ure reas'n5 /e d' n't (ere s*ea% '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(em5 are n't 'bta$ned by re+le,t$'n) but by
$n+eren,e 'r ,'n,lus$'n! T(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ understand$n- are als'
,'-$tated a *r$'r$ ante,edently t' e1*er$en,e) and render $t *'ss$ble4
but t(ey ,'nta$n n't($n- but t(e un$ty '+ re+le,t$'n u*'n *(en'mena)
$n s' +ar as t(ese must ne,essar$ly bel'n- t' a *'ss$ble em*$r$,al
,'ns,$'usness! T(r'u-( t(em al'ne are ,'-n$t$'n and t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ an 'b&e,t *'ss$ble! It $s +r'm t(em) a,,'rd$n-ly)
t(at /e re,e$0e mater$al +'r reas'n$n-) and ante,edently t' t(em /e
*'ssess n' a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts +r'm /($,( t(ey m$-(t be
dedu,ed) On t(e 't(er (and) t(e s'le bas$s '+ t(e$r 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty ,'ns$sts $n t(e ne,ess$ty $m*'sed 'n t(em) as ,'nta$n$n- t(e
$ntelle,tual +'rm '+ all e1*er$en,e) '+ restr$,t$n- t(e$r
a**l$,at$'n and $n+luen,e t' t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e!
3ut t(e term) ,'n,e*t$'n '+ reas'n) 'r rat$'nal ,'n,e*t$'n) $tsel+
$nd$,ates t(at $t d'es n't ,'n+$ne $tsel+ /$t($n t(e l$m$ts '+
e1*er$en,e) be,ause $ts 'b&e,t5matter $s a ,'-n$t$'n) '+ /($,( e0ery
em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n $s but a *art5 nay) t(e /('le '+ *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e may be $tsel+ but a *art '+ $t5 a ,'-n$t$'n t' /($,( n'
a,tual e1*er$en,e e0er +ully atta$ns) alt('u-( $t d'es al/ays
*erta$n t' $t! T(e a$m '+ rat$'nal ,'n,e*t$'ns $s t(e ,'m*re(ens$'n)
as t(at '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ understand$n- $s t(e understand$n- '+
*er,e*t$'ns! I+ t(ey ,'nta$n t(e un,'nd$t$'ned) t(ey relate t' t(at t'
/($,( all e1*er$en,e $s sub'rd$nate) but /($,( $s ne0er $tsel+ an
'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e5 t(at t'/ards /($,( reas'n tends $n all $ts
,'n,lus$'ns +r'm e1*er$en,e) and by t(e standard '+ /($,( $t est$mates
t(e de-ree '+ t(e$r em*$r$,al use) but /($,( $s ne0er $tsel+ an
element $n an em*$r$,al synt(es$s! I+) n't/$t(stand$n-) su,(
,'n,e*t$'ns *'ssess 'b&e,t$0e 0al$d$ty) t(ey may be ,alled ,'n,e*tus
rat$',$nat$ =,'n,e*t$'ns le-$t$mately ,'n,luded>4 $n ,ases /(ere
t(ey d' n't) t(ey (a0e been adm$tted 'n a,,'unt '+ (a0$n- t(e
a**earan,e '+ be$n- ,'rre,tly ,'n,luded) and may be ,alled ,'n,e*tus
rat$',$nantes =s'*($st$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns>! 3ut as t($s ,an 'nly be
su++$,$ently dem'nstrated $n t(at *art '+ 'ur treat$se /($,( relates
t' t(e d$ale,t$,al ,'n,lus$'ns '+ reas'n) /e s(all 'm$t any
,'ns$derat$'n '+ $t $n t($s *la,e! As /e ,alled t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ t(e understand$n- ,ate-'r$es) /e s(all als' d$st$n-u$s( t('se '+
*ure reas'n by a ne/ name and ,all t(em trans,endental $deas! T(ese
terms) ('/e0er) /e must $n t(e +$rst *la,e e1*la$n and &ust$+y!
SECTION I 5 O+ Ideas $n Ceneral!

#es*$te t(e -reat /ealt( '+ /'rds /($,( Eur'*ean lan-ua-es
*'ssess) t(e t($n%er +$nds ($msel+ '+ten at a l'ss +'r an e1*ress$'n
e1a,tly su$ted t' ($s ,'n,e*t$'n) +'r /ant '+ /($,( (e $s unable t'
ma%e ($msel+ $ntell$-$ble e$t(er t' 't(ers 'r t' ($msel+! T' ,'$n
ne/ /'rds $s a *retens$'n t' le-$slat$'n $n lan-ua-e /($,( $s seld'm
su,,ess+ul4 and) be+'re re,'urse $s ta%en t' s' des*erate an
e1*ed$ent) $t $s ad0$sable t' e1am$ne t(e dead and learned
lan-ua-es) /$t( t(e ('*e and t(e *r'bab$l$ty t(at /e may t(ere meet
/$t( s'me ade.uate e1*ress$'n '+ t(e n't$'n /e (a0e $n 'ur m$nds! In
t($s ,ase) e0en $+ t(e 'r$-$nal mean$n- '+ t(e /'rd (as be,'me
s'me/(at un,erta$n) +r'm ,arelessness 'r /ant '+ ,aut$'n 'n t(e *art
'+ t(e aut('rs '+ $t) $t $s al/ays better t' ad(ere t' and ,'n+$rm $ts
*r'*er mean$n-5 e0en alt('u-( $t may be d'ubt+ul /(et(er $t /as
+'rmerly used $n e1a,tly t($s sense5 t(an t' ma%e 'ur lab'ur 0a$n by
/ant '+ su++$,$ent ,are t' render 'ursel0es $ntell$-$ble!
F'r t($s reas'n) /(en $t (a**ens t(at t(ere e1$sts 'nly a s$n-le
/'rd t' e1*ress a ,erta$n ,'n,e*t$'n) and t($s /'rd) $n $ts usual
a,,e*tat$'n) $s t('r'u-(ly ade.uate t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) t(e a,,urate
d$st$n,t$'n '+ /($,( +r'm related ,'n,e*t$'ns $s '+ -reat
$m*'rtan,e) /e 'u-(t n't t' em*l'y t(e e1*ress$'n $m*r'0$dently) 'r)
+'r t(e sa%e '+ 0ar$ety and ele-an,e '+ style) use $t as a syn'nym +'r
't(er ,'-nate /'rds! It $s 'ur duty) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) ,are+ully t'
*reser0e $ts *e,ul$ar s$-n$+$,at$'n) as 't(er/$se $t eas$ly (a**ens
t(at /(en t(e attent$'n '+ t(e reader $s n' l'n-er *art$,ularly
attra,ted t' t(e e1*ress$'n) and $t $s l'st am$d t(e mult$tude '+
't(er /'rds '+ 0ery d$++erent $m*'rt) t(e t('u-(t /($,( $t ,'n0eyed)
and /($,( $t al'ne ,'n0eyed) $s l'st /$t( $t!
Plat' em*l'yed t(e e1*ress$'n $dea $n a /ay t(at *la$nly s('/ed (e
meant by $t s'met($n- /($,( $s ne0er der$0ed +r'm t(e senses) but
/($,( +ar trans,ends e0en t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- =/$t(
/($,( Ar$st'tle ',,u*$ed ($msel+>) $nasmu,( as $n e1*er$en,e n't($n-
*er+e,tly ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(em ,'uld be +'und! Ideas are) a,,'rd$n-
t' ($m) ar,(ety*es '+ t($n-s t(emsel0es) and n't merely %eys t'
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,es) l$%e t(e ,ate-'r$es! In ($s 0$e/ t(ey +l'/
+r'm t(e ($-(est reas'n) by /($,( t(ey (a0e been $m*arted t' (uman
reas'n) /($,() ('/e0er) e1$sts n' l'n-er $n $ts 'r$-$nal state) but $s
'bl$-ed /$t( -reat lab'ur t' re,all by rem$n$s,en,e5 /($,( $s ,alled
*($l's'*(y5 t(e 'ld but n'/ sadly 'bs,ured $deas! I /$ll n't (ere
enter u*'n any l$terary $n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e sense /($,( t($s
subl$me *($l's'*(er atta,(ed t' t($s e1*ress$'n! I s(all ,'ntent
mysel+ /$t( remar%$n- t(at $t $s n't($n- unusual) $n ,'mm'n
,'n0ersat$'n as /ell as $n /r$tten /'r%s) by ,'m*ar$n- t(e t('u-(ts
/($,( an aut('r (as del$0ered u*'n a sub&e,t) t' understand ($m better
t(an (e underst''d ($msel+ $nasmu,( as (e may n't (a0e su++$,$ently
determ$ned ($s ,'n,e*t$'n) and t(us (a0e s'met$mes s*'%en) nay e0en
t('u-(t) $n '**'s$t$'n t' ($s '/n '*$n$'ns!
Plat' *er,e$0ed 0ery ,learly t(at 'ur +a,ulty '+ ,'-n$t$'n (as t(e
+eel$n- '+ a mu,( ($-(er 0',at$'n t(an t(at '+ merely s*ell$n- 'ut
*(en'mena a,,'rd$n- t' synt(et$,al un$ty) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ be$n-
able t' read t(em as e1*er$en,e) and t(at 'ur reas'n naturally
ra$ses $tsel+ t' ,'-n$t$'ns +ar t'' ele0ated t' adm$t '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ an 'b&e,t -$0en by e1*er$en,e ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(em5
,'-n$t$'ns /($,( are ne0ert(eless real) and are n't mere *(ant'ms '+
t(e bra$n!
T($s *($l's'*(er +'und ($s $deas es*e,$ally $n all t(at $s
*ra,t$,al)7 t(at $s) /($,( rests u*'n +reed'm) /($,( $n $ts turn ran%s
under ,'-n$t$'ns t(at are t(e *e,ul$ar *r'du,t '+ reas'n! He /(' /'uld
der$0e +r'm e1*er$en,e t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ 0$rtue) /(' /'uld ma%e =as
many (a0e really d'ne> t(at) /($,( at best ,an but ser0e as an
$m*er+e,tly $llustrat$0e e1am*le) a m'del +'r 'r t(e +'rmat$'n '+ a
*er+e,tly ade.uate $dea 'n t(e sub&e,t) /'uld $n +a,t trans+'rm 0$rtue
$nt' a n'nent$ty ,(an-eable a,,'rd$n- t' t$me and ,$r,umstan,e and
utterly $n,a*able '+ be$n- em*l'yed as a rule! On t(e ,'ntrary)
e0ery 'ne $s ,'ns,$'us t(at) /(en any 'ne $s (eld u* t' ($m as a m'del
'+ 0$rtue) (e ,'m*ares t($s s'5,alled m'del /$t( t(e true 'r$-$nal
/($,( (e *'ssesses $n ($s '/n m$nd and 0alues ($m a,,'rd$n- t' t($s
standard! 3ut t($s standard $s t(e $dea '+ 0$rtue) $n relat$'n t'
/($,( all *'ss$ble 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e are $ndeed ser0$,eable as
e1am*les5 *r''+s '+ t(e *ra,t$,ab$l$ty $n a ,erta$n de-ree '+ t(at
/($,( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ 0$rtue demands5 but ,erta$nly n't as
ar,(ety*es! T(at t(e a,t$'ns '+ man /$ll ne0er be $n *er+e,t
a,,'rdan,e /$t( all t(e re.u$rements '+ t(e *ure $deas '+ reas'n) d'es
n't *r'0e t(e t('u-(t t' be ,($mer$,al! F'r 'nly t(r'u-( t($s $dea are
all &ud-ements as t' m'ral mer$t 'r demer$t *'ss$ble4 $t
,'nse.uently l$es at t(e +'undat$'n '+ e0ery a**r'a,( t' m'ral
*er+e,t$'n) ('/e0er +ar rem'0ed +r'm $t t(e 'bsta,les $n (uman nature5
$ndeterm$nable as t' de-ree5 may %ee* us!
7He ,erta$nly e1tended t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ ($s ,'n,e*t$'n t'
s*e,ulat$0e ,'-n$t$'ns als') *r'0$ded t(ey /ere -$0en *ure and
,'m*letely a *r$'r$) nay) e0en t' mat(emat$,s) alt('u-( t($s s,$en,e
,ann't *'ssess an 'b&e,t 't(er/(ere t(an $n P'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! I
,ann't +'ll'/ ($m $n t($s) and as l$ttle ,an I +'ll'/ ($m $n ($s
myst$,al dedu,t$'n '+ t(ese $deas) 'r $n ($s (y*'stat$;at$'n '+
t(em4 alt('u-() $n trut() t(e ele0ated and e1a--erated lan-ua-e
/($,( (e em*l'yed $n des,r$b$n- t(em $s .u$te ,a*able '+ an
$nter*retat$'n m're subdued and m're $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( +a,t and t(e
nature '+ t($n-s!
T(e Plat'n$, Re*ubl$, (as be,'me *r'0erb$al as an e1am*le5 and a
str$%$n- 'ne5 '+ $ma-$nary *er+e,t$'n) su,( as ,an e1$st 'nly $n t(e
bra$n '+ t(e $dle t($n%er4 and 3ru,%er r$d$,ules t(e *($l's'*(er +'r
ma$nta$n$n- t(at a *r$n,e ,an ne0er -'0ern /ell) unless (e $s
*art$,$*ant $n t(e $deas! 3ut /e s('uld d' better t' +'ll'/ u* t($s
t('u-(t and) /(ere t($s adm$rable t($n%er lea0es us /$t('ut
ass$stan,e) em*l'y ne/ e++'rts t' *la,e $t $n ,learer l$-(t) rat(er
t(an ,arelessly +l$n- $t as$de as useless) under t(e 0ery m$serable
and *ern$,$'us *rete1t '+ $m*ra,t$,ab$l$ty! A ,'nst$tut$'n '+ t(e
-reatest *'ss$ble (uman +reed'm a,,'rd$n- t' la/s) by /($,( t(e
l$berty '+ e0ery $nd$0$dual ,an ,'ns$st /$t( t(e l$berty '+ e0ery
't(er =n't '+ t(e -reatest *'ss$ble (a**$ness) +'r t($s +'ll'/s
ne,essar$ly +r'm t(e +'rmer>) $s) t' say t(e least) a ne,essary
$dea) /($,( must be *la,ed at t(e +'undat$'n n't 'nly '+ t(e +$rst
*lan '+ t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ a state) but '+ all $ts la/s! And) $n
t($s) $t n't ne,essary at t(e 'utset t' ta%e a,,'unt '+ t(e
'bsta,les /($,( l$e $n 'ur /ay5 'bsta,les /($,( *er(a*s d' n't
ne,essar$ly ar$se +r'm t(e ,(ara,ter '+ (uman nature) but rat(er
+r'm t(e *re0$'us ne-le,t '+ true $deas $n le-$slat$'n! F'r t(ere $s
n't($n- m're *ern$,$'us and m're un/'rt(y '+ a *($l's'*(er) t(an t(e
0ul-ar a**eal t' a s'5,alled ad0erse e1*er$en,e) /($,( $ndeed /'uld
n't (a0e e1$sted) $+ t('se $nst$tut$'ns (ad been establ$s(ed at t(e
*r'*er t$me and $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( $deas4 /($le) $nstead '+ t($s)
,'n,e*t$'ns) ,rude +'r t(e 0ery reas'n t(at t(ey (a0e been dra/n
+r'm e1*er$en,e) (a0e marred and +rustrated all 'ur better 0$e/s and
$ntent$'ns! T(e m're le-$slat$'n and -'0ernment are $n (arm'ny /$t(
t($s $dea) t(e m're rare d' *un$s(ments be,'me and t(us $t $s .u$te
reas'nable t' ma$nta$n) as Plat' d$d) t(at $n a *er+e,t state n'
*un$s(ments at all /'uld be ne,essary! N'/ alt('u-( a *er+e,t state
may ne0er e1$st) t(e $dea $s n't 'n t(at a,,'unt t(e less &ust)
/($,( ('lds u* t($s ma1$mum as t(e ar,(ety*e 'r standard '+ a
,'nst$tut$'n) $n 'rder t' br$n- le-$slat$0e -'0ernment al/ays nearer
and nearer t' t(e -reatest *'ss$ble *er+e,t$'n! F'r at /(at *re,$se
de-ree (uman nature must st'* $n $ts *r'-ress) and ('/ /$de must be
t(e ,(asm /($,( must ne,essar$ly e1$st bet/een t(e $dea and $ts
real$;at$'n) are *r'blems /($,( n' 'ne ,an 'r 'u-(t t' determ$ne5
and +'r t($s reas'n) t(at $t $s t(e dest$nat$'n '+ +reed'm t' '0erste*
all ass$-ned l$m$ts bet/een $tsel+ and t(e $dea!
3ut n't 'nly $n t(at /(ere$n (uman reas'n $s a real ,ausal a-ent and
/(ere $deas are '*erat$0e ,auses ='+ a,t$'ns and t(e$r 'b&e,ts>)
t(at $s t' say) $n t(e re-$'n '+ et($,s) but als' $n re-ard t'
nature (ersel+) Plat' sa/ ,lear *r''+s '+ an 'r$-$n +r'm $deas! A
*lant) and an$mal) t(e re-ular 'rder '+ nature5 *r'bably als' t(e
d$s*'s$t$'n '+ t(e /('le un$0erse5 -$0e man$+est e0$den,e t(at t(ey
are *'ss$ble 'nly by means '+ and a,,'rd$n- t' $deas4 t(at) $ndeed) n'
'ne ,reature) under t(e $nd$0$dual ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ts e1$sten,e)
*er+e,tly (arm'n$;es /$t( t(e $dea '+ t(e m'st *er+e,t '+ $ts %$nd5
&ust as l$ttle as man /$t( t(e $dea '+ (uman$ty) /($,( ne0ert(eless (e
bears $n ($s s'ul as t(e ar,(ety*al standard '+ ($s a,t$'ns4 t(at)
n't/$t(stand$n-) t(ese $deas are $n t(e ($-(est sense $nd$0$dually)
un,(an-eably) and ,'m*letely determ$ned) and are t(e 'r$-$nal ,auses
'+ t($n-s4 and t(at t(e t'tal$ty '+ ,'nne,ted 'b&e,ts $n t(e
un$0erse $s al'ne +ully ade.uate t' t(at $dea! Sett$n- as$de t(e
e1a--erat$'ns '+ e1*ress$'n $n t(e /r$t$n-s '+ t($s *($l's'*(er) t(e
mental *'/er e1($b$ted $n t($s as,ent +r'm t(e e,ty*al m'de '+
re-ard$n- t(e *(ys$,al /'rld t' t(e ar,($te,t'n$, ,'nne,t$'n t(ere'+
a,,'rd$n- t' ends) t(at $s) $deas) $s an e++'rt /($,( deser0es
$m$tat$'n and ,la$ms res*e,t! 3ut as re-ards t(e *r$n,$*les '+ et($,s)
'+ le-$slat$'n) and '+ rel$-$'n) s*(eres $n /($,( $deas al'ne render
e1*er$en,e *'ss$ble) alt('u-( t(ey ne0er atta$n t' +ull e1*ress$'n
t(ere$n) (e (as 0$nd$,ated +'r ($msel+ a *'s$t$'n '+ *e,ul$ar mer$t)
/($,( $s n't a**re,$ated 'nly be,ause $t $s &ud-ed by t(e 0ery
em*$r$,al rules) t(e 0al$d$ty '+ /($,( as *r$n,$*les $s destr'yed by
$deas! F'r as re-ards nature) e1*er$en,e *resents us /$t( rules and $s
t(e s'ur,e '+ trut() but $n relat$'n t' et($,al la/s e1*er$en,e $s t(e
*arent '+ $llus$'n) and $t $s $n t(e ($-(est de-ree re*re(ens$ble t'
l$m$t 'r t' dedu,e t(e la/s /($,( d$,tate /(at I 'u-(t t' d') +r'm
/(at $s d'ne!
2e must) ('/e0er) 'm$t t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(ese $m*'rtant
sub&e,ts) t(e de0el'*ment '+ /($,( $s $n real$ty t(e *e,ul$ar duty and
d$-n$ty '+ *($l's'*(y) and ,'n+$ne 'ursel0es +'r t(e *resent t' t(e
m're (umble but n't less use+ul tas% '+ *re*ar$n- a +$rm +'undat$'n
+'r t('se ma&est$, ed$+$,es '+ m'ral s,$en,e! F'r t($s +'undat$'n
(as been ($t(ert' $nse,ure +r'm t(e many subterranean *assa-es /($,(
reas'n $n $ts ,'n+$dent but 0a$n sear,( +'r treasures (as made $n
all d$re,t$'ns! Our *resent duty $s t' ma%e 'ursel0es *er+e,tly
a,.ua$nted /$t( t(e trans,endental use made '+ *ure reas'n) $ts
*r$n,$*les and $deas) t(at /e may be able *r'*erly t' determ$ne and
0alue $ts $n+luen,e and real /'rt(! 3ut be+'re br$n-$n- t(ese
$ntr'du,t'ry remar%s t' a ,l'se) I be- t('se /(' really (a0e
*($l's'*(y at (eart5 and t(e$r number $s but small5 $+ t(ey s(all +$nd
t(emsel0es ,'n0$n,ed by t(e ,'ns$derat$'ns +'ll'/$n- as /ell as by
t('se ab'0e) t' e1ert t(emsel0es t' *reser0e t' t(e e1*ress$'n $dea
$ts 'r$-$nal s$-n$+$,at$'n) and t' ta%e ,are t(at $t be n't l'st am'n-
t('se 't(er e1*ress$'ns by /($,( all s'rts '+ re*resentat$'ns are
l''sely des$-nated5 t(at t(e $nterests '+ s,$en,e may n't t(ereby
su++er! 2e are $n n' /ant '+ /'rds t' den'm$nate ade.uately e0ery m'de
'+ re*resentat$'n) /$t('ut t(e ne,ess$ty '+ en,r'a,($n- u*'n terms
/($,( are *r'*er t' 't(ers! T(e +'ll'/$n- $s a -raduated l$st '+ t(em!
T(e -enus $s re*resentat$'n $n -eneral =re*resentat$'n! Under $t
stands re*resentat$'n /$t( ,'ns,$'usness =*er,e*t$'>! A *er,e*t$'n
/($,( relates s'lely t' t(e sub&e,t as a m'd$+$,at$'n '+ $ts state) $s
a sensat$'n =sensat$'>) an 'b&e,t$0e *er,e*t$'n $s a ,'-n$t$'n
=,'-n$t$'>! A ,'-n$t$'n $s e$t(er an $ntu$t$'n 'r a ,'n,e*t$'n
=$ntu$tus 0el ,'n,e*tus>! T(e +'rmer (as an $mmed$ate relat$'n t'
t(e 'b&e,t and $s s$n-ular and $nd$0$dual4 t(e latter (as but a
med$ate relat$'n) by means '+ a ,(ara,ter$st$, mar% /($,( may be
,'mm'n t' se0eral t($n-s! A ,'n,e*t$'n $s e$t(er em*$r$,al 'r *ure!
A *ure ,'n,e*t$'n) $n s' +ar as $t (as $ts 'r$-$n $n t(e understand$n-
al'ne) and $s n't t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a *ure sensu'us $ma-e) $s ,alled
n't$'! A ,'n,e*t$'n +'rmed +r'm n't$'ns) /($,( trans,ends t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) $s an $dea) 'r a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ reas'n! T'
'ne /(' (as a,,ust'med ($msel+ t' t(ese d$st$n,t$'ns) $t must be .u$te
$nt'lerable t' (ear t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e ,'l'ur red ,alled an
$dea! It 'u-(t n't e0en t' be ,alled a n't$'n 'r ,'n,e*t$'n '+
SECTION II! O+ Trans,endental Ideas!

Trans,endental analyt$, s('/ed us ('/ t(e mere l'-$,al +'rm '+ 'ur
,'-n$t$'n ,an ,'nta$n t(e 'r$-$n '+ *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns a *r$'r$)
,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( re*resent 'b&e,ts ante,edently t' all e1*er$en,e) 'r
rat(er) $nd$,ate t(e synt(et$,al un$ty /($,( al'ne renders *'ss$ble an
em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'b&e,ts! T(e +'rm '+ &ud-ements5 ,'n0erted $nt'
a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ $ntu$t$'ns5 *r'du,ed t(e ,ate-'r$es
/($,( d$re,t t(e em*l'yment '+ t(e understand$n- $n e1*er$en,e! T($s
,'ns$derat$'n /arrants us t' e1*e,t t(at t(e +'rm '+ syll'-$sms)
/(en a**l$ed t' synt(et$,al un$ty '+ $ntu$t$'ns) +'ll'/$n- t(e rule '+
t(e ,ate-'r$es) /$ll ,'nta$n t(e 'r$-$n '+ *art$,ular a *r$'r$
,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( /e may ,all *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n 'r
trans,endental $deas) and /($,( /$ll determ$ne t(e use '+ t(e
understand$n- $n t(e t'tal$ty '+ e1*er$en,e a,,'rd$n- t' *r$n,$*les!
T(e +un,t$'n '+ reas'n $n ar-uments ,'ns$sts $n t(e un$0ersal$ty
'+ a ,'-n$t$'n a,,'rd$n- t' ,'n,e*t$'ns) and t(e syll'-$sm $tsel+ $s a
&ud-ement /($,( $s determ$ned a *r$'r$ $n t(e /('le e1tent '+ $ts
,'nd$t$'n! T(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9Ca$us $s m'rtal)9 $s 'ne /($,( may be
'bta$ned +r'm e1*er$en,e by t(e a$d '+ t(e understand$n- al'ne4 but my
/$s( $s t' +$nd a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e ,'nd$t$'n under
/($,( t(e *red$,ate '+ t($s &ud-ement $s -$0en5 $n t($s ,ase) t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ man5 and a+ter subsum$n- under t($s ,'nd$t$'n) ta%en
$n $ts /('le e1tent =all men are m'rtal>) I determ$ne a,,'rd$n- t'
$t t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t t('u-(t) and say6 9Ca$us $s m'rtal!9
Hen,e) $n t(e ,'n,lus$'n '+ a syll'-$sm /e restr$,t a *red$,ate t' a
,erta$n 'b&e,t) a+ter (a0$n- t('u-(t $t $n t(e ma&'r $n $ts /('le
e1tent under a ,erta$n ,'nd$t$'n! T($s ,'m*lete .uant$ty '+ t(e e1tent
$n relat$'n t' su,( a ,'nd$t$'n $s ,alled un$0ersal$ty
=un$0ersal$tas>! T' t($s ,'rres*'nds t'tal$ty =un$0ers$tas> '+
,'nd$t$'ns $n t(e synt(es$s '+ $ntu$t$'ns! T(e trans,endental
,'n,e*t$'n '+ reas'n $s t(ere+'re n't($n- else t(an t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ t(e t'tal$ty '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned! N'/ as t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned al'ne renders *'ss$ble t'tal$ty '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) and)
,'n0ersely) t(e t'tal$ty '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $s $tsel+ al/ays un,'nd$t$'ned4
a *ure rat$'nal ,'n,e*t$'n $n -eneral ,an be de+$ned and e1*la$ned
by means '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e un,'nd$t$'ned) $n s' +ar as $t
,'nta$ns a bas$s +'r t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned!
T' t(e number '+ m'des '+ relat$'n /($,( t(e understand$n- ,'-$tates
by means '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) t(e number '+ *ure rat$'nal ,'n,e*t$'ns
/$ll ,'rres*'nd! 2e must t(ere+'re see% +'r) +$rst) an un,'nd$t$'ned
'+ t(e ,ate-'r$,al synt(es$s $n a sub&e,t4 se,'ndly) '+ t(e
(y*'t(et$,al synt(es$s '+ t(e members '+ a ser$es4 t($rdly) '+ t(e
d$s&un,t$0e synt(es$s '+ *arts $n a system!
T(ere are e1a,tly t(e same number '+ m'des '+ syll'-$sms) ea,( '+
/($,( *r',eeds t(r'u-( *r'syll'-$sms t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned5 'ne t'
t(e sub&e,t /($,( ,ann't be em*l'yed as *red$,ate) an't(er t' t(e
*resu**'s$t$'n /($,( su**'ses n't($n- ($-(er t(an $tsel+) and t(e
t($rd t' an a--re-ate '+ t(e members '+ t(e ,'m*lete d$0$s$'n '+ a
,'n,e*t$'n! Hen,e t(e *ure rat$'nal ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t'tal$ty $n t(e
synt(es$s '+ ,'nd$t$'ns (a0e a ne,essary +'undat$'n $n t(e nature '+
(uman reas'n5 at least as m'des '+ ele0at$n- t(e un$ty '+ t(e
understand$n- t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned! T(ey may (a0e n' 0al$d
a**l$,at$'n) ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e$r trans,endental em*l'yment) $n
,'n,ret') and be t(us '+ n' -reater ut$l$ty t(an t' d$re,t t(e
understand$n- ('/) /($le e1tend$n- t(em as /$dely as *'ss$ble) t'
ma$nta$n $ts e1er,$se and a**l$,at$'n $n *er+e,t ,'ns$sten,e and
3ut) /($le s*ea%$n- (ere '+ t(e t'tal$ty '+ ,'nd$t$'ns and '+ t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned as t(e ,'mm'n t$tle '+ all ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n) /e
a-a$n l$-(t u*'n an e1*ress$'n /($,( /e +$nd $t $m*'ss$ble t' d$s*ense
/$t() and /($,( ne0ert(eless) '/$n- t' t(e amb$-u$ty atta,($n- t' $t
+r'm l'n- abuse) /e ,ann't em*l'y /$t( sa+ety! T(e /'rd abs'lute $s
'ne '+ t(e +e/ /'rds /($,() $n $ts 'r$-$nal s$-n$+$,at$'n) /as
*er+e,tly ade.uate t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $t /as $ntended t' ,'n0ey5 a
,'n,e*t$'n /($,( n' 't(er /'rd $n t(e same lan-ua-e e1a,tly su$ts) and
t(e l'ss5 'r) /($,( $s t(e same t($n-) t(e $n,aut$'us and l''se
em*l'yment5 '+ /($,( must be +'ll'/ed by t(e l'ss '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
$tsel+! And) as $t $s a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ',,u*$es mu,( '+ t(e
attent$'n '+ reas'n) $ts l'ss /'uld be -reatly t' t(e detr$ment '+ all
trans,endental *($l's'*(y! T(e /'rd abs'lute $s at *resent
+re.uently used t' den'te t(at s'met($n- ,an be *red$,ated '+ a
t($n- ,'ns$dered $n $tsel+ and $ntr$ns$,ally! In t($s sense abs'lutely
*'ss$ble /'uld s$-n$+y t(at /($,( $s *'ss$ble $n $tsel+ =$nterne>5
/($,( $s) $n +a,t) t(e least t(at 'ne ,an *red$,ate '+ an 'b&e,t! On
t(e 't(er (and) $t $s s'met$mes em*l'yed t' $nd$,ate t(at a t($n- $s
0al$d $n all res*e,ts5 +'r e1am*le) abs'lute s'0ere$-nty! Abs'lutely
*'ss$ble /'uld $n t($s sense s$-n$+y t(at /($,( $s *'ss$ble $n all
relat$'ns and $n e0ery res*e,t4 and t($s $s t(e m'st t(at ,an be
*red$,ated '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a t($n-! N'/ t(ese s$-n$+$,at$'ns
d' $n trut( +re.uently ,'$n,$de! T(us) +'r e1am*le) t(at /($,( $s
$ntr$ns$,ally $m*'ss$ble) $s als' $m*'ss$ble $n all relat$'ns) t(at
$s) abs'lutely $m*'ss$ble! 3ut $n m'st ,ases t(ey d$++er +r'm ea,(
't(er t't' ,ael') and I ,an by n' means ,'n,lude t(at) be,ause a t($n-
$s $n $tsel+ *'ss$ble) $t $s als' *'ss$ble $n all relat$'ns) and
t(ere+'re abs'lutely! Nay) m're) I s(all $n t(e se.uel s('/ t(at
abs'lute ne,ess$ty d'es n't by any means de*end 'n $nternal ne,ess$ty)
and t(at) t(ere+'re) $t must n't be ,'ns$dered as syn'nym'us /$t(
$t! O+ an '**'s$te /($,( $s $ntr$ns$,ally $m*'ss$ble) /e may a++$rm
t(at $t $s $n all res*e,ts $m*'ss$ble) and t(at) ,'nse.uently) t(e
t($n- $tsel+) '+ /($,( t($s $s t(e '**'s$te) $s abs'lutely
ne,essary4 but I ,ann't reas'n ,'n0ersely and say) t(e '**'s$te '+
t(at /($,( $s abs'lutely ne,essary $s $ntr$ns$,ally $m*'ss$ble) t(at
$s) t(at t(e abs'lute ne,ess$ty '+ t($n-s $s an $nternal ne,ess$ty!
F'r t($s $nternal ne,ess$ty $s $n ,erta$n ,ases a mere em*ty /'rd /$t(
/($,( t(e least ,'n,e*t$'n ,ann't be ,'nne,ted) /($le t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ t(e ne,ess$ty '+ a t($n- $n all relat$'ns *'ssesses 0ery *e,ul$ar
determ$nat$'ns! N'/ as t(e l'ss '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ -reat ut$l$ty $n
s*e,ulat$0e s,$en,e ,ann't be a matter '+ $nd$++eren,e t' t(e
*($l's'*(er) I trust t(at t(e *r'*er determ$nat$'n and ,are+ul
*reser0at$'n '+ t(e e1*ress$'n 'n /($,( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n de*ends /$ll
l$%e/$se be n't $nd$++erent t' ($m!
In t($s enlar-ed s$-n$+$,at$'n) t(en) s(all I em*l'y t(e /'rd
abs'lute) $n '**'s$t$'n t' t(at /($,( $s 0al$d 'nly $n s'me *art$,ular
res*e,t4 +'r t(e latter $s restr$,ted by ,'nd$t$'ns) t(e +'rmer $s
0al$d /$t('ut any restr$,t$'n /(ate0er!
N'/ t(e trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'n '+ reas'n (as +'r $ts 'b&e,t
n't($n- else t(an abs'lute t'tal$ty $n t(e synt(es$s '+ ,'nd$t$'ns and
d'es n't rest sat$s+$ed t$ll $t (as atta$ned t' t(e abs'lutely) t(at
$s) $n all res*e,ts and relat$'ns) un,'nd$t$'ned! F'r *ure reas'n
lea0es t' t(e understand$n- e0eryt($n- t(at $mmed$ately relates t' t(e
'b&e,t '+ $ntu$t$'n 'r rat(er t' t(e$r synt(es$s $n $ma-$nat$'n! T(e
+'rmer restr$,ts $tsel+ t' t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty $n t(e em*l'yment
'+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- and a$ms at ,arry$n- 'ut t(e
synt(et$,al un$ty /($,( $s ,'-$tated $n t(e ,ate-'ry) e0en t' t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned! T($s un$ty may (en,e be ,alled t(e rat$'nal un$ty '+
*(en'mena) as t(e 't(er) /($,( t(e ,ate-'ry e1*resses) may be termed
t(e un$ty '+ t(e understand$n-! Reas'n) t(ere+'re) (as an $mmed$ate
relat$'n t' t(e use '+ t(e understand$n-) n't $ndeed $n s' +ar as
t(e latter ,'nta$ns t(e -r'und '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e =+'r t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $s n't a
,'n,e*t$'n t(at ,an be em*l'yed $n e1*er$en,e) be,ause n' e1*er$en,e
$s un,'nd$t$'ned>) but s'lely +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ d$re,t$n- $t t' a
,erta$n un$ty) '+ /($,( t(e understand$n- (as n' ,'n,e*t$'n) and t(e
a$m '+ /($,( $s t' ,'lle,t $nt' an abs'lute /('le all a,ts '+ t(e
understand$n-! Hen,e t(e 'b&e,t$0e em*l'yment '+ t(e *ure
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n $s al/ays trans,endent) /($le t(at '+ t(e *ure
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- must) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e$r nature) be
al/ays $mmanent) $nasmu,( as t(ey are l$m$ted t' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e!
I understand by $dea a ne,essary ,'n,e*t$'n '+ reas'n) t' /($,( n'
,'rres*'nd$n- 'b&e,t ,an be d$s,'0ered $n t(e /'rld '+ sense!
A,,'rd$n-ly) t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n at *resent under
,'ns$derat$'n are trans,endental $deas! T(ey are ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ *ure
reas'n) +'r t(ey re-ard all em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n as determ$ned by means
'+ an abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ ,'nd$t$'ns! T(ey are n't mere +$,t$'ns) but
natural and ne,essary *r'du,ts '+ reas'n) and (a0e (en,e a ne,essary
relat$'n t' t(e /('le s*(ere '+ t(e e1er,$se '+ t(e understand$n-!
And) +$nally) t(ey are trans,endent) and '0erste* t(e l$m$ts '+ all
e1*er$en,es) $n /($,() ,'nse.uently) n' 'b&e,t ,an e0er be *resented
t(at /'uld be *er+e,tly ade.uate t' a trans,endental $dea! 2(en /e use
t(e /'rd $dea) /e say) as re-ards $ts 'b&e,t =an 'b&e,t '+ t(e *ure
understand$n->) a -reat deal) but as re-ards $ts sub&e,t =t(at $s)
$n res*e,t '+ $ts real$ty under ,'nd$t$'ns '+ e1*er$en,e>) e1,eed$n-ly
l$ttle) be,ause t(e $dea) as t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ma1$mum) ,an ne0er be
,'m*letely and ade.uately *resented $n ,'n,ret'! N'/) as $n t(e merely
s*e,ulat$0e em*l'yment '+ reas'n t(e latter $s *r'*erly t(e s'le
a$m) and as $n t($s ,ase t(e a**r'1$mat$'n t' a ,'n,e*t$'n) /($,( $s
ne0er atta$ned $n *ra,t$,e) $s t(e same t($n- as $+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
/ere n'n5e1$stent5 $t $s ,'mm'nly sa$d '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t($s %$nd)
9$t $s 'nly an $dea!9 S' /e m$-(t 0ery /ell say) 9t(e abs'lute
t'tal$ty '+ all *(en'mena $s 'nly an $dea)9 +'r) as /e ne0er ,an
*resent an ade.uate re*resentat$'n '+ $t) $t rema$ns +'r us a
*r'blem $n,a*able '+ s'lut$'n! On t(e 't(er (and) as $n t(e
*ra,t$,al use '+ t(e understand$n- /e (a0e 'nly t' d' /$t( a,t$'n
and *ra,t$,e a,,'rd$n- t' rules) an $dea '+ *ure reas'n ,an al/ays
be -$0en really $n ,'n,ret') alt('u-( 'nly *art$ally) nay) $t $s t(e
$nd$s*ensable ,'nd$t$'n '+ all *ra,t$,al em*l'yment '+ reas'n! T(e
*ra,t$,e 'r e1e,ut$'n '+ t(e $dea $s al/ays l$m$ted and de+e,t$0e) but
ne0ert(eless /$t($n $ndeterm$nable b'undar$es) ,'nse.uently al/ays
under t(e $n+luen,e '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an abs'lute *er+e,t$'n! And
t(us t(e *ra,t$,al $dea $s al/ays $n t(e ($-(est de-ree +ru$t+ul)
and $n relat$'n t' real a,t$'ns $nd$s*ensably ne,essary! In t(e
$dea) *ure reas'n *'ssesses e0en ,ausal$ty and t(e *'/er '+
*r'du,$n- t(at /($,( $ts ,'n,e*t$'n ,'nta$ns! Hen,e /e ,ann't say '+
/$sd'm) $n a d$s*ara-$n- /ay) 9$t $s 'nly an $dea!9 F'r) +'r t(e
0ery reas'n t(at $t $s t(e $dea '+ t(e ne,essary un$ty '+ all *'ss$ble
a$ms) $t must be +'r all *ra,t$,al e1ert$'ns and endea0'urs t(e
*r$m$t$0e ,'nd$t$'n and rule5 a rule /($,() $+ n't ,'nst$tut$0e) $s at
least l$m$tat$0e!
N'/) alt('u-( /e must say '+ t(e trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'ns '+
reas'n) 9t(ey are 'nly $deas)9 /e must n't) 'n t($s a,,'unt) l''% u*'n
t(em as su*er+lu'us and nu-at'ry! F'r) alt('u-( n' 'b&e,t ,an be
determ$ned by t(em) t(ey ,an be '+ -reat ut$l$ty) un'bser0ed and at
t(e bas$s '+ t(e ed$+$,e '+ t(e understand$n-) as t(e ,an'n +'r $ts
e1tended and sel+5,'ns$stent e1er,$se5 a ,an'n /($,() $ndeed) d'es n't
enable $t t' ,'-n$;e m're $n an 'b&e,t t(an $t /'uld ,'-n$;e by t(e
(el* '+ $ts '/n ,'n,e*t$'ns) but /($,( -u$des $t m're se,urely $n
$ts ,'-n$t$'n! N't t' ment$'n t(at t(ey *er(a*s render *'ss$ble a
trans$t$'n +r'm 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ nature and t(e n'n5e-' t' t(e
*ra,t$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns) and t(us *r'du,e +'r e0en et($,al $deas
%ee*$n-) s' t' s*ea%) and ,'nne,t$'n /$t( t(e s*e,ulat$0e ,'-n$t$'ns
'+ reas'n! T(e e1*l$,at$'n '+ all t($s must be l''%ed +'r $n t(e
3ut sett$n- as$de) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( 'ur 'r$-$nal *ur*'se) t(e
,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(e *ra,t$,al $deas) /e *r',eed t' ,'ntem*late reas'n
$n $ts s*e,ulat$0e use al'ne) nay) $n a st$ll m're restr$,ted
s*(ere) t' /$t) $n t(e trans,endental use4 and (ere must str$%e $nt'
t(e same *at( /($,( /e +'ll'/ed $n 'ur dedu,t$'n '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es!
T(at $s t' say) /e s(all ,'ns$der t(e l'-$,al +'rm '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+
reas'n) t(at /e may see /(et(er reas'n may n't be t(ereby a s'ur,e
'+ ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( enables us t' re-ard 'b&e,ts $n t(emsel0es as
determ$ned synt(et$,ally a *r$'r$) $n relat$'n t' 'ne 'r 't(er '+
t(e +un,t$'ns '+ reas'n!
Reas'n) ,'ns$dered as t(e +a,ulty '+ a ,erta$n l'-$,al +'rm '+
,'-n$t$'n) $s t(e +a,ulty '+ ,'n,lus$'n) t(at $s) '+ med$ate
&ud-ement5 by means '+ t(e subsum*t$'n '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ a
*'ss$ble &ud-ement under t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ a -$0en &ud-ement! T(e -$0en
&ud-ement $s t(e -eneral rule =ma&'r>! T(e subsum*t$'n '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ an't(er *'ss$ble &ud-ement under t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
rule $s t(e m$n'r! T(e a,tual &ud-ement) /($,( en'un,es t(e
assert$'n '+ t(e rule $n t(e subsumed ,ase) $s t(e ,'n,lus$'n
=,'n,lus$'>! T(e rule *red$,ates s'met($n- -enerally under a ,erta$n
,'nd$t$'n! T(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e rule $s sat$s+$ed $n s'me *art$,ular
,ase! It +'ll'/s t(at /(at /as 0al$d $n -eneral under t(at ,'nd$t$'n
must als' be ,'ns$dered as 0al$d $n t(e *art$,ular ,ase /($,(
sat$s+$es t($s ,'nd$t$'n! It $s 0ery *la$n t(at reas'n atta$ns t' a
,'-n$t$'n) by means '+ a,ts '+ t(e understand$n- /($,( ,'nst$tute a
ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns! 2(en I arr$0e at t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9All b'd$es
are ,(an-eable)9 by be-$nn$n- /$t( t(e m're rem'te ,'-n$t$'n =$n /($,(
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy d'es n't a**ear) but /($,( ne0ert(eless
,'nta$ns t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(at ,'n,e*t$'n>) 9All ,'m*'und $s
,(an-eable)9 by *r',eed$n- +r'm t($s t' a less rem'te ,'-n$t$'n) /($,(
stands under t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e +'rmer) 93'd$es are ,'m*'und)9 and
(en,e t' a t($rd) /($,( at len-t( ,'nne,ts +'r me t(e rem'te ,'-n$t$'n
=,(an-eable> /$t( t(e 'ne be+'re me) 9C'nse.uently) b'd$es are
,(an-eable95 I (a0e arr$0ed at a ,'-n$t$'n =,'n,lus$'n> t(r'u-( a
ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns =*rem$sses>! N'/ e0ery ser$es) /('se e1*'nent ='+
t(e ,ate-'r$,al 'r (y*'t(et$,al &ud-ement> $s -$0en) ,an be ,'nt$nued4
,'nse.uently t(e same *r',edure '+ reas'n ,'ndu,ts us t' t(e
rat$',$nat$' *'lysyll'-$st$,a) /($,( $s a ser$es '+ syll'-$sms) t(at
,an be ,'nt$nued e$t(er 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns =*er
*r'syll'-$sm's> 'r '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned =*er e*$syll'-$sm's> t' an
$nde+$n$te e1tent!
3ut /e 0ery s''n *er,e$0e t(at t(e ,(a$n 'r ser$es '+ *r'syll'-$sms)
t(at $s) '+ dedu,ed ,'-n$t$'ns 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e -r'unds 'r
,'nd$t$'ns '+ a -$0en ,'-n$t$'n) $n 't(er /'rds) t(e as,end$n-
ser$es '+ syll'-$sms must (a0e a 0ery d$++erent relat$'n t' t(e
+a,ulty '+ reas'n +r'm t(at '+ t(e des,end$n- ser$es) t(at $s) t(e
*r'-ress$0e *r',edure '+ reas'n 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned by
means '+ e*$syll'-$sms! F'r) as $n t(e +'rmer ,ase t(e ,'-n$t$'n
=,'n,lus$'> $s -$0en 'nly as ,'nd$t$'ned) reas'n ,an atta$n t' t($s
,'-n$t$'n 'nly under t(e *resu**'s$t$'n t(at all t(e members '+ t(e
ser$es 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns are -$0en =t'tal$ty $n t(e ser$es
'+ *rem$sses>) be,ause 'nly under t($s su**'s$t$'n $s t(e &ud-ement /e
may be ,'ns$der$n- *'ss$ble a *r$'r$4 /($le 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ned 'r t(e $n+eren,es) 'nly an $n,'m*lete and be,'m$n-) and
n't a *resu**'sed 'r -$0en ser$es) ,'nse.uently 'nly a *'tent$al
*r'-ress$'n) $s ,'-$tated! Hen,e) /(en a ,'-n$t$'n $s ,'ntem*lated
as ,'nd$t$'ned) reas'n $s ,'m*elled t' ,'ns$der t(e ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns $n an as,end$n- l$ne as ,'m*leted and -$0en $n t(e$r
t'tal$ty! 3ut $+ t(e 0ery same ,'nd$t$'n $s ,'ns$dered at t(e same
t$me as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ 't(er ,'-n$t$'ns) /($,( t'-et(er ,'nst$tute a
ser$es '+ $n+eren,es 'r ,'nse.uen,es $n a des,end$n- l$ne) reas'n
may *reser0e a *er+e,t $nd$++eren,e) as t' ('/ +ar t($s *r'-ress$'n
may e1tend a *arte *'ster$'r$) and /(et(er t(e t'tal$ty '+ t($s ser$es
$s *'ss$ble) be,ause $t stands $n n' need '+ su,( a ser$es +'r t(e
*ur*'se '+ arr$0$n- at t(e ,'n,lus$'n be+'re $t) $nasmu,( as t($s
,'n,lus$'n $s su++$,$ently -uaranteed and determ$ned 'n -r'unds a
*arte *r$'r$! It may be t(e ,ase) t(at u*'n t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns
t(e ser$es '+ *rem$sses (as a +$rst 'r ($-(est ,'nd$t$'n) 'r $t may
n't *'ssess t($s) and s' be a *arte *r$'r$ unl$m$ted4 but $t must)
ne0ert(eless) ,'nta$n t'tal$ty '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) e0en adm$tt$n- t(at /e
ne0er ,'uld su,,eed $n ,'m*letely a**re(end$n- $t4 and t(e /('le
ser$es must be un,'nd$t$'nally true) $+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned) /($,( $s
,'ns$dered as an $n+eren,e result$n- +r'm $t) $s t' be (eld as true!
T($s $s a re.u$rement '+ reas'n) /($,( ann'un,es $ts ,'-n$t$'n as
determ$ned a *r$'r$ and as ne,essary) e$t(er $n $tsel+5 and $n t($s
,ase $t needs n' -r'unds t' rest u*'n5 'r) $+ $t $s dedu,ed) as a
member '+ a ser$es '+ -r'unds) /($,( $s $tsel+ un,'nd$t$'nally true!
SECTION III! System '+ Trans,endental Ideas!

2e are n't at *resent en-a-ed /$t( a l'-$,al d$ale,t$,) /($,(
ma%es ,'m*lete abstra,t$'n '+ t(e ,'ntent '+ ,'-n$t$'n and a$ms 'nly
at un0e$l$n- t(e $llus'ry a**earan,e $n t(e +'rm '+ syll'-$sms! Our
sub&e,t $s trans,endental d$ale,t$,) /($,( must ,'nta$n) ,'m*letely
a *r$'r$) t(e 'r$-$n '+ ,erta$n ,'-n$t$'ns dra/n +r'm *ure reas'n) and
t(e 'r$-$n '+ ,erta$n dedu,ed ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(e 'b&e,t '+ /($,(
,ann't be -$0en em*$r$,ally and /($,( t(ere+'re l$e bey'nd t(e
s*(ere '+ t(e +a,ulty '+ understand$n-! 2e (a0e 'bser0ed) +r'm t(e
natural relat$'n /($,( t(e trans,endental use '+ 'ur ,'-n$t$'n) $n
syll'-$sms as /ell as $n &ud-ements) must (a0e t' t(e l'-$,al) t(at
t(ere are t(ree %$nds '+ d$ale,t$,al ar-uments) ,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e
t(ree m'des '+ ,'n,lus$'n) by /($,( reas'n atta$ns t' ,'-n$t$'ns 'n
*r$n,$*les4 and t(at $n all $t $s t(e bus$ness '+ reas'n t' as,end
+r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'ned synt(es$s) bey'nd /($,( t(e understand$n- ne0er
*r',eeds) t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned /($,( t(e understand$n- ne0er ,an
N'/ t(e m'st -eneral relat$'ns /($,( ,an e1$st $n 'ur
re*resentat$'ns are6 1st) t(e relat$'n t' t(e sub&e,t4 Bnd) t(e
relat$'n t' 'b&e,ts) e$t(er as *(en'mena) 'r as 'b&e,ts '+ t('u-(t
$n -eneral! I+ /e ,'nne,t t($s subd$0$s$'n /$t( t(e ma$n d$0$s$'n) all
t(e relat$'ns '+ 'ur re*resentat$'ns) '+ /($,( /e ,an +'rm e$t(er a
,'n,e*t$'n 'r an $dea) are t(ree+'ld6 1! T(e relat$'n t' t(e
sub&e,t4 B! T(e relat$'n t' t(e man$+'ld '+ t(e 'b&e,t as a
*(en'men'n4 I! T(e relat$'n t' all t($n-s $n -eneral!
N'/ all *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns (a0e t' d' $n -eneral /$t( t(e
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ re*resentat$'ns4 ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ *ure reas'n
=trans,endental $deas>) 'n t(e 't(er (and) /$t( t(e un,'nd$t$'nal
synt(et$,al un$ty '+ all ,'nd$t$'ns! It +'ll'/s t(at all
trans,endental $deas arran-e t(emsel0es $n t(ree ,lasses) t(e +$rst '+
/($,( ,'nta$ns t(e abs'lute =un,'nd$t$'ned> un$ty '+ t(e t($n%$n-
sub&e,t) t(e se,'nd t(e abs'lute un$ty '+ t(e ser$es '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns
'+ a *(en'men'n) t(e t($rd t(e abs'lute un$ty '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+
all 'b&e,ts '+ t('u-(t $n -eneral!
T(e t($n%$n- sub&e,t $s t(e 'b&e,t5matter '+ Psy,('l'-y4 t(e sum
t'tal '+ all *(en'mena =t(e /'rld> $s t(e 'b&e,t5matter '+
C'sm'l'-y4 and t(e t($n- /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e ($-(est ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ all t(at $s ,'-$table =t(e be$n- '+ all be$n-s> $s
t(e 'b&e,t5matter '+ all T(e'l'-y! T(us *ure reas'n *resents us /$t(
t(e $dea '+ a trans,endental d',tr$ne '+ t(e s'ul =*sy,('l'-$a
rat$'nal$s>) '+ a trans,endental s,$en,e '+ t(e /'rld =,'sm'l'-$a
rat$'nal$s>) and +$nally '+ a trans,endental d',tr$ne '+ C'd
=t(e'l'-$a trans,endental$s>! Understand$n- ,ann't 'r$-$nate e0en
t(e 'utl$ne '+ any '+ t(ese s,$en,es) e0en /(en ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e
($-(est l'-$,al use '+ reas'n) t(at $s) all ,'-$table syll'-$sms5
+'r t(e *ur*'se '+ *r',eed$n- +r'm 'ne 'b&e,t =*(en'men'n> t' all
't(ers) e0en t' t(e utm'st l$m$ts '+ t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s! T(ey
are) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) *ure and -enu$ne *r'du,ts) 'r *r'blems) '+
*ure reas'n!
2(at m'd$ '+ t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n t(ese trans,endental
$deas are /$ll be +ully e1*'sed $n t(e +'ll'/$n- ,(a*ter! T(ey
+'ll'/ t(e -u$d$n- t(read '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es! F'r *ure reas'n ne0er
relates $mmed$ately t' 'b&e,ts) but t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(ese
,'nta$ned $n t(e understand$n-! In l$%e manner) $t /$ll be made
man$+est $n t(e deta$led e1*lanat$'n '+ t(ese $deas5 ('/ reas'n)
merely t(r'u-( t(e synt(et$,al use '+ t(e same +un,t$'n /($,( $t
em*l'ys $n a ,ate-'r$,al syll'-$sm) ne,essar$ly atta$ns t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e abs'lute un$ty '+ t(e t($n%$n- sub&e,t5 ('/ t(e
l'-$,al *r',edure $n (y*'t(et$,al $deas ne,essar$ly *r'du,es t(e
$dea '+ t(e abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned $n a ser$es '+ -$0en
,'nd$t$'ns) and +$nally5 ('/ t(e mere +'rm '+ t(e d$s&un,t$0e
syll'-$sm $n0'l0es t(e ($-(est ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a be$n- '+ all be$n-s6
a t('u-(t /($,( at +$rst s$-(t seems $n t(e ($-(est de-ree
An 'b&e,t$0e dedu,t$'n) su,( as /e /ere able t' *resent $n t(e
,ase '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) $s $m*'ss$ble as re-ards t(ese
trans,endental $deas! F'r t(ey (a0e) $n trut() n' relat$'n t' any
'b&e,t) $n e1*er$en,e) +'r t(e 0ery reas'n t(at t(ey are 'nly $deas!
3ut a sub&e,t$0e dedu,t$'n '+ t(em +r'm t(e nature '+ 'ur reas'n $s
*'ss$ble) and (as been -$0en $n t(e *resent ,(a*ter!
It $s easy t' *er,e$0e t(at t(e s'le a$m '+ *ure reas'n $s t(e
abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e synt(es$s 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns)
and t(at $t d'es n't ,'n,ern $tsel+ /$t( t(e abs'lute ,'m*leteness
'n t(e Part '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned! F'r '+ t(e +'rmer al'ne d'es s(e stand
$n need) $n 'rder t' *re*'s$t t(e /('le ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) and t(us
*resent t(em t' t(e understand$n- a *r$'r$! 3ut $+ /e 'n,e (a0e a
,'m*letely =and un,'nd$t$'nally> -$0en ,'nd$t$'n) t(ere $s n'
+urt(er ne,ess$ty) $n *r',eed$n- /$t( t(e ser$es) +'r a ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ reas'n4 +'r t(e understand$n- ta%es '+ $tsel+ e0ery ste*
d'/n/ard) +r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'n t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ned! T(us t(e
trans,endental $deas are a0a$lable 'nly +'r as,end$n- $n t(e ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns) t$ll /e rea,( t(e un,'nd$t$'ned) t(at $s) *r$n,$*les! As
re-ards des,end$n- t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ned) 'n t(e 't(er (and) /e +$nd t(at
t(ere $s a /$dely e1tens$0e l'-$,al use /($,( reas'n ma%es '+ t(e la/s
'+ t(e understand$n-) but t(at a trans,endental use t(ere'+ $s
$m*'ss$ble4 and t(at /(en /e +'rm an $dea '+ t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty
'+ su,( a synt(es$s) +'r e1am*le) '+ t(e /('le ser$es '+ all +uture
,(an-es $n t(e /'rld) t($s $dea $s a mere ens rat$'n$s) an arb$trary
+$,t$'n '+ t('u-(t) and n't a ne,essary *resu**'s$t$'n '+ reas'n!
F'r t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned *resu**'ses t(e t'tal$ty '+ $ts
,'nd$t$'ns) but n't '+ $ts ,'nse.uen,es! C'nse.uently) t($s ,'n,e*t$'n
$s n't a trans,endental $dea5 and $t $s /$t( t(ese al'ne t(at /e are
at *resent ',,u*$ed!
F$nally) $t $s 'b0$'us t(at t(ere e1$sts am'n- t(e trans,endental
$deas a ,erta$n ,'nne,t$'n and un$ty) and t(at *ure reas'n) by means
'+ t(em) ,'lle,ts all $ts ,'-n$t$'ns $nt' 'ne system! Fr'm t(e
,'-n$t$'n '+ sel+ t' t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e /'rld) and t(r'u-( t(ese
t' t(e su*reme be$n-) t(e *r'-ress$'n $s s' natural) t(at $t seems
t' resemble t(e l'-$,al mar,( '+ reas'n +r'm t(e *rem$sses t' t(e
,'n,lus$'n!7 N'/ /(et(er t(ere l$es un'bser0ed at t(e +'undat$'n '+
t(ese $deas an anal'-y '+ t(e same %$nd as e1$sts bet/een t(e
l'-$,al and trans,endental *r',edure '+ reas'n) $s an't(er '+ t('se
.uest$'ns) t(e ans/er t' /($,( /e must n't e1*e,t t$ll /e arr$0e at
a m're ad0an,ed sta-e $n 'ur $n.u$r$es! In t($s ,urs'ry and
*rel$m$nary 0$e/) /e (a0e) mean/($le) rea,(ed 'ur a$m! F'r /e (a0e
d$s*elled t(e amb$-u$ty /($,( atta,(ed t' t(e trans,endental
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n) +r'm t(e$r be$n- ,'mm'nly m$1ed u* /$t( 't(er
,'n,e*t$'ns $n t(e systems '+ *($l's'*(ers) and n't *r'*erly
d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-4 /e (a0e
e1*'sed t(e$r 'r$-$n and) t(ereby) at t(e same t$me t(e$r
determ$nate number) and *resented t(em $n a systemat$, ,'nne,t$'n) and
(a0e t(us mar%ed 'ut and en,l'sed a de+$n$te s*(ere +'r *ure reas'n!
7T(e s,$en,e '+ "eta*(ys$,s (as +'r t(e *r'*er 'b&e,t '+ $ts
$n.u$r$es 'nly t(ree -rand $deas6 CO#) FREE#O") and I""ORTA<ITJ) and
$t a$ms at s('/$n-) t(at t(e se,'nd ,'n,e*t$'n) ,'n&'$ned /$t( t(e
+$rst) must lead t' t(e t($rd) as a ne,essary ,'n,lus$'n! All t(e
't(er sub&e,ts /$t( /($,( $t ',,u*$es $tsel+) are merely means +'r t(e
atta$nment and real$;at$'n '+ t(ese $deas! It d'es n't re.u$re t(ese
$deas +'r t(e ,'nstru,t$'n '+ a s,$en,e '+ nature) but) 'n t(e
,'ntrary) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ *ass$n- bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ nature! A
,'m*lete $ns$-(t $nt' and ,'m*re(ens$'n '+ t(em /'uld render T(e'l'-y)
Et($,s) and) t(r'u-( t(e ,'n&un,t$'n '+ b't() Rel$-$'n) s'lely
de*endent 'n t(e s*e,ulat$0e +a,ulty '+ reas'n! In a systemat$,
re*resentat$'n '+ t(ese $deas t(e ab'0e5ment$'ned arran-ement5 t(e
synt(et$,al 'ne5 /'uld be t(e m'st su$table4 but $n t(e
$n0est$-at$'n /($,( must ne,essar$ly *re,ede $t) t(e analyt$,al) /($,(
re0erses t($s arran-ement) /'uld be better ada*ted t' 'ur *ur*'se)
as $n $t /e s('uld *r',eed +r'm t(at /($,( e1*er$en,e $mmed$ately
*resents t' us5 *sy,('l'-y) t' ,'sm'l'-y) and t(en,e t' t(e'l'-y!


It may be sa$d t(at t(e 'b&e,t '+ a merely trans,endental $dea $s
s'met($n- '+ /($,( /e (a0e n' ,'n,e*t$'n) alt('u-( t(e $dea may be a
ne,essary *r'du,t '+ reas'n a,,'rd$n- t' $ts 'r$-$nal la/s! F'r) $n
+a,t) a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t t(at $s ade.uate t' t(e $dea -$0en
by reas'n) $s $m*'ss$ble! F'r su,( an 'b&e,t must be ,a*able '+
be$n- *resented and $ntu$ted $n a P'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! 3ut /e s('uld
e1*ress 'ur mean$n- better) and /$t( less r$s% '+ be$n- m$sunderst''d)
$+ /e sa$d t(at /e ,an (a0e n' %n'/led-e '+ an 'b&e,t) /($,( *er+e,tly
,'rres*'nds t' an $dea) alt('u-( /e may *'ssess a *r'blemat$,al
,'n,e*t$'n t(ere'+!
N'/ t(e trans,endental =sub&e,t$0e> real$ty at least '+ t(e *ure
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n rests u*'n t(e +a,t t(at /e are led t' su,(
$deas by a ne,essary *r',edure '+ reas'n! T(ere must t(ere+'re be
syll'-$sms /($,( ,'nta$n n' em*$r$,al *rem$sses) and by means '+ /($,(
/e ,'n,lude +r'm s'met($n- t(at /e d' %n'/) t' s'met($n- '+ /($,( /e
d' n't e0en *'ssess a ,'n,e*t$'n) t' /($,( /e) ne0ert(eless) by an
una0'$dable $llus$'n) as,r$be 'b&e,t$0e real$ty! Su,( ar-uments are)
as re-ards t(e$r result) rat(er t' be termed s'*($sms t(an syll'-$sms)
alt('u-( $ndeed) as re-ards t(e$r 'r$-$n) t(ey are 0ery /ell
ent$tled t' t(e latter name) $nasmu,( as t(ey are n't +$,t$'ns 'r
a,,$dental *r'du,ts '+ reas'n) but are ne,ess$tated by $ts 0ery
nature! T(ey are s'*($sms) n't '+ men) but '+ *ure reas'n (ersel+)
+r'm /($,( t(e 2$sest ,ann't +ree ($msel+! A+ter l'n- lab'ur (e may be
able t' -uard a-a$nst t(e err'r) but (e ,an ne0er be t('r'u-(ly r$d '+
t(e $llus$'n /($,( ,'nt$nually m',%s and m$sleads ($m!
O+ t(ese d$ale,t$,al ar-uments t(ere are t(ree %$nds)
,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e number '+ t(e $deas /($,( t(e$r ,'n,lus$'ns
*resent! In t(e ar-ument 'r syll'-$sm '+ t(e +$rst ,lass) I
,'n,lude) +r'm t(e trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t ,'nta$ns
n' man$+'ld) t(e abs'lute un$ty '+ t(e sub&e,t $tsel+) '+ /($,( I
,ann't $n t($s manner atta$n t' a ,'n,e*t$'n! T($s d$ale,t$,al
ar-ument I s(all ,all t(e trans,endental *aral'-$sm! T(e se,'nd
,lass '+ s'*($st$,al ar-uments $s ',,u*$ed /$t( t(e trans,endental
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns +'r
a -$0en *(en'men'n) and I ,'n,lude) +r'm t(e +a,t t(at I (a0e al/ays a
sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e un,'nd$t$'ned synt(et$,al un$ty
'+ t(e ser$es u*'n 'ne s$de) t(e trut( '+ t(e '**'s$te un$ty) '+ /($,(
I (a0e ne0ert(eless n' ,'n,e*t$'n! T(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ reas'n $n t(ese
d$ale,t$,al ar-uments) I s(all term t(e ant$n'my '+ *ure reas'n!
F$nally) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e t($rd %$nd '+ s'*($st$,al ar-ument) I
,'n,lude) +r'm t(e t'tal$ty '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t($n%$n- 'b&e,ts $n
-eneral) $n s' +ar as t(ey ,an be -$0en) t(e abs'lute synt(et$,al
un$ty '+ all ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s $n -eneral4
t(at $s) +r'm t($n-s /($,( I d' n't %n'/ $n t(e$r mere
trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'n) I ,'n,lude a be$n- '+ all be$n-s /($,( I
%n'/ st$ll less by means '+ a trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'n) and '+
/('se un,'nd$t$'ned ne,ess$ty I ,an +'rm n' ,'n,e*t$'n /(ate0er!
T($s d$ale,t$,al ar-ument I s(all ,all t(e $deal '+ *ure reas'n!
CHAPTER I! O+ t(e Paral'-$sms '+ Pure Reas'n!

T(e l'-$,al *aral'-$sm ,'ns$sts $n t(e +als$ty '+ an ar-ument $n
res*e,t '+ $ts +'rm) be t(e ,'ntent /(at $t may! 3ut a
trans,endental *aral'-$sm (as a trans,endental +'undat$'n) and
,'n,ludes +alsely) /($le t(e +'rm $s ,'rre,t and une1,e*t$'nable! In
t($s manner t(e *aral'-$sm (as $ts +'undat$'n $n t(e nature '+ (uman
reas'n) and $s t(e *arent '+ an una0'$dable) t('u-( n't $ns'luble)
mental $llus$'n!
2e n'/ ,'me t' a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( /as n't $nserted $n t(e -eneral
l$st '+ trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'ns! and yet must be re,%'ned /$t(
t(em) but at t(e same t$me /$t('ut $n t(e least alter$n-) 'r
$nd$,at$n- a de+$,$en,y $n t(at table! T($s $s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n) 'r)
$+ t(e term $s *re+erred) t(e &ud-ement) 9I t($n%!9 3ut $t $s
read$ly *er,e$0ed t(at t($s t('u-(t $s as $t /ere t(e 0e($,le '+ all
,'n,e*t$'ns $n -eneral) and ,'nse.uently '+ trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'ns
als') and t(at $t $s t(ere+'re re-arded as a trans,endental
,'n,e*t$'n) alt('u-( $t ,an (a0e n' *e,ul$ar ,la$m t' be s' ran%ed)
$nasmu,( as $ts 'nly use $s t' $nd$,ate t(at all t('u-(t $s
a,,'m*an$ed by ,'ns,$'usness! At t(e same t$me) *ure as t($s
,'n,e*t$'n $s +r'm em*$r$,al ,'ntent =$m*ress$'ns '+ t(e senses>) $t
enables us t' d$st$n-u$s( t/' d$++erent %$nds '+ 'b&e,ts! 9I)9 as
t($n%$n-) am an 'b&e,t '+ t(e $nternal sense) and am ,alled s'ul! T(at
/($,( $s an 'b&e,t '+ t(e e1ternal senses $s ,alled b'dy! T(us t(e
e1*ress$'n) 9I)9 as a t($n%$n- be$n-) des$-nates t(e 'b&e,t5matter
'+ *sy,('l'-y) /($,( may be ,alled 9t(e rat$'nal d',tr$ne '+ t(e
s'ul)9 $nasmu,( as $n t($s s,$en,e I des$re t' %n'/ n't($n- '+ t(e
s'ul but /(at) $nde*endently '+ all e1*er$en,e =/($,( determ$nes me $n
,'n,ret'>) may be ,'n,luded +r'm t($s ,'n,e*t$'n 9I)9 $n s' +ar as
$t a**ears $n all t('u-(t!
N'/) t(e rat$'nal d',tr$ne '+ t(e s'ul $s really an underta%$n- '+
t($s %$nd! F'r $+ t(e smallest em*$r$,al element '+ t('u-(t) $+ any
*art$,ular *er,e*t$'n '+ my $nternal state) /ere t' be $ntr'du,ed
am'n- t(e -r'unds '+ ,'-n$t$'n '+ t($s s,$en,e) $t /'uld n't be a
rat$'nal) but an em*$r$,al d',tr$ne '+ t(e s'ul! 2e (a0e t(us be+'re
us a *retended s,$en,e) ra$sed u*'n t(e s$n-le *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I t($n%)9
/('se +'undat$'n 'r /ant '+ +'undat$'n /e may 0ery *r'*erly) and
a-reeably /$t( t(e nature '+ a trans,endental *($l's'*(y) (ere
e1am$ne! It 'u-(t n't t' be 'b&e,ted t(at $n t($s *r'*'s$t$'n) /($,(
e1*resses t(e *er,e*t$'n '+ 'ne?s sel+) an $nternal e1*er$en,e $s
asserted) and t(at ,'nse.uently t(e rat$'nal d',tr$ne '+ t(e s'ul
/($,( $s +'unded u*'n $t) $s n't *ure) but *artly +'unded u*'n an
em*$r$,al *r$n,$*le! F'r t($s $nternal *er,e*t$'n $s n't($n- m're t(an
t(e mere a**er,e*t$'n) 9I t($n%)9 /($,( $n +a,t renders all
trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'ns *'ss$ble) $n /($,( /e say) 9I t($n%
substan,e) ,ause) et,!9 F'r $nternal e1*er$en,e $n -eneral and $ts
*'ss$b$l$ty) 'r *er,e*t$'n $n -eneral) and $ts relat$'n t' 't(er
*er,e*t$'ns) unless s'me *art$,ular d$st$n,t$'n 'r determ$nat$'n
t(ere'+ $s em*$r$,ally -$0en) ,ann't be re-arded as em*$r$,al
,'-n$t$'n) but as ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(e em*$r$,al) and bel'n-s t' t(e
$n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e0ery e1*er$en,e) /($,( $s
,erta$nly trans,endental! T(e smallest 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e =+'r
e1am*le) 'nly *leasure 'r *a$n>) t(at s('uld be $n,luded $n t(e
-eneral re*resentat$'n '+ sel+5,'ns,$'usness) /'uld $mmed$ately ,(an-e
t(e rat$'nal $nt' an em*$r$,al *sy,('l'-y!
9I t($n%9 $s t(ere+'re t(e 'nly te1t '+ rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y) +r'm
/($,( $t must de0el'* $ts /('le system! It $s man$+est t(at t($s
t('u-(t) /(en a**l$ed t' an 'b&e,t =mysel+>) ,an ,'nta$n n't($n- but
trans,endental *red$,ates t(ere'+4 be,ause t(e least em*$r$,al
*red$,ate /'uld destr'y t(e *ur$ty '+ t(e s,$en,e and $ts $nde*enden,e
'+ all e1*er$en,e!
3ut /e s(all (a0e t' +'ll'/ (ere t(e -u$dan,e '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es5
'nly) as $n t(e *resent ,ase a t($n-) 9I)9 as t($n%$n- be$n-) $s at
+$rst -$0en) /e s(all5 n't $ndeed ,(an-e t(e 'rder '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es
as $t stands $n t(e table5 but be-$n at t(e ,ate-'ry '+ substan,e)
by /($,( at t(e a t($n- a t($n- $s re*resented and *r',eeds
ba,%/ards t(r'u-( t(e ser$es! T(e t'*$, '+ t(e rat$'nal d',tr$ne '+
t(e s'ul) +r'm /($,( e0eryt($n- else $t may ,'nta$n must be dedu,ed)
$s a,,'rd$n-ly as +'ll'/s6
1 B

T(e S'ul $s SU3STANCE As re-ards $ts .ual$ty

$t $s SI"P<E


As re-ards t(e d$++erent

t$mes $n /($,( $t e1$sts)

$t $s numer$,ally $dent$,al)

t(at $s UNITJ) n't Plural$ty!


It $s $n relat$'n t' *'ss$ble 'b&e,ts $n s*a,e7

7T(e reader) /(' may n't s' eas$ly *er,e$0e t(e *sy,('l'-$,al
sense '+ t(ese e1*ress$'ns) ta%en (ere $n t(e$r trans,endental
abstra,t$'n) and ,ann't -uess /(y t(e latter attr$bute '+ t(e s'ul
bel'n-s t' t(e ,ate-'ry '+ e1$sten,e) /$ll +$nd t(e e1*ress$'ns
su++$,$ently e1*la$ned and &ust$+$ed $n t(e se.uel! I (a0e)
m're'0er) t' a*'l'-$;e +'r t(e <at$n terms /($,( (a0e been
em*l'yed)$nstead '+ t(e$r Cerman syn'nyms) ,'ntrary t' t(e rules '+
,'rre,t /r$t$n-! 3ut I &ud-ed $t better t' sa,r$+$,e ele-an,e t'
Fr'm t(ese elements 'r$-$nate all t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ *ure
*sy,('l'-y) by ,'mb$nat$'n al'ne) /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ any 't(er
*r$n,$*le! T($s substan,e) merely as an 'b&e,t '+ t(e $nternal
sense) -$0es t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ Immater$al$ty4 as s$m*le substan,e)
t(at '+ In,'rru*t$b$l$ty4 $ts $dent$ty) as $ntelle,tual substan,e)
-$0es t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ Pers'nal$ty4 all t(ese t(ree t'-et(er)
S*$r$tual$ty! Its relat$'n t' 'b&e,ts $n s*a,e -$0es us t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ ,'nne,t$'n =,'mmer,$um> /$t( b'd$es! T(us $t re*resents t($n%$n-
substan,e as t(e *r$n,$*le '+ l$+e $n matter) t(at $s) as a s'ul
=an$ma>) and as t(e -r'und '+ An$mal$ty4 and t($s) l$m$ted and
determ$ned by t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ s*$r$tual$ty) -$0es us t(at '+
N'/ t' t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns relate +'ur *aral'-$sms '+ a trans,endental
*sy,('l'-y) /($,( $s +alsely (eld t' be a s,$en,e '+ *ure reas'n!
t'u,($n- t(e nature '+ 'ur t($n%$n- be$n-! 2e ,an) ('/e0er) lay at t(e
+'undat$'n '+ t($s s,$en,e n't($n- but t(e s$m*le and $n $tsel+
*er+e,tly ,'ntentless re*resentat$'n 9I /($,( ,ann't e0en be ,alled
a ,'n,e*t$'n) but merely a ,'ns,$'usness /($,( a,,'m*an$es all
,'n,e*t$'ns! 3y t($s 9I)9 'r 9He)9 'r 9It)9 /(' 'r /($,( t($n%s)
n't($n- m're $s re*resented t(an a trans,endental sub&e,t '+ t('u-(t E
1) /($,( $s ,'-n$;ed 'nly by means '+ t(e t('u-(ts t(at are $ts
*red$,ates) and '+ /($,() a*art +r'm t(ese) /e ,ann't +'rm t(e least
,'n,e*t$'n! Hen,e $n a *er*etual ,$r,le) $nasmu,( as /e must al/ays
em*l'y $t) $n 'rder t' +rame any &ud-ement res*e,t$n- $t! And t($s
$n,'n0en$en,e /e +$nd $t $m*'ss$ble t' r$d 'ursel0es '+) be,ause
,'ns,$'usness $n $tsel+ $s n't s' mu,( a re*resentat$'n d$st$n-u$s($n-
a *art$,ular 'b&e,t) as a +'rm '+ re*resentat$'n $n -eneral) $n s' +ar
as $t may be termed ,'-n$t$'n4 +'r $n and by ,'-n$t$'n al'ne d' I
t($n% anyt($n-!
It must) ('/e0er) a**ear e1tra'rd$nary at +$rst s$-(t t(at t(e
,'nd$t$'n under /($,( I t($n%) and /($,( $s ,'nse.uently a *r'*erty '+
my sub&e,t) s('uld be (eld t' be l$%e/$se 0al$d +'r e0ery e1$sten,e
/($,( t($n%s) and t(at /e ,an *resume t' base u*'n a seem$n-ly
em*$r$,al *r'*'s$t$'n a &ud-ement /($,( $s a*'de$,t$, and un$0ersal)
t' /$t) t(at e0eryt($n- /($,( t($n%s $s ,'nst$tuted as t(e 0'$,e '+ my
,'ns,$'usness de,lares $t t' be) t(at $s) as a sel+5,'ns,$'us be$n-!
T(e ,ause '+ t($s bel$e+ $s t' be +'und $n t(e +a,t t(at /e
ne,essar$ly attr$bute t' t($n-s a *r$'r$ all t(e *r'*ert$es /($,(
,'nst$tute ,'nd$t$'ns under /($,( al'ne /e ,an ,'-$tate t(em! N'/ I
,ann't 'bta$n t(e least re*resentat$'n '+ a t($n%$n- be$n- by means '+
e1ternal e1*er$en,e) but s'lely t(r'u-( sel+5,'ns,$'usness! Su,(
'b&e,ts are ,'nse.uently n't($n- m're t(an t(e trans+eren,e '+ t($s
,'ns,$'usness '+ m$ne t' 't(er t($n-s /($,( ,an 'nly t(us be
re*resented as t($n%$n- be$n-s! T(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I t($n%)9 $s) $n t(e
*resent ,ase) underst''d $n a *r'blemat$,al sense) n't $n s' +ar as $t
,'nta$ns a *er,e*t$'n '+ an e1$sten,e =l$%e t(e Cartes$an 9C'-$t')
er-' sum9>)7 but $n re-ard t' $ts mere *'ss$b$l$ty5 +'r t(e *ur*'se '+
d$s,'0er$n- /(at *r'*ert$es may be $n+erred +r'm s' s$m*le a
*r'*'s$t$'n and *red$,ated '+ t(e sub&e,t '+ $t!
789I t($n%) t(ere+'re I am!9:

I+ at t(e +'undat$'n '+ 'ur *ure rat$'nal ,'-n$t$'n '+ t($n%$n-
be$n-s t(ere lay m're t(an t(e mere C'-$t'5 $+ /e ,'uld l$%e/$se
,all $n a$d 'bser0at$'ns 'n t(e *lay '+ 'ur t('u-(ts) and t(e t(en,e
der$0ed natural la/s '+ t(e t($n%$n- sel+) t(ere /'uld ar$se an
em*$r$,al *sy,('l'-y /($,( /'uld be a %$nd '+ *(ys$'l'-y '+ t(e
$nternal sense and m$-(t *'ss$bly be ,a*able '+ e1*la$n$n- t(e
*(en'mena '+ t(at sense! 3ut $t ,'uld ne0er be a0a$lable +'r
d$s,'0er$n- t('se *r'*ert$es /($,( d' n't bel'n- t' *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e =su,( as t(e .ual$ty '+ s$m*l$,$ty>) n'r ,'uld $t ma%e
any a*'de$,t$, enun,$at$'n 'n t(e nature '+ t($n%$n- be$n-s6 $t
/'uld t(ere+'re n't be a rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y!
N'/) as t(e *r'*'s$t$'n 9I t($n%9 =$n t(e *r'blemat$,al sense>
,'nta$ns t(e +'rm '+ e0ery &ud-ement $n -eneral and $s t(e ,'nstant
a,,'m*an$ment '+ all t(e ,ate-'r$es) $t $s man$+est t(at ,'n,lus$'ns
are dra/n +r'm $t 'nly by a trans,endental em*l'yment '+ t(e
understand$n-! T($s use '+ t(e understand$n- e1,ludes all em*$r$,al
elements4 and /e ,ann't) as (as been s('/n ab'0e) (a0e any
+a0'urable ,'n,e*t$'n be+'re(and '+ $ts *r',edure! 2e s(all
t(ere+'re +'ll'/ /$t( a ,r$t$,al eye t($s *r'*'s$t$'n t(r'u-( all
t(e *red$,aments '+ *ure *sy,('l'-y4 but /e s(all) +'r bre0$ty?s sa%e)
all'/ t($s e1am$nat$'n t' *r',eed $n an un$nterru*ted ,'nne,t$'n!
3e+'re enter$n- 'n t($s tas%) ('/e0er) t(e +'ll'/$n- -eneral
remar% may (el* t' .u$,%en 'ur attent$'n t' t($s m'de '+ ar-ument!
It $s n't merely t(r'u-( my t($n%$n- t(at I ,'-n$;e an 'b&e,t) but
'nly t(r'u-( my determ$n$n- a -$0en $ntu$t$'n $n relat$'n t' t(e un$ty
'+ ,'ns,$'usness $n /($,( all t($n%$n- ,'ns$sts! It +'ll'/s t(at I
,'-n$;e mysel+) n't t(r'u-( my be$n- ,'ns,$'us '+ mysel+ as
t($n%$n-) but 'nly /(en I am ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ mysel+ as
determ$ned $n relat$'n t' t(e +un,t$'n '+ t('u-(t! All t(e m'd$ '+
sel+5,'ns,$'usness $n t('u-(t are (en,e n't ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ 'b&e,ts
=,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-5 ,ate-'r$es>4 t(ey are mere
l'-$,al +un,t$'ns) /($,( d' n't *resent t' t('u-(t an 'b&e,t t' be
,'-n$;ed) and ,ann't t(ere+'re *resent my Sel+ as an 'b&e,t! N't t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e determ$n$n-) but 'nly t(at '+ t(e determ$nable
sel+) t(at $s) '+ my $nternal $ntu$t$'n =$n s' +ar as t(e man$+'ld
,'nta$ned $n $t ,an be ,'nne,ted ,'n+'rmably /$t( t(e -eneral
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n $n t('u-(t>) $s t(e 'b&e,t!
1! In all &ud-ements I am t(e determ$n$n- sub&e,t '+ t(at relat$'n
/($,( ,'nst$tutes a &ud-ement! 3ut t(at t(e I /($,( t($n%s) must be
,'ns$dered as $n t('u-(t al/ays a sub&e,t) and as a t($n- /($,( ,ann't
be a *red$,ate t' t('u-(t) $s an a*'de$,t$, and $dent$,al *r'*'s$t$'n!
3ut t($s *r'*'s$t$'n d'es n't s$-n$+y t(at I) as an 'b&e,t) am) +'r
mysel+) a sel+5subs$stent be$n- 'r substan,e! T($s latter statement5
an amb$t$'us 'ne5 re.u$res t' be su**'rted by data /($,( are n't t' be
d$s,'0ered $n t('u-(t4 and are *er(a*s =$n s' +ar as I ,'ns$der t(e
t($n%$n- sel+ merely as su,(> n't t' be d$s,'0ered $n t(e t($n%$n-
sel+ at all!
B! T(at t(e I 'r E-' '+ a**er,e*t$'n) and ,'nse.uently $n all
t('u-(t) $s s$n-ular 'r s$m*le) an4I ,ann't be res'l0ed $nt' a
*lural$ty '+ sub&e,ts) and t(ere+'re $nd$,ates a l'-$,ally s$m*le
sub&e,t5 t($s $s sel+5e0$dent +r'm t(e 0ery ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an E-')
and $s ,'nse.uently an analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n! 3ut t($s $s n't
tantam'unt t' de,lar$n- t(at t(e t($n%$n- E-' $s a s$m*le substan,e5
+'r t($s /'uld be a synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n! T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
substan,e al/ays relates t' $ntu$t$'ns) /($,( /$t( me ,ann't be
't(er t(an sensu'us) and /($,( ,'nse.uently l$e ,'m*letely 'ut '+
t(e s*(ere '+ t(e understand$n- and $ts t('u-(t6 but t' t($s s*(ere
bel'n-s t(e a++$rmat$'n t(at t(e E-' $s s$m*le $n t('u-(t! It /'uld
$ndeed be sur*r$s$n-) $+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ 9substan,e)9 /($,( $n 't(er
,ases re.u$res s' mu,( lab'ur t' d$st$n-u$s( +r'm t(e 't(er elements
*resented by $ntu$t$'n5 s' mu,( tr'uble) t'') t' d$s,'0er /(et(er $t
,an be s$m*le =as $n t(e ,ase '+ t(e *arts '+ matter>5 s('uld be
*resented $mmed$ately t' me) as $+ by re0elat$'n) $n t(e *''rest
mental re*resentat$'n '+ all!
I! T(e *r'*'s$t$'n '+ t(e $dent$ty '+ my Sel+ am$dst all t(e
man$+'ld re*resentat$'ns '+ /($,( I am ,'ns,$'us) $s l$%e/$se a
*r'*'s$t$'n ly$n- $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns t(emsel0es) and $s ,'nse.uently
analyt$,al! 3ut t($s $dent$ty '+ t(e sub&e,t) '+ /($,( I am
,'ns,$'us $n all $ts re*resentat$'ns) d'es n't relate t' 'r ,'n,ern
t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t) by /($,( $t $s -$0en as an 'b&e,t!
T($s *r'*'s$t$'n ,ann't t(ere+'re en'un,e t(e $dent$ty '+ t(e
*ers'n) by /($,( $s underst''d t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e $dent$ty '+
$ts '/n substan,e as a t($n%$n- be$n- $n all ,(an-e and 0ar$at$'n '+
,$r,umstan,es! T' *r'0e t($s) /e s('uld re.u$re n't a mere analys$s '+
t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) but synt(et$,al &ud-ements based u*'n a -$0en
K! I d$st$n-u$s( my '/n e1$sten,e) as t(at '+ a t($n%$n- be$n-) +r'm
t(at '+ 't(er t($n-s e1ternal t' me5 am'n- /($,( my b'dy als' $s
re,%'ned! T($s $s als' an analyt$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) +'r 't(er t($n-s are
e1a,tly t('se /($,( I t($n% as d$++erent 'r d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm mysel+!
3ut /(et(er t($s ,'ns,$'usness '+ mysel+ $s *'ss$ble /$t('ut t($n-s
e1ternal t' me4 and /(et(er t(ere+'re I ,an e1$st merely as a t($n%$n-
be$n- =/$t('ut be$n- man>5 ,ann't be %n'/n 'r $n+erred +r'm t($s
T(us /e (a0e -a$ned n't($n- as re-ards t(e ,'-n$t$'n '+ mysel+ as
'b&e,t) by t(e analys$s '+ t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ my Sel+ $n t('u-(t!
T(e l'-$,al e1*'s$t$'n '+ t('u-(t $n -eneral $s m$sta%en +'r a
meta*(ys$,al determ$nat$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t!
Our Cr$t$.ue /'uld be an $n0est$-at$'n utterly su*er+lu'us) $+ t(ere
e1$sted a *'ss$b$l$ty '+ *r'0$n- a *r$'r$) t(at all t($n%$n- be$n-s
are $n t(emsel0es s$m*le substan,es) as su,() t(ere+'re) *'ssess t(e
$nse*arable attr$bute '+ *ers'nal$ty) and are ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e$r
e1$sten,e a*art +r'm and un,'nne,ted /$t( matter! F'r /e s('uld t(us
(a0e ta%en a ste* bey'nd t(e /'rld '+ sense) and (a0e *enetrated
$nt' t(e s*(ere '+ n'umena4 and $n t($s ,ase t(e r$-(t ,'uld n't be
den$ed us '+ e1tend$n- 'ur %n'/led-e $n t($s s*(ere) '+ establ$s($n-
'ursel0es) and) under a +a0'ur$n- star) a**r'*r$at$n- t' 'ursel0es
*'ssess$'ns $n $t! F'r t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9E0ery t($n%$n- be$n-) as
su,() $s s$m*le substan,e)9 $s an a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'n4
be,ause $n t(e +$rst *la,e $t -'es bey'nd t(e ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( $s
t(e sub&e,t '+ $t) and adds t' t(e mere n't$'n '+ a t($n%$n- be$n- t(e
m'de '+ $ts e1$sten,e) and $n t(e se,'nd *la,e anne1es a *red$,ate
=t(at '+ s$m*l$,$ty> t' t(e latter ,'n,e*t$'n5 a *red$,ate /($,( $t
,'uld n't (a0e d$s,'0ered $n t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e! It /'uld +'ll'/
t(at a *r$'r$ synt(et$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns are *'ss$ble and le-$t$mate)
n't 'nly) as /e (a0e ma$nta$ned) $n relat$'n t' 'b&e,ts '+ *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e) and as *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($s e1*er$en,e
$tsel+) but are a**l$,able t' t($n-s $n t(emsel0es5 an $n+eren,e /($,(
ma%es an end '+ t(e /('le '+ t($s Cr$t$.ue) and 'bl$-es us t' +all
ba,% 'n t(e 'ld m'de '+ meta*(ys$,al *r',edure! 3ut $ndeed t(e
dan-er $s n't s' -reat) $+ /e l''% a l$ttle ,l'ser $nt' t(e .uest$'n!
T(ere lur%s $n t(e *r',edure '+ rat$'nal Psy,('l'-y a *aral'-$sm)
/($,( $s re*resented $n t(e +'ll'/$n- syll'-$sm6
T(at /($,( ,ann't be ,'-$tated 't(er/$se t(an as sub&e,t) d'es n't
e1$st 't(er/$se t(an as sub&e,t) and $s t(ere+'re substan,e!
A t($n%$n- be$n-) ,'ns$dered merely as su,() ,ann't be ,'-$tated
't(er/$se t(an as sub&e,t!
T(ere+'re $t e1$sts als' as su,() t(at $s) as substan,e!

In t(e ma&'r /e s*ea% '+ a be$n- t(at ,an be ,'-$tated -enerally and
$n e0ery relat$'n) ,'nse.uently as $t may be -$0en $n $ntu$t$'n! 3ut
$n t(e m$n'r /e s*ea% '+ t(e same be$n- 'nly $n s' +ar as $t re-ards
$tsel+ as sub&e,t) relat$0ely t' t('u-(t and t(e un$ty '+
,'ns,$'usness) but n't $n relat$'n t' $ntu$t$'n) by /($,( $t $s
*resented as an 'b&e,t t' t('u-(t! T(us t(e ,'n,lus$'n $s (ere arr$0ed
at by a S'*($sma +$-urae d$,t$'n$s!7
7T('u-(t $s ta%en $n t(e t/' *rem$sses $n t/' t'tally d$++erent
senses! In t(e ma&'r $t $s ,'ns$dered as relat$n- and a**ly$n- t'
'b&e,ts $n -eneral) ,'nse.uently t' 'b&e,ts '+ $ntu$t$'n als'! In
t(e m$n'r) /e understand $t as relat$n- merely t'
sel+5,'ns,$'usness! In t($s sense) /e d' n't ,'-$tate an 'b&e,t) but
merely t(e relat$'n t' t(e sel+5,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e sub&e,t) as t(e
+'rm '+ t('u-(t! In t(e +'rmer *rem$ss /e s*ea% '+ t($n-s /($,( ,ann't
be ,'-$tated 't(er/$se t(an as sub&e,ts! In t(e se,'nd) /e d' n't
s*ea% '+ t($n-s) but '+ t('u-(t all 'b&e,ts be$n- abstra,ted>) $n
/($,( t(e E-' $s al/ays t(e sub&e,t '+ ,'ns,$'usness! Hen,e t(e
,'n,lus$'n ,ann't be) 9I ,ann't e1$st 't(er/$se t(an as sub&e,t94
but 'nly 9I ,an) $n ,'-$tat$n- my e1$sten,e) em*l'y my E-' 'nly as t(e
sub&e,t '+ t(e &ud-ement!9 3ut t($s $s an $dent$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) and
t(r'/s n' l$-(t 'n t(e m'de '+ my e1$sten,e!
T(at t($s +am'us ar-ument $s a mere *aral'-$sm) /$ll be *la$n t' any
'ne /(' /$ll ,'ns$der t(e -eneral remar% /($,( *re,edes 'ur e1*'s$t$'n
'+ t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ure understand$n-) and t(e se,t$'n 'n
n'umena! F'r $t /as t(ere *r'0ed t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n-) /($,(
,an e1$st *er se5 'nly as a sub&e,t and ne0er as a *red$,ate)
*'ssesses n' 'b&e,t$0e real$ty4 t(at $s t' say) /e ,an ne0er %n'/
/(et(er t(ere e1$sts any 'b&e,t t' ,'rres*'nd t' t(e ,'n,e*t$'n4
,'nse.uently) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $s n't($n- m're t(an a ,'n,e*t$'n) and
+r'm $t /e der$0e n' *r'*er %n'/led-e! I+ t($s ,'n,e*t$'n $s t'
$nd$,ate by t(e term substan,e) an 'b&e,t t(at ,an be -$0en) $+ $t
$s t' be,'me a ,'-n$t$'n) /e must (a0e at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t(e
,'-n$t$'n a *ermanent $ntu$t$'n) as t(e $nd$s*ensable ,'nd$t$'n '+ $ts
'b&e,t$0e real$ty! F'r t(r'u-( $ntu$t$'n al'ne ,an an 'b&e,t be -$0en!
3ut $n $nternal $ntu$t$'n t(ere $s n't($n- *ermanent) +'r t(e E-' $s
but t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ my t('u-(t! I+ t(en) /e a**eal merely t'
t('u-(t) /e ,ann't d$s,'0er t(e ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e a**l$,at$'n
'+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ substan,e5 t(at $s) '+ a sub&e,t e1$st$n- *er se5
t' t(e sub&e,t as a t($n%$n- be$n-! And t(us t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
s$m*le nature '+ substan,e) /($,( $s ,'nne,ted /$t( t(e 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty '+ t($s ,'n,e*t$'n) $s s('/n t' be als' $n0al$d) and t' be) $n
+a,t) n't($n- m're t(an t(e l'-$,al .ual$tat$0e un$ty '+
sel+5,'ns,$'usness $n t('u-(t4 /($lst /e rema$n *er+e,tly $-n'rant
/(et(er t(e sub&e,t $s ,'m*'s$te 'r n't!
Re+utat$'n '+ t(e Ar-ument '+ "endelss'(n +'r t(e

Substant$al$ty 'r Permanen,e '+ t(e S'ul!

T($s a,ute *($l's'*(er eas$ly *er,e$0ed t(e $nsu++$,$en,y '+ t(e
,'mm'n ar-ument /($,( attem*ts t' *r'0e t(at t(e s'ul5 $t be$n-
-ranted t(at $t $s a s$m*le be$n-5 ,ann't *er$s( by d$ss'lut$'n 'r
de,'m*'s$t$'n4 (e sa/ $t $s n't $m*'ss$ble +'r $t t' ,ease t' be by
e1t$n,t$'n) 'r d$sa**earan,e! He endea0'ured t' *r'0e $n ($s P(aed')
t(at t(e s'ul ,ann't be ann$($lated) by s('/$n- t(at a s$m*le be$n-
,ann't ,ease t' e1$st! Inasmu,( as) be sa$d) a s$m*le e1$sten,e ,ann't
d$m$n$s() n'r -radually l'se *'rt$'ns '+ $ts be$n-) and t(us be by
de-rees redu,ed t' n't($n- =+'r $t *'ssesses n' *arts) and t(ere+'re
n' mult$*l$,$ty>) bet/een t(e m'ment $n /($,( $t $s) and t(e m'ment $n
/($,( $t $s n't) n' t$me ,an be d$s,'0ered5 /($,( $s $m*'ss$ble! 3ut
t($s *($l's'*(er d$d n't ,'ns$der t(at) -rant$n- t(e s'ul t' *'ssess
t($s s$m*le nature) /($,( ,'nta$ns n' *arts e1ternal t' ea,( 't(er and
,'nse.uently n' e1tens$0e .uant$ty) /e ,ann't re+use t' $t any less
t(an t' any 't(er be$n-) $ntens$0e .uant$ty) t(at $s) a de-ree '+
real$ty $n re-ard t' all $ts +a,ult$es) nay) t' all t(at ,'nst$tutes
$ts e1$sten,e! 3ut t($s de-ree '+ real$ty ,an be,'me less and less
t(r'u-( an $n+$n$te ser$es '+ smaller de-rees! It +'ll'/s)
t(ere+'re) t(at t($s su**'sed substan,e5 t($s t($n-) t(e *ermanen,e '+
/($,( $s n't assured $n any 't(er /ay) may) $+ n't by de,'m*'s$t$'n)
by -radual l'ss =rem$ss$'> '+ $ts *'/ers =,'nse.uently by
elan-ues,en,e) $+ I may em*l'y t($s e1*ress$'n>) be ,(an-ed $nt'
n't($n-! F'r ,'ns,$'usness $tsel+ (as al/ays a de-ree) /($,( may be
lessened!7 C'nse.uently t(e +a,ulty '+ be$n- ,'ns,$'us may be
d$m$n$s(ed4 and s' /$t( all 't(er +a,ult$es! T(e *ermanen,e '+ t(e
s'ul) t(ere+'re) as an 'b&e,t '+ t(e $nternal sense) rema$ns
undem'nstrated) nay) e0en $ndem'nstrable! Its *ermanen,e $n l$+e $s
e0$dent) *er se) $nasmu,( as t(e t($n%$n- be$n- =as man> $s t' $tsel+)
at t(e same t$me) an 'b&e,t '+ t(e e1ternal senses! 3ut t($s d'es
n't aut('r$;e t(e rat$'nal *sy,('l'-$st t' a++$rm) +r'm mere
,'n,e*t$'ns) $ts *ermanen,e bey'nd l$+e!78B:
7Clearness $s n't) as l'-$,$ans ma$nta$n) t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ a
re*resentat$'n! F'r a ,erta$n de-ree '+ ,'ns,$'usness) /($,( may
n't) ('/e0er) be su++$,$ent +'r re,'lle,t$'n) $s t' be met /$t( $n
many d$m re*resentat$'ns! F'r /$t('ut any ,'ns,$'usness at all) /e
s('uld n't be able t' re,'-n$;e any d$++eren,e $n t(e 'bs,ure
re*resentat$'ns /e ,'nne,t4 as /e really ,an d' /$t( many ,'n,e*t$'ns)
su,( as t('se '+ r$-(t and &ust$,e) and t('se '+ t(e mus$,$an) /('
str$%es at 'n,e se0eral n'tes $n $m*r'0$s$n- a *$e,e '+ mus$,! 3ut a
re*resentat$'n $s ,lear) $n /($,( 'ur ,'ns,$'usness $s su++$,$ent
+'r t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e d$++eren,e '+ t($s re*resentat$'n +r'm
't(ers! I+ /e are 'nly ,'ns,$'us t(at t(ere $s a d$++eren,e) but are
n't ,'ns,$'us '+ t(e d$++eren,e5 t(at $s) /(at t(e d$++eren,e $s5
t(e re*resentat$'n must be termed 'bs,ure! T(ere $s) ,'nse.uently)
an $n+$n$te ser$es '+ de-rees '+ ,'ns,$'usness d'/n t' $ts ent$re
78B: T(ere are s'me /(' t($n% t(ey (a0e d'ne en'u-( t' establ$s( a
ne/ *'ss$b$l$ty $n t(e m'de '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ s'uls) /(en t(ey
(a0e s('/n t(at t(ere $s n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n $n t(e$r (y*'t(eses 'n
t($s sub&e,t! Su,( are t('se /(' a++$rm t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t('u-(t5 '+
/($,( t(ey (a0e n' 't(er %n'/led-e t(an /(at t(ey der$0e +r'm $ts
use $n ,'nne,t$n- em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'ns *resented $n t($s 'ur (uman
l$+e5 a+ter t($s l$+e bas ,eased! 3ut $t $s 0ery easy t' embarrass
t(em by t(e $ntr'du,t$'n '+ ,'unter5*'ss$b$l$t$es) /($,( rest u*'n
.u$te as -''d a +'undat$'n! Su,() +'r e1am*le) $s t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
t(e d$0$s$'n '+ a s$m*le substan,e $nt' se0eral substan,es4 and
,'n0ersely) '+ t(e ,'al$t$'n '+ se0eral $nt' 'ne s$m*le substan,e!
F'r) alt('u-( d$0$s$b$l$ty *resu**'ses ,'m*'s$t$'n) $t d'es n't
ne,essar$ly re.u$re a ,'m*'s$t$'n '+ substan,es) but 'nly '+ t(e
de-rees ='+ t(e se0eral +a,ult$es> '+ 'ne and t(e same substan,e!
N'/ /e ,an ,'-$tate all t(e *'/ers and +a,ult$es '+ t(e s'ul5 e0en
t(at '+ ,'ns,$'usness5 as d$m$n$s(ed by 'ne (al+) t(e substan,e
st$ll rema$n$n-! In t(e same /ay /e ,an re*resent t' 'ursel0es /$t('ut
,'ntrad$,t$'n) t($s 'bl$terated (al+ as *reser0ed) n't $n t(e s'ul)
but /$t('ut $t4 and /e ,an bel$e0e t(at) as $n t($s ,ase e0ery!
t($n- t(at $s real $n t(e s'ul) and (as a de-ree5 ,'nse.uently $ts
ent$re e1$sten,e5 (as been (al0ed) a *art$,ular substan,e /'uld
ar$se 'ut '+ t(e s'ul! F'r t(e mult$*l$,$ty) /($,( (as been d$0$ded)
+'rmerly e1$sted) but n't as a mult$*l$,$ty '+ substan,es) but '+
e0ery real$ty as t(e .uantum '+ e1$sten,e $n $t4 and t(e un$ty '+
substan,e /as merely a m'de '+ e1$sten,e) /($,( by t($s d$0$s$'n al'ne
(as been trans+'rmed $nt' a *lural$ty '+ subs$sten,e! In t(e same
manner se0eral s$m*le substan,es m$-(t ,'ales,e $nt' 'ne) /$t('ut
anyt($n- be$n- l'st e1,e*t t(e *lural$ty '+ subs$sten,e) $nasmu,( as
t(e 'ne substan,e /'uld ,'nta$n t(e de-ree '+ real$ty '+ all t(e
+'rmer substan,es! Per(a*s) $ndeed) t(e s$m*le substan,es) /($,(
a**ear under t(e +'rm '+ matter) m$-(t =n't $ndeed by a me,(an$,al
'r ,(em$,al $n+luen,e u*'n ea,( 't(er) but by an un%n'/n $n+luen,e) '+
/($,( t(e +'rmer /'uld be but t(e *(en'menal a**earan,e>) by means
'+ su,( a dynam$,al d$0$s$'n '+ t(e *arent5s'uls) as $ntens$0e
.uant$t$es) *r'du,e 't(er s'uls) /($le t(e +'rmer re*a$red t(e l'ss
t(us susta$ned /$t( ne/ matter '+ t(e same s'rt! I am +ar +r'm
all'/$n- any 0alue t' su,( ,($meras4 and t(e *r$n,$*les '+ 'ur
analyt$, (a0e ,learly *r'0ed t(at n' 't(er t(an an em*$r$,al use '+
t(e ,ate-'r$es5 t(at '+ substan,e) +'r e1am*le5 $s *'ss$ble! 3ut $+
t(e rat$'nal$st $s b'ld en'u-( t' ,'nstru,t) 'n t(e mere aut('r$ty
'+ t(e +a,ulty '+ t('u-(t5 /$t('ut any $ntu$t$'n) /(ereby an 'b&e,t $s
-$0en5 a sel+5subs$stent be$n-) merely be,ause t(e un$ty '+
a**er,e*t$'n $n t('u-(t ,ann't all'/ ($m t' bel$e0e $t a ,'m*'s$te
be$n-) $nstead '+ de,lar$n-) as (e 'u-(t t' d') t(at (e $s unable t'
e1*la$n t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a t($n%$n- nature4 /(at 'u-(t t' ($nder t(e
mater$al$st) /$t( as ,'m*lete an $nde*enden,e '+ e1*er$en,e) t' em*l'y
t(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(e rat$'nal$st $n a d$re,tly '**'s$te manner5
st$ll *reser0$n- t(e +'rmal un$ty re.u$red by ($s '**'nent@
I+) n'/) /e ta%e t(e ab'0e *r'*'s$t$'ns5 as t(ey must be a,,e*ted as
0al$d +'r all t($n%$n- be$n-s $n t(e system '+ rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y5 $n
synt(et$,al ,'nne,t$'n) and *r',eed) +r'm t(e ,ate-'ry '+ relat$'n)
/$t( t(e *r'*'s$t$'n6 9All t($n%$n- be$n-s are) as su,()
substan,es)9 ba,%/ards t(r'u-( t(e ser$es) t$ll t(e ,$r,le $s
,'m*leted4 /e ,'me at last t' t(e$r e1$sten,e) '+ /($,() $n t($s
system '+ rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y) substan,es are (eld t' be ,'ns,$'us)
$nde*endently '+ e1ternal t($n-s4 nay) $t $s asserted t(at) $n
relat$'n t' t(e *ermanen,e /($,( $s a ne,essary ,(ara,ter$st$, '+
substan,e) t(ey ,an '+ t(emsel0es determ$ne e1ternal t($n-s! It
+'ll'/s t(at $deal$sm5 at least *r'blemat$,al $deal$sm) $s *er+e,tly
una0'$dable $n t($s rat$'nal$st$, system! And) $+ t(e e1$sten,e '+
'ut/ard t($n-s $s n't (eld t' be re.u$s$te t' t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ a substan,e $n t$me) t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(ese 'ut/ard
t($n-s at all) $s a -ratu$t'us assum*t$'n /($,( rema$ns /$t('ut t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ a *r''+!
3ut $+ /e *r',eed analyt$,ally5 t(e 9I t($n%9 as a *r'*'s$t$'n
,'nta$n$n- $n $tsel+ an e1$sten,e as -$0en) ,'nse.uently m'dal$ty
be$n- t(e *r$n,$*le5 and d$sse,t t($s *r'*'s$t$'n) $n 'rder t'
as,erta$n $ts ,'ntent) and d$s,'0er /(et(er and ('/ t($s E-'
determ$nes $ts e1$sten,e $n t$me and s*a,e /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ anyt($n-
e1ternal4 t(e *r'*'s$t$'ns '+ rat$'nal$st$, *sy,('l'-y /'uld n't be-$n
/$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n%$n- be$n-) but /$t( a real$ty) and t(e
*r'*ert$es '+ a t($n%$n- be$n- $n -eneral /'uld be dedu,ed +r'm t(e
m'de $n /($,( t($s real$ty $s ,'-$tated) a+ter e0eryt($n- em*$r$,al
(ad been abstra,ted4 as $s s('/n $n t(e +'ll'/$n- table6

I t($n%)


as Sub&e,t) as s$m*le Sub&e,t)


as $dent$,al Sub&e,t)

$n e0ery state '+ my t('u-(t!

N'/) $nasmu,( as $t $s n't determ$ned $n t($s se,'nd *r'*'s$t$'n)
/(et(er I ,an e1$st and be ,'-$tated 'nly as sub&e,t) and n't als'
as a *red$,ate '+ an't(er be$n-) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a sub&e,t $s (ere
ta%en $n a merely l'-$,al sense4 and $t rema$ns undeterm$ned)
/(et(er substan,e $s t' be ,'-$tated under t(e ,'n,e*t$'n 'r n't!
3ut $n t(e t($rd *r'*'s$t$'n) t(e abs'lute un$ty '+ a**er,e*t$'n5
t(e s$m*le E-' $n t(e re*resentat$'n t' /($,( all ,'nne,t$'n and
se*arat$'n) /($,( ,'nst$tute t('u-(t) relate) $s '+ $tsel+
$m*'rtant4 e0en alt('u-( $t *resents us /$t( n' $n+'rmat$'n ab'ut
t(e ,'nst$tut$'n 'r subs$sten,e '+ t(e sub&e,t! A**er,e*t$'n $s
s'met($n- real) and t(e s$m*l$,$ty '+ $ts nature $s -$0en $n t(e
0ery +a,t '+ $ts *'ss$b$l$ty! N'/ $n s*a,e t(ere $s n't($n- real
t(at $s at t(e same t$me s$m*le4 +'r *'$nts) /($,( are t(e 'nly s$m*le
t($n-s $n s*a,e) are merely l$m$ts) but n't ,'nst$tuent *arts '+
s*a,e! Fr'm t($s +'ll'/s t(e $m*'ss$b$l$ty '+ a de+$n$t$'n 'n t(e
bas$s '+ mater$al$sm '+ t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ my E-' as a merely
t($n%$n- sub&e,t! 3ut) be,ause my e1$sten,e $s ,'ns$dered $n t(e +$rst
*r'*'s$t$'n as -$0en) +'r $t d'es n't mean) 9E0ery t($n%$n- be$n-
e1$sts9 =+'r t($s /'uld be *red$,at$n- '+ t(em abs'lute ne,ess$ty>)
but 'nly) 9I e1$st t($n%$n-94 t(e *r'*'s$t$'n $s .u$te em*$r$,al)
and ,'nta$ns t(e determ$nab$l$ty '+ my e1$sten,e merely $n relat$'n t'
my re*resentat$'ns $n t$me! 3ut as I re.u$re +'r t($s *ur*'se
s'met($n- t(at $s *ermanent) su,( as $s n't -$0en $n $nternal
$ntu$t$'n4 t(e m'de '+ my e1$sten,e) /(et(er as substan,e 'r as
a,,$dent) ,ann't be determ$ned by means '+ t($s s$m*le
sel+5,'ns,$'usness! T(us) $+ mater$al$sm $s $nade.uate t' e1*la$n
t(e m'de $n /($,( I e1$st) s*$r$tual$sm $s l$%e/$se as $nsu++$,$ent4
and t(e ,'n,lus$'n $s t(at /e are utterly unable t' atta$n t' any
%n'/led-e '+ t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ t(e s'ul) $n s' +ar as relates t' t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ $ts e1$sten,e a*art +r'm e1ternal 'b&e,ts!
And) $ndeed) ('/ s('uld $t be *'ss$ble) merely by t(e a$d '+ t(e
un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness5 /($,( /e ,'-n$;e 'nly +'r t(e reas'n t(at $t
$s $nd$s*ensable t' t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e5 t' *ass t(e
b'unds '+ e1*er$en,e ='ur e1$sten,e $n t($s l$+e>4 and t' e1tend 'ur
,'-n$t$'n t' t(e nature '+ all t($n%$n- be$n-s by means '+ t(e
em*$r$,al5 but $n relat$'n t' e0ery s'rt '+ $ntu$t$'n) *er+e,tly
undeterm$ned5 *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I t($n%9@
T(ere d'es n't t(en e1$st any rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y as a d',tr$ne
+urn$s($n- any add$t$'n t' 'ur %n'/led-e '+ 'ursel0es! It $s n't($n-
m're t(an a d$s,$*l$ne) /($,( sets $m*assable l$m$ts t' s*e,ulat$0e
reas'n $n t($s re-$'n '+ t('u-(t) t' *re0ent $t) 'n t(e 'ne (and) +r'm
t(r'/$n- $tsel+ $nt' t(e arms '+ a s'ulless mater$al$sm) and) 'n t(e
't(er) +r'm l's$n- $tsel+ $n t(e ma;es '+ a baseless s*$r$tual$sm!
It tea,(es us t' ,'ns$der t($s re+usal '+ 'ur reas'n t' -$0e any
sat$s+a,t'ry ans/er t' .uest$'ns /($,( rea,( bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ t($s
'ur (uman l$+e) as a ($nt t' aband'n +ru$tless s*e,ulat$'n4 and t'
d$re,t) t' a *ra,t$,al use) 'ur %n'/led-e '+ 'ursel0es5 /($,()
alt('u-( a**l$,able 'nly t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) re,e$0es $ts
*r$n,$*les +r'm a ($-(er s'ur,e) and re-ulates $ts *r',edure as $+ 'ur
dest$ny rea,(ed +ar bey'nd t(e b'undar$es '+ e1*er$en,e and l$+e!
Fr'm all t($s $t $s e0$dent t(at rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y (as $ts
'r$-$n $n a mere m$sunderstand$n-! T(e un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness) /($,(
l$es at t(e bas$s '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) $s ,'ns$dered t' be an
$ntu$t$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t as an 'b&e,t4 and t(e ,ate-'ry '+ substan,e
$s a**l$ed t' t(e $ntu$t$'n! 3ut t($s un$ty $s n't($n- m're t(an t(e
un$ty $n t('u-(t) by /($,( n' 'b&e,t $s -$0en4 t' /($,( t(ere+'re
t(e ,ate-'ry '+ substan,e5 /($,( al/ays *resu**'ses a -$0en $ntu$t$'n5
,ann't be a**l$ed! C'nse.uently) t(e sub&e,t ,ann't be ,'-n$;ed! T(e
sub&e,t '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es ,ann't) t(ere+'re) +'r t(e 0ery reas'n
t(at $t ,'-$tates t(ese) +rame any ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $tsel+ as an 'b&e,t
'+ t(e ,ate-'r$es4 +'r) t' ,'-$tate t(ese) $t must lay at t(e
+'undat$'n $ts '/n *ure sel+5,'ns,$'usness5 t(e 0ery t($n- t(at $t
/$s(es t' e1*la$n and des,r$be! In l$%e manner) t(e sub&e,t) $n
/($,( t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t$me (as $ts bas$s) ,ann't determ$ne)
+'r t($s 0ery reas'n) $ts '/n e1$sten,e $n t$me! N'/) $+ t(e latter $s
$m*'ss$ble) t(e +'rmer) as an attem*t t' determ$ne $tsel+ by means
'+ t(e ,ate-'r$es as a t($n%$n- be$n- $n -eneral) $s n' less s'!7
7T(e 9I t($n%9 $s) as (as been already stated) an em*$r$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n) and ,'nta$ns t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I e1$st!9 3ut I ,ann't
say) 9E0eryt($n-) /($,( t($n%s) e1$sts94 +'r $n t($s ,ase t(e *r'*erty
'+ t('u-(t /'uld ,'nst$tute all be$n-s *'ssess$n- $t) ne,essary
be$n- Hen,e my e1$sten,e ,ann't be ,'ns$dered as an $n+eren,e +r'm t(e
*r'*'s$t$'n) 9I t($n%)9 as #es,artes ma$nta$ned5 be,ause $n t($s
,ase t(e ma&'r *rem$ss) 9E0eryt($n-) /($,( t($n%s) e1$sts)9 must
*re,ede5 but t(e t/' *r'*'s$t$'ns are $dent$,al! T(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I
t($n%)9 e1*resses an undeterm$ned em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) t(at *er,e*t$'n
=*r'0$n- ,'nse.uently t(at sensat$'n) /($,( must bel'n- t'
sens$b$l$ty) l$es at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t($s *r'*'s$t$'n>4 but $t
*re,edes e1*er$en,e) /('se *r'0$n,e $t $s t' determ$ne an 'b&e,t '+
*er,e*t$'n by means '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es $n relat$'n t' t$me4 and
e1$sten,e $n t($s *r'*'s$t$'n $s n't a ,ate-'ry) as $t d'es n't
a**ly t' an undeterm$ned -$0en 'b&e,t) but 'nly t' 'ne '+ /($,( /e
(a0e a ,'n,e*t$'n) and ab'ut /($,( /e /$s( t' %n'/ /(et(er $t d'es
'r d'es n't e1$st) 'ut '+) and a*art +r'm t($s ,'n,e*t$'n! An
undeterm$ned *er,e*t$'n s$-n$+$es (ere merely s'met($n- real t(at
(as been -$0en) 'nly) ('/e0er) t' t('u-(t $n -eneral5 but n't as a
*(en'men'n) n'r as a t($n- $n $tsel+ =n'umen'n>) but 'nly as s'met($n-
t(at really e1$sts) and $s des$-nated as su,( $n t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I
t($n%!9 F'r $t must be remar%ed t(at) /(en I ,all t(e *r'*'s$t$'n)
9I t($n%)9 an em*$r$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) I d' n't t(ereby mean t(at t(e
E-' $n t(e *r'*'s$t$'n $s an em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n4 'n t(e
,'ntrary) $t $s *urely $ntelle,tual) be,ause $t bel'n-s t' t('u-(t
$n -eneral! 3ut /$t('ut s'me em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n) /($,(
*resents t' t(e m$nd mater$al +'r t('u-(t) t(e mental a,t) 9I
t($n%)9 /'uld n't ta%e *la,e4 and t(e em*$r$,al $s 'nly t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e a**l$,at$'n 'r em*l'yment '+ t(e *ure $ntelle,tual
T(us) t(en) a**ears t(e 0an$ty '+ t(e ('*e '+ establ$s($n- a
,'-n$t$'n /($,( $s t' e1tend $ts rule bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ e1*er$en,e5
a ,'-n$t$'n /($,( $s 'ne '+ t(e ($-(est $nterests '+ (uman$ty4 and
t(us $s *r'0ed t(e +ut$l$ty '+ t(e attem*t '+ s*e,ulat$0e *($l's'*(y
$n t($s re-$'n '+ t('u-(t! 3ut) $n t($s $nterest '+ t('u-(t) t(e
se0er$ty '+ ,r$t$,$sm (as rendered t' reas'n a n't un$m*'rtant
ser0$,e) by t(e dem'nstrat$'n '+ t(e $m*'ss$b$l$ty '+ ma%$n- any
d'-mat$,al a++$rmat$'n ,'n,ern$n- an 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e bey'nd t(e
b'undar$es '+ e1*er$en,e! S(e (as t(us +'rt$+$ed reas'n a-a$nst all
a++$rmat$'ns '+ t(e ,'ntrary! N'/) t($s ,an be a,,'m*l$s(ed $n 'nly
t/' /ays! E$t(er 'ur *r'*'s$t$'n must be *r'0ed a*'de$,t$,ally4 'r) $+
t($s $s unsu,,ess+ul) t(e s'ur,es '+ t($s $nab$l$ty must be s'u-(t
+'r) and) $+ t(ese are d$s,'0ered t' e1$st $n t(e natural and
ne,essary l$m$tat$'n '+ 'ur reas'n) 'ur '**'nents must subm$t t' t(e
same la/ '+ renun,$at$'n and re+ra$n +r'm ad0an,$n- ,la$ms t' d'-mat$,
3ut t(e r$-(t) say rat(er t(e ne,ess$ty t' adm$t a +uture l$+e) u*'n
*r$n,$*les '+ t(e *ra,t$,al ,'n&'$ned /$t( t(e s*e,ulat$0e use '+
reas'n) (as l'st n't($n- by t($s renun,$at$'n4 +'r t(e merely
s*e,ulat$0e *r''+ (as ne0er (ad any $n+luen,e u*'n t(e ,'mm'n reas'n
'+ men! It stands u*'n t(e *'$nt '+ a (a$r) s' t(at e0en t(e s,(''ls
(a0e been able t' *reser0e $t +r'm +all$n- 'nly by $n,essantly
d$s,uss$n- $t and s*$nn$n- $t l$%e a t'*4 and e0en $n t(e$r eyes $t
(as ne0er been able t' *resent any sa+e +'undat$'n +'r t(e ere,t$'n '+
a t(e'ry! T(e *r''+s /($,( (a0e been ,urrent am'n- men) *reser0e t(e$r
0alue und$m$n$s(ed4 nay) rat(er -a$n $n ,learness and
uns'*($st$,ated *'/er) by t(e re&e,t$'n '+ t(e d'-mat$,al
assum*t$'ns '+ s*e,ulat$0e reas'n! F'r reas'n $s t(us ,'n+$ned
/$t($n (er '/n *e,ul$ar *r'0$n,e5 t(e arran-ement '+ ends 'r a$ms)
/($,( $s at t(e same t$me t(e arran-ement '+ nature4 and) as a
*ra,t$,al +a,ulty) /$t('ut l$m$t$n- $tsel+ t' t(e latter) $t $s
&ust$+$ed $n e1tend$n- t(e +'rmer) and /$t( $t 'ur '/n e1$sten,e)
bey'nd t(e b'undar$es '+ e1*er$en,e and l$+e! I+ /e turn 'ur attent$'n
t' t(e anal'-y '+ t(e nature '+ l$0$n- be$n-s $n t($s /'rld) $n t(e
,'ns$derat$'n '+ /($,( reas'n $s 'bl$-ed t' a,,e*t as a *r$n,$*le t(at
n' 'r-an) n' +a,ulty) n' a**et$te $s useless) and t(at n't($n- $s
su*er+lu'us) n't($n- d$s*r'*'rt$'nate t' $ts use) n't($n- unsu$ted
t' $ts end4 but t(at) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) e0eryt($n- $s *er+e,tly
,'n+'rmed t' $ts dest$nat$'n $n l$+e5 /e s(all +$nd t(at man) /('
al'ne $s t(e +$nal end and a$m '+ t($s 'rder) $s st$ll t(e 'nly an$mal
t(at seems t' be e1,e*ted +r'm $t! F'r ($s natural -$+ts5 n't merely
as re-ards t(e talents and m't$0es t(at may $n,$te ($m t' em*l'y t(em)
but es*e,$ally t(e m'ral la/ $n ($m5 stret,( s' +ar bey'nd all mere
eart(ly ut$l$ty and ad0anta-e) t(at (e +eels ($msel+ b'und t' *r$;e
t(e mere ,'ns,$'usness '+ *r'b$ty) a*art +r'm all ad0anta-e'us
,'nse.uen,es5 e0en t(e s(ad'/y -$+t '+ *'st(um'us +ame5 ab'0e
e0eryt($n-4 and (e $s ,'ns,$'us '+ an $n/ard ,all t' ,'nst$tute
($msel+) by ($s ,'ndu,t $n t($s /'rld5 /$t('ut re-ard t' mere
sublunary $nterests5 t(e ,$t$;en '+ a better! T($s m$-(ty)
$rres$st$ble *r''+5 a,,'m*an$ed by an e0er5$n,reas$n- %n'/led-e '+ t(e
,'n+'rmab$l$ty t' a *ur*'se $n e0eryt($n- /e see ar'und us) by t(e
,'n0$,t$'n '+ t(e b'undless $mmens$ty '+ ,reat$'n) by t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ a ,erta$n $ll$m$tableness $n t(e *'ss$ble e1tens$'n
'+ 'ur %n'/led-e) and by a des$re ,'mmensurate t(ere/$t(5 rema$ns t'
(uman$ty) e0en a+ter t(e t(e'ret$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+ 'ursel0es bas +a$led
t' establ$s( t(e ne,ess$ty '+ an e1$sten,e a+ter deat(!
C'n,lus$'n '+ t(e S'lut$'n '+ t(e

Psy,('l'-$,al Paral'-$sm!

T(e d$ale,t$,al $llus$'n $n rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y ar$ses +r'm 'ur
,'n+'und$n- an $dea '+ reas'n ='+ a *ure $ntell$-en,e> /$t( t(e
,'n,e*t$'n5 $n e0ery res*e,t undeterm$ned5 '+ a t($n%$n- be$n- $n
-eneral! I ,'-$tate mysel+ $n be(al+ '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) at
t(e same t$me ma%$n- abstra,t$'n '+ all a,tual e1*er$en,e4 and $n+er
t(ere+r'm t(at I ,an be ,'ns,$'us '+ mysel+ a*art +r'm e1*er$en,e
and $ts em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns! I ,'nse.uently ,'n+'und t(e *'ss$ble
abstra,t$'n '+ my em*$r$,ally determ$ned e1$sten,e /$t( t(e su**'sed
,'ns,$'usness '+ a *'ss$ble se*arate e1$sten,e '+ my t($n%$n- sel+4
and I bel$e0e t(at I ,'-n$;e /(at $s substant$al $n mysel+ as a
trans,endental sub&e,t) /(en I (a0e n't($n- m're $n t('u-(t t(an t(e
un$ty '+ ,'ns,$'usness) /($,( l$es at t(e bas$s '+ all determ$nat$'n
'+ ,'-n$t$'n!
T(e tas% '+ e1*la$n$n- t(e ,'mmun$ty '+ t(e s'ul /$t( t(e b'dy
d'es n't *r'*erly bel'n- t' t(e *sy,('l'-y '+ /($,( /e are (ere
s*ea%$n-4 be,ause $t *r'*'ses t' *r'0e t(e *ers'nal$ty '+ t(e s'ul
a*art +r'm t($s ,'mmun$'n =a+ter deat(>) and $s t(ere+'re trans,endent
$n t(e *r'*er sense '+ t(e /'rd) alt('u-( ',,u*y$n- $tsel+ /$t( an
'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e5 'nly $n s' +ar) ('/e0er) as $t ,eases t' be an
'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e! 3ut a su++$,$ent ans/er may be +'und t' t(e
.uest$'n $n 'ur system! T(e d$++$,ulty /($,( l$es $n t(e e1e,ut$'n
'+ t($s tas% ,'ns$sts) as $s /ell %n'/n) $n t(e *resu**'sed
(eter'-ene$ty '+ t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(e $nternal sense =t(e s'ul> and t(e
'b&e,ts '+ t(e e1ternal senses4 $nasmu,( as t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+
t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e 'ne $s t$me) and '+ t(at '+ t(e 't(er s*a,e als'!
3ut $+ /e ,'ns$der t(at b't( %$nds '+ 'b&e,ts d' n't d$++er
$nternally) but 'nly $n s' +ar as t(e 'ne a**ears e1ternally t' t(e
't(er5 ,'nse.uently) t(at /(at l$es at t(e bas$s '+ *(en'mena) as a
t($n- $n $tsel+) may n't be (eter'-ene'us4 t($s d$++$,ulty d$sa**ears!
T(ere t(en rema$ns n' 't(er d$++$,ulty t(an $s t' be +'und $n t(e
.uest$'n5 ('/ a ,'mmun$ty '+ substan,es $s *'ss$ble4 a .uest$'n
/($,( l$es 'ut '+ t(e re-$'n '+ *sy,('l'-y) and /($,( t(e reader)
a+ter /(at $n 'ur analyt$, (as been sa$d '+ *r$m$t$0e +'r,es and
+a,ult$es) /$ll eas$ly &ud-e t' be als' bey'nd t(e re-$'n '+ (uman

On t(e Trans$t$'n +r'm Rat$'nal Psy,('l'-y t' C'sm'l'-y!

T(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I t($n%)9 'r) 9I e1$st t($n%$n-)9 $s an
em*$r$,al *r'*'s$t$'n! 3ut su,( a *r'*'s$t$'n must be based 'n
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) and t(e 'b&e,t ,'-$tated as a *(en'men'n4 and
t(us 'ur t(e'ry a**ears t' ma$nta$n t(at t(e s'ul) e0en $n t('u-(t) $s
merely a *(en'men'n4 and $n t($s /ay 'ur ,'ns,$'usness $tsel+) $n
+a,t) abuts u*'n n't($n-!
T('u-(t) *er se) $s merely t(e *urely s*'ntane'us l'-$,al +un,t$'n
/($,( '*erates t' ,'nne,t t(e man$+'ld '+ a *'ss$ble $ntu$t$'n4 and $t
d'es n't re*resent t(e sub&e,t '+ ,'ns,$'usness as a *(en'men'n5 +'r
t($s reas'n al'ne) t(at $t *ays n' attent$'n t' t(e .uest$'n /(et(er
t(e m'de '+ $ntu$t$n- $t $s sensu'us 'r $ntelle,tual! I t(ere+'re d'
n't re*resent mysel+ $n t('u-(t e$t(er as I am) 'r as I a**ear t'
mysel+4 I merely ,'-$tate mysel+ as an 'b&e,t $n -eneral) '+ t(e
m'de '+ $ntu$t$n- /($,( I ma%e abstra,t$'n! 2(en I re*resent mysel+ as
t(e sub&e,t '+ t('u-(t) 'r as t(e -r'und '+ t('u-(t) t(ese m'des '+
re*resentat$'n are n't related t' t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ substan,e 'r '+
,ause4 +'r t(ese are +un,t$'ns '+ t('u-(t a**l$,able 'nly t' 'ur
sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! T(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(ese ,ate-'r$es t' t(e E-'
/'uld) ('/e0er) be ne,essary) $+ I /$s(ed t' ma%e mysel+ an 'b&e,t
'+ %n'/led-e! 3ut I /$s( t' be ,'ns,$'us '+ mysel+ 'nly as t($n%$n-4
$n /(at m'de my Sel+ $s -$0en $n $ntu$t$'n) I d' n't ,'ns$der) and
$t may be t(at I) /(' t($n%) am a *(en'men'n5 alt('u-( n't $n s' +ar
as I am a t($n%$n- be$n-4 but $n t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ mysel+ $n mere
t('u-(t I am a be$n-) t('u-( t($s ,'ns,$'usness d'es n't *resent t' me
any *r'*erty '+ t($s be$n- as mater$al +'r t('u-(t!
3ut t(e *r'*'s$t$'n) 9I t($n%)9 $n s' +ar as $t de,lares) 9I e1$st
t($n%$n-)9 $s n't t(e mere re*resentat$'n '+ a l'-$,al +un,t$'n! It
determ$nes t(e sub&e,t =/($,( $s $n t($s ,ase an 'b&e,t als'> $n
relat$'n t' e1$sten,e4 and $t ,ann't be -$0en /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ t(e
$nternal sense) /('se $ntu$t$'n *resents t' us an 'b&e,t) n't as a
t($n- $n $tsel+) but al/ays as a *(en'men'n! In t($s *r'*'s$t$'n t(ere
$s t(ere+'re s'met($n- m're t' be +'und t(an t(e mere s*'ntane$ty '+
t('u-(t4 t(ere $s als' t(e re,e*t$0$ty '+ $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s) my
t('u-(t '+ mysel+ a**l$ed t' t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n '+ mysel+! N'/)
$n t($s $ntu$t$'n t(e t($n%$n- sel+ must see% t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e
em*l'yment '+ $ts l'-$,al +un,t$'ns as ,ate-'r$es '+ substan,e) ,ause)
and s' +'rt(4 n't merely +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ d$st$n-u$s($n- $tsel+ as
an 'b&e,t $n $tsel+ by means '+ t(e re*resentat$'n 9I)9 but als' +'r
t(e *ur*'se '+ determ$n$n- t(e m'de '+ $ts e1$sten,e) t(at $s) '+
,'-n$;$n- $tsel+ as n'umen'n! 3ut t($s $s $m*'ss$ble) +'r t(e $nternal
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n $s sensu'us) and *resents us /$t( n't($n- but
*(en'menal data) /($,( d' n't ass$st t(e 'b&e,t '+ *ure
,'ns,$'usness $n $ts attem*t t' ,'-n$;e $tsel+ as a se*arate
e1$sten,e) but are use+ul 'nly as ,'ntr$but$'ns t' e1*er$en,e!
3ut) let $t be -ranted t(at /e ,'uld d$s,'0er) n't $n e1*er$en,e)
but $n ,erta$n +$rmly5establ$s(ed a *r$'r$ la/s '+ t(e use '+ *ure
reas'n5 la/s relat$n- t' 'ur e1$sten,e) aut('r$ty t' ,'ns$der
'ursel0es as le-$slat$n- a *r$'r$ $n relat$'n t' 'ur '/n e1$sten,e and
as determ$n$n- t($s e1$sten,e4 /e s('uld) 'n t($s su**'s$t$'n) +$nd
'ursel0es *'ssessed '+ a s*'ntane$ty) by /($,( 'ur a,tual e1$sten,e
/'uld be determ$nable) /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n! 2e s('uld als' be,'me a/are t(at $n t(e
,'ns,$'usness '+ 'ur e1$sten,e t(ere /as an a *r$'r$ ,'ntent) /($,(
/'uld ser0e t' determ$ne 'ur '/n e1$sten,e5 an e1$sten,e 'nly
sensu'usly determ$nable5 relat$0ely) ('/e0er) t' a ,erta$n $nternal
+a,ulty $n relat$'n t' an $ntell$-$ble /'rld!
3ut t($s /'uld n't -$0e t(e least (el* t' t(e attem*ts '+ rat$'nal
*sy,('l'-y! F'r t($s /'nder+ul +a,ulty) /($,( t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ t(e
m'ral la/ $n me re0eals) /'uld *resent me /$t( a *r$n,$*le '+ t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ my '/n e1$sten,e /($,( $s *urely $ntelle,tual5 but by
/(at *red$,ates@ 3y n'ne 't(er t(an t('se /($,( are -$0en $n
sensu'us $ntu$t$'n! T(us I s('uld +$nd mysel+ $n t(e same *'s$t$'n
$n rat$'nal *sy,('l'-y /($,( I +'rmerly ',,u*$ed) t(at $s t' say) I
s('uld +$nd mysel+ st$ll $n need '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'ns) $n 'rder t'
-$0e s$-n$+$,an,e t' my ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ substan,e and ,ause) by means
'+ /($,( al'ne I ,an *'ssess a %n'/led-e '+ mysel+6 but t(ese
$ntu$t$'ns ,an ne0er ra$se me ab'0e t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e! I s('uld
be &ust$+$ed) ('/e0er) $n a**ly$n- t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) $n re-ard t'
t(e$r *ra,t$,al use) /($,( $s al/ays d$re,ted t' 'b&e,ts '+
e1*er$en,e5 $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e$r anal'-$,al s$-n$+$,an,e /(en
em*l'yed t(e'ret$,ally5 t' +reed'm and $ts sub&e,t! At t(e same
t$me) I s('uld understand by t(em merely t(e l'-$,al +un,t$'ns '+
sub&e,t and *red$,ate) '+ *r$n,$*le and ,'nse.uen,e) $n ,'n+'rm$ty
/$t( /($,( all a,t$'ns are s' determ$ned) t(at t(ey are ,a*able '+
be$n- e1*la$ned al'n- /$t( t(e la/s '+ nature) ,'n+'rmably t' t(e
,ate-'r$es '+ substan,e and ,ause) alt('u-( t(ey 'r$-$nate +r'm a 0ery
d$++erent *r$n,$*le! 2e (a0e made t(ese 'bser0at$'ns +'r t(e *ur*'se
'+ -uard$n- a-a$nst m$sunderstand$n-) t' /($,( t(e d',tr$ne '+ 'ur
$ntu$t$'n '+ sel+ as a *(en'men'n $s e1*'sed! 2e s(all (a0e ',,as$'n
t' *er,e$0e t(e$r ut$l$ty $n t(e se.uel!
CHAPTER II! T(e Ant$n'my '+ Pure Reas'n!

2e s('/ed $n t(e $ntr'du,t$'n t' t($s *art '+ 'ur /'r%) t(at all
trans,endental $llus$'n '+ *ure reas'n ar'se +r'm d$ale,t$,al
ar-uments) t(e s,(ema '+ /($,( l'-$, -$0es us $n $ts t(ree +'rmal
s*e,$es '+ syll'-$sms5 &ust as t(e ,ate-'r$es +$nd t(e$r l'-$,al
s,(ema $n t(e +'ur +un,t$'ns '+ all &ud-ements! T(e +$rst %$nd '+
t(ese s'*($st$,al ar-uments related t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned un$ty '+
t(e sub&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ all re*resentat$'ns $n -eneral ='+ t(e
sub&e,t 'r s'ul>) $n ,'rres*'nden,e /$t( t(e ,ate-'r$,al syll'-$sms)
t(e ma&'r '+ /($,() as t(e *r$n,$*le) en'un,es t(e relat$'n '+ a
*red$,ate t' a sub&e,t! T(e se,'nd %$nd '+ d$ale,t$,al ar-ument /$ll
t(ere+'re be ,'n,erned) +'ll'/$n- t(e anal'-y /$t( (y*'t(et$,al
syll'-$sms) /$t( t(e un,'nd$t$'ned un$ty '+ t(e 'b&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns
$n t(e *(en'men'n4 and) $n t($s /ay) t(e t(eme '+ t(e t($rd %$nd t' be
treated '+ $n t(e +'ll'/$n- ,(a*ter /$ll be t(e un,'nd$t$'ned un$ty '+
t(e 'b&e,t$0e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ 'b&e,ts $n -eneral!
3ut $t $s /'rt(y '+ remar% t(at t(e trans,endental *aral'-$sm
*r'du,ed $n t(e m$nd 'nly a 'ne5t($rd $llus$'n) $n re-ard t' t(e
$dea '+ t(e sub&e,t '+ 'ur t('u-(t4 and t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n -a0e
n' -r'und t' ma$nta$n t(e ,'ntrary *r'*'s$t$'n! T(e ad0anta-e $s
,'m*letely 'n t(e s$de '+ Pneumat$sm4 alt('u-( t($s t(e'ry $tsel+
*asses $nt' nau-(t) $n t(e ,ru,$ble '+ *ure reas'n!
Dery d$++erent $s t(e ,ase /(en /e a**ly reas'n t' t(e 'b&e,t$0e
synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena! Here) ,erta$nly) reas'n establ$s(es) /$t( mu,(
*laus$b$l$ty) $ts *r$n,$*le '+ un,'nd$t$'ned un$ty4 but $t 0ery s''n
+alls $nt' su,( ,'ntrad$,t$'ns t(at $t $s ,'m*elled) $n relat$'n t'
,'sm'l'-y) t' ren'un,e $ts *retens$'ns!
F'r (ere a ne/ *(en'men'n '+ (uman reas'n meets us5 a *er+e,tly
natural ant$t(et$,) /($,( d'es n't re.u$re t' be s'u-(t +'r by
subtle s'*($stry) but $nt' /($,( reas'n '+ $tsel+ una0'$dably +alls!
It $s t(ereby *reser0ed) t' be sure) +r'm t(e slumber '+ a +an,$ed
,'n0$,t$'n5 /($,( a merely 'ne5s$ded $llus$'n *r'du,es4 but $t $s at
t(e same t$me ,'m*elled) e$t(er) 'n t(e 'ne (and) t' aband'n $tsel+ t'
a des*a$r$n- s,e*t$,$sm) 'r) 'n t(e 't(er) t' assume a d'-mat$,al
,'n+$den,e and 'bst$nate *ers$sten,e $n ,erta$n assert$'ns) /$t('ut
-rant$n- a +a$r (ear$n- t' t(e 't(er s$de '+ t(e .uest$'n! E$t(er $s
t(e deat( '+ a s'und *($l's'*(y) alt('u-( t(e +'rmer m$-(t *er(a*s
deser0e t(e t$tle '+ t(e eut(anas$a '+ *ure reas'n!
3e+'re enter$n- t($s re-$'n '+ d$s,'rd and ,'n+us$'n) /($,( t(e
,'n+l$,t '+ t(e la/s '+ *ure reas'n =ant$n'my> *r'du,es) /e s(all
*resent t(e reader /$t( s'me ,'ns$derat$'ns) $n e1*lanat$'n and
&ust$+$,at$'n '+ t(e met('d /e $ntend t' +'ll'/ $n 'ur treatment '+
t($s sub&e,t! I term all trans,endental $deas) $n s' +ar as t(ey
relate t' t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty $n t(e synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena)
,'sm$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns4 *artly 'n a,,'unt '+ t($s un,'nd$t$'ned
t'tal$ty) 'n /($,( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e /'rld5/('le $s based5 a
,'n,e*t$'n) /($,( $s $tsel+ an $dea5 *artly be,ause t(ey relate s'lely
t' t(e synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena5 t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s4 /($le) 'n
t(e 't(er (and) t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty $n t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ all *'ss$ble t($n-s -$0es r$se t' an $deal '+ *ure
reas'n) /($,( $s .u$te d$st$n,t +r'm t(e ,'sm$,al ,'n,e*t$'n) alt('u-(
$t stands $n relat$'n /$t( $t! Hen,e) as t(e *aral'-$sms '+ *ure
reas'n la$d t(e +'undat$'n +'r a d$ale,t$,al *sy,('l'-y) t(e
ant$n'my '+ *ure reas'n /$ll *resent us /$t( t(e trans,endental
*r$n,$*les '+ a *retended *ure =rat$'nal> ,'sm'l'-y5 n't) ('/e0er)
t' de,lare $t 0al$d and t' a**r'*r$ate $t) but5 as t(e 0ery term '+
a ,'n+l$,t '+ reas'n su++$,$ently $nd$,ates) t' *resent $t as an
$dea /($,( ,ann't be re,'n,$led /$t( *(en'mena and e1*er$en,e!
SECTION I! System '+ C'sm'l'-$,al Ideas!

T(at 2e may be able t' enumerate /$t( systemat$, *re,$s$'n t(ese
$deas a,,'rd$n- t' a *r$n,$*le) /e must remar%) $n t(e +$rst *la,e)
t(at $t $s +r'm t(e understand$n- al'ne t(at *ure and trans,endental
,'n,e*t$'ns ta%e t(e$r 'r$-$n4 t(at t(e reas'n d'es n't *r'*erly
-$0e b$rt( t' any ,'n,e*t$'n) but 'nly +rees t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
understand$n- +r'm t(e una0'$dable l$m$tat$'n '+ a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e) and t(us endea0'urs t' ra$se $t ab'0e t(e em*$r$,al)
t('u-( $t must st$ll be $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( $t! T($s (a**ens +r'm t(e
+a,t t(at) +'r a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned) reas'n demands abs'lute t'tal$ty
'n t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns =t' /($,( t(e understand$n- subm$ts
all *(en'mena>) and t(us ma%es '+ t(e ,ate-'ry a trans,endental
$dea! T($s $t d'es t(at $t may be able t' -$0e abs'lute ,'m*leteness
t' t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s) by ,'nt$nu$n- $t t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned
=/($,( $s n't t' be +'und $n e1*er$en,e) but 'nly $n t(e $dea>! Reas'n
re.u$res t($s a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *r$n,$*le6 I+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $s
-$0en t(e /('le '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns) and ,'nse.uently t(e abs'lutely
un,'nd$t$'ned) $s als' -$0en) /(ereby al'ne t(e +'rmer /as *'ss$ble!
F$rst) t(en) t(e trans,endental $deas are *r'*erly n't($n- but
,ate-'r$es ele0ated t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned4 and t(ey may be arran-ed
$n a table a,,'rd$n- t' t(e t$tles '+ t(e latter! 3ut) se,'ndly) all
t(e ,ate-'r$es are n't a0a$lable +'r t($s *ur*'se) but 'nly t('se $n
/($,( t(e synt(es$s ,'nst$tutes a ser$es5 '+ ,'nd$t$'ns sub'rd$nated
t') n't ,'5'rd$nated /$t() ea,( 't(er! Abs'lute t'tal$ty $s re.u$red
'+ reas'n 'nly $n s' +ar as ,'n,erns t(e as,end$n- ser$es '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ a ,'nd$t$'ned4 n't) ,'nse.uently) /(en t(e .uest$'n
relates t' t(e des,end$n- ser$es '+ ,'nse.uen,es) 'r t' t(e
a--re-ate '+ t(e ,'5'rd$nated ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(ese ,'nse.uen,es! F'r)
$n relat$'n t' a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned) ,'nd$t$'ns are *resu**'sed and
,'ns$dered t' be -$0en al'n- /$t( $t! On t(e 't(er (and) as t(e
,'nse.uen,es d' n't render *'ss$ble t(e$r ,'nd$t$'ns) but rat(er
*resu**'se t(em5 $n t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(e *r',ess$'n '+
,'nse.uen,es ='r $n t(e des,ent +r'm t(e -$0en ,'nd$t$'n t' t(e
,'nd$t$'ned>) /e may be .u$te un,'n,erned /(et(er t(e ser$es ,eases 'r
n't4 and t(e$r t'tal$ty $s n't a ne,essary demand '+ reas'n!
T(us /e ,'-$tate5 and ne,essar$ly5 a -$0en t$me ,'m*letely ela*sed
u* t' a -$0en m'ment) alt('u-( t(at t$me $s n't determ$nable by us!
3ut as re-ards t$me +uture) /($,( $s n't t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ arr$0$n-
at t(e *resent) $n 'rder t' ,'n,e$0e $t4 $t $s .u$te $nd$++erent
/(et(er /e ,'ns$der +uture t$me as ,eas$n- at s'me *'$nt) 'r as
*r'l'n-$n- $tsel+ t' $n+$n$ty! Ta%e) +'r e1am*le) t(e ser$es m) n)
') $n /($,( n $s -$0en as ,'nd$t$'ned $n relat$'n t' m) but at t(e
same t$me as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ ') and let t(e ser$es *r',eed u*/ards
+r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'ned n t' m =l) %) $) et,!>) and als' d'/n/ards +r'm
t(e ,'nd$t$'n n t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ned ' =*) .) r) et,!>5 I must
*resu**'se t(e +'rmer ser$es) t' be able t' ,'ns$der n as -$0en) and n
$s a,,'rd$n- t' reas'n =t(e t'tal$ty '+ ,'nd$t$'ns> *'ss$ble 'nly by
means '+ t(at ser$es! 3ut $ts *'ss$b$l$ty d'es n't rest 'n t(e
+'ll'/$n- ser$es ') *) .) r) /($,( +'r t($s reas'n ,ann't be
re-arded as -$0en) but 'nly as ,a*able '+ be$n- -$0en =dab$l$s>!
I s(all term t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e ser$es 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ns5 +r'm t(at nearest t' t(e -$0en *(en'men'n u* t' t(e m're
rem'te5 re-ress$0e4 t(at /($,( *r',eeds 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ned) +r'm t(e $mmed$ate ,'nse.uen,e t' t(e m're rem'te) I
s(all ,all t(e *r'-ress$0e synt(es$s! T(e +'rmer *r',eeds $n
ante,edent$a) t(e latter $n ,'nse.uent$a! T(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas are
t(ere+'re ',,u*$ed /$t( t(e t'tal$ty '+ t(e re-ress$0e synt(es$s)
and *r',eed $n ante,edent$a) n't $n ,'nse.uent$a! 2(en t(e latter
ta%es *la,e) $t $s an arb$trary and n't a ne,essary *r'blem '+ *ure
reas'n4 +'r /e re.u$re) +'r t(e ,'m*lete understand$n- '+ /(at $s
-$0en $n a *(en'men'n) n't t(e ,'nse.uen,es /($,( su,,eed) but t(e
-r'unds 'r *r$n,$*les /($,( *re,ede!
In 'rder t' ,'nstru,t t(e table '+ $deas $n ,'rres*'nden,e /$t(
t(e table '+ ,ate-'r$es) /e ta%e +$rst t(e t/' *r$m$t$0e .uanta '+ all
'ur $ntu$t$'ns) t$me and s*a,e! T$me $s $n $tsel+ a ser$es =and t(e
+'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+ all ser$es>) and (en,e) $n relat$'n t' a -$0en
*resent) /e must d$st$n-u$s( a *r$'r$ $n $t t(e ante,edent$a as
,'nd$t$'ns =t$me *ast> +r'm t(e ,'nse.uent$a =t$me +uture>!
C'nse.uently) t(e trans,endental $dea '+ t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+
t(e ser$es '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned) relates merely t'
all *ast t$me! A,,'rd$n- t' t(e $dea '+ reas'n) t(e /('le *ast t$me)
as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e -$0en m'ment) $s ne,essar$ly ,'-$tated as
-$0en! 3ut) as re-ards s*a,e) t(ere e1$sts $n $t n' d$st$n,t$'n
bet/een *r'-ressus and re-ressus4 +'r $t $s an a--re-ate and n't a
ser$es5 $ts *arts e1$st$n- t'-et(er at t(e same t$me! I ,an ,'ns$der a
-$0en *'$nt '+ t$me $n relat$'n t' *ast t$me 'nly as ,'nd$t$'ned)
be,ause t($s -$0en m'ment ,'mes $nt' e1$sten,e 'nly t(r'u-( t(e *ast
t$me rat(er t(r'u-( t(e *ass$n- '+ t(e *re,ed$n- t$me! 3ut as t(e
*arts '+ s*a,e are n't sub'rd$nated) but ,'5'rd$nated t' ea,( 't(er)
'ne *art ,ann't be t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e 't(er4
and s*a,e $s n't $n $tsel+) l$%e t$me) a ser$es! 3ut t(e synt(es$s
'+ t(e man$+'ld *arts '+ s*a,e5 =t(e synt(eses /(ereby /e a**re(end
s*a,e>5 $s ne0ert(eless su,,ess$0e4 $t ta%es *la,e) t(ere+'re) $n
t$me) and ,'nta$ns a ser$es! And as $n t($s ser$es '+ a--re-ated
s*a,es =+'r e1am*le) t(e +eet $n a r''d>) be-$nn$n- /$t( a -$0en
*'rt$'n '+ s*a,e) t('se /($,( ,'nt$nue t' be anne1ed +'rm t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e l$m$ts '+ t(e +'rmer5 t(e measurement '+ a s*a,e must
als' be re-arded as a synt(es$s '+ t(e ser$es '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ a
-$0en ,'nd$t$'ned! It d$++ers) ('/e0er) $n t($s res*e,t +r'm t(at '+
t$me) t(at t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $s n't $n $tsel+
d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm t(e s$de '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'n4 and) ,'nse.uently)
re-ressus and *r'-ressus $n s*a,e seem t' be $dent$,al! 3ut)
$nasmu,( as 'ne *art '+ s*a,e $s n't -$0en) but 'nly l$m$ted) by and
t(r'u-( an't(er) /e must als' ,'ns$der e0ery l$m$ted s*a,e as
,'nd$t$'ned) $n s' +ar as $t *resu**'ses s'me 't(er s*a,e as t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ $ts l$m$tat$'n) and s' 'n! As re-ards l$m$tat$'n)
t(ere+'re) 'ur *r',edure $n s*a,e $s als' a re-ressus) and t(e
trans,endental $dea '+ t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e synt(es$s $n a
ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns a**l$es t' s*a,e als'4 and I am ent$tled t'
demand t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e *(en'menal synt(es$s $n s*a,e as
/ell as $n t$me! 2(et(er my demand ,an be sat$s+$ed $s a .uest$'n t'
be ans/ered $n t(e se.uel!
Se,'ndly) t(e real $n s*a,e5 t(at $s) matter5 $s ,'nd$t$'ned! Its
$nternal ,'nd$t$'ns are $ts *arts) and t(e *arts '+ *arts $ts rem'te
,'nd$t$'ns4 s' t(at $n t($s ,ase /e +$nd a re-ress$0e synt(es$s) t(e
abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ /($,( $s a demand '+ reas'n! 3ut t($s ,ann't be
'bta$ned 't(er/$se t(an by a ,'m*lete d$0$s$'n '+ *arts) /(ereby t(e
real $n matter be,'mes e$t(er n't($n- 'r t(at /($,( $s n't matter)
t(at $s t' say) t(e s$m*le! C'nse.uently /e +$nd (ere als' a ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns and a *r'-ress t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned!
T($rdly) as re-ards t(e ,ate-'r$es '+ a real relat$'n bet/een
*(en'mena) t(e ,ate-'ry '+ substan,e and $ts a,,$dents $s n't su$table
+'r t(e +'rmat$'n '+ a trans,endental $dea4 t(at $s t' say) reas'n (as
n' -r'und) $n re-ard t' $t) t' *r',eed re-ress$0ely /$t( ,'nd$t$'ns!
F'r a,,$dents =$n s' +ar as t(ey $n(ere $n a substan,e> are
,'5'rd$nated /$t( ea,( 't(er) and d' n't ,'nst$tute a ser$es! And)
$n relat$'n t' substan,e) t(ey are n't *r'*erly sub'rd$nated t' $t)
but are t(e m'de '+ e1$sten,e '+ t(e substan,e $tsel+! T(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e substant$al m$-(t ne0ert(eless seem t' be an $dea '+
t(e trans,endental reas'n! 3ut) as t($s s$-n$+$es n't($n- m're t(an
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t $n -eneral) /($,( subs$sts $n s' +ar as /e
,'-$tate $n $t merely a trans,endental sub&e,t /$t('ut any *red$,ates4
and as t(e .uest$'n (ere $s '+ an un,'nd$t$'ned $n t(e ser$es '+
*(en'mena5 $t $s ,lear t(at t(e substant$al ,an +'rm n' member
t(ere'+! T(e same ('lds -''d '+ substan,es $n ,'mmun$ty) /($,( are
mere a--re-ates and d' n't +'rm a ser$es! F'r t(ey are n't
sub'rd$nated t' ea,( 't(er as ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ ea,(
't(er4 /($,() ('/e0er) may be a++$rmed '+ s*a,es) t(e l$m$ts '+
/($,( are ne0er determ$ned $n t(emsel0es) but al/ays by s'me 't(er
s*a,e! It $s) t(ere+'re) 'nly $n t(e ,ate-'ry '+ ,ausal$ty t(at /e ,an
+$nd a ser$es '+ ,auses t' a -$0en e++e,t) and $n /($,( /e as,end +r'm
t(e latter) as t(e ,'nd$t$'ned) t' t(e +'rmer as t(e ,'nd$t$'ns) and
t(us ans/er t(e .uest$'n '+ reas'n!
F'urt(ly) t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$ble) t(e a,tual) and t(e
ne,essary d' n't ,'ndu,t us t' any ser$es5 e1,e*t$n- 'nly $n s' +ar as
t(e ,'nt$n-ent $n e1$sten,e must al/ays be re-arded as ,'nd$t$'ned)
and as $nd$,at$n-) a,,'rd$n- t' a la/ '+ t(e understand$n-) a
,'nd$t$'n) under /($,( $t $s ne,essary t' r$se t' a ($-(er) t$ll $n
t(e t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es) reas'n arr$0es at un,'nd$t$'ned ne,ess$ty!
T(ere are) a,,'rd$n-ly) 'nly +'ur ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas)
,'rres*'nd$n- /$t( t(e +'ur t$tles '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es! F'r /e ,an
sele,t 'nly su,( as ne,essar$ly +urn$s( us /$t( a ser$es $n t(e
synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld!

T(e abs'lute C'm*leteness

'+ t(e


'+ t(e -$0en t'tal$ty '+ all *(en'mena!


T(e abs'lute C'm*leteness

'+ t(e


'+ -$0en t'tal$ty $n a *(en'men'n!


T(e abs'lute C'm*leteness

'+ t(e


'+ a *(en'men'n!


T(e abs'lute C'm*leteness

'+ t(e #EPEN#ENCE '+ t(e EFISTENCE

'+ /(at $s ,(an-eable $n a *(en'men'n!

2e must (ere remar%) $n t(e +$rst *la,e) t(at t(e $dea '+ abs'lute
t'tal$ty relates t' n't($n- but t(e e1*'s$t$'n '+ *(en'mena) and
t(ere+'re n't t' t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t'tal$ty '+ t($n-s!
P(en'mena are (ere) t(ere+'re) re-arded as -$0en) and reas'n
re.u$res t(e abs'lute ,'m*leteness '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e$r
*'ss$b$l$ty) $n s' +ar as t(ese ,'nd$t$'ns ,'nst$tute a ser$es5
,'nse.uently an abs'lutely =t(at $s) $n e0ery res*e,t> ,'m*lete
synt(es$s) /(ereby a *(en'men'n ,an be e1*la$ned a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s
'+ t(e understand$n-!
Se,'ndly) $t $s *r'*erly t(e un,'nd$t$'ned al'ne t(at reas'n see%s
$n t($s ser$ally and re-ress$0ely ,'ndu,ted synt(es$s '+ ,'nd$t$'ns!
It /$s(es) t' s*ea% $n an't(er /ay) t' atta$n t' ,'m*leteness $n t(e
ser$es '+ *rem$sses) s' as t' render $t unne,essary t' *resu**'se
't(ers! T($s un,'nd$t$'ned $s al/ays ,'nta$ned $n t(e abs'lute
t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es) /(en /e endea0'ur t' +'rm a re*resentat$'n
'+ $t $n t('u-(t! 3ut t($s abs'lutely ,'m*lete synt(es$s $s $tsel+ but
an $dea4 +'r $t $s $m*'ss$ble) at least be+'re (and) t' %n'/ /(et(er
any su,( synt(es$s $s *'ss$ble $n t(e ,ase '+ *(en'mena! 2(en /e
re*resent all e1$sten,e $n t('u-(t by means '+ *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e
understand$n-) /$t('ut any ,'nd$t$'ns '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) /e may
say /$t( &ust$,e t(at +'r a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned t(e /('le ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns sub'rd$nated t' ea,( 't(er $s als' -$0en4 +'r t(e +'rmer $s
'nly -$0en t(r'u-( t(e latter! 3ut /e +$nd $n t(e ,ase '+ *(en'mena
a *art$,ular l$m$tat$'n '+ t(e m'de $n /($,( ,'nd$t$'ns are -$0en)
t(at $s) t(r'u-( t(e su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld '+
$ntu$t$'n) /($,( must be ,'m*lete $n t(e re-ress! N'/ /(et(er t($s
,'m*leteness $s sensu'usly *'ss$ble) $s a *r'blem! 3ut t(e $dea '+
$t l$es $n t(e reas'n5 be $t *'ss$ble 'r $m*'ss$ble t' ,'nne,t /$t(
t(e $dea ade.uate em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns! T(ere+'re) as $n t(e abs'lute
t'tal$ty '+ t(e re-ress$0e synt(es$s '+ t(e man$+'ld $n a *(en'men'n
=+'ll'/$n- t(e -u$dan,e '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) /($,( re*resent $t as a
ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns t' a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned> t(e un,'nd$t$'ned $s
ne,essar$ly ,'nta$ned5 $t be$n- st$ll le+t unas,erta$ned /(et(er and
('/ t($s t'tal$ty e1$sts4 reas'n sets 'ut +r'm t(e $dea '+ t'tal$ty)
alt('u-( $ts *r'*er and +$nal a$m $s t(e un,'nd$t$'ned5 '+ t(e /('le
ser$es) 'r '+ a *art t(ere'+!
T($s un,'nd$t$'ned may be ,'-$tated5 e$t(er as e1$st$n- 'nly $n
t(e ent$re ser$es) all t(e members '+ /($,( t(ere+'re /'uld be /$t('ut
e1,e*t$'n ,'nd$t$'ned and 'nly t(e t'tal$ty abs'lutely
un,'nd$t$'ned5 and $n t($s ,ase t(e re-ressus $s ,alled $n+$n$te4 'r
t(e abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned $s 'nly a *art '+ t(e ser$es) t' /($,(
t(e 't(er members are sub'rd$nated) but /($,( Is n't $tsel+
subm$tted t' any 't(er ,'nd$t$'n!7 In t(e +'rmer ,ase t(e ser$es $s
a *arte *r$'r$ unl$m$ted =/$t('ut be-$nn$n->) t(at $s) $n+$n$te) and
ne0ert(eless ,'m*letely -$0en! 3ut t(e re-ress $n $t $s ne0er
,'m*leted) and ,an 'nly be ,alled *'tent$ally $n+$n$te! In t(e
se,'nd ,ase t(ere e1$sts a +$rst $n t(e ser$es! T($s +$rst $s
,alled) $n relat$'n t' *ast t$me) t(e be-$nn$n- '+ t(e /'rld4 $n
relat$'n t' s*a,e) t(e l$m$t '+ t(e /'rld4 $n relat$'n t' t(e *arts '+
a -$0en l$m$ted /('le) t(e s$m*le4 $n relat$'n t' ,auses) abs'lute
s*'ntane$ty =l$berty>4 and $n relat$'n t' t(e e1$sten,e '+
,(an-eable t($n-s) abs'lute *(ys$,al ne,ess$ty!
7T(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns t' a -$0en
,'nd$t$'ned $s al/ays un,'nd$t$'ned4 be,ause bey'nd $t t(ere e1$st
n' 't(er ,'nd$t$'ns) 'n /($,( $t m$-(t de*end! 3ut t(e abs'lute
t'tal$ty '+ su,( a ser$es $s 'nly an $dea) 'r rat(er a *r'blemat$,al
,'n,e*t$'n) t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ /($,( must be $n0est$-ated5
*art$,ularly $n relat$'n t' t(e m'de $n /($,( t(e un,'nd$t$'ned) as
t(e trans,endental $dea /($,( $s t(e real sub&e,t '+ $n.u$ry) may be
,'nta$ned t(ere$n!
2e *'ssess t/' e1*ress$'ns) /'rld and nature) /($,( are -enerally
$nter,(an-ed! T(e +$rst den'tes t(e mat(emat$,al t'tal '+ all
*(en'mena and t(e t'tal$ty '+ t(e$r synt(es$s5 $n $ts *r'-ress by
means '+ ,'m*'s$t$'n) as /ell as by d$0$s$'n! And t(e /'rld $s
termed nature)7 /(en $t $s re-arded as a dynam$,al /('le5 /(en 'ur
attent$'n $s n't d$re,ted t' t(e a--re-at$'n $n s*a,e and t$me) +'r
t(e *ur*'se '+ ,'-$tat$n- $t as a .uant$ty) but t' t(e un$ty $n t(e
e1$sten,e '+ *(en'mena! In t($s ,ase t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(at /($,(
(a**ens $s ,alled a ,ause4 t(e un,'nd$t$'ned ,ausal$ty '+ t(e ,ause $n
a *(en'men'n $s termed l$berty4 t(e ,'nd$t$'ned ,ause $s ,alled $n a
m're l$m$ted sense a natural ,ause! T(e ,'nd$t$'ned $n e1$sten,e $s
termed ,'nt$n-ent) and t(e un,'nd$t$'ned ne,essary! T(e
un,'nd$t$'ned ne,ess$ty '+ *(en'mena may be ,alled natural ne,ess$ty!
7Nature) underst''d ad&e,t$0e =+'rmal$ter>) s$-n$+$es t(e ,'m*le1 '+
t(e determ$nat$'ns '+ a t($n-) ,'nne,ted a,,'rd$n- t' an $nternal
*r$n,$*le '+ ,ausal$ty! On t(e 't(er (and) /e understand by nature)
substant$0e =mater$al$ter>) t(e sum t'tal '+ *(en'mena) $n s' +ar as
t(ey) by 0$rtue '+ an $nternal *r$n,$*le '+ ,ausal$ty) are ,'nne,ted
/$t( ea,( 't(er t(r'u-('ut! In t(e +'rmer sense /e s*ea% '+ t(e nature
'+ l$.u$d matter) '+ +$re) et,!) and em*l'y t(e /'rd 'nly ad&e,t$0e4
/($le) $+ s*ea%$n- '+ t(e 'b&e,ts '+ nature) /e (a0e $n 'ur m$nds
t(e $dea '+ a subs$st$n- /('le!
T(e $deas /($,( /e are at *resent en-a-ed $n d$s,uss$n- I (a0e
,alled ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas4 *artly be,ause by t(e term /'rld $s
underst''d t(e ent$re ,'ntent '+ all *(en'mena) and 'ur $deas are
d$re,ted s'lely t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned am'n- *(en'mena4 *artly als')
be,ause /'rld) $n t(e trans,endental sense) s$-n$+$es t(e abs'lute
t'tal$ty '+ t(e ,'ntent '+ e1$st$n- t($n-s) and /e are d$re,t$n- 'ur
attent$'n 'nly t' t(e ,'m*leteness '+ t(e synt(es$s5 alt('u-()
*r'*erly) 'nly $n re-ress$'n! In re-ard t' t(e +a,t t(at t(ese $deas
are all trans,endent! and) alt('u-( t(ey d' n't trans,end *(en'mena as
re-ards t(e$r m'de) but are ,'n,erned s'lely /$t( t(e /'rld '+ sense
=and n't /$t( n'umena>) ne0ert(eless ,arry t(e$r synt(es$s t' a de-ree
+ar ab'0e all *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e5 $t st$ll seems t' me t(at /e ,an)
/$t( *er+e,t *r'*r$ety) des$-nate t(em ,'sm$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns! As
re-ards t(e d$st$n,t$'n bet/een t(e mat(emat$,ally and t(e dynam$,ally
un,'nd$t$'ned /($,( $s t(e a$m '+ t(e re-ress$'n '+ t(e synt(es$s) I
s('uld ,all t(e t/' +'rmer) $n a m're l$m$ted s$-n$+$,at$'n)
,'sm$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(e rema$n$n- t/' trans,endent *(ys$,al
,'n,e*t$'ns! T($s d$st$n,t$'n d'es n't at *resent seem t' be '+
*art$,ular $m*'rtan,e) but /e s(all a+ter/ards +$nd $t t' be '+ s'me
SECTION II! Ant$t(et$, '+ Pure Reas'n!

T(et$, $s t(e term a**l$ed t' e0ery ,'lle,t$'n '+ d'-mat$,al
*r'*'s$t$'ns! 3y ant$t(et$, I d' n't understand d'-mat$,al
assert$'ns '+ t(e '**'s$te) but t(e sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'n '+ seem$n-ly
d'-mat$,al ,'-n$t$'ns =t(es$s ,um ant$t(es$s) $n n'ne '+ /($,( /e
,an d$s,'0er any de,$ded su*er$'r$ty! Ant$t(et$, $s n't) t(ere+'re)
',,u*$ed /$t( 'ne5s$ded statements) but $s en-a-ed $n ,'ns$der$n-
t(e ,'ntrad$,t'ry nature '+ t(e -eneral ,'-n$t$'ns '+ reas'n and $ts
,auses! Trans,endental ant$t(et$, $s an $n0est$-at$'n $nt' t(e
ant$n'my '+ *ure reas'n) $ts ,auses and result! I+ /e em*l'y 'ur
reas'n n't merely $n t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e
understand$n- t' 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e) but 0enture /$t( $t bey'nd
t(ese b'undar$es) t(ere ar$se ,erta$n s'*($st$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns 'r
t(e'rems! T(ese assert$'ns (a0e t(e +'ll'/$n- *e,ul$ar$t$es6 T(ey
,an +$nd ne$t(er ,'n+$rmat$'n n'r ,'n+utat$'n $n e1*er$en,e4 and
ea,( $s $n $tsel+ n't 'nly sel+5,'ns$stent) but *'ssesses ,'nd$t$'ns
'+ $ts ne,ess$ty $n t(e 0ery nature '+ reas'n5 'nly t(at) unlu,%$ly)
t(ere e1$st &ust as 0al$d and ne,essary -r'unds +'r ma$nta$n$n- t(e
,'ntrary *r'*'s$t$'n!
T(e .uest$'ns /($,( naturally ar$se $n t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t($s
d$ale,t$, '+ *ure reas'n) are t(ere+'re6 1st! In /(at *r'*'s$t$'ns
$s *ure reas'n una0'$dably sub&e,t t' an ant$n'my@ Bnd! 2(at are t(e
,auses '+ t($s ant$n'my@ Ird! 2(et(er and $n /(at /ay ,an reas'n
+ree $tsel+ +r'm t($s sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'n@
A d$ale,t$,al *r'*'s$t$'n 'r t(e'rem '+ *ure reas'n must)
a,,'rd$n- t' /(at (as been sa$d) be d$st$n-u$s(able +r'm all
s'*($st$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns) by t(e +a,t t(at $t $s n't an ans/er t' an
arb$trary .uest$'n) /($,( may be ra$sed at t(e mere *leasure '+ any
*ers'n) but t' 'ne /($,( (uman reas'n must ne,essar$ly en,'unter $n
$ts *r'-ress! In t(e se,'nd *la,e) a d$ale,t$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) /$t( $ts
'**'s$te) d'es n't ,arry t(e a**earan,e '+ a merely art$+$,$al
$llus$'n) /($,( d$sa**ears as s''n as $t $s $n0est$-ated) but a
natural and una0'$dable $llus$'n) /($,() e0en /(en /e are n' l'n-er
de,e$0ed by $t) ,'nt$nues t' m',% us and) alt('u-( rendered
(armless) ,an ne0er be ,'m*letely rem'0ed!
T($s d$ale,t$,al d',tr$ne /$ll n't relate t' t(e un$ty '+
understand$n- $n em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns) but t' t(e un$ty '+ reas'n
$n *ure $deas! T(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t($s d',tr$ne are5 $nasmu,( as $t
must) as a synt(es$s a,,'rd$n- t' rules) be ,'n+'rmable t' t(e
understand$n-) and at t(e same t$me as t(e abs'lute un$ty '+ t(e
synt(es$s) t' t(e reas'n5 t(at) $+ $t $s ade.uate t' t(e un$ty '+
reas'n) $t $s t'' -reat +'r t(e understand$n-) $+ a,,'rd$n- /$t( t(e
understand$n-) $t $s t'' small +'r t(e reas'n! Hen,e ar$ses a mutual
'**'s$t$'n) /($,( ,ann't be a0'$ded) d' /(at /e /$ll!
T(ese s'*($st$,al assert$'ns '+ d$ale,t$, '*en) as $t /ere) a
battle5+$eld) /(ere t(at s$de 'bta$ns t(e 0$,t'ry /($,( (as been
*erm$tted t' ma%e t(e atta,%) and (e $s ,'m*elled t' y$eld /(' (as
been un+'rtunately 'bl$-ed t' stand 'n t(e de+ens$0e! And (en,e)
,(am*$'ns '+ ab$l$ty) /(et(er 'n t(e r$-(t 'r 'n t(e /r'n- s$de) are
,erta$n t' ,arry a/ay t(e ,r'/n '+ 0$,t'ry) $+ t(ey 'nly ta%e ,are
t' (a0e t(e r$-(t t' ma%e t(e last atta,%) and are n't 'bl$-ed t'
susta$n an't(er 'nset +r'm t(e$r '**'nent! 2e ,an eas$ly bel$e0e
t(at t($s arena (as been '+ten tram*led by t(e +eet '+ ,'mbatants)
t(at many 0$,t'r$es (a0e been 'bta$ned 'n b't( s$des) but t(at t(e
last 0$,t'ry) de,$s$0e '+ t(e a++a$r bet/een t(e ,'ntend$n- *art$es)
/as /'n by ($m /(' +'u-(t +'r t(e r$-(t) 'nly $+ ($s ad0ersary /as
+'rb$dden t' ,'nt$nue t(e t'urney! As $m*art$al um*$res) /e must lay
as$de ent$rely t(e ,'ns$derat$'n /(et(er t(e ,'mbatants are +$-(t$n-
+'r t(e r$-(t 'r +'r t(e /r'n- s$de) +'r t(e true 'r +'r t(e +alse)
and all'/ t(e ,'mbat t' be +$rst de,$ded! Per(a*s) a+ter t(ey (a0e
/ear$ed m're t(an $n&ured ea,( 't(er) t(ey /$ll d$s,'0er t(e
n't($n-ness '+ t(e$r ,ause '+ .uarrel and *art -''d +r$ends!
T($s met('d '+ /at,($n-) 'r rat(er '+ 'r$-$nat$n-) a ,'n+l$,t '+
assert$'ns) n't +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ +$nally de,$d$n- $n +a0'ur '+
e$t(er s$de) but t' d$s,'0er /(et(er t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(e stru--le $s n't
a mere $llus$'n) /($,( ea,( str$0es $n 0a$n t' rea,() but /($,(
/'uld be n' -a$n e0en /(en rea,(ed5 t($s *r',edure) I say) may be
termed t(e s,e*t$,al met('d! It $s t('r'u-(ly d$st$n,t +r'm
s,e*t$,$sm5 t(e *r$n,$*le '+ a te,(n$,al and s,$ent$+$, $-n'ran,e)
/($,( underm$nes t(e +'undat$'ns '+ all %n'/led-e) $n 'rder) $+
*'ss$ble) t' destr'y 'ur bel$e+ and ,'n+$den,e t(ere$n! F'r t(e
s,e*t$,al met('d a$ms at ,erta$nty) by endea0'ur$n- t' d$s,'0er $n a
,'n+l$,t '+ t($s %$nd) ,'ndu,ted ('nestly and $ntell$-ently 'n b't(
s$des) t(e *'$nt '+ m$sunderstand$n-4 &ust as /$se le-$slat'rs der$0e)
+r'm t(e embarrassment '+ &ud-es $n la/su$ts) $n+'rmat$'n $n re-ard t'
t(e de+e,t$0e and $ll5de+$ned *arts '+ t(e$r statutes! T(e ant$n'my
/($,( re0eals $tsel+ $n t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ la/s) $s +'r 'ur l$m$ted
/$sd'm t(e best ,r$ter$'n '+ le-$slat$'n! F'r t(e attent$'n '+ reas'n)
/($,( $n abstra,t s*e,ulat$'n d'es n't eas$ly be,'me ,'ns,$'us '+
$ts err'rs) $s t(us r'used t' t(e m'menta $n t(e determ$nat$'n '+
$ts *r$n,$*les!
3ut t($s s,e*t$,al met('d $s essent$ally *e,ul$ar t'
trans,endental *($l's'*(y) and ,an *er(a*s be d$s*ensed /$t( $n
e0ery 't(er +$eld '+ $n0est$-at$'n! In mat(emat$,s $ts use /'uld be
absurd4 be,ause $n $t n' +alse assert$'ns ,an l'n- rema$n ($dden)
$nasmu,( as $ts dem'nstrat$'ns must al/ays *r',eed under t(e
-u$dan,e '+ *ure $ntu$t$'n) and by means '+ an al/ays e0$dent
synt(es$s! In e1*er$mental *($l's'*(y) d'ubt and delay may be 0ery
use+ul4 but n' m$sunderstand$n- $s *'ss$ble) /($,( ,ann't be eas$ly
rem'0ed4 and $n e1*er$en,e means '+ s'l0$n- t(e d$++$,ulty and *utt$n-
an end t' t(e d$ssens$'n must at last be +'und) /(et(er s''ner 'r
later! "'ral *($l's'*(y ,an al/ays e1($b$t $ts *r$n,$*les) /$t(
t(e$r *ra,t$,al ,'nse.uen,es) $n ,'n,ret'5 at least $n *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,es) and t(us es,a*e t(e m$sta%es and amb$-u$t$es '+
abstra,t$'n! 3ut trans,endental *r'*'s$t$'ns) /($,( lay ,la$m t'
$ns$-(t bey'nd t(e re-$'n '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) ,ann't) 'n t(e 'ne
(and) e1($b$t t(e$r abstra,t synt(es$s $n any a *r$'r$ $ntu$t$'n) n'r)
'n t(e 't(er) e1*'se a lur%$n- err'r by t(e (el* '+ e1*er$en,e!
Trans,endental reas'n) t(ere+'re) *resents us /$t( n' 't(er
,r$ter$'n t(an t(at '+ an attem*t t' re,'n,$le su,( assert$'ns) and
+'r t($s *ur*'se t' *erm$t a +ree and unrestra$ned ,'n+l$,t bet/een
t(em! And t($s /e n'/ *r',eed t' arran-e!7
7T(e ant$n'm$es stand $n t(e 'rder '+ t(e +'ur trans,endental
$deas ab'0e deta$led!


T(e /'rld (as a be-$nn$n- $n t$me) and $s als' l$m$ted $n
re-ard t' s*a,e!

Cranted t(at t(e /'rld (as n' be-$nn$n- $n t$me4 u* t' e0ery -$0en
m'ment '+ t$me) an etern$ty must (a0e ela*sed) and t(ere/$t( *assed
a/ay an $n+$n$te ser$es '+ su,,ess$0e ,'nd$t$'ns 'r states '+ t($n-s
$n t(e /'rld! N'/ t(e $n+$n$ty '+ a ser$es ,'ns$sts $n t(e +a,t t(at
$t ne0er ,an be ,'m*leted by means '+ a su,,ess$0e synt(es$s! It
+'ll'/s t(at an $n+$n$te ser$es already ela*sed $s $m*'ss$ble and
t(at) ,'nse.uently) a be-$nn$n- '+ t(e /'rld $s a ne,essary
,'nd$t$'n '+ $ts e1$sten,e! And t($s /as t(e +$rst t($n- t' be *r'0ed!
As re-ards t(e se,'nd) let us ta%e t(e '**'s$te +'r -ranted! In t($s
,ase) t(e /'rld must be an $n+$n$te -$0en t'tal '+ ,'e1$stent
t($n-s! N'/ /e ,ann't ,'-$tate t(e d$mens$'ns '+ a .uant$ty) /($,(
$s n't -$0en /$t($n ,erta$n l$m$ts '+ an $ntu$t$'n)7 $n any 't(er
/ay t(an by means '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ $ts *arts) and t(e t'tal '+ su,(
a .uant$ty 'nly by means '+ a ,'m*leted synt(es$s) 'r t(e re*eated
add$t$'n '+ un$ty t' $tsel+! A,,'rd$n-ly) t' ,'-$tate t(e /'rld) /($,(
+$lls all s*a,es) as a /('le) t(e su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+ t(e *arts '+
an $n+$n$te /'rld must be l''%ed u*'n as ,'m*leted) t(at $s t' say) an
$n+$n$te t$me must be re-arded as (a0$n- ela*sed $n t(e enumerat$'n '+
all ,'5e1$st$n- t($n-s4 /($,( $s $m*'ss$ble! F'r t($s reas'n an
$n+$n$te a--re-ate '+ a,tual t($n-s ,ann't be ,'ns$dered as a -$0en
/('le) ,'nse.uently) n't as a ,'ntem*'rane'usly -$0en /('le! T(e /'rld
$s ,'nse.uently) as re-ards e1tens$'n $n s*a,e) n't $n+$n$te) but
en,l'sed $n l$m$ts! And t($s /as t(e se,'nd t($n- t' be *r'0ed!
72e may ,'ns$der an undeterm$ned .uant$ty as a /('le) /(en $t $s
en,l'sed /$t($n l$m$ts) alt('u-( /e ,ann't ,'nstru,t 'r as,erta$n
$ts t'tal$ty by measurement) t(at $s) by t(e su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+
$ts *arts! F'r $ts l$m$ts '+ t(emsel0es determ$ne $ts ,'m*leteness
as a /('le!

T(e /'rld (as n' be-$nn$n-) and n' l$m$ts $n s*a,e) but $s) $n
relat$'n b't( t' t$me and s*a,e) $n+$n$te!

F'r let $t be -ranted t(at $t (as a be-$nn$n-! A be-$nn$n- $s an
e1$sten,e /($,( $s *re,eded by a t$me $n /($,( t(e t($n- d'es n't
e1$st! On t(e ab'0e su**'s$t$'n) $t +'ll'/s t(at t(ere must (a0e
been a t$me $n /($,( t(e /'rld d$d n't e1$st) t(at $s) a 0'$d t$me!
3ut $n a 0'$d t$me t(e 'r$-$nat$'n '+ a t($n- $s $m*'ss$ble4 be,ause
n' *art '+ any su,( t$me ,'nta$ns a d$st$n,t$0e ,'nd$t$'n '+ be$n-) $n
*re+eren,e t' t(at '+ n'n5be$n- =/(et(er t(e su**'sed t($n-
'r$-$nate '+ $tsel+) 'r by means '+ s'me 't(er ,ause>! C'nse.uently)
many ser$es '+ t($n-s may (a0e a be-$nn$n- $n t(e /'rld) but t(e /'rld
$tsel+ ,ann't (a0e a be-$nn$n-) and $s) t(ere+'re) $n relat$'n t' *ast
t$me) $n+$n$te!
As re-ards t(e se,'nd statement) let us +$rst ta%e t(e '**'s$te
+'r -ranted5 t(at t(e /'rld $s +$n$te and l$m$ted $n s*a,e4 $t +'ll'/s
t(at $t must e1$st $n a 0'$d s*a,e) /($,( $s n't l$m$ted! 2e s('uld
t(ere+'re meet n't 'nly /$t( a relat$'n '+ t($n-s $n s*a,e) but als' a
relat$'n '+ t($n-s t' s*a,e! N'/) as t(e /'rld $s an abs'lute /('le)
'ut '+ and bey'nd /($,( n' 'b&e,t '+ $ntu$t$'n) and ,'nse.uently n'
,'rrelate t' /($,( ,an be d$s,'0ered) t($s relat$'n '+ t(e /'rld t'
a 0'$d s*a,e $s merely a relat$'n t' n' 'b&e,t! 3ut su,( a relat$'n)
and ,'nse.uently t(e l$m$tat$'n '+ t(e /'rld by 0'$d s*a,e) $s
n't($n-! C'nse.uently) t(e /'rld) as re-ards s*a,e) $s n't l$m$ted)
t(at $s) $t $s $n+$n$te $n re-ard t' e1tens$'n!7
7S*a,e $s merely t(e +'rm '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n =+'rmal
$ntu$t$'n>) and n't a real 'b&e,t /($,( ,an be e1ternally *er,e$0ed!
S*a,e) *r$'r t' all t($n-s /($,( determ$ne $t =+$ll 'r l$m$t $t>)
'r) rat(er) /($,( *resent an em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n ,'n+'rmable t' $t)
$s) under t(e t$tle '+ abs'lute s*a,e) n't($n- but t(e mere
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1ternal *(en'mena) $n s' +ar as t(ey e$t(er e1$st $n
t(emsel0es) 'r ,an anne1 t(emsel0es t' -$0en $ntu$t$'ns! Em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n $s t(ere+'re n't a ,'m*'s$t$'n '+ *(en'mena and s*a,e ='+
*er,e*t$'n and em*ty $ntu$t$'n>! T(e 'ne $s n't t(e ,'rrelate '+ t(e
't(er $n a synt(es$s) but t(ey are 0$tally ,'nne,ted $n t(e same
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n) as matter and +'rm! I+ /e /$s( t' set 'ne '+
t(ese t/' a*art +r'm t(e 't(er5 s*a,e +r'm *(en'mena5 t(ere ar$se
all s'rts '+ em*ty determ$nat$'ns '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n) /($,( are
0ery +ar +r'm be$n- *'ss$ble *er,e*t$'ns! F'r e1am*le) m't$'n 'r
rest '+ t(e /'rld $n an $n+$n$te em*ty s*a,e) 'r a determ$nat$'n '+
t(e mutual relat$'n '+ b't() ,ann't *'ss$bly be *er,e$0ed) and $s
t(ere+'re merely t(e *red$,ate '+ a n't$'nal ent$ty!


In br$n-$n- +'r/ard t(ese ,'n+l$,t$n- ar-uments) I (a0e n't been
'n t(e sear,( +'r s'*($sms) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ a0a$l$n- mysel+ '+
s*e,$al *lead$n-) /($,( ta%es ad0anta-e '+ t(e ,arelessness '+ t(e
'**'s$te *arty) a**eals t' a m$sunderst''d statute) and ere,ts $ts
unr$-(te'us ,la$ms u*'n an un+a$r $nter*retat$'n! 3't( *r''+s
'r$-$nate +a$rly +r'm t(e nature '+ t(e ,ase) and t(e ad0anta-e
*resented by t(e m$sta%es '+ t(e d'-mat$sts '+ b't( *art$es (as been
,'m*letely set as$de!
T(e t(es$s m$-(t als' (a0e been un+a$rly dem'nstrated) by t(e
$ntr'du,t$'n '+ an err'ne'us ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e $n+$n$ty '+ a -$0en
.uant$ty! A .uant$ty $s $n+$n$te) $+ a -reater t(an $tsel+ ,ann't
*'ss$bly e1$st! T(e .uant$ty $s measured by t(e number '+ -$0en un$ts5
/($,( are ta%en as a standard5 ,'nta$ned $n $t! N'/ n' number ,an be
t(e -reatest) be,ause 'ne 'r m're un$ts ,an al/ays be added! It
+'ll'/s t(at an $n+$n$te -$0en .uant$ty) ,'nse.uently an $n+$n$te
/'rld =b't( as re-ards t$me and e1tens$'n> $s $m*'ss$ble! It $s)
t(ere+'re) l$m$ted $n b't( res*e,ts! In t($s manner I m$-(t (a0e
,'ndu,ted my *r''+4 but t(e ,'n,e*t$'n -$0en $n $t d'es n't a-ree /$t(
t(e true ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an $n+$n$te /('le! In t($s t(ere $s n'
re*resentat$'n '+ $ts .uant$ty) $t $s n't sa$d ('/ lar-e $t $s4
,'nse.uently $ts ,'n,e*t$'n $s n't t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ma1$mum! 2e
,'-$tate $n $t merely $ts relat$'n t' an arb$trar$ly assumed un$t)
$n relat$'n t' /($,( $t $s -reater t(an any number! N'/) &ust as t(e
un$t /($,( $s ta%en $s -reater 'r smaller) t(e $n+$n$te /$ll be
-reater 'r smaller4 but t(e $n+$n$ty) /($,( ,'ns$sts merely $n t(e
relat$'n t' t($s -$0en un$t) must rema$n al/ays t(e same) alt('u-( t(e
abs'lute .uant$ty '+ t(e /('le $s n't t(ereby ,'-n$;ed!
T(e true =trans,endental> ,'n,e*t$'n '+ $n+$n$ty $s6 t(at t(e
su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+ un$ty $n t(e measurement '+ a -$0en .uantum
,an ne0er be ,'m*leted!7 Hen,e $t +'ll'/s) /$t('ut *'ss$b$l$ty '+
m$sta%e) t(at an etern$ty '+ a,tual su,,ess$0e states u* t' a -$0en
=t(e *resent> m'ment ,ann't (a0e ela*sed) and t(at t(e /'rld must
t(ere+'re (a0e a be-$nn$n-!
7T(e .uantum $n t($s sense ,'nta$ns a ,'n-er$es '+ -$0en un$ts)
/($,( $s -reater t(an any number5 and t($s $s t(e mat(emat$,al
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e $n+$n$te!
In re-ard t' t(e se,'nd *art '+ t(e t(es$s) t(e d$++$,ulty as t'
an $n+$n$te and yet ela*sed ser$es d$sa**ears4 +'r t(e man$+'ld '+ a
/'rld $n+$n$te $n e1tens$'n $s ,'ntem*'rane'usly -$0en! 3ut) $n
'rder t' ,'-$tate t(e t'tal '+ t($s man$+'ld) as /e ,ann't (a0e t(e
a$d '+ l$m$ts ,'nst$tut$n- by t(emsel0es t($s t'tal $n $ntu$t$'n) /e
are 'bl$-ed t' -$0e s'me a,,'unt '+ 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n) /($,( $n t($s ,ase
,ann't *r',eed +r'm t(e /('le t' t(e determ$ned .uant$ty '+ t(e *arts)
but must dem'nstrate t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a /('le by means '+ a
su,,ess$0e synt(es$s '+ t(e *arts! 3ut as t($s synt(es$s must
,'nst$tute a ser$es t(at ,ann't be ,'m*leted) $t $s $m*'ss$ble +'r
us t' ,'-$tate *r$'r t' $t) and ,'nse.uently n't by means '+ $t) a
t'tal$ty! F'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t'tal$ty $tsel+ $s $n t(e *resent ,ase
t(e re*resentat$'n '+ a ,'m*leted synt(es$s '+ t(e *arts4 and t($s
,'m*let$'n) and ,'nse.uently $ts ,'n,e*t$'n) $s $m*'ss$ble!

T(e *r''+ $n +a0'ur '+ t(e $n+$n$ty '+ t(e ,'sm$,al su,,ess$'n and
t(e ,'sm$,al ,'ntent $s based u*'n t(e ,'ns$derat$'n t(at) $n t(e
'**'s$te ,ase) a 0'$d t$me and a 0'$d s*a,e must ,'nst$tute t(e l$m$ts
'+ t(e /'rld! N'/ I am n't una/are) t(at t(ere are s'me /ays '+
es,a*$n- t($s ,'n,lus$'n! It may) +'r e1am*le) be alle-ed) t(at a
l$m$t t' t(e /'rld) as re-ards b't( s*a,e and t$me) $s .u$te *'ss$ble)
/$t('ut at t(e same t$me ('ld$n- t(e e1$sten,e '+ an abs'lute t$me
be+'re t(e be-$nn$n- '+ t(e /'rld) 'r an abs'lute s*a,e e1tend$n-
bey'nd t(e a,tual /'rld5 /($,( $s $m*'ss$ble! I am .u$te /ell
sat$s+$ed /$t( t(e latter *art '+ t($s '*$n$'n '+ t(e *($l's'*(ers
'+ t(e <e$bn$t;$an s,(''l! S*a,e $s merely t(e +'rm '+ e1ternal
$ntu$t$'n) but n't a real 'b&e,t /($,( ,an $tsel+ be e1ternally
$ntu$ted4 $t $s n't a ,'rrelate '+ *(en'mena) $t $s t(e +'rm '+
*(en'mena $tsel+! S*a,e) t(ere+'re) ,ann't be re-arded as abs'lutely
and $n $tsel+ s'met($n- determ$nat$0e '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s)
be,ause $t $s n't $tsel+ an 'b&e,t) but 'nly t(e +'rm '+ *'ss$ble
'b&e,ts! C'nse.uently) t($n-s) as *(en'mena) determ$ne s*a,e4 t(at
$s t' say) t(ey render $t *'ss$ble t(at) '+ all t(e *'ss$ble
*red$,ates '+ s*a,e =s$;e and relat$'n>) ,erta$n may bel'n- t'
real$ty! 3ut /e ,ann't a++$rm t(e ,'n0erse) t(at s*a,e) as s'met($n-
sel+5subs$stent) ,an determ$ne real t($n-s $n re-ard t' s$;e 'r s(a*e)
+'r $t $s $n $tsel+ n't a real t($n-! S*a,e =+$lled 'r 0'$d>7 may
t(ere+'re be l$m$ted by *(en'mena) but *(en'mena ,ann't be l$m$ted
by an em*ty s*a,e /$t('ut t(em! T($s $s true '+ t$me als'! All t($s
be$n- -ranted) $t $s ne0ert(eless $nd$s*utable) t(at /e must assume
t(ese t/' n'nent$t$es) 0'$d s*a,e /$t('ut and 0'$d t$me be+'re t(e
/'rld) $+ /e assume t(e e1$sten,e '+ ,'sm$,al l$m$ts) relat$0ely t'
s*a,e 'r t$me!
7It $s e0$dent t(at /(at $s meant (ere $s) t(at em*ty s*a,e) $n s'
+ar as $t $s l$m$ted by *(en'mena5 s*a,e) t(at $s) /$t($n t(e /'rld5
d'es n't at least ,'ntrad$,t trans,endental *r$n,$*les) and may
t(ere+'re) as re-ards t(em) be adm$tted) alt('u-( $ts *'ss$b$l$ty
,ann't 'n t(at a,,'unt be a++$rmed!
F'r) as re-ards t(e subter+u-e ad'*ted by t('se /(' endea0'ur t'
e0ade t(e ,'nse.uen,e5 t(at) $+ t(e /'rld $s l$m$ted as t' s*a,e and
t$me) t(e $n+$n$te 0'$d must determ$ne t(e e1$sten,e '+ a,tual
t($n-s $n re-ard t' t(e$r d$mens$'ns5 $t ar$ses s'lely +r'm t(e +a,t
t(at $nstead '+ a sensu'us /'rld) an $ntell$-$ble /'rld5 '+ /($,(
n't($n- $s %n'/n5 $s ,'-$tated4 $nstead '+ a real be-$nn$n- =an
e1$sten,e) /($,( $s *re,eded by a *er$'d $n /($,( n't($n- e1$sts>)
an e1$sten,e /($,( *resu**'ses n' 't(er ,'nd$t$'n t(an t(at '+ t$me4
and) $nstead '+ l$m$ts '+ e1tens$'n) b'undar$es '+ t(e un$0erse! 3ut
t(e .uest$'n relates t' t(e mundus *(aen'men'n) and $ts .uant$ty4
and $n t($s ,ase /e ,ann't ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+
sens$b$l$ty) /$t('ut d'$n- a/ay /$t( t(e essent$al real$ty '+ t($s
/'rld $tsel+! T(e /'rld '+ sense) $+ $t $s l$m$ted) must ne,essar$ly
l$e $n t(e $n+$n$te 0'$d! I+ t($s) and /$t( $t s*a,e as t(e a *r$'r$
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ *(en'mena) $s le+t 'ut '+ 0$e/) t(e
/('le /'rld '+ sense d$sa**ears! In 'ur *r'blem $s t($s al'ne
,'ns$dered as -$0en! T(e mundus $ntell$-$b$l$s $s n't($n- but t(e
-eneral ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a /'rld) $n /($,( abstra,t$'n (as been made '+
all ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ntu$t$'n) and $n relat$'n t' /($,( n' synt(et$,al
*r'*'s$t$'n5 e$t(er a++$rmat$0e 'r ne-at$0e5 $s *'ss$ble!


E0ery ,'m*'s$te substan,e $n t(e /'rld ,'ns$sts '+ s$m*le *arts4 and
t(ere e1$sts n't($n- t(at $s n't e$t(er $tsel+ s$m*le) 'r ,'m*'sed
'+ s$m*le *arts!

F'r) -rant t(at ,'m*'s$te substan,es d' n't ,'ns$st '+ s$m*le *arts4
$n t($s ,ase) $+ all ,'mb$nat$'n 'r ,'m*'s$t$'n /ere ann$($lated $n
t('u-(t) n' ,'m*'s$te *art) and =as) by t(e su**'s$t$'n) t(ere d'
n't e1$st s$m*le *arts> n' s$m*le *art /'uld e1$st! C'nse.uently) n'
substan,e4 ,'nse.uently) n't($n- /'uld e1$st! E$t(er) t(en) $t $s
$m*'ss$ble t' ann$($late ,'m*'s$t$'n $n t('u-(t4 'r) a+ter su,(
ann$($lat$'n) t(ere must rema$n s'met($n- t(at subs$sts /$t('ut
,'m*'s$t$'n) t(at $s) s'met($n- t(at $s s$m*le! 3ut $n t(e +'rmer ,ase
t(e ,'m*'s$te ,'uld n't $tsel+ ,'ns$st '+ substan,es) be,ause /$t(
substan,es ,'m*'s$t$'n $s merely a ,'nt$n-ent relat$'n) a*art +r'm
/($,( t(ey must st$ll e1$st as sel+5subs$stent be$n-s! N'/) as t($s
,ase ,'ntrad$,ts t(e su**'s$t$'n) t(e se,'nd must ,'nta$n t(e trut(5
t(at t(e substant$al ,'m*'s$te $n t(e /'rld ,'ns$sts '+ s$m*le *arts!
It +'ll'/s) as an $mmed$ate $n+eren,e) t(at t(e t($n-s $n t(e
/'rld are all) /$t('ut e1,e*t$'n) s$m*le be$n-s5 t(at ,'m*'s$t$'n $s
merely an e1ternal ,'nd$t$'n *erta$n$n- t' t(em5 and t(at) alt('u-( /e
ne0er ,an se*arate and $s'late t(e elementary substan,es +r'm t(e
state '+ ,'m*'s$t$'n) reas'n must ,'-$tate t(ese as t(e *r$mary
sub&e,ts '+ all ,'m*'s$t$'n) and ,'nse.uently) as *r$'r t(eret'5 and
as s$m*le substan,es!

N' ,'m*'s$te t($n- $n t(e /'rld ,'ns$sts '+ s$m*le *arts4 and
t(ere d'es n't e1$st $n t(e /'rld any s$m*le substan,e!

<et $t be su**'sed t(at a ,'m*'s$te t($n- =as substan,e> ,'ns$sts '+
s$m*le *arts! Inasmu,( as all e1ternal relat$'n) ,'nse.uently all
,'m*'s$t$'n '+ substan,es) $s *'ss$ble 'nly $n s*a,e4 t(e s*a,e)
',,u*$ed by t(at /($,( $s ,'m*'s$te) must ,'ns$st '+ t(e same number
'+ *arts as $s ,'nta$ned $n t(e ,'m*'s$te! 3ut s*a,e d'es n't
,'ns$st '+ s$m*le *arts) but '+ s*a,es! T(ere+'re) e0ery *art '+ t(e
,'m*'s$te must ',,u*y a s*a,e! 3ut t(e abs'lutely *r$mary *arts '+
/(at $s ,'m*'s$te are s$m*le! It +'ll'/s t(at /(at $s s$m*le
',,u*$es a s*a,e! N'/) as e0eryt($n- real t(at ',,u*$es a s*a,e)
,'nta$ns a man$+'ld t(e *arts '+ /($,( are e1ternal t' ea,( 't(er) and
$s ,'nse.uently ,'m*'s$te5 and a real ,'m*'s$te) n't '+ a,,$dents =+'r
t(ese ,ann't e1$st e1ternal t' ea,( 't(er a*art +r'm substan,e>) but
'+ substan,es5 $t +'ll'/s t(at t(e s$m*le must be a substant$al
,'m*'s$te) /($,( $s sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry!
T(e se,'nd *r'*'s$t$'n '+ t(e ant$t(es$s5 t(at t(ere e1$sts $n t(e
/'rld n't($n- t(at $s s$m*le5 $s (ere e.u$0alent t' t(e +'ll'/$n-6 T(e
e1$sten,e '+ t(e abs'lutely s$m*le ,ann't be dem'nstrated +r'm any
e1*er$en,e 'r *er,e*t$'n e$t(er e1ternal 'r $nternal4 and t(e
abs'lutely s$m*le $s a mere $dea) t(e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ /($,(
,ann't be dem'nstrated $n any *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e4 $t $s ,'nse.uently)
$n t(e e1*'s$t$'n '+ *(en'mena) /$t('ut a**l$,at$'n and 'b&e,t! F'r)
let us ta%e +'r -ranted t(at an 'b&e,t may be +'und $n e1*er$en,e
+'r t($s trans,endental $dea4 t(e em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n '+ su,( an
'b&e,t must t(en be re,'-n$;ed t' ,'nta$n abs'lutely n' man$+'ld
/$t( $ts *arts e1ternal t' ea,( 't(er) and ,'nne,ted $nt' un$ty!
N'/) as /e ,ann't reas'n +r'm t(e n'n5,'ns,$'usness '+ su,( a man$+'ld
t' t(e $m*'ss$b$l$ty '+ $ts e1$sten,e $n t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t)
and as t(e *r''+ '+ t($s $m*'ss$b$l$ty $s ne,essary +'r t(e
establ$s(ment and *r''+ '+ abs'lute s$m*l$,$ty4 $t +'ll'/s t(at t($s
s$m*l$,$ty ,ann't be $n+erred +r'm any *er,e*t$'n /(ate0er! As)
t(ere+'re) an abs'lutely s$m*le 'b&e,t ,ann't be -$0en $n any
e1*er$en,e) and t(e /'rld '+ sense must be ,'ns$dered as t(e sum t'tal
'+ all *'ss$ble e1*er$en,es6 n't($n- s$m*le e1$sts $n t(e /'rld!
T($s se,'nd *r'*'s$t$'n $n t(e ant$t(es$s (as a m're e1tended a$m
t(an t(e +$rst! T(e +$rst merely ban$s(es t(e s$m*le +r'm t(e
$ntu$t$'n '+ t(e ,'m*'s$te4 /($le t(e se,'nd dr$0es $t ent$rely 'ut '+
nature! Hen,e /e /ere unable t' dem'nstrate $t +r'm t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ a -$0en 'b&e,t '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n ='+ t(e ,'m*'s$te>) but /e
/ere 'bl$-ed t' *r'0e $t +r'm t(e relat$'n '+ a -$0en 'b&e,t t' a
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e $n -eneral!


2(en I s*ea% '+ a /('le) /($,( ne,essar$ly ,'ns$sts '+ s$m*le *arts)
I understand t(ereby 'nly a substant$al /('le) as t(e true
,'m*'s$te4 t(at $s t' say) I understand t(at ,'nt$n-ent un$ty '+ t(e
man$+'ld /($,( $s -$0en as *er+e,tly $s'lated =at least $n t('u-(t>)
*la,ed $n re,$*r',al ,'nne,t$'n) and t(us ,'nst$tuted a un$ty! S*a,e
'u-(t n't t' be ,alled a ,'m*'s$tum but a t'tum) +'r $ts *arts are
*'ss$ble $n t(e /('le) and n't t(e /('le by means '+ t(e *arts! It
m$-(t *er(a*s be ,alled a ,'m*'s$tum $deale) but n't a ,'m*'s$tum
reale! 3ut t($s $s '+ n' $m*'rtan,e! As s*a,e $s n't a ,'m*'s$te '+
substan,es =and n't e0en '+ real a,,$dents>) $+ I abstra,t all
,'m*'s$t$'n t(ere$n5 n't($n-) n't e0en a *'$nt) rema$ns4 +'r a *'$nt
$s *'ss$ble 'nly as t(e l$m$t '+ a s*a,e5 ,'nse.uently '+ a ,'m*'s$te!
S*a,e and t$me) t(ere+'re) d' n't ,'ns$st '+ s$m*le *arts! T(at
/($,( bel'n-s 'nly t' t(e ,'nd$t$'n 'r state '+ a substan,e) e0en
alt('u-( $t *'ssesses a .uant$ty =m't$'n 'r ,(an-e) +'r e1am*le>)
l$%e/$se d'es n't ,'ns$st '+ s$m*le *arts! T(at $s t' say) a ,erta$n
de-ree '+ ,(an-e d'es n't 'r$-$nate +r'm t(e add$t$'n '+ many s$m*le
,(an-es! Our $n+eren,e '+ t(e s$m*le +r'm t(e ,'m*'s$te $s 0al$d
'nly '+ sel+5subs$st$n- t($n-s! 3ut t(e a,,$dents '+ a state are n't
sel+5subs$stent! T(e *r''+) t(en) +'r t(e ne,ess$ty '+ t(e s$m*le)
as t(e ,'m*'nent *art '+ all t(at $s substant$al and ,'m*'s$te) may
*r'0e a +a$lure) and t(e /('le ,ase '+ t($s t(es$s be l'st) $+ /e
,arry t(e *r'*'s$t$'n t'' +ar) and /$s( t' ma%e $t 0al$d '+ e0eryt($n-
t(at $s ,'m*'s$te /$t('ut d$st$n,t$'n5 as $ndeed (as really n'/ and
t(en (a**ened! 3es$des) I am (ere s*ea%$n- 'nly '+ t(e s$m*le) $n s'
+ar as $t $s ne,essar$ly -$0en $n t(e ,'m*'s$te5 t(e latter be$n-
,a*able '+ s'lut$'n $nt' t(e +'rmer as $ts ,'m*'nent *arts! T(e *r'*er
s$-n$+$,at$'n '+ t(e /'rd m'nas =as em*l'yed by <e$bn$t;> 'u-(t t'
relate t' t(e s$m*le) -$0en $mmed$ately as s$m*le substan,e =+'r
e1am*le) $n ,'ns,$'usness>) and n't as an element '+ t(e ,'m*'s$te! As
an ,lement) t(e term at'mus /'uld be m're a**r'*r$ate! And as I /$s(
t' *r'0e t(e e1$sten,e '+ s$m*le substan,es) 'nly $n relat$'n t')
and as t(e elements '+) t(e ,'m*'s$te) I m$-(t term t(e ant$t(es$s
'+ t(e se,'nd Ant$n'my) trans,endental At'm$st$,! 3ut as t($s /'rd (as
l'n- been em*l'yed t' des$-nate a *art$,ular t(e'ry '+ ,'r*'real
*(en'mena =m'le,ulae>) and t(us *resu**'ses a bas$s '+ em*$r$,al
,'n,e*t$'ns) I *re+er ,all$n- $t t(e d$ale,t$,al *r$n,$*le '+

A-a$nst t(e assert$'n '+ t(e $n+$n$te subd$0$s$b$l$ty '+ matter
/('se -r'und '+ *r''+ $s *urely mat(emat$,al) 'b&e,t$'ns (a0e been
alle-ed by t(e "'nad$sts! T(ese 'b&e,t$'ns lay t(emsel0es '*en) at
+$rst s$-(t) t' sus*$,$'n) +r'm t(e +a,t t(at t(ey d' n't re,'-n$;e
t(e ,learest mat(emat$,al *r''+s as *r'*'s$t$'ns relat$n- t' t(e
,'nst$tut$'n '+ s*a,e) $n s' +ar as $t $s really t(e +'rmal
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all matter) but re-ard t(em merely
as $n+eren,es +r'm abstra,t but arb$trary ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( ,ann't
(a0e any a**l$,at$'n t' real t($n-s! &ust as $+ $t /ere *'ss$ble t'
$ma-$ne an't(er m'de '+ $ntu$t$'n t(an t(at -$0en $n t(e *r$m$t$0e
$ntu$t$'n '+ s*a,e4 and &ust as $+ $ts a *r$'r$ determ$nat$'ns d$d n't
a**ly t' e0eryt($n-) t(e e1$sten,e '+ /($,( $s *'ss$ble) +r'm t(e +a,t
al'ne '+ $ts +$ll$n- s*a,e! I+ /e l$sten t' t(em) /e s(all +$nd
'ursel0es re.u$red t' ,'-$tate) $n add$t$'n t' t(e mat(emat$,al *'$nt)
/($,( $s s$m*le5 n't) ('/e0er) a *art) but a mere l$m$t '+ s*a,e5
*(ys$,al *'$nts) /($,( are $ndeed l$%e/$se s$m*le) but *'ssess t(e
*e,ul$ar *r'*erty) as *arts '+ s*a,e) '+ +$ll$n- $t merely by t(e$r
a--re-at$'n! I s(all n't re*eat (ere t(e ,'mm'n and ,lear
re+utat$'ns '+ t($s absurd$ty) /($,( are t' be +'und e0ery/(ere $n
numbers6 e0ery 'ne %n'/s t(at $t $s $m*'ss$ble t' underm$ne t(e
e0$den,e '+ mat(emat$,s by mere d$s,urs$0e ,'n,e*t$'ns4 I s(all 'nly
remar% t(at) $+ $n t($s ,ase *($l's'*(y endea0'urs t' -a$n an
ad0anta-e '0er mat(emat$,s by s'*($st$,al art$+$,es) $t $s be,ause
$t +'r-ets t(at t(e d$s,uss$'n relates s'lely t' P(en'mena and t(e$r
,'nd$t$'ns! It $s n't su++$,$ent t' +$nd t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
s$m*le +'r t(e *ure ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e ,'m*'s$te) but /e must
d$s,'0er +'r t(e $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e ,'m*'s$te =matter>) t(e $ntu$t$'n '+
t(e s$m*le! N'/ t($s) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ sens$b$l$ty) and
,'nse.uently $n t(e ,ase '+ 'b&e,ts '+ sense) $s utterly $m*'ss$ble!
In t(e ,ase '+ a /('le ,'m*'sed '+ substan,es) /($,( $s ,'-$tated
s'lely by t(e *ure understand$n-) $t may be ne,essary t' be $n
*'ssess$'n '+ t(e s$m*le be+'re ,'m*'s$t$'n $s *'ss$ble! 3ut t($s d'es
n't ('ld -''d '+ t(e T'tum substant$ale *(aen'men'n) /($,() as an
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n $n s*a,e) *'ssesses t(e ne,essary *r'*erty '+
,'nta$n$n- n' s$m*le *art) +'r t(e 0ery reas'n t(at n' *art '+ s*a,e
$s s$m*le! "ean/($le) t(e "'nad$sts (a0e been subtle en'u-( t'
es,a*e +r'm t($s d$++$,ulty) by *resu**'s$n- $ntu$t$'n and t(e
dynam$,al relat$'n '+ substan,es as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ s*a,e) $nstead '+ re-ard$n- s*a,e as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e 'b&e,ts '+ e1ternal $ntu$t$'n) t(at $s) '+
b'd$es! N'/ /e (a0e a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'd$es 'nly as *(en'mena) and)
as su,() t(ey ne,essar$ly *resu**'se s*a,e as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ all
e1ternal *(en'mena! T(e e0as$'n $s t(ere+'re $n 0a$n4 as) $ndeed) /e
(a0e su++$,$ently s('/n $n 'ur Aest(et$,! I+ b'd$es /ere t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) t(e *r''+ '+ t(e "'nad$sts /'uld be une1,e*t$'nable!
T(e se,'nd d$ale,t$,al assert$'n *'ssesses t(e *e,ul$ar$ty '+ (a0$n-
'**'sed t' $t a d'-mat$,al *r'*'s$t$'n) /($,() am'n- all su,(
s'*($st$,al statements) $s t(e 'nly 'ne t(at underta%es t' *r'0e $n
t(e ,ase '+ an 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e) t(at /($,( $s *r'*erly a
trans,endental $dea5 t(e abs'lute s$m*l$,$ty '+ substan,e! T(e
*r'*'s$t$'n $s t(at t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(e $nternal sense) t(e t($n%$n-
E-') $s an abs'lute s$m*le substan,e! 2$t('ut at *resent enter$n- u*'n
t($s sub&e,t5 as $t (as been ,'ns$dered at len-t( $n a +'rmer ,(a*ter5
I s(all merely remar% t(at) $+ s'met($n- $s ,'-$tated merely as an
'b&e,t) /$t('ut t(e add$t$'n '+ any synt(et$,al determ$nat$'n '+ $ts
$ntu$t$'n5 as (a**ens $n t(e ,ase '+ t(e bare re*resentat$'n) I5 $t $s
,erta$n t(at n' man$+'ld and n' ,'m*'s$t$'n ,an be *er,e$0ed $n su,( a
re*resentat$'n! As) m're'0er) t(e *red$,ates /(ereby I ,'-$tate t($s
'b&e,t are merely $ntu$t$'ns '+ t(e $nternal sense) t(ere ,ann't be
d$s,'0ered $n t(em anyt($n- t' *r'0e t(e e1$sten,e '+ a man$+'ld /('se
*arts are e1ternal t' ea,( 't(er) and) ,'nse.uently) n't($n- t'
*r'0e t(e e1$sten,e '+ real ,'m*'s$t$'n! C'ns,$'usness) t(ere+'re)
$s s' ,'nst$tuted t(at) $nasmu,( as t(e t($n%$n- sub&e,t $s at t(e
same t$me $ts '/n 'b&e,t) $t ,ann't d$0$de $tsel+5 alt('u-( $t ,an
d$0$de $ts $n(er$n- determ$nat$'ns! F'r e0ery 'b&e,t $n relat$'n t'
$tsel+ $s abs'lute un$ty! Ne0ert(eless) $+ t(e sub&e,t $s re-arded
e1ternally) as an 'b&e,t '+ $ntu$t$'n) $t must) $n $ts ,(ara,ter '+
*(en'men'n) *'ssess t(e *r'*erty '+ ,'m*'s$t$'n! And $t must al/ays be
re-arded $n t($s manner) $+ /e /$s( t' %n'/ /(et(er t(ere $s 'r $s n't
,'nta$ned $n $t a man$+'ld /('se *arts are e1ternal t' ea,( 't(er!


Causal$ty a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ nature) $s n't t(e 'nly ,ausal$ty
'*erat$n- t' 'r$-$nate t(e *(en'mena '+ t(e /'rld! A ,ausal$ty '+
+reed'm $s als' ne,essary t' a,,'unt +ully +'r t(ese *(en'mena!

<et $t be su**'sed) t(at t(ere $s n' 't(er %$nd '+ ,ausal$ty t(an
t(at a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ nature! C'nse.uently) e0eryt($n- t(at
(a**ens *resu**'ses a *re0$'us ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( $t +'ll'/s /$t(
abs'lute ,erta$nty) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( a rule! 3ut t($s *re0$'us
,'nd$t$'n must $tsel+ be s'met($n- t(at (as (a**ened =t(at (as
ar$sen $n t$me) as $t d$d n't e1$st be+'re>) +'r) $+ $t (as al/ays
been $n e1$sten,e) $ts ,'nse.uen,e 'r e++e,t /'uld n't t(us
'r$-$nate +'r t(e +$rst t$me) but /'uld l$%e/$se (a0e al/ays
e1$sted! T(e ,ausal$ty) t(ere+'re) '+ a ,ause) /(ereby s'met($n-
(a**ens) $s $tsel+ a t($n- t(at (as (a**ened! N'/ t($s a-a$n
*resu**'ses) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e la/ '+ nature) a *re0$'us
,'nd$t$'n and $ts ,ausal$ty) and t($s an't(er anter$'r t' t(e
+'rmer) and s' 'n! I+) t(en) e0eryt($n- (a**ens s'lely $n a,,'rdan,e
/$t( t(e la/s '+ nature) t(ere ,ann't be any real +$rst be-$nn$n- '+
t($n-s) but 'nly a subaltern 'r ,'m*arat$0e be-$nn$n-! T(ere ,ann't)
t(ere+'re) be a ,'m*leteness '+ ser$es 'n t(e s$de '+ t(e ,auses /($,(
'r$-$nate t(e 'ne +r'm t(e 't(er! 3ut t(e la/ '+ nature $s t(at
n't($n- ,an (a**en /$t('ut a su++$,$ent a *r$'r$ determ$ned ,ause! T(e
*r'*'s$t$'n t(ere+'re5 $+ all ,ausal$ty $s *'ss$ble 'nly $n a,,'rdan,e
/$t( t(e la/s '+ nature5 $s) /(en stated $n t($s unl$m$ted and -eneral
manner) sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry! It +'ll'/s t(at t($s ,ann't be t(e 'nly
%$nd '+ ,ausal$ty!
Fr'm /(at (as been sa$d) $t +'ll'/s t(at a ,ausal$ty must be
adm$tted) by means '+ /($,( s'met($n- (a**ens) /$t('ut $ts ,ause be$n-
determ$ned a,,'rd$n- t' ne,essary la/s by s'me 't(er ,ause
*re,ed$n-! T(at $s t' say) t(ere must e1$st an abs'lute s*'ntane$ty '+
,ause) /($,( '+ $tsel+ 'r$-$nates a ser$es '+ *(en'mena /($,( *r',eeds
a,,'rd$n- t' natural la/s5 ,'nse.uently trans,endental +reed'm)
/$t('ut /($,( e0en $n t(e ,'urse '+ nature t(e su,,ess$'n '+ *(en'mena
'n t(e s$de '+ ,auses $s ne0er ,'m*lete!

T(ere $s n' su,( t($n- as +reed'm) but e0eryt($n- $n t(e /'rld
(a**ens s'lely a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ nature!

Cranted) t(at t(ere d'es e1$st +reed'm $n t(e trans,endental
sense) as a *e,ul$ar %$nd '+ ,ausal$ty) '*erat$n- t' *r'du,e e0ents $n
t(e /'rld5 a +a,ulty) t(at $s t' say) '+ 'r$-$nat$n- a state) and
,'nse.uently a ser$es '+ ,'nse.uen,es +r'm t(at state! In t($s ,ase)
n't 'nly t(e ser$es 'r$-$nated by t($s s*'ntane$ty) but t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ t($s s*'ntane$ty $tsel+ t' t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ t(e
ser$es) t(at $s t' say) t(e ,ausal$ty $tsel+ must (a0e an abs'lute
,'mmen,ement) su,( t(at n't($n- ,an *re,ede t' determ$ne t($s a,t$'n
a,,'rd$n- t' un0ary$n- la/s! 3ut e0ery be-$nn$n- '+ a,t$'n *resu**'ses
$n t(e a,t$n- ,ause a state '+ $na,t$'n4 and a dynam$,ally *r$mal
be-$nn$n- '+ a,t$'n *resu**'ses a state) /($,( (as n' ,'nne,t$'n5 as
re-ards ,ausal$ty5 /$t( t(e *re,ed$n- state '+ t(e ,ause5 /($,( d'es
n't) t(at $s) $n any /$se result +r'm $t! Trans,endental +reed'm $s
t(ere+'re '**'sed t' t(e natural la/ '+ ,ause and e++e,t) and su,( a
,'n&un,t$'n '+ su,,ess$0e states $n e++e,t$0e ,auses $s destru,t$0e '+
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ un$ty $n e1*er$en,e and +'r t(at reas'n n't t' be
+'und $n e1*er$en,e5 $s ,'nse.uently a mere +$,t$'n '+ t('u-(t!
2e (a0e) t(ere+'re) n't($n- but nature t' /($,( /e must l''% +'r
,'nne,t$'n and 'rder $n ,'sm$,al e0ents! Freed'm5 $nde*enden,e '+
t(e la/s '+ nature5 $s ,erta$nly a del$0eran,e +r'm restra$nt) but
$t $s als' a rel$n.u$s($n- '+ t(e -u$dan,e '+ la/ and rule! F'r $t
,ann't be alle-ed t(at) $nstead '+ t(e la/s '+ nature) la/s '+ +reed'm
may be $ntr'du,ed $nt' t(e ,ausal$ty '+ t(e ,'urse '+ nature! F'r)
$+ +reed'm /ere determ$ned a,,'rd$n- t' la/s) $t /'uld be n' l'n-er
+reed'm) but merely nature! Nature) t(ere+'re) and trans,endental
+reed'm are d$st$n-u$s(able as ,'n+'rm$ty t' la/ and la/lessness!
T(e +'rmer $m*'ses u*'n understand$n- t(e d$++$,ulty '+ see%$n- t(e
'r$-$n '+ e0ents e0er ($-(er and ($-(er $n t(e ser$es '+ ,auses)
$nasmu,( as ,ausal$ty $s al/ays ,'nd$t$'ned t(ereby4 /($le $t
,'m*ensates t($s lab'ur by t(e -uarantee '+ a un$ty ,'m*lete and $n
,'n+'rm$ty /$t( la/! T(e latter) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) ('lds 'ut t' t(e
understand$n- t(e *r'm$se '+ a *'$nt '+ rest $n t(e ,(a$n '+ ,auses)
by ,'ndu,t$n- $t t' an un,'nd$t$'ned ,ausal$ty) /($,( *r'+esses t'
(a0e t(e *'/er '+ s*'ntane'us 'r$-$nat$'n) but /($,() $n $ts '/n utter
bl$ndness) de*r$0es $t '+ t(e -u$dan,e '+ rules) by /($,( al'ne a
,'m*letely ,'nne,ted e1*er$en,e $s *'ss$ble!


T(e trans,endental $dea '+ +reed'm $s +ar +r'm ,'nst$tut$n- t(e
ent$re ,'ntent '+ t(e *sy,('l'-$,al ,'n,e*t$'n s' termed) /($,( $s +'r
t(e m'st *art em*$r$,al! It merely *resents us /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ s*'ntane$ty '+ a,t$'n) as t(e *r'*er -r'und +'r $m*ut$n- +reed'm t'
t(e ,ause '+ a ,erta$n ,lass '+ 'b&e,ts! It $s) ('/e0er) t(e true
stumbl$n-5st'ne t' *($l's'*(y) /($,( meets /$t( un,'n.uerable
d$++$,ult$es $n t(e /ay '+ $ts adm$tt$n- t($s %$nd '+ un,'nd$t$'ned
,ausal$ty! T(at element $n t(e .uest$'n '+ t(e +reed'm '+ t(e /$ll)
/($,( bas +'r s' l'n- a t$me *la,ed s*e,ulat$0e reas'n $n su,(
*er*le1$ty) $s *r'*erly 'nly trans,endental) and ,'n,erns t(e
.uest$'n) /(et(er t(ere must be (eld t' e1$st a +a,ulty '+ s*'ntane'us
'r$-$nat$'n '+ a ser$es '+ su,,ess$0e t($n-s 'r states! H'/ su,( a
+a,ulty $s *'ss$ble $s n't a ne,essary $n.u$ry4 +'r $n t(e ,ase '+
natural ,ausal$ty $tsel+) /e are 'bl$-ed t' ,'ntent 'ursel0es /$t( t(e
a *r$'r$ %n'/led-e t(at su,( a ,ausal$ty must be *resu**'sed) alt('u-(
/e are .u$te $n,a*able '+ ,'m*re(end$n- ('/ t(e be$n- '+ 'ne t($n-
$s *'ss$ble t(r'u-( t(e be$n- '+ an't(er) but must +'r t($s
$n+'rmat$'n l''% ent$rely t' e1*er$en,e! N'/ /e (a0e dem'nstrated t($s
ne,ess$ty '+ a +ree +$rst be-$nn$n- '+ a ser$es '+ *(en'mena) 'nly
$n s' +ar as $t $s re.u$red +'r t(e ,'m*re(ens$'n '+ an 'r$-$n '+
t(e /'rld) all +'ll'/$n- states be$n- re-arded as a su,,ess$'n
a,,'rd$n- t' la/s '+ nature al'ne! 3ut) as t(ere (as t(us been
*r'0ed t(e e1$sten,e '+ a +a,ulty /($,( ,an '+ $tsel+ 'r$-$nate a
ser$es $n t$me5 alt('u-( /e are unable t' e1*la$n ('/ $t ,an e1$st5 /e
+eel 'ursel0es aut('r$;ed t' adm$t) e0en $n t(e m$dst '+ t(e natural
,'urse '+ e0ents) a be-$nn$n-) as re-ards ,ausal$ty) '+ d$++erent
su,,ess$'ns '+ *(en'mena) and at t(e same t$me t' attr$bute t' all
substan,es a +a,ulty '+ +ree a,t$'n! 3ut /e 'u-(t $n t($s ,ase n't
t' all'/ 'ursel0es t' +all $nt' a ,'mm'n m$sunderstand$n-) and t'
su**'se t(at) be,ause a su,,ess$0e ser$es $n t(e /'rld ,an 'nly (a0e a
,'m*arat$0ely +$rst be-$nn$n-5 an't(er state 'r ,'nd$t$'n '+ t($n-s
al/ays *re,ed$n-5 an abs'lutely +$rst be-$nn$n- '+ a ser$es $n t(e
,'urse '+ nature $s $m*'ss$ble! F'r /e are n't s*ea%$n- (ere '+ an
abs'lutely +$rst be-$nn$n- $n relat$'n t' t$me) but as re-ards
,ausal$ty al'ne! 2(en) +'r e1am*le) I) ,'m*letely '+ my '/n +ree /$ll)
and $nde*endently '+ t(e ne,essar$ly determ$nat$0e $n+luen,e '+
natural ,auses) r$se +r'm my ,(a$r) t(ere ,'mmen,es /$t( t($s e0ent)
$n,lud$n- $ts mater$al ,'nse.uen,es $n $n+$n$tum) an abs'lutely ne/
ser$es4 alt('u-() $n relat$'n t' t$me) t($s e0ent $s merely t(e
,'nt$nuat$'n '+ a *re,ed$n- ser$es! F'r t($s res'lut$'n and a,t '+
m$ne d' n't +'rm *art '+ t(e su,,ess$'n '+ e++e,ts $n nature) and
are n't mere ,'nt$nuat$'ns '+ $t4 'n t(e ,'ntrary) t(e determ$n$n-
,auses '+ nature ,ease t' '*erate $n re+eren,e t' t($s e0ent) /($,(
,erta$nly su,,eeds t(e a,ts '+ nature) but d'es n't *r',eed +r'm t(em!
F'r t(ese reas'ns) t(e a,t$'n '+ a +ree a-ent must be termed) $n
re-ard t' ,ausal$ty) $+ n't $n relat$'n t' t$me) an abs'lutely
*r$mal be-$nn$n- '+ a ser$es '+ *(en'mena!
T(e &ust$+$,at$'n '+ t($s need '+ reas'n t' rest u*'n a +ree a,t
as t(e +$rst be-$nn$n- '+ t(e ser$es '+ natural ,auses $s e0$dent +r'm
t(e +a,t) t(at all *($l's'*(ers '+ ant$.u$ty =/$t( t(e e1,e*t$'n '+
t(e E*$,urean s,(''l> +elt t(emsel0es 'bl$-ed) /(en ,'nstru,t$n- a
t(e'ry '+ t(e m't$'ns '+ t(e un$0erse) t' a,,e*t a *r$me m'0er) t(at
$s) a +reely a,t$n- ,ause) /($,( s*'ntane'usly and *r$'r t' all
't(er ,auses e0'l0ed t($s ser$es '+ states! T(ey al/ays +elt t(e
need '+ -'$n- bey'nd mere nature) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ ma%$n- a +$rst
be-$nn$n- ,'m*re(ens$ble!

T(e assert'r '+ t(e all5su++$,$en,y '+ nature $n re-ard t' ,ausal$ty
=trans,endental P(ys$',ra,y>) $n '**'s$t$'n t' t(e d',tr$ne '+
+reed'm) /'uld de+end ($s 0$e/ '+ t(e .uest$'n s'me/(at $n t(e
+'ll'/$n- manner! He /'uld say) $n ans/er t' t(e s'*($st$,al ar-uments
'+ t(e '**'s$te *arty6 I+ y'u d' n't a,,e*t a mat(emat$,al +$rst) $n
relat$'n t' t$me) y'u (a0e n' need t' see% a dynam$,al +$rst) $n
re-ard t' ,ausal$ty! 2(' ,'m*elled y'u t' $ma-$ne an abs'lutely *r$mal
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e /'rld) and t(ere/$t( an abs'lute be-$nn$n- '+ t(e
-radually *r'-ress$n- su,,ess$'ns '+ *(en'mena5 and) as s'me
+'undat$'n +'r t($s +an,y '+ y'urs) t' set b'unds t' unl$m$ted nature@
Inasmu,( as t(e substan,es $n t(e /'rld (a0e al/ays e1$sted5 at
least t(e un$ty '+ e1*er$en,e renders su,( a su**'s$t$'n .u$te
ne,essary5 t(ere $s n' d$++$,ulty $n bel$e0$n- als') t(at t(e
,(an-es $n t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(ese substan,es (a0e al/ays e1$sted4
and) ,'nse.uently) t(at a +$rst be-$nn$n-) mat(emat$,al 'r
dynam$,al) $s by n' means re.u$red! T(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( an
$n+$n$te der$0at$'n) /$t('ut any $n$t$al member +r'm /($,( all t(e
't(ers result) $s ,erta$nly .u$te $n,'m*re(ens$ble! 3ut) $+ y'u are
ras( en'u-( t' deny t(e en$-mat$,al se,rets '+ nature +'r t($s reas'n)
y'u /$ll +$nd y'ursel0es 'bl$-ed t' deny als' t(e e1$sten,e '+ many
+undamental *r'*ert$es '+ natural 'b&e,ts =su,( as +undamental
+'r,es>) /($,( y'u ,an &ust as l$ttle ,'m*re(end4 and e0en t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ s' s$m*le a ,'n,e*t$'n as t(at '+ ,(an-e must *resent
t' y'u $nsu*erable d$++$,ult$es! F'r $+ e1*er$en,e d$d n't tea,( y'u
t(at $t /as real) y'u ne0er ,'uld ,'n,e$0e a *r$'r$ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
t($s ,easeless se.uen,e '+ be$n- and n'n5be$n-!
3ut $+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ a trans,endental +a,ulty '+ +reed'm $s
-ranted5 a +a,ulty '+ 'r$-$nat$n- ,(an-es $n t(e /'rld5 t($s +a,ulty
must at least e1$st 'ut '+ and a*art +r'm t(e /'rld4 alt('u-( $t $s
,erta$nly a b'ld assum*t$'n) t(at) '0er and ab'0e t(e ,'m*lete ,'ntent
'+ all *'ss$ble $ntu$t$'ns) t(ere st$ll e1$sts an 'b&e,t /($,(
,ann't be *resented $n any *'ss$ble *er,e*t$'n! 3ut) t' attr$bute t'
substan,es $n t(e /'rld $tsel+ su,( a +a,ulty) $s .u$te
$nadm$ss$ble4 +'r) $n t($s ,ase4 t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ *(en'mena
re,$*r',ally determ$n$n- and determ$ned a,,'rd$n- t' -eneral la/s)
/($,( $s termed nature) and al'n- /$t( $t t(e ,r$ter$a '+ em*$r$,al
trut() /($,( enable us t' d$st$n-u$s( e1*er$en,e +r'm mere 0$s$'nary
dream$n-) /'uld alm'st ent$rely d$sa**ear! In *r'1$m$ty /$t( su,( a
la/less +a,ulty '+ +reed'm) a system '+ nature $s (ardly ,'-$table4
+'r t(e la/s '+ t(e latter /'uld be ,'nt$nually sub&e,t t' t(e
$ntrus$0e $n+luen,es '+ t(e +'rmer) and t(e ,'urse '+ *(en'mena) /($,(
/'uld 't(er/$se *r',eed re-ularly and un$+'rmly) /'uld be,'me
t(ereby ,'n+used and d$s,'nne,ted!


T(ere e1$sts e$t(er $n) 'r $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( t(e /'rld5 e$t(er as a
*art '+ $t) 'r as t(e ,ause '+ $t5an abs'lutely ne,essary be$n-!

T(e /'rld '+ sense) as t(e sum t'tal '+ all *(en'mena) ,'nta$ns a
ser$es '+ ,(an-es! F'r) /$t('ut su,( a ser$es) t(e mental
re*resentat$'n '+ t(e ser$es '+ t$me $tsel+) as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e sensu'us /'rld) ,'uld n't be *resented t' us!7
3ut e0ery ,(an-e stands under $ts ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( *re,edes $t $n t$me
and renders $t ne,essary! N'/ t(e e1$sten,e '+ a -$0en ,'nd$t$'n
*resu**'ses a ,'m*lete ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns u* t' t(e abs'lutely
un,'nd$t$'ned) /($,( al'ne $s abs'lutely ne,essary! It +'ll'/s t(at
s'met($n- t(at $s abs'lutely ne,essary must e1$st) $+ ,(an-e e1$sts as
$ts ,'nse.uen,e! 3ut t($s ne,essary t($n- $tsel+ bel'n-s t' t(e
sensu'us /'rld! F'r su**'se $t t' e1$st 'ut '+ and a*art +r'm $t)
t(e ser$es '+ ,'sm$,al ,(an-es /'uld re,e$0e +r'm $t a be-$nn$n-)
and yet t($s ne,essary ,ause /'uld n't $tsel+ bel'n- t' t(e /'rld '+
sense! 3ut t($s $s $m*'ss$ble! F'r) as t(e be-$nn$n- '+ a ser$es $n
t$me $s determ$ned 'nly by t(at /($,( *re,edes $t $n t$me) t(e su*reme
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e be-$nn$n- '+ a ser$es '+ ,(an-es must e1$st $n t(e
t$me $n /($,( t($s ser$es $tsel+ d$d n't e1$st4 +'r a be-$nn$n-
su**'ses a t$me *re,ed$n-) $n /($,( t(e t($n- t(at be-$ns t' be /as
n't $n e1$sten,e! T(e ,ausal$ty '+ t(e ne,essary ,ause '+ ,(an-es) and
,'nse.uently t(e ,ause $tsel+) must +'r t(ese reas'ns bel'n- t'
t$me5 and t' *(en'mena) t$me be$n- *'ss$ble 'nly as t(e +'rm '+
*(en'mena! C'nse.uently) $t ,ann't be ,'-$tated as se*arated +r'm
t(e /'rld '+ sense5 t(e sum t'tal '+ all *(en'mena! T(ere $s)
t(ere+'re) ,'nta$ned $n t(e /'rld) s'met($n- t(at $s abs'lutely
ne,essary5 /(et(er $t be t(e /('le ,'sm$,al ser$es $tsel+) 'r 'nly a
*art '+ $t!
7Ob&e,t$0ely) t$me) as t(e +'rmal ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
,(an-e) *re,edes all ,(an-es4 but sub&e,t$0ely) and $n
,'ns,$'usness) t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t$me) l$%e e0ery 't(er) $s
-$0en s'lely by ',,as$'n '+ *er,e*t$'n!

An abs'lutely ne,essary be$n- d'es n't e1$st) e$t(er $n t(e /'rld)
'r 'ut '+ $t5 as $ts ,ause!

Crant t(at e$t(er t(e /'rld $tsel+ $s ne,essary) 'r t(at t(ere $s
,'nta$ned $n $t a ne,essary e1$sten,e! T/' ,ases are *'ss$ble!
F$rst) t(ere must e$t(er be $n t(e ser$es '+ ,'sm$,al ,(an-es a
be-$nn$n-) /($,( $s un,'nd$t$'nally ne,essary) and t(ere+'re un,aused5
/($,( $s at 0ar$an,e /$t( t(e dynam$,al la/ '+ t(e determ$nat$'n '+
all *(en'mena $n t$me4 'r) se,'ndly) t(e ser$es $tsel+ $s /$t('ut
be-$nn$n-) and) alt('u-( ,'nt$n-ent and ,'nd$t$'ned $n all $ts
*arts) $s ne0ert(eless abs'lutely ne,essary and un,'nd$t$'ned as a
/('le5 /($,( $s sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry! F'r t(e e1$sten,e '+ an
a--re-ate ,ann't be ne,essary) $+ n' s$n-le *art '+ $t *'ssesses
ne,essary e1$sten,e!
Crant) 'n t(e 't(er band) t(at an abs'lutely ne,essary ,ause
e1$sts 'ut '+ and a*art +r'm t(e /'rld! T($s ,ause) as t(e ($-(est
member $n t(e ser$es '+ t(e ,auses '+ ,'sm$,al ,(an-es) must 'r$-$nate
'r be-$n7 t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e latter and t(e$r ser$es! In t($s ,ase
$t must als' be-$n t' a,t) and $ts ,ausal$ty /'uld t(ere+'re bel'n- t'
t$me) and ,'nse.uently t' t(e sum t'tal '+ *(en'mena) t(at $s) t'
t(e /'rld! It +'ll'/s t(at t(e ,ause ,ann't be 'ut '+ t(e /'rld4 /($,(
$s ,'ntrad$,t'ry t' t(e (y*'t(es$s! T(ere+'re) ne$t(er $n t(e /'rld)
n'r 'ut '+ $t =but $n ,ausal ,'nne,t$'n /$t( $t>) d'es t(ere e1$st any
abs'lutely ne,essary be$n-!
7T(e /'rd be-$n $s ta%en $n t/' senses! T(e +$rst $s a,t$0e5 t(e
,ause be$n- re-arded as be-$nn$n- a ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns as $ts e++e,t
=$n+$t>! T(e se,'nd $s *ass$0e5 t(e ,ausal$ty $n t(e ,ause $tsel+
be-$nn$n- t' '*erate =+$t>! I reas'n (ere +r'm t(e +$rst t' t(e


T' dem'nstrate t(e e1$sten,e '+ a ne,essary be$n-) I ,ann't be
*erm$tted $n t($s *la,e t' em*l'y any 't(er t(an t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al
ar-ument) /($,( as,ends +r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $n *(en'mena t' t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned $n ,'n,e*t$'n5 t(e un,'nd$t$'ned be$n- ,'ns$dered t(e
ne,essary ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es! T(e *r''+)
+r'm t(e mere $dea '+ a su*reme be$n-) bel'n-s t' an't(er *r$n,$*le '+
reas'n and re.u$res se*arate d$s,uss$'n!
T(e *ure ,'sm'l'-$,al *r''+ dem'nstrates t(e e1$sten,e '+ a
ne,essary be$n-) but at t(e same t$me lea0es $t .u$te unsettled)
/(et(er t($s be$n- $s t(e /'rld $tsel+) 'r .u$te d$st$n,t +r'm $t!
T' establ$s( t(e trut( '+ t(e latter 0$e/) *r$n,$*les are re.u$s$te)
/($,( are n't ,'sm'l'-$,al and d' n't *r',eed $n t(e ser$es '+
*(en'mena! 2e s('uld re.u$re t' $ntr'du,e $nt' 'ur *r''+ ,'n,e*t$'ns
'+ ,'nt$n-ent be$n-s5 re-arded merely as 'b&e,ts '+ t(e understand$n-)
and als' a *r$n,$*le /($,( enables us t' ,'nne,t t(ese) by means '+
mere ,'n,e*t$'ns) /$t( a ne,essary be$n-! 3ut t(e *r'*er *la,e +'r all
su,( ar-uments $s a trans,endent *($l's'*(y) /($,( (as un(a**$ly n't
yet been establ$s(ed!
3ut) $+ /e be-$n 'ur *r''+ ,'sm'l'-$,ally) by lay$n- at t(e
+'undat$'n '+ $t t(e ser$es '+ *(en'mena) and t(e re-ress $n $t
a,,'rd$n- t' em*$r$,al la/s '+ ,ausal$ty) /e are n't at l$berty t'
brea% '++ +r'm t($s m'de '+ dem'nstrat$'n and t' *ass '0er t'
s'met($n- /($,( $s n't $tsel+ a member '+ t(e ser$es! T(e ,'nd$t$'n
must be ta%en $n e1a,tly t(e same s$-n$+$,at$'n as t(e relat$'n '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ned t' $ts ,'nd$t$'n $n t(e ser$es (as been ta%en) +'r t(e
ser$es must ,'ndu,t us $n an unbr'%en re-ress t' t($s su*reme
,'nd$t$'n! 3ut $+ t($s relat$'n $s sensu'us) and bel'n-s t' t(e
*'ss$ble em*$r$,al em*l'yment '+ understand$n-) t(e su*reme
,'nd$t$'n 'r ,ause must ,l'se t(e re-ress$0e ser$es a,,'rd$n- t' t(e
la/s '+ sens$b$l$ty and ,'nse.uently) must bel'n- t' t(e ser$es '+
t$me! It +'ll'/s t(at t($s ne,essary e1$sten,e must be re-arded as t(e
($-(est member '+ t(e ,'sm$,al ser$es!
Certa$n *($l's'*(ers (a0e) ne0ert(eless) all'/ed t(emsel0es t(e
l$berty '+ ma%$n- su,( a saltus =metabas$s e$s all' -'n's>! Fr'm t(e
,(an-es $n t(e /'rld t(ey (a0e ,'n,luded t(e$r em*$r$,al
,'nt$n-en,y) t(at $s) t(e$r de*enden,e 'n em*$r$,ally5determ$ned
,auses) and t(ey t(us adm$tted an as,end$n- ser$es '+ em*$r$,al
,'nd$t$'ns6 and $n t($s t(ey are .u$te r$-(t! 3ut as t(ey ,'uld n't
+$nd $n t($s ser$es any *r$mal be-$nn$n- 'r any ($-(est member) t(ey
*assed suddenly +r'm t(e em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ,'nt$n-en,y t' t(e
*ure ,ate-'ry) /($,( *resents us /$t( a ser$es5 n't sensu'us) but
$ntelle,tual5 /('se ,'m*leteness d'es ,erta$nly rest u*'n t(e
e1$sten,e '+ an abs'lutely ne,essary ,ause! Nay) m're) t($s
$ntelle,tual ser$es $s n't t$ed t' any sensu'us ,'nd$t$'ns4 and $s
t(ere+'re +ree +r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t$me) /($,( re.u$res $t
s*'ntane'usly t' be-$n $ts ,ausal$ty $n t$me! 3ut su,( a *r',edure
$s *er+e,tly $nadm$ss$ble) as /$ll be made *la$n +r'm /(at +'ll'/s!
In t(e *ure sense '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es) t(at $s ,'nt$n-ent t(e
,'ntrad$,t'ry '**'s$te '+ /($,( $s *'ss$ble! N'/ /e ,ann't reas'n +r'm
em*$r$,al ,'nt$n-en,y t' $ntelle,tual! T(e '**'s$te '+ t(at /($,( $s
,(an-ed5 t(e '**'s$te '+ $ts state5 $s a,tual at an't(er t$me) and
$s t(ere+'re *'ss$ble! C'nse.uently) $t $s n't t(e ,'ntrad$,t'ry
'**'s$te '+ t(e +'rmer state! T' be t(at) $t $s ne,essary t(at) $n t(e
same t$me $n /($,( t(e *re,ed$n- state e1$sted) $ts '**'s$te ,'uld
(a0e e1$sted $n $ts *la,e4 but su,( a ,'-n$t$'n $s n't -$0en us $n t(e
mere *(en'men'n '+ ,(an-e! A b'dy t(at /as $n m't$'n E A) ,'mes $nt' a
state '+ rest E n'n5A! N'/ $t ,ann't be ,'n,luded +r'm t(e +a,t t(at a
state '**'s$te t' t(e state A +'ll'/s $t) t(at t(e ,'ntrad$,t'ry
'**'s$te '+ A $s *'ss$ble4 and t(at A $s t(ere+'re ,'nt$n-ent! T'
*r'0e t($s) /e s('uld re.u$re t' %n'/ t(at t(e state '+ rest ,'uld
(a0e e1$sted $n t(e 0ery same t$me $n /($,( t(e m't$'n t''% *la,e! N'/
/e %n'/ n't($n- m're t(an t(at t(e state '+ rest /as a,tual $n t(e
t$me t(at +'ll'/ed t(e state '+ m't$'n4 ,'nse.uently) t(at $t /as als'
*'ss$ble! 3ut m't$'n at 'ne t$me) and rest at an't(er t$me) are n't
,'ntrad$,t'r$ly '**'sed t' ea,( 't(er! It +'ll'/s +r'm /(at (as been
sa$d t(at t(e su,,ess$'n '+ '**'s$te determ$nat$'ns) t(at $s)
,(an-e) d'es n't dem'nstrate t(e +a,t '+ ,'nt$n-en,y as re*resented $n
t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e *ure understand$n-4 and t(at $t ,ann't)
t(ere+'re) ,'ndu,t us t' t(e +a,t '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ a ne,essary
be$n-! C(an-e *r'0es merely em*$r$,al ,'nt$n-en,y) t(at $s t' say)
t(at t(e ne/ state ,'uld n't (a0e e1$sted /$t('ut a ,ause) /($,(
bel'n-s t' t(e *re,ed$n- t$me! T($s ,ause5 e0en alt('u-( $t $s
re-arded as abs'lutely ne,essary5 must be *resented t' us $n t$me) and
must bel'n- t' t(e ser$es '+ *(en'mena!

T(e d$++$,ult$es /($,( meet us) $n 'ur attem*t t' r$se t(r'u-( t(e
ser$es '+ *(en'mena t' t(e e1$sten,e '+ an abs'lutely ne,essary
su*reme ,ause) must n't 'r$-$nate +r'm 'ur $nab$l$ty t' establ$s(
t(e trut( '+ 'ur mere ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e ne,essary e1$sten,e '+ a
t($n-! T(at $s t' say) 'ur 'b&e,t$'ns n't be 'nt'l'-$,al) but must
be d$re,ted a-a$nst t(e ,ausal ,'nne,t$'n /$t( a ser$es '+ *(en'mena
'+ a ,'nd$t$'n /($,( $s $tsel+ un,'nd$t$'ned! In 'ne /'rd) t(ey must
be ,'sm'l'-$,al and relate t' em*$r$,al la/s! 2e must s('/ t(at t(e
re-ress $n t(e ser$es '+ ,auses =$n t(e /'rld '+ sense> ,ann't
,'n,lude /$t( an em*$r$,ally un,'nd$t$'ned ,'nd$t$'n) and t(at t(e
,'sm'l'-$,al ar-ument +r'm t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ t(e ,'sm$,al state5 a
,'nt$n-en,y alle-ed t' ar$se +r'm ,(an-e5 d'es n't &ust$+y us $n
a,,e*t$n- a +$rst ,ause) t(at $s) a *r$me 'r$-$nat'r '+ t(e ,'sm$,al
T(e reader /$ll 'bser0e $n t($s ant$n'my a 0ery remar%able ,'ntrast!
T(e 0ery same -r'unds '+ *r''+ /($,( establ$s(ed $n t(e t(es$s t(e
e1$sten,e '+ a su*reme be$n-) dem'nstrated $n t(e ant$t(es$s5 and /$t(
e.ual str$,tness5 t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ su,( a be$n-! 2e +'und)
+$rst) t(at a ne,essary be$n- e1$sts) be,ause t(e /('le t$me *ast
,'nta$ns t(e ser$es '+ all ,'nd$t$'ns) and /$t( $t) t(ere+'re) t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned =t(e ne,essary>4 se,'ndly) t(at t(ere d'es n't e1$st any
ne,essary be$n-) +'r t(e same reas'n) t(at t(e /('le t$me *ast
,'nta$ns t(e ser$es '+ all ,'nd$t$'ns5 /($,( are t(emsel0es)
t(ere+'re) $n t(e a--re-ate) ,'nd$t$'ned! T(e ,ause '+ t($s seem$n-
$n,'n-ru$ty $s as +'ll'/s! 2e attend) $n t(e +$rst ar-ument) s'lely t'
t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) t(e 'ne '+ /($,(
determ$nes t(e 't(er $n t$me) and t(us arr$0e at a ne,essary
un,'nd$t$'ned! In t(e se,'nd) /e ,'ns$der) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) t(e
,'nt$n-en,y '+ e0eryt($n- t(at $s determ$ned $n t(e ser$es '+ t$me5
+'r e0ery e0ent $s *re,eded by a t$me) $n /($,( t(e ,'nd$t$'n $tsel+
must be determ$ned as ,'nd$t$'ned5 and t(us e0eryt($n- t(at $s
un,'nd$t$'ned 'r abs'lutely ne,essary d$sa**ears! In b't() t(e m'de '+
*r''+ $s .u$te $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e ,'mm'n *r',edure '+ (uman
reas'n) /($,( '+ten +alls $nt' d$s,'rd /$t( $tsel+) +r'm ,'ns$der$n-
an 'b&e,t +r'm t/' d$++erent *'$nts '+ 0$e/! Herr 0'n "a$ran
re-arded t(e ,'ntr'0ersy bet/een t/' ,elebrated astr'n'mers) /($,(
ar'se +r'm a s$m$lar d$++$,ulty as t' t(e ,('$,e '+ a *r'*er
stand*'$nt) as a *(en'men'n '+ su++$,$ent $m*'rtan,e t' /arrant a
se*arate treat$se 'n t(e sub&e,t! T(e 'ne ,'n,luded6 t(e m''n re0'l0es
'n $ts '/n a1$s) be,ause $t ,'nstantly *resents t(e same s$de t' t(e
eart(4 t(e 't(er de,lared t(at t(e m''n d'es n't re0'l0e 'n $ts '/n
a1$s) +'r t(e same reas'n! 3't( ,'n,lus$'ns /ere *er+e,tly ,'rre,t)
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *'$nt '+ 0$e/ +r'm /($,( t(e m't$'ns '+ t(e m''n /ere
SECTION III! O+ t(e Interest '+ Reas'n $n t(ese


2e (a0e t(us ,'m*letely be+'re us t(e d$ale,t$,al *r',edure '+ t(e
,'sm'l'-$,al $deas! N' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e ,an *resent us /$t( an
'b&e,t ade.uate t' t(em $n e1tent! Nay) m're) reas'n $tsel+ ,ann't
,'-$tate t(em as a,,'rd$n- /$t( t(e -eneral la/s '+ e1*er$en,e! And
yet t(ey are n't arb$trary +$,t$'ns '+ t('u-(t! On t(e ,'ntrary)
reas'n) $n $ts un$nterru*ted *r'-ress $n t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s) $s
ne,essar$ly ,'ndu,ted t' t(em) /(en $t endea0'urs t' +ree +r'm all
,'nd$t$'ns and t' ,'m*re(end $n $ts un,'nd$t$'ned t'tal$ty t(at
/($,( ,an 'nly be determ$ned ,'nd$t$'nally $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e la/s
'+ e1*er$en,e! T(ese d$ale,t$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns are s' many attem*ts
t' s'l0e +'ur natural and una0'$dable *r'blems '+ reas'n! T(ere are
ne$t(er m're) n'r ,an t(ere be less) t(an t($s number) be,ause t(ere
are n' 't(er ser$es '+ synt(et$,al (y*'t(eses) l$m$t$n- a *r$'r$ t(e
em*$r$,al synt(es$s!
T(e br$ll$ant ,la$ms '+ reas'n str$0$n- t' e1tend $ts d'm$n$'n
bey'nd t(e l$m$ts '+ e1*er$en,e) (a0e been re*resented ab'0e 'nly $n
dry +'rmulae) /($,( ,'nta$n merely t(e -r'unds '+ $ts *retens$'ns!
T(ey (a0e) bes$des) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e ,(ara,ter '+ a
trans,endental *($l's'*(y) been +reed +r'm e0ery em*$r$,al element4
alt('u-( t(e +ull s*lend'ur '+ t(e *r'm$ses t(ey ('ld 'ut) and t(e
ant$,$*at$'ns t(ey e1,$te) man$+ests $tsel+ 'nly /(en $n ,'nne,t$'n
/$t( em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'ns! In t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(em) ('/e0er) and $n
t(e ad0an,$n- enlar-ement '+ t(e em*l'yment '+ reas'n) /($le
stru--l$n- t' r$se +r'm t(e re-$'n '+ e1*er$en,e and t' s'ar t'
t('se subl$me $deas) *($l's'*(y d$s,'0ers a 0alue and a d$-n$ty)
/($,() $+ $t ,'uld but ma%e -''d $ts assert$'ns) /'uld ra$se $t +ar
ab'0e all 't(er de*artments '+ (uman %n'/led-e5 *r'+ess$n-) as $t
d'es) t' *resent a sure +'undat$'n +'r 'ur ($-(est ('*es and t(e
ult$mate a$ms '+ all t(e e1ert$'ns '+ reas'n! T(e .uest$'ns6 /(et(er
t(e /'rld (as a be-$nn$n- and a l$m$t t' $ts e1tens$'n $n s*a,e4
/(et(er t(ere e1$sts any/(ere) 'r *er(a*s) $n my '/n t($n%$n- Sel+) an
$nd$0$s$ble and $ndestru,t$ble un$ty5 'r /(et(er n't($n- but /(at $s
d$0$s$ble and trans$t'ry e1$sts4 /(et(er I am a +ree a-ent) 'r) l$%e
't(er be$n-s) am b'und $n t(e ,(a$ns '+ nature and +ate4 /(et(er)
+$nally) t(ere $s a su*reme ,ause '+ t(e /'rld) 'r all 'ur t('u-(t and
s*e,ulat$'n must end /$t( nature and t(e 'rder '+ e1ternal t($n-s5 are
.uest$'ns +'r t(e s'lut$'n '+ /($,( t(e mat(emat$,$an /'uld
/$ll$n-ly e1,(an-e ($s /('le s,$en,e4 +'r $n $t t(ere $s n'
sat$s+a,t$'n +'r t(e ($-(est as*$rat$'ns and m'st ardent des$res '+
(uman$ty! Nay) $t may e0en be sa$d t(at t(e true 0alue '+ mat(emat$,s5
t(at *r$de '+ (uman reas'n5 ,'ns$sts $n t($s6 t(at s(e -u$des reas'n
t' t(e %n'/led-e '+ nature5 $n (er -reater as /ell as $n (er less
man$+estat$'ns5 $n (er beaut$+ul 'rder and re-ular$ty5 -u$des (er)
m're'0er) t' an $ns$-(t $nt' t(e /'nder+ul un$ty '+ t(e m'0$n-
+'r,es $n t(e '*erat$'ns '+ nature) +ar bey'nd t(e e1*e,tat$'ns '+ a
*($l's'*(y bu$ld$n- 'nly 'n e1*er$en,e4 and t(at s(e t(us en,'ura-es
*($l's'*(y t' e1tend t(e *r'0$n,e '+ reas'n bey'nd all e1*er$en,e) and
at t(e same t$me *r'0$des $t /$t( t(e m'st e1,ellent mater$als +'r
su**'rt$n- $ts $n0est$-at$'ns) $n s' +ar as t(e$r nature adm$ts) by
ade.uate and a,,'rdant $ntu$t$'ns!
Un+'rtunately +'r s*e,ulat$'n5 but *er(a*s +'rtunately +'r t(e
*ra,t$,al $nterests '+ (uman$ty5 reas'n) $n t(e m$dst '+ (er ($-(est
ant$,$*at$'ns) +$nds (ersel+ (emmed $n by a *ress '+ '**'s$te and
,'ntrad$,t'ry ,'n,lus$'ns) +r'm /($,( ne$t(er (er ('n'ur n'r (er
sa+ety /$ll *erm$t (er t' dra/ ba,%! N'r ,an s(e re-ard t(ese
,'n+l$,t$n- tra$ns '+ reas'n$n- /$t( $nd$++eren,e as mere *assa-es
at arms) st$ll less ,an s(e ,'mmand *ea,e4 +'r $n t(e sub&e,t '+ t(e
,'n+l$,t s(e (as a dee* $nterest! T(ere $s n' 't(er ,'urse le+t '*en
t' (er t(an t' re+le,t /$t( (ersel+ u*'n t(e 'r$-$n '+ t($s d$sun$'n
$n reas'n5 /(et(er $t may n't ar$se +r'm a mere m$sunderstand$n-!
A+ter su,( an $n.u$ry) arr'-ant ,la$ms /'uld (a0e t' be -$0en u* 'n
b't( s$des4 but t(e s'0ere$-nty '+ reas'n '0er understand$n- and sense
/'uld be based u*'n a sure +'undat$'n!
2e s(all at *resent de+er t($s rad$,al $n.u$ry and) $n t(e meant$me)
,'ns$der +'r a l$ttle /(at s$de $n t(e ,'ntr'0ersy /e s('uld m'st
/$ll$n-ly ta%e) $+ /e /ere 'bl$-ed t' be,'me *art$sans at all! As)
$n t($s ,ase) /e lea0e 'ut '+ s$-(t alt'-et(er t(e l'-$,al ,r$ter$'n
'+ trut() and merely ,'nsult 'ur '/n $nterest $n re+eren,e t' t(e
.uest$'n) t(ese ,'ns$derat$'ns) alt('u-( $nade.uate t' settle t(e
.uest$'n '+ r$-(t $n e$t(er *arty) /$ll enable us t' ,'m*re(end ('/
t('se /(' (a0e ta%en *art $n t(e stru--le) ad'*t t(e 'ne 0$e/ rat(er
t(an t(e 't(er5 n' s*e,$al $ns$-(t $nt' t(e sub&e,t) ('/e0er) (a0$n-
$n+luen,ed t(e$r ,('$,e! T(ey /$ll) at t(e same t$me) e1*la$n t' us
many 't(er t($n-s by t(e /ay5 +'r e1am*le) t(e +$ery ;eal 'n t(e 'ne
s$de and t(e ,'ld ma$ntenan,e '+ t(e$r ,ause 'n t(e 't(er4 /(y t(e 'ne
*arty (as met /$t( t(e /armest a**r'bat$'ns) and t(e 't(er (as
al/ays been re*ulsed by $rre,'n,$lable *re&ud$,es!
T(ere $s 'ne t($n-) ('/e0er) t(at determ$nes t(e *r'*er *'$nt '+
0$e/) +r'm /($,( al'ne t($s *rel$m$nary $n.u$ry ,an be $nst$tuted
and ,arr$ed 'n /$t( t(e *r'*er ,'m*leteness5 and t(at $s t(e
,'m*ar$s'n '+ t(e *r$n,$*les +r'm /($,( b't( s$des) t(es$s and
ant$t(es$s) *r',eed! "y readers /'uld remar% $n t(e *r'*'s$t$'ns '+
t(e ant$t(es$s a ,'m*lete un$+'rm$ty $n t(e m'de '+ t('u-(t and a
*er+e,t un$ty '+ *r$n,$*le! Its *r$n,$*le /as t(at '+ *ure em*$r$,$sm)
n't 'nly $n t(e e1*l$,at$'n '+ t(e *(en'mena $n t(e /'rld) but als' $n
t(e s'lut$'n '+ t(e trans,endental $deas) e0en '+ t(at '+ t(e un$0erse
$tsel+! T(e a++$rmat$'ns '+ t(e t(es$s) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) /ere based)
$n add$t$'n t' t(e em*$r$,al m'de '+ e1*lanat$'n em*l'yed $n t(e
ser$es '+ *(en'mena) 'n $ntelle,tual *r'*'s$t$'ns4 and $ts
*r$n,$*les /ere $n s' +ar n't s$m*le! I s(all term t(e t(es$s) $n 0$e/
'+ $ts essent$al ,(ara,ter$st$,) t(e d'-mat$sm '+ *ure reas'n!
On t(e s$de '+ #'-mat$sm) 'r '+ t(e t(es$s) t(ere+'re) $n t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas) /e +$nd6
1! A *ra,t$,al $nterest) /($,( must be 0ery dear t' e0ery
r$-(t5t($n%$n- man! T(at t(e /'rd (as a be-$nn$n-5 t(at t(e nature
'+ my t($n%$n- sel+ $s s$m*le) and t(ere+'re $ndestru,t$ble5 t(at I am
a +ree a-ent) and ra$sed ab'0e t(e ,'m*uls$'n '+ nature and (er
la/s5 and) +$nally) t(at t(e ent$re 'rder '+ t($n-s) /($,( +'rm t(e
/'rld) $s de*endent u*'n a Su*reme 3e$n-) +r'm /('m t(e /('le re,e$0es
un$ty and ,'nne,t$'n5 t(ese are s' many +'undat$'n5st'nes '+
m'ral$ty and rel$-$'n! T(e ant$t(es$s de*r$0es us '+ all t(ese
su**'rts5 'r) at least) seems s' t' de*r$0e us!
B! A s*e,ulat$0e $nterest '+ reas'n man$+ests $tsel+ 'n t($s s$de!
F'r) $+ /e ta%e t(e trans,endental $deas and em*l'y t(em $n t(e manner
/($,( t(e t(es$s d$re,ts) /e ,an e1($b$t ,'m*letely a *r$'r$ t(e
ent$re ,(a$n '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) and understand t(e der$0at$'n '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ned5 be-$nn$n- +r'm t(e un,'nd$t$'ned! T($s t(e ant$t(es$s
d'es n't d'4 and +'r t($s reas'n d'es n't meet /$t( s' /el,'me a
re,e*t$'n! F'r $t ,an -$0e n' ans/er t' 'ur .uest$'n res*e,t$n- t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ts synt(es$s5 e1,e*t su,( as must be su**lemented by
an't(er .uest$'n) and s' 'n t' $n+$n$ty! A,,'rd$n- t' $t) /e must r$se
+r'm a -$0en be-$nn$n- t' 'ne st$ll ($-(er4 e0ery *art ,'ndu,ts us
t' a st$ll smaller 'ne4 e0ery e0ent $s *re,eded by an't(er e0ent /($,(
$s $ts ,ause4 and t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ e1$sten,e rest al/ays u*'n 't(er
and st$ll ($-(er ,'nd$t$'ns) and +$nd ne$t(er end n'r bas$s $n s'me
sel+5subs$stent t($n- as t(e *r$mal be$n-!
I! T($s s$de (as als' t(e ad0anta-e '+ *'*ular$ty4 and t($s
,'nst$tutes n' small *art '+ $ts ,la$m t' +a0'ur! T(e ,'mm'n
understand$n- d'es n't +$nd t(e least d$++$,ulty $n t(e $dea '+ t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned be-$nn$n- '+ all synt(es$s5 a,,ust'med) as $t $s) rat(er
t' +'ll'/ 'ur ,'nse.uen,es t(an t' see% +'r a *r'*er bas$s +'r
,'-n$t$'n! In t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an abs'lute +$rst) m're'0er5 t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ /($,( $t d'es n't $n.u$re $nt'5 $t $s ($-(ly
-rat$+$ed t' +$nd a +$rmly5establ$s(ed *'$nt '+ de*arture +'r $ts
attem*ts at t(e'ry4 /($le $n t(e restless and ,'nt$nu'us as,ent +r'm
t(e ,'nd$t$'ned t' t(e ,'nd$t$'n) al/ays /$t( 'ne +''t $n t(e a$r)
$t ,an +$nd n' sat$s+a,t$'n!
On t(e s$de '+ t(e ant$t(es$s) 'r Em*$r$,$sm) $n t(e determ$nat$'n
'+ t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas6
1! 2e ,ann't d$s,'0er any su,( *ra,t$,al $nterest ar$s$n- +r'm
*ure *r$n,$*les '+ reas'n as m'ral$ty and rel$-$'n *resent! On t(e
,'ntrary) *ure em*$r$,$sm seems t' em*ty t(em '+ all t(e$r *'/er and
$n+luen,e! I+ t(ere d'es n't e1$st a Su*reme 3e$n- d$st$n,t +r'm t(e
/'rld5 $+ t(e /'rld $s /$t('ut be-$nn$n-) ,'nse.uently /$t('ut a
Creat'r5 $+ 'ur /$lls are n't +ree) and t(e s'ul $s d$0$s$ble and
sub&e,t t' ,'rru*t$'n &ust l$%e matter5 t(e $deas and *r$n,$*les '+
m'ral$ty l'se all 0al$d$ty and +all /$t( t(e trans,endental $deas
/($,( ,'nst$tuted t(e$r t(e'ret$,al su**'rt!
B! 3ut em*$r$,$sm) $n ,'m*ensat$'n) ('lds 'ut t' reas'n) $n $ts
s*e,ulat$0e $nterests) ,erta$n $m*'rtant ad0anta-es) +ar e1,eed$n- any
t(at t(e d'-mat$st ,an *r'm$se us! F'r) /(en em*l'yed by t(e
em*$r$,$st) understand$n- $s al/ays u*'n $ts *r'*er -r'und '+
$n0est$-at$'n5 t(e +$eld '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t(e la/s '+ /($,(
$t ,an e1*l're) and t(us e1tend $ts ,'-n$t$'n se,urely and /$t(
,lear $ntell$-en,e /$t('ut be$n- st'**ed by l$m$ts $n any d$re,t$'n!
Here ,an $t and 'u-(t $t t' +$nd and *resent t' $ntu$t$'n $ts *r'*er
'b&e,t5 n't 'nly $n $tsel+) but $n all $ts relat$'ns4 'r) $+ $t em*l'y
,'n,e*t$'ns) u*'n t($s -r'und $t ,an al/ays *resent t(e
,'rres*'nd$n- $ma-es $n ,lear and unm$sta%able $ntu$t$'ns! It $s .u$te
unne,essary +'r $t t' ren'un,e t(e -u$dan,e '+ nature) t' atta,(
$tsel+ t' $deas) t(e 'b&e,ts '+ /($,( $t ,ann't %n'/4 be,ause) as mere
$ntelle,tual ent$t$es) t(ey ,ann't be *resented $n any $ntu$t$'n! On
t(e ,'ntrary) $t $s n't e0en *erm$tted t' aband'n $ts *r'*er
',,u*at$'n) under t(e *reten,e t(at $t (as been br'u-(t t' a
,'n,lus$'n =+'r $t ne0er ,an be>) and t' *ass $nt' t(e re-$'n '+
$deal$;$n- reas'n and trans,endent ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( $t $s n't
re.u$red t' 'bser0e and e1*l're t(e la/s '+ nature) but merely t'
t($n% and t' $ma-$ne5 se,ure +r'm be$n- ,'ntrad$,ted by +a,ts) be,ause
t(ey (a0e n't been ,alled as /$tnesses) but *assed by) 'r *er(a*s
sub'rd$nated t' t(e s'5,alled ($-(er $nterests and ,'ns$derat$'ns '+
*ure reas'n!
Hen,e t(e em*$r$,$st /$ll ne0er all'/ ($msel+ t' a,,e*t any e*',( '+
nature +'r t(e +$rst5 t(e abs'lutely *r$mal state4 (e /$ll n't bel$e0e
t(at t(ere ,an be l$m$ts t' ($s 'utl''% $nt' (er /$de d'ma$ns) n'r
*ass +r'm t(e 'b&e,ts '+ nature) /($,( (e ,an sat$s+a,t'r$ly e1*la$n
by means '+ 'bser0at$'n and mat(emat$,al t('u-(t5 /($,( (e ,an
determ$ne synt(et$,ally $n $ntu$t$'n) t' t('se /($,( ne$t(er sense n'r
$ma-$nat$'n ,an e0er *resent $n ,'n,ret'4 (e /$ll n't ,'n,ede t(e
e1$sten,e '+ a +a,ulty $n nature) '*erat$n- $nde*endently '+ t(e
la/s '+ nature5 a ,'n,ess$'n /($,( /'uld $ntr'du,e un,erta$nty $nt'
t(e *r',edure '+ t(e understand$n-) /($,( $s -u$ded by ne,essary
la/s t' t(e 'bser0at$'n '+ *(en'mena4 n'r) +$nally) /$ll (e *erm$t
($msel+ t' see% a ,ause bey'nd nature) $nasmu,( as /e %n'/ n't($n- but
$t) and +r'm $t al'ne re,e$0e an 'b&e,t$0e bas$s +'r all 'ur
,'n,e*t$'ns and $nstru,t$'n $n t(e un0ary$n- la/s '+ t($n-s!
In trut() $+ t(e em*$r$,al *($l's'*(er (ad n' 't(er *ur*'se $n t(e
establ$s(ment '+ ($s ant$t(es$s t(an t' ,(e,% t(e *resum*t$'n '+ a
reas'n /($,( m$sta%es $ts true dest$nat$'n) /($,( b'asts '+ $ts
$ns$-(t and $ts %n'/led-e) &ust /(ere all $ns$-(t and %n'/led-e
,ease t' e1$st) and re-ards t(at /($,( $s 0al$d 'nly $n relat$'n t'
a *ra,t$,al $nterest) as an ad0an,ement '+ t(e s*e,ulat$0e $nterests
'+ t(e m$nd =$n 'rder) /(en $t $s ,'n0en$ent +'r $tsel+) t' brea%
t(e t(read '+ 'ur *(ys$,al $n0est$-at$'ns) and) under *reten,e '+
e1tend$n- 'ur ,'-n$t$'n) ,'nne,t t(em /$t( trans,endental $deas) by
means '+ /($,( /e really %n'/ 'nly t(at /e %n'/ n't($n->5 $+) I say)
t(e em*$r$,$st rested sat$s+$ed /$t( t($s bene+$t) t(e *r$n,$*le
ad0an,ed by ($m /'uld be a ma1$m re,'mmend$n- m'derat$'n $n t(e
*retens$'ns '+ reas'n and m'desty $n $ts a++$rmat$'ns) and at t(e same
t$me /'uld d$re,t us t' t(e r$-(t m'de '+ e1tend$n- t(e *r'0$n,e '+
t(e understand$n-) by t(e (el* '+ t(e 'nly true tea,(er) e1*er$en,e!
In 'bed$en,e t' t($s ad0$,e) $ntelle,tual (y*'t(eses and +a$t( /'uld
n't be ,alled $n a$d '+ 'ur *ra,t$,al $nterests4 n'r s('uld /e
$ntr'du,e t(em under t(e *'m*'us t$tles '+ s,$en,e and $ns$-(t! F'r
s*e,ulat$0e ,'-n$t$'n ,ann't +$nd an 'b&e,t$0e bas$s any 't(er /(ere
t(an $n e1*er$en,e4 and) /(en /e '0erste* $ts l$m$ts 'ur synt(es$s)
/($,( re.u$res e0er ne/ ,'-n$t$'ns $nde*endent '+ e1*er$en,e) (as n'
substratum '+ $ntu$t$'n u*'n /($,( t' bu$ld!
3ut $+5 as '+ten (a**ens5 em*$r$,$sm) $n relat$'n t' $deas)
be,'mes $tsel+ d'-mat$, and b'ldly den$es t(at /($,( $s ab'0e t(e
s*(ere '+ $ts *(en'menal ,'-n$t$'n) $t +alls $tsel+ $nt' t(e err'r
'+ $ntem*eran,e5 an err'r /($,( $s (ere all t(e m're re*re(ens$ble) as
t(ereby t(e *ra,t$,al $nterest '+ reas'n re,e$0es an $rre*arable
And t($s ,'nst$tutes t(e '**'s$t$'n bet/een E*$,urean$sm7 and
7It $s) ('/e0er) st$ll a matter '+ d'ubt /(et(er E*$,urus e0er
*r'*'unded t(ese *r$n,$*les as d$re,t$'ns +'r t(e 'b&e,t$0e em*l'yment
'+ t(e understand$n-! I+) $ndeed) t(ey /ere n't($n- m're t(an ma1$ms
+'r t(e s*e,ulat$0e e1er,$se '+ reas'n) (e -$0es e0$den,e t(ere$n a
m're -enu$ne *($l's'*($, s*$r$t t(an any '+ t(e *($l's'*(ers '+
ant$.u$ty! T(at) $n t(e e1*lanat$'n '+ *(en'mena) /e must *r',eed as
$+ t(e +$eld '+ $n.u$ry (ad ne$t(er l$m$ts $n s*a,e n'r ,'mmen,ement
$n t$me4 t(at /e must be sat$s+$ed /$t( t(e tea,($n- '+ e1*er$en,e
$n re+eren,e t' t(e mater$al '+ /($,( t(e /'rld $s *'sed4 t(at /e must
n't l''% +'r any 't(er m'de '+ t(e 'r$-$nat$'n '+ e0ents t(an t(at
/($,( $s determ$ned by t(e unalterable la/s '+ nature4 and +$nally)
t(at /e n't em*l'y t(e (y*'t(es$s '+ a ,ause d$st$n,t +r'm t(e /'rld
t' a,,'unt +'r a *(en'men'n 'r +'r t(e /'rld $tsel+5 are *r$n,$*les
+'r t(e e1tens$'n '+ s*e,ulat$0e *($l's'*(y) and t(e d$s,'0ery '+
t(e true s'ur,es '+ t(e *r$n,$*les '+ m'rals) /($,() ('/e0er l$ttle
,'n+'rmed t' $n t(e *resent day) are und'ubtedly ,'rre,t! At t(e
same t$me) any 'ne des$r'us '+ $-n'r$n-) $n mere s*e,ulat$'n) t(ese
d'-mat$,al *r'*'s$t$'ns) need n't +'r t(at reas'n be a,,used '+
deny$n- t(em!
3't( E*$,urus and Plat' assert m're $n t(e$r systems t(an t(ey %n'/!
T(e +'rmer en,'ura-es and ad0an,es s,$en,e5 alt('u-( t' t(e
*re&ud$,e '+ t(e *ra,t$,al4 t(e latter *resents us /$t( e1,ellent
*r$n,$*les +'r t(e $n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e *ra,t$,al) but) $n relat$'n t'
e0eryt($n- re-ard$n- /($,( /e ,an atta$n t' s*e,ulat$0e ,'-n$t$'n)
*erm$ts reas'n t' a**end $deal$st$, e1*lanat$'ns '+ natural *(en'mena)
t' t(e -reat $n&ury '+ *(ys$,al $n0est$-at$'n!
I! In re-ard t' t(e t($rd m't$0e +'r t(e *rel$m$nary ,('$,e '+ a
*arty $n t($s /ar '+ assert$'ns) $t seems 0ery e1tra'rd$nary t(at
em*$r$,$sm s('uld be utterly un*'*ular! 2e s('uld be $n,l$ned t'
bel$e0e t(at t(e ,'mm'n understand$n- /'uld re,e$0e $t /$t(
*leasure5 *r'm$s$n- as $t d'es t' sat$s+y $t /$t('ut *ass$n- t(e
b'unds '+ e1*er$en,e and $ts ,'nne,ted 'rder4 /($le trans,endental
d'-mat$sm 'bl$-es $t t' r$se t' ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,( +ar sur*ass t(e
$ntell$-en,e and ab$l$ty '+ t(e m'st *ra,t$sed t($n%ers! 3ut $n
t($s) $n trut() $s t' be +'und $ts real m't$0e! F'r t(e ,'mm'n
understand$n- t(us +$nds $tsel+ $n a s$tuat$'n /(ere n't e0en t(e m'st
learned ,an (a0e t(e ad0anta-e '+ $t! I+ $t understands l$ttle 'r
n't($n- ab'ut t(ese trans,endental ,'n,e*t$'ns) n' 'ne ,an b'ast '+
understand$n- any m're4 and alt('u-( $t may n't e1*ress $tsel+ $n s'
s,('last$,ally ,'rre,t a manner as 't(ers) $t ,an busy $tsel+ /$t(
reas'n$n- and ar-uments /$t('ut end) /ander$n- am'n- mere $deas) ab'ut
/($,( 'ne ,an al/ays be 0ery el'.uent) be,ause /e %n'/ n't($n- ab'ut
t(em4 /($le) $n t(e 'bser0at$'n and $n0est$-at$'n '+ nature) $t
/'uld be +'r,ed t' rema$n dumb and t' ,'n+ess $ts utter $-n'ran,e!
T(us $nd'len,e and 0an$ty +'rm '+ t(emsel0es str'n- re,'mmendat$'ns '+
t(ese *r$n,$*les! 3es$des) alt('u-( $t $s a (ard t($n- +'r a
*($l's'*(er t' assume a *r$n,$*le) '+ /($,( (e ,an -$0e t' ($msel+
n' reas'nable a,,'unt) and st$ll m're t' em*l'y ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(e
'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+ /($,( ,ann't be establ$s(ed) n't($n- $s m're
usual /$t( t(e ,'mm'n understand$n-! It /ants s'met($n- /($,( /$ll
all'/ $t t' -' t' /'r% /$t( ,'n+$den,e! T(e d$++$,ulty '+ e0en
,'m*re(end$n- a su**'s$t$'n d'es n't d$s.u$et $t) be,ause5 n't %n'/$n-
/(at ,'m*re(end$n- means5 $t ne0er e0en t($n%s '+ t(e su**'s$t$'n $t
may be ad'*t$n- as a *r$n,$*le4 and re-ards as %n'/n t(at /$t( /($,(
$t (as be,'me +am$l$ar +r'm ,'nstant use! And) at last) all
s*e,ulat$0e $nterests d$sa**ear be+'re t(e *ra,t$,al $nterests /($,(
$t ('lds dear4 and $t +an,$es t(at $t understands and %n'/s /(at $ts
ne,ess$t$es and ('*es $n,$te $t t' assume 'r t' bel$e0e! T(us t(e
em*$r$,$sm '+ trans,endentally $deal$;$n- reas'n $s r'bbed '+ all
*'*ular$ty4 and) ('/e0er *re&ud$,$al $t may be t' t(e ($-(est
*ra,t$,al *r$n,$*les) t(ere $s n' +ear t(at $t /$ll e0er *ass t(e
l$m$ts '+ t(e s,(''ls) 'r a,.u$re any +a0'ur 'r $n+luen,e $n s',$ety
'r /$t( t(e mult$tude a
Human reas'n $s by nature ar,($te,t'n$,! T(at $s t' say) $t
re-ards all ,'-n$t$'ns as *arts '+ a *'ss$ble system) and (en,e
a,,e*ts 'nly su,( *r$n,$*les as at least d' n't $n,a*a,$tate a
,'-n$t$'n t' /($,( /e may (a0e atta$ned +r'm be$n- *la,ed al'n- /$t(
't(ers $n a -eneral system! 3ut t(e *r'*'s$t$'ns '+ t(e ant$t(es$s are
'+ a ,(ara,ter /($,( renders t(e ,'m*let$'n '+ an ed$+$,e '+
,'-n$t$'ns $m*'ss$ble! A,,'rd$n- t' t(ese) bey'nd 'ne state 'r e*',(
'+ t(e /'rld t(ere $s al/ays t' be +'und 'ne m're an,$ent4 $n e0ery
*art al/ays 't(er *arts t(emsel0es d$0$s$ble4 *re,ed$n- e0ery e0ent
an't(er) t(e 'r$-$n '+ /($,( must $tsel+ be s'u-(t st$ll ($-(er4 and
e0eryt($n- $n e1$sten,e $s ,'nd$t$'ned) and st$ll n't de*endent 'n
an un,'nd$t$'ned and *r$mal e1$sten,e! As) t(ere+'re) t(e ant$t(es$s
/$ll n't ,'n,ede t(e e1$sten,e '+ a +$rst be-$nn$n- /($,( m$-(t be
a0a$lable as a +'undat$'n) a ,'m*lete ed$+$,e '+ ,'-n$t$'n) $n t(e
*resen,e '+ su,( (y*'t(es$s) $s utterly $m*'ss$ble! T(us t(e
ar,($te,t'n$, $nterest '+ reas'n) /($,( re.u$res a un$ty5 n't
em*$r$,al) but a *r$'r$ and rat$'nal5 +'rms a natural re,'mmendat$'n
+'r t(e assert$'ns '+ t(e t(es$s $n 'ur ant$n'my!
3ut $+ any 'ne ,'uld +ree ($msel+ ent$rely +r'm all ,'ns$derat$'ns
'+ $nterest) and /e$-( /$t('ut *art$al$ty t(e assert$'ns '+ reas'n)
attend$n- 'nly t' t(e$r ,'ntent) $rres*e,t$0e '+ t(e ,'nse.uen,es
/($,( +'ll'/ +r'm t(em4 su,( a *ers'n) 'n t(e su**'s$t$'n t(at (e %ne/
n' 't(er /ay 'ut '+ t(e ,'n+us$'n t(an t' settle t(e trut( '+ 'ne 'r
't(er '+ t(e ,'n+l$,t$n- d',tr$nes) /'uld l$0e $n a state '+ ,'nt$nual
(es$tat$'n! T'day) (e /'uld +eel ,'n0$n,ed t(at t(e (uman /$ll $s
+ree4 t'5m'rr'/) ,'ns$der$n- t(e $nd$ss'luble ,(a$n '+ nature) (e
/'uld l''% 'n +reed'm as a mere $llus$'n and de,lare nature t' be
all5$n5all! 3ut) $+ (e /ere ,alled t' a,t$'n) t(e *lay '+ t(e merely
s*e,ulat$0e reas'n /'uld d$sa**ear l$%e t(e s(a*es '+ a dream) and
*ra,t$,al $nterest /'uld d$,tate ($s ,('$,e '+ *r$n,$*les! 3ut) as
$t /ell be+$ts a re+le,t$0e and $n.u$r$n- be$n- t' de0'te ,erta$n
*er$'ds '+ t$me t' t(e e1am$nat$'n '+ $ts '/n reas'n5 t' d$0est $tsel+
'+ all *art$al$ty) and +ran%ly t' ,'mmun$,ate $ts 'bser0at$'ns +'r t(e
&ud-ement and '*$n$'n '+ 't(ers4 s' n' 'ne ,an be blamed +'r) mu,(
less *re0ented +r'm) *la,$n- b't( *art$es 'n t(e$r tr$al) /$t(
*erm$ss$'n t' end t(emsel0es) +ree +r'm $nt$m$dat$'n) be+'re
$nt$m$dat$'n) be+'re a s/'rn &ury '+ e.ual ,'nd$t$'n /$t(
t(emsel0es5 t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ /ea% and +all$ble men!
SECTION ID! O+ t(e ne,ess$ty $m*'sed u*'n Pure Reas'n

'+ *resent$n- a S'lut$'n '+ $ts Trans,endental


T' a0'/ an ab$l$ty t' s'l0e all *r'blems and t' ans/er all .uest$'ns
/'uld be a *r'+ess$'n ,erta$n t' ,'n0$,t any *($l's'*(er '+
e1tra0a-ant b'ast$n- and sel+5,'n,e$t) and at 'n,e t' destr'y t(e
,'n+$den,e t(at m$-(t 't(er/$se (a0e been re*'sed $n ($m! T(ere are)
('/e0er) s,$en,es s' ,'nst$tuted t(at e0ery .uest$'n ar$s$n- /$t($n
t(e$r s*(ere must ne,essar$ly be ,a*able '+ re,e$0$n- an ans/er +r'm
t(e %n'/led-e already *'ssessed) +'r t(e ans/er must be re,e$0ed
+r'm t(e same s'ur,es /(en,e t(e .uest$'n ar'se! In su,( s,$en,es $t
$s n't all'/able t' e1,use 'ursel0es 'n t(e *lea '+ ne,essary and
una0'$dable $-n'ran,e4 a s'lut$'n $s abs'lutely re.u$s$te! T(e rule '+
r$-(t and /r'n- must (el* us t' t(e %n'/led-e '+ /(at $s r$-(t 'r
/r'n- $n all *'ss$ble ,ases4 't(er/$se) t(e $dea '+ 'bl$-at$'n 'r duty
/'uld be utterly null) +'r /e ,ann't (a0e any 'bl$-at$'n t' t(at /($,(
/e ,ann't %n'/! On t(e 't(er (and) $n 'ur $n0est$-at$'ns '+ t(e
*(en'mena '+ nature) mu,( must rema$n un,erta$n) and many .uest$'ns
,'nt$nue $ns'luble4 be,ause /(at /e %n'/ '+ nature $s +ar +r'm be$n-
su++$,$ent t' e1*la$n all t(e *(en'mena t(at are *resented t' 'ur
'bser0at$'n! N'/ t(e .uest$'n $s6 92(et(er t(ere $s $n
trans,endental *($l's'*(y any .uest$'n) relat$n- t' an 'b&e,t
*resented t' *ure reas'n) /($,( $s unans/erable by t($s reas'n4 and
/(et(er /e must re-ard t(e sub&e,t '+ t(e .uest$'n as .u$te un,erta$n)
s' +ar as 'ur %n'/led-e e1tends) and must -$0e $t a *la,e am'n-
t('se sub&e,ts) '+ /($,( /e (a0e &ust s' mu,( ,'n,e*t$'n as $s
su++$,$ent t' enable us t' ra$se a .uest$'n5 +a,ulty 'r mater$als
+a$l$n- us) ('/e0er) /(en /e attem*t an ans/er! t(e /'rld
N'/ I ma$nta$n t(at) am'n- all s*e,ulat$0e ,'-n$t$'n) t(e
*e,ul$ar$ty '+ trans,endental *($l's'*(y $s t(at t(ere $s n' .uest$'n)
relat$n- t' an 'b&e,t *resented t' *ure reas'n) /($,( $s $ns'luble
by t($s reas'n4 and t(at t(e *r'+ess$'n '+ una0'$dable $-n'ran,e5
t(e *r'blem be$n- alle-ed t' be bey'nd t(e rea,( '+ 'ur +a,ult$es5
,ann't +ree us +r'm t(e 'bl$-at$'n t' *resent a ,'m*lete and
sat$s+a,t'ry ans/er! F'r t(e 0ery ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( enables us t' ra$se
t(e .uest$'n must -$0e us t(e *'/er '+ ans/er$n- $t4 $nasmu,( as t(e
'b&e,t) as $n t(e ,ase '+ r$-(t and /r'n-) $s n't t' be d$s,'0ered 'ut
'+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n!
3ut) $n trans,endental *($l's'*(y) $t $s 'nly t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al
.uest$'ns t' /($,( /e ,an demand a sat$s+a,t'ry ans/er $n relat$'n
t' t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ t(e$r 'b&e,t4 and t(e *($l's'*(er $s n't
*erm$tted t' a0a$l ($msel+ '+ t(e *rete1t '+ ne,essary $-n'ran,e and
$m*enetrable 'bs,ur$ty! T(ese .uest$'ns relate s'lely t' t(e
,'sm'l'-$,al $deas! F'r t(e 'b&e,t must be -$0en $n e1*er$en,e) and
t(e .uest$'n relates t' t(e ade.uateness '+ t(e 'b&e,t t' an $dea!
I+ t(e 'b&e,t $s trans,endental and t(ere+'re $tsel+ un%n'/n4 $+ t(e
.uest$'n) +'r e1am*le) $s /(et(er t(e 'b&e,t5 t(e s'met($n-) t(e
*(en'men'n '+ /($,( =$nternal5 $n 'ursel0es> $s t('u-(t5 t(at $s t'
say) t(e s'ul) $s $n $tsel+ a s$m*le be$n-4 'r /(et(er t(ere $s a
,ause '+ all t($n-s) /($,( $s abs'lutely ne,essary5 $n su,( ,ases /e
are see%$n- +'r 'ur $dea an 'b&e,t) '+ /($,( /e may ,'n+ess t(at $t $s
un%n'/n t' us) t('u-( /e must n't 'n t(at a,,'unt assert t(at $t $s
$m*'ss$ble!7 T(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas al'ne *'sses t(e *e,ul$ar$ty
t(at /e ,an *resu**'se t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(em and t(e em*$r$,al
synt(es$s re.u$s$te +'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(at 'b&e,t t' be -$0en4 and
t(e .uest$'n) /($,( ar$ses +r'm t(ese $deas) relates merely t' t(e
*r'-ress '+ t($s synt(es$s) $n s' +ar as $t must ,'nta$n abs'lute
t'tal$ty5 /($,() ('/e0er) $s n't em*$r$,al) as $t ,ann't be -$0en $n
any e1*er$en,e! N'/) as t(e .uest$'n (ere $s s'lely $n re-ard t' a
t($n- as t(e 'b&e,t '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e and n't as a t($n- $n
$tsel+) t(e ans/er t' t(e trans,endental ,'sm'l'-$,al .uest$'n need
n't be s'u-(t 'ut '+ t(e $dea) +'r t(e .uest$'n d'es n't re-ard an
'b&e,t $n $tsel+! T(e .uest$'n $n relat$'n t' a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e $s
n't) 92(at ,an be -$0en $n an e1*er$en,e $n ,'n,ret'9 but 9/(at $s
,'nta$ned $n t(e $dea) t' /($,( t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s must
a**r'1$mate!9 T(e .uest$'n must t(ere+'re be ,a*able '+ s'lut$'n
+r'm t(e $dea al'ne! F'r t(e $dea $s a ,reat$'n '+ reas'n $tsel+)
/($,( t(ere+'re ,ann't d$s,la$m t(e 'bl$-at$'n t' ans/er 'r re+er us
t' t(e un%n'/n 'b&e,t!
7T(e .uest$'n) 92(at $s t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ a trans,endental
'b&e,t@9 $s unans/erable5 /e are unable t' say /(at $t $s4 but /e
,an *er,e$0e t(at t(e .uest$'n $tsel+ $s n't($n-4 be,ause $t d'es
n't relate t' any 'b&e,t t(at ,an be *resented t' us! F'r t($s reas'n)
/e must ,'ns$der all t(e .uest$'ns ra$sed $n trans,endental *sy,('l'-y
as ans/erable and as really ans/ered4 +'r t(ey relate t' t(e
trans,endental sub&e,t '+ all $nternal *(en'mena) /($,( $s n't
$tsel+ *(en'men'n and ,'nse.uently n't -$0en as an 'b&e,t) $n /($,()
m're'0er) n'ne '+ t(e ,ate-'r$es5 and $t $s t' t(em t(at t(e
.uest$'n $s *r'*erly d$re,ted5 +$nd any ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ts a**l$,at$'n!
Here) t(ere+'re) $s a ,ase /(ere n' ans/er $s t(e 'nly *r'*er
ans/er! F'r a .uest$'n re-ard$n- t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ a s'met($n- /($,(
,ann't be ,'-$tated by any determ$ned *red$,ate) be$n- ,'m*letely
bey'nd t(e s*(ere '+ 'b&e,ts and e1*er$en,e) $s *er+e,tly null and
It $s n't s' e1tra'rd$nary) as $t at +$rst s$-(t a**ears) t(at a
s,$en,e s('uld demand and e1*e,t sat$s+a,t'ry ans/ers t' all t(e
.uest$'ns t(at may ar$se /$t($n $ts '/n s*(ere =.uest$'nes
d'mest$,ae>) alt('u-() u* t' a ,erta$n t$me) t(ese ans/ers may n't
(a0e been d$s,'0ered! T(ere are) $n add$t$'n t' trans,endental
*($l's'*(y) 'nly t/' *ure s,$en,es '+ reas'n4 t(e 'ne /$t( a
s*e,ulat$0e) t(e 't(er /$t( a *ra,t$,al ,'ntent5 *ure mat(emat$,s
and *ure et($,s! Has any 'ne e0er (eard $t alle-ed t(at) +r'm 'ur
,'m*lete and ne,essary $-n'ran,e '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns) $t $s un,erta$n
/(at e1a,t relat$'n t(e d$ameter '+ a ,$r,le bears t' t(e ,$r,le $n
rat$'nal 'r $rrat$'nal numbers@ 3y t(e +'rmer t(e sum ,ann't be
-$0en e1a,tly) by t(e latter 'nly a**r'1$mately4 and t(ere+'re /e
de,$de t(at t(e $m*'ss$b$l$ty '+ a s'lut$'n '+ t(e .uest$'n $s
e0$dent! <ambert *resented us /$t( a dem'nstrat$'n '+ t($s! In t(e
-eneral *r$n,$*les '+ m'rals t(ere ,an be n't($n- un,erta$n) +'r t(e
*r'*'s$t$'ns are e$t(er utterly /$t('ut mean$n-) 'r must 'r$-$nate
s'lely $n 'ur rat$'nal ,'n,e*t$'ns! On t(e 't(er (and) t(ere must be
$n *(ys$,al s,$en,e an $n+$n$te number '+ ,'n&e,tures) /($,( ,an ne0er
be,'me ,erta$nt$es4 be,ause t(e *(en'mena '+ nature are n't -$0en as
'b&e,ts de*endent 'n 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns! T(e %ey t' t(e s'lut$'n '+
su,( .uest$'ns ,ann't) t(ere+'re) be +'und $n 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns) 'r $n
*ure t('u-(t) but must l$e /$t('ut us and +'r t(at reas'n $s $n many
,ases n't t' be d$s,'0ered4 and ,'nse.uently a sat$s+a,t'ry
e1*lanat$'n ,ann't be e1*e,ted! T(e .uest$'ns '+ trans,endental
analyt$,) /($,( relate t' t(e dedu,t$'n '+ 'ur *ure ,'-n$t$'n) are n't
t' be re-arded as '+ t(e same %$nd as t('se ment$'ned ab'0e4 +'r /e
are n't at *resent treat$n- '+ t(e ,erta$nty '+ &ud-ements $n relat$'n
t' t(e 'r$-$n '+ 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns) but 'nly '+ t(at ,erta$nty $n
relat$'n t' 'b&e,ts!
2e ,ann't) t(ere+'re) es,a*e t(e res*'ns$b$l$ty '+ at least a
,r$t$,al s'lut$'n '+ t(e .uest$'ns '+ reas'n) by ,'m*la$nts '+ t(e
l$m$ted nature '+ 'ur +a,ult$es) and t(e seem$n-ly (umble ,'n+ess$'n
t(at $t $s bey'nd t(e *'/er '+ 'ur reas'n t' de,$de) /(et(er t(e /'rld
(as e1$sted +r'm all etern$ty 'r (ad a be-$nn$n-5 /(et(er $t $s
$n+$n$tely e1tended) 'r en,l'sed /$t($n ,erta$n l$m$ts5 /(et(er
anyt($n- $n t(e /'rld $s s$m*le) 'r /(et(er e0eryt($n- must be ,a*able
'+ $n+$n$te d$0$s$b$l$ty5 /(et(er +reed'm ,an 'r$-$nate *(en'mena)
'r /(et(er e0eryt($n- $s abs'lutely de*endent 'n t(e la/s and 'rder '+
nature5 and) +$nally) /(et(er t(ere e1$sts a be$n- t(at $s
,'m*letely un,'nd$t$'ned and ne,essary) 'r /(et(er t(e e1$sten,e '+
e0eryt($n- $s ,'nd$t$'ned and ,'nse.uently de*endent 'n s'met($n-
e1ternal t' $tsel+) and t(ere+'re $n $ts '/n nature ,'nt$n-ent! F'r
all t(ese .uest$'ns relate t' an 'b&e,t) /($,( ,an be -$0en n'/(ere
else t(an $n t('u-(t! T($s 'b&e,t $s t(e abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned
t'tal$ty '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena! I+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns $n 'ur
m$nds d' n't ass$st us t' s'me ,erta$n result $n re-ard t' t(ese
*r'blems) /e must n't de+end 'ursel0es 'n t(e *lea t(at t(e 'b&e,t
$tsel+ rema$ns ($dden +r'm and un%n'/n t' us! F'r n' su,( t($n- 'r
'b&e,t ,an be -$0en5 $t $s n't t' be +'und 'ut '+ t(e $dea $n 'ur
m$nds! 2e must see% t(e ,ause '+ 'ur +a$lure $n 'ur $dea $tsel+) /($,(
$s an $ns'luble *r'blem and $n re-ard t' /($,( /e 'bst$nately assume
t(at t(ere e1$sts a real 'b&e,t ,'rres*'nd$n- and ade.uate t' $t! A
,lear e1*lanat$'n '+ t(e d$ale,t$, /($,( l$es $n 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n)
/$ll 0ery s''n enable us t' ,'me t' a sat$s+a,t'ry de,$s$'n $n
re-ard t' su,( a .uest$'n!
T(e *rete1t t(at /e are unable t' arr$0e at ,erta$nty $n re-ard t'
t(ese *r'blems may be met /$t( t($s .uest$'n) /($,( re.u$res at
least a *la$n ans/er6 9Fr'm /(at s'ur,e d' t(e $deas 'r$-$nate) t(e
s'lut$'n '+ /($,( $n0'l0es y'u $n su,( d$++$,ult$es@ Are y'u see%$n-
+'r an e1*lanat$'n '+ ,erta$n *(en'mena4 and d' y'u e1*e,t t(ese $deas
t' -$0e y'u t(e *r$n,$*les 'r t(e rules '+ t($s e1*lanat$'n@9 <et $t
be -ranted) t(at all nature /as la$d '*en be+'re y'u4 t(at n't($n- /as
($d +r'm y'ur senses and y'ur ,'ns,$'usness! St$ll) y'u ,'uld n't
,'-n$;e $n ,'n,ret' t(e 'b&e,t '+ y'ur $deas $n any e1*er$en,e! F'r
/(at $s demanded $s n't 'nly t($s +ull and ,'m*lete $ntu$t$'n) but
als' a ,'m*lete synt(es$s and t(e ,'ns,$'usness '+ $ts abs'lute
t'tal$ty4 and t($s $s n't *'ss$ble by means '+ any em*$r$,al
,'-n$t$'n! It +'ll'/s t(at y'ur .uest$'n5 y'ur $dea5 $s by n' means
ne,essary +'r t(e e1*lanat$'n '+ any *(en'men'n4 and t(e $dea ,ann't
(a0e been $n any sense -$0en by t(e 'b&e,t $tsel+! F'r su,( an
'b&e,t ,an ne0er be *resented t' us) be,ause $t ,ann't be -$0en by any
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! 2(ate0er *er,e*t$'ns y'u may atta$n t') y'u are
st$ll surr'unded by ,'nd$t$'ns5 $n s*a,e) 'r $n t$me5 and y'u ,ann't
d$s,'0er anyt($n- un,'nd$t$'ned4 n'r ,an y'u de,$de /(et(er t($s
un,'nd$t$'ned $s t' be *la,ed $n an abs'lute be-$nn$n- '+ t(e
synt(es$s) 'r $n an abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es /$t('ut be-$nn$n-!
A /('le) $n t(e em*$r$,al s$-n$+$,at$'n '+ t(e term) $s al/ays
merely ,'m*arat$0e! T(e abs'lute /('le '+ .uant$ty =t(e un$0erse>)
'+ d$0$s$'n) '+ der$0at$'n) '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ e1$sten,e) /$t( t(e
.uest$'n5 /(et(er $t $s t' be *r'du,ed by +$n$te 'r $n+$n$te
synt(es$s) n' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e ,an $nstru,t us ,'n,ern$n-! J'u /$ll
n't) +'r e1am*le) be able t' e1*la$n t(e *(en'mena '+ a b'dy $n t(e
least de-ree better) /(et(er y'u bel$e0e $t t' ,'ns$st '+ s$m*le) 'r
'+ ,'m*'s$te *arts4 +'r a s$m*le *(en'men'n5 and &ust as l$ttle an
$n+$n$te ser$es '+ ,'m*'s$t$'n5 ,an ne0er be *resented t' y'ur
*er,e*t$'n! P(en'mena re.u$re and adm$t '+ e1*lanat$'n) 'nly $n s' +ar
as t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(at e1*lanat$'n are -$0en $n *er,e*t$'n4 but t(e
sum t'tal '+ t(at /($,( $s -$0en $n *(en'mena) ,'ns$dered as an
abs'lute /('le) $s $tsel+ a *er,e*t$'n5 and /e ,ann't t(ere+'re see%
+'r e1*lanat$'ns '+ t($s /('le bey'nd $tsel+) $n 't(er *er,e*t$'ns!
T(e e1*lanat$'n '+ t($s /('le $s t(e *r'*er 'b&e,t '+ t(e
trans,endental *r'blems '+ *ure reas'n!
Alt('u-() t(ere+'re) t(e s'lut$'n '+ t(ese *r'blems $s
unatta$nable t(r'u-( e1*er$en,e) /e must n't *erm$t 'ursel0es t' say
t(at $t $s un,erta$n ('/ t(e 'b&e,t '+ 'ur $n.u$r$es $s ,'nst$tuted!
F'r t(e 'b&e,t $s $n 'ur '/n m$nd and ,ann't be d$s,'0ered $n
e1*er$en,e4 and /e (a0e 'nly t' ta%e ,are t(at 'ur t('u-(ts are
,'ns$stent /$t( ea,( 't(er) and t' a0'$d +all$n- $nt' t(e am*($b'ly '+
re-ard$n- 'ur $dea as a re*resentat$'n '+ an 'b&e,t em*$r$,ally -$0en)
and t(ere+'re t' be ,'-n$;ed a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ e1*er$en,e! A
d'-mat$,al s'lut$'n $s t(ere+'re n't 'nly unsat$s+a,t'ry but
$m*'ss$ble! T(e ,r$t$,al s'lut$'n) /($,( may be a *er+e,tly ,erta$n
'ne) d'es n't ,'ns$der t(e .uest$'n 'b&e,t$0ely) but *r',eeds by
$n.u$r$n- $nt' t(e bas$s '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n u*'n /($,( t(e .uest$'n
SECTION D! S,e*t$,al E1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Pr'blems

*resented $n t(e +'ur Trans,endental Ideas!

2e s('uld be .u$te /$ll$n- t' des$st +r'm t(e demand '+ a d'-mat$,al
ans/er t' 'ur .uest$'ns) $+ /e underst''d be+'re(and t(at) be t(e
ans/er /(at $t may) $t /'uld 'nly ser0e t' $n,rease 'ur $-n'ran,e)
t' t(r'/ us +r'm 'ne $n,'m*re(ens$b$l$ty $nt' an't(er) +r'm 'ne
'bs,ur$ty $nt' an't(er st$ll -reater) and *er(a*s lead us $nt'
$rre,'n,$lable ,'ntrad$,t$'ns! I+ a d'-mat$,al a++$rmat$0e 'r ne-at$0e
ans/er $s demanded) $s $t at all *rudent t' set as$de t(e *r'bable
-r'unds '+ a s'lut$'n /($,( l$e be+'re us and t' ta%e $nt'
,'ns$derat$'n /(at ad0anta-e /e s(all -a$n) $+ t(e ans/er $s t' +a0'ur
t(e 'ne s$de 'r t(e 't(er@ I+ $t (a**ens t(at $n b't( ,ases t(e ans/er
$s mere n'nsense) /e (a0e $n t($s an $rres$st$ble summ'ns t' $nst$tute
a ,r$t$,al $n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e .uest$'n) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+
d$s,'0er$n- /(et(er $t $s based 'n a -r'undless *resu**'s$t$'n and
relates t' an $dea) t(e +als$ty '+ /($,( /'uld be m're eas$ly
e1*'sed $n $ts a**l$,at$'n and ,'nse.uen,es t(an $n t(e mere
re*resentat$'n '+ $ts ,'ntent! T($s $s t(e -reat ut$l$ty '+ t(e
s,e*t$,al m'de '+ treat$n- t(e .uest$'ns addressed by *ure reas'n t'
$tsel+! 3y t($s met('d /e eas$ly r$d 'ursel0es '+ t(e ,'n+us$'ns '+
d'-mat$sm) and establ$s( $n $ts *la,e a tem*erate ,r$t$,$sm) /($,() as
a -enu$ne ,at(art$,) /$ll su,,ess+ully rem'0e t(e *resum*tu'us n't$'ns
'+ *($l's'*(y and t(e$r ,'nse.uen,e5 t(e 0a$n *retens$'n t'
un$0ersal s,$en,e!
I+) t(en) I ,'uld understand t(e nature '+ a ,'sm'l'-$,al $dea and
*er,e$0e) be+'re I entered 'n t(e d$s,uss$'n '+ t(e sub&e,t at all)
t(at) /(ate0er s$de '+ t(e .uest$'n re-ard$n- t(e un,'nd$t$'ned '+ t(e
re-ress$0e synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena $t +a0'ured5 $t must e$t(er be t''
-reat 'r t'' small +'r e0ery ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-5 I
/'uld be able t' ,'m*re(end ('/ t(e $dea) /($,( relates t' an 'b&e,t
'+ e1*er$en,e5 an e1*er$en,e /($,( must be ade.uate t' and $n
a,,'rdan,e /$t( a *'ss$ble ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-5 must be
,'m*letely 0'$d and /$t('ut s$-n$+$,an,e) $nasmu,( as $ts 'b&e,t $s
$nade.uate) ,'ns$der $t as /e may! And t($s $s a,tually t(e ,ase
/$t( all ,'sm'l'-$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,() +'r t(e reas'n ab'0e
ment$'ned) $n0'l0e reas'n) s' l'n- as $t rema$ns atta,(ed t' t(em)
$n an una0'$dable ant$n'my! F'r su**'se6
F$rst) t(at t(e /'rld (as n' be-$nn$n-5 $n t($s ,ase $t $s t'' lar-e
+'r 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n4 +'r t($s ,'n,e*t$'n) /($,( ,'ns$sts $n a
su,,ess$0e re-ress) ,ann't '0erta%e t(e /('le etern$ty t(at (as
ela*sed! Crant t(at $t (as a be-$nn$n-) $t $s t(en t'' small +'r t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-! F'r) as a be-$nn$n- *resu**'ses a
t$me *re,ed$n-) $t ,ann't be un,'nd$t$'ned4 and t(e la/ '+ t(e
em*$r$,al em*l'yment '+ t(e understand$n- $m*'ses t(e ne,ess$ty '+
l''%$n- +'r a ($-(er ,'nd$t$'n '+ t$me4 and t(e /'rld $s) t(ere+'re)
e0$dently t'' small +'r t($s la/!
T(e same $s t(e ,ase /$t( t(e d'uble ans/er t' t(e .uest$'n
re-ard$n- t(e e1tent) $n s*a,e) '+ t(e /'rld! F'r) $+ $t $s $n+$n$te
and unl$m$ted) $t must be t'' lar-e +'r e0ery *'ss$ble em*$r$,al
,'n,e*t$'n! I+ $t $s +$n$te and l$m$ted) /e (a0e a r$-(t t' as%6 92(at
determ$nes t(ese l$m$ts@9 D'$d s*a,e $s n't a sel+5subs$stent
,'rrelate '+ t($n-s) and ,ann't be a +$nal ,'nd$t$'n5 and st$ll less
an em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'n) +'rm$n- a *art '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! F'r
('/ ,an /e (a0e any e1*er$en,e 'r *er,e*t$'n '+ an abs'lute 0'$d@
3ut t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s re.u$res t(at t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned be an em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n! C'nse.uently) a +$n$te /'rld
$s t'' small +'r 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n!
Se,'ndly) $+ e0ery *(en'men'n =matter> $n s*a,e ,'ns$sts '+ an
$n+$n$te number '+ *arts) t(e re-ress '+ t(e d$0$s$'n $s al/ays t''
-reat +'r 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n4 and $+ t(e d$0$s$'n '+ s*a,e must ,ease /$t(
s'me member '+ t(e d$0$s$'n =t(e s$m*le>) $t $s t'' small +'r t(e $dea
'+ t(e un,'nd$t$'ned! F'r t(e member at /($,( /e (a0e d$s,'nt$nued 'ur
d$0$s$'n st$ll adm$ts a re-ress t' many m're *arts ,'nta$ned $n t(e
T($rdly) su**'se t(at e0ery e0ent $n t(e /'rld (a**ens $n a,,'rdan,e
/$t( t(e la/s '+ nature4 t(e ,ausal$ty '+ a ,ause must $tsel+ be an
e0ent and ne,ess$tates a re-ress t' a st$ll ($-(er ,ause) and
,'nse.uently t(e un,eas$n- *r'l'n-at$'n '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns
a *arte *r$'r$! O*erat$0e nature $s t(ere+'re t'' lar-e +'r e0ery
,'n,e*t$'n /e ,an +'rm $n t(e synt(es$s '+ ,'sm$,al e0ents!
I+ /e adm$t t(e e1$sten,e '+ s*'ntane'usly *r'du,ed e0ents) t(at $s)
'+ +ree a-en,y) /e are dr$0en) $n 'ur sear,( +'r su++$,$ent reas'ns)
'n an una0'$dable la/ '+ nature and are ,'m*elled t' a**eal t' t(e
em*$r$,al la/ '+ ,ausal$ty) and /e +$nd t(at any su,( t'tal$ty '+
,'nne,t$'n $n 'ur synt(es$s $s t'' small +'r 'ur ne,essary em*$r$,al
F'urt(ly) $+ /e assume t(e e1$sten,e '+ an abs'lutely ne,essary
be$n-5 /(et(er $t be t(e /'rld 'r s'met($n- $n t(e /'rld) 'r t(e ,ause
'+ t(e /'rld5 /e must *la,e $t $n a t$me at an $n+$n$te d$stan,e
+r'm any -$0en m'ment4 +'r) 't(er/$se) $t must be de*endent 'n s'me
't(er and ($-(er e1$sten,e! Su,( an e1$sten,e $s) $n t($s ,ase) t''
lar-e +'r 'ur em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n) and unatta$nable by t(e
,'nt$nued re-ress '+ any synt(es$s!
3ut $+ /e bel$e0e t(at e0eryt($n- $n t(e /'rld5 be $t ,'nd$t$'n 'r
,'nd$t$'ned5 $s ,'nt$n-ent4 e0ery -$0en e1$sten,e $s t'' small +'r 'ur
,'n,e*t$'n! F'r $n t($s ,ase /e are ,'m*elled t' see% +'r s'me 't(er
e1$sten,e u*'n /($,( t(e +'rmer de*ends!
2e (a0e sa$d t(at $n all t(ese ,ases t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $dea $s e$t(er
t'' -reat 'r t'' small +'r t(e em*$r$,al re-ress $n a synt(es$s) and
,'nse.uently +'r e0ery *'ss$ble ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n-! 2(y
d$d /e n't e1*ress 'ursel0es $n a manner e1a,tly t(e re0erse '+ t($s
and) $nstead '+ a,,us$n- t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $dea '+ '0er ste**$n- 'r
'+ +all$n- s('rt '+ $ts true a$m) *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) say t(at) $n
t(e +$rst ,ase) t(e em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n $s al/ays t'' small +'r t(e
$dea) and $n t(e se,'nd t'' -reat) and t(us atta,( t(e blame '+
t(ese ,'ntrad$,t$'ns t' t(e em*$r$,al re-ress@ T(e reas'n $s t($s!
P'ss$ble e1*er$en,e ,an al'ne -$0e real$ty t' 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns4 /$t('ut
$t a ,'n,e*t$'n $s merely an $dea) /$t('ut trut( 'r relat$'n t' an
'b&e,t! Hen,e a *'ss$ble em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'n must be t(e standard
by /($,( /e are t' &ud-e /(et(er an $dea $s anyt($n- m're t(an an $dea
and +$,t$'n '+ t('u-(t) 'r /(et(er $t relates t' an 'b&e,t $n t(e
/'rld! I+ /e say '+ a t($n- t(at $n relat$'n t' s'me 't(er t($n- $t $s
t'' lar-e 'r t'' small) t(e +'rmer $s ,'ns$dered as e1$st$n- +'r t(e
sa%e '+ t(e latter) and re.u$r$n- t' be ada*ted t' $t! Am'n- t(e
tr$0$al sub&e,ts '+ d$s,uss$'n $n t(e 'ld s,(''ls '+ d$ale,t$,s /as
t($s .uest$'n6 9I+ a ball ,ann't *ass t(r'u-( a ('le) s(all /e say
t(at t(e ball $s t'' lar-e 'r t(e ('le t'' small@9 In t($s ,ase $t
$s $nd$++erent /(at e1*ress$'n /e em*l'y4 +'r /e d' n't %n'/ /($,(
e1$sts +'r t(e sa%e '+ t(e 't(er! On t(e 't(er (and) /e ,ann't say6
9T(e man $s t'' l'n- +'r ($s ,'at94 but6 9T(e ,'at $s t'' s('rt +'r
t(e man!9
2e are t(us led t' t(e /ell5+'unded sus*$,$'n t(at t(e
,'sm'l'-$,al $deas) and all t(e ,'n+l$,t$n- s'*($st$,al assert$'ns
,'nne,ted /$t( t(em) are based u*'n a +alse and +$,t$t$'us
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e m'de $n /($,( t(e 'b&e,t '+ t(ese $deas $s *resented
t' us4 and t($s sus*$,$'n /$ll *r'bably d$re,t us ('/ t' e1*'se t(e
$llus$'n t(at (as s' l'n- led us astray +r'm t(e trut(!
SECTION DI! Trans,endental Ideal$sm as t(e Key t' t(e

S'lut$'n '+ Pure C'sm'l'-$,al #$ale,t$,!

In t(e trans,endental aest(et$, /e *r'0ed t(at e0eryt($n- $ntu$ted
$n s*a,e and t$me) all 'b&e,ts '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) are n't($n-
but *(en'mena) t(at $s) mere re*resentat$'ns4 and t(at t(ese) as
*resented t' us5 as e1tended b'd$es) 'r as ser$es '+ ,(an-es5 (a0e
n' sel+5subs$stent e1$sten,e a*art +r'm (uman t('u-(t! T($s d',tr$ne I
,all Trans,endental Ideal$sm!7 T(e real$st $n t(e trans,endental sense
re-ards t(ese m'd$+$,at$'ns '+ 'ur sens$b$l$ty) t(ese mere
re*resentat$'ns) as t($n-s subs$st$n- $n t(emsel0es!
7I (a0e else/(ere termed t($s t(e'ry +'rmal $deal$sm) t' d$st$n-u$s(
$t +r'm mater$al $deal$sm) /($,( d'ubts 'r den$es t(e e1$sten,e '+
e1ternal t($n-s! T' a0'$d amb$-u$ty) $t seems ad0$sable $n many
,ases t' em*l'y t($s term $nstead '+ t(at ment$'ned $n t(e te1t!
It /'uld be un&ust t' a,,use us '+ ('ld$n- t(e l'n-5de,r$ed t(e'ry
'+ em*$r$,al $deal$sm) /($,() /($le adm$tt$n- t(e real$ty '+ s*a,e)
den$es) 'r at least d'ubts) t(e e1$sten,e '+ b'd$es e1tended $n $t)
and t(us lea0es us /$t('ut a su++$,$ent ,r$ter$'n '+ real$ty and
$llus$'n! T(e su**'rters '+ t($s t(e'ry +$nd n' d$++$,ulty $n
adm$tt$n- t(e real$ty '+ t(e *(en'mena '+ t(e $nternal sense $n
t$me4 nay) t(ey -' t(e len-t( '+ ma$nta$n$n- t(at t($s $nternal
e1*er$en,e $s '+ $tsel+ a su++$,$ent *r''+ '+ t(e real e1$sten,e '+
$ts 'b&e,t as a t($n- $n $tsel+!
Trans,endental $deal$sm all'/s t(at t(e 'b&e,ts '+ e1ternal
$ntu$t$'n5 as $ntu$ted $n s*a,e) and all ,(an-es $n t$me5 as
re*resented by t(e $nternal sense) are real! F'r) as s*a,e $s t(e +'rm
'+ t(at $ntu$t$'n /($,( /e ,all e1ternal) and) /$t('ut 'b&e,ts $n
s*a,e) n' em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n ,'uld be -$0en us) /e ,an and 'u-(t
t' re-ard e1tended b'd$es $n $t as real! T(e ,ase $s t(e same /$t(
re*resentat$'ns $n t$me! 3ut t$me and s*a,e) /$t( all *(en'mena
t(ere$n) are n't $n t(emsel0es t($n-s! T(ey are n't($n- but
re*resentat$'ns and ,ann't e1$st 'ut '+ and a*art +r'm t(e m$nd!
Nay) t(e sensu'us $nternal $ntu$t$'n '+ t(e m$nd =as t(e 'b&e,t '+
,'ns,$'usness>) t(e determ$nat$'n '+ /($,( $s re*resented by t(e
su,,ess$'n '+ d$++erent states $n t$me) $s n't t(e real) *r'*er
sel+) as $t e1$sts $n $tsel+5 n't t(e trans,endental sub&e,t5 but 'nly
a *(en'men'n) /($,( $s *resented t' t(e sens$b$l$ty '+ t($s) t' us)
un%n'/n be$n-! T($s $nternal *(en'men'n ,ann't be adm$tted t' be a
sel+5subs$st$n- t($n-4 +'r $ts ,'nd$t$'n $s t$me) and t$me ,ann't be
t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ a t($n- $n $tsel+! 3ut t(e em*$r$,al trut( '+
*(en'mena $n s*a,e and t$me $s -uaranteed bey'nd t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+
d'ubt) and su++$,$ently d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e $llus$'n '+ dreams 'r
+an,y5 alt('u-( b't( (a0e a *r'*er and t('r'u-( ,'nne,t$'n $n an
e1*er$en,e a,,'rd$n- t' em*$r$,al la/s! T(e 'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e t(en
are n't t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) but are -$0en 'nly $n e1*er$en,e) and
(a0e n' e1$sten,e a*art +r'm and $nde*endently '+ e1*er$en,e! T(at
t(ere may be $n(ab$tants $n t(e m''n) alt('u-( n' 'ne (as e0er
'bser0ed t(em) must ,erta$nly be adm$tted4 but t($s assert$'n means
'nly) t(at /e may $n t(e *'ss$ble *r'-ress '+ e1*er$en,e d$s,'0er t(em
at s'me +uture t$me! F'r t(at /($,( stands $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( a
*er,e*t$'n a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ t(e *r'-ress '+ e1*er$en,e $s
real! T(ey are t(ere+'re really e1$stent) $+ t(ey stand $n em*$r$,al
,'nne,t$'n /$t( my a,tual 'r real ,'ns,$'usness) alt('u-( t(ey are n't
$n t(emsel0es real) t(at $s) a*art +r'm t(e *r'-ress '+ e1*er$en,e!
T(ere $s n't($n- a,tually -$0en5 /e ,an be ,'ns,$'us '+ n't($n- as
real) e1,e*t a *er,e*t$'n and t(e em*$r$,al *r'-ress$'n +r'm $t t'
't(er *'ss$ble *er,e*t$'ns! F'r *(en'mena) as mere re*resentat$'ns)
are real 'nly $n *er,e*t$'n4 and *er,e*t$'n $s) $n +a,t) n't($n- but
t(e real$ty '+ an em*$r$,al re*resentat$'n) t(at $s) a *(en'men'n!
T' ,all a *(en'men'n a real t($n- *r$'r t' *er,e*t$'n means e$t(er
t(at /e must meet /$t( t($s *(en'men'n $n t(e *r'-ress '+
e1*er$en,e) 'r $t means n't($n- at all! F'r I ,an say 'nly '+ a
t($n- $n $tsel+ t(at $t e1$sts /$t('ut relat$'n t' t(e senses and
e1*er$en,e! 3ut /e are s*ea%$n- (ere merely '+ *(en'mena $n s*a,e
and t$me) b't( '+ /($,( are determ$nat$'ns '+ sens$b$l$ty) and n't
'+ t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! It +'ll'/s t(at *(en'mena are n't t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) but are mere re*resentat$'ns) /($,( $+ n't -$0en $n us5 $n
*er,e*t$'n5 are n'n5e1$stent!
T(e +a,ulty '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n $s *r'*erly a re,e*t$0$ty5 a
,a*a,$ty '+ be$n- a++e,ted $n a ,erta$n manner by re*resentat$'ns) t(e
relat$'n '+ /($,( t' ea,( 't(er $s a *ure $ntu$t$'n '+ s*a,e and t$me5
t(e *ure +'rms '+ sens$b$l$ty! T(ese re*resentat$'ns) $n s' +ar as
t(ey are ,'nne,ted and determ$nable $n t($s relat$'n =$n s*a,e and
t$me> a,,'rd$n- t' la/s '+ t(e un$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) are ,alled
'b&e,ts! T(e n'n5sensu'us ,ause '+ t(ese re*resentat$'ns $s ,'m*letely
un%n'/n t' us and (en,e ,ann't be $ntu$ted as an 'b&e,t! F'r su,( an
'b&e,t ,'uld n't be re*resented e$t(er $n s*a,e 'r $n t$me4 and
/$t('ut t(ese ,'nd$t$'ns $ntu$t$'n 'r re*resentat$'n $s $m*'ss$ble! 2e
may) at t(e same t$me) term t(e n'n5sensu'us ,ause '+ *(en'mena t(e
trans,endental 'b&e,t5 but merely as a mental ,'rrelate t'
sens$b$l$ty) ,'ns$dered as a re,e*t$0$ty! T' t($s trans,endental
'b&e,t /e may attr$bute t(e /('le ,'nne,t$'n and e1tent '+ 'ur
*'ss$ble *er,e*t$'ns) and say t(at $t $s -$0en and e1$sts $n $tsel+
*r$'r t' all e1*er$en,e! 3ut t(e *(en'mena) ,'rres*'nd$n- t' $t) are
n't -$0en as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) but $n e1*er$en,e al'ne! F'r t(ey
are mere re*resentat$'ns) re,e$0$n- +r'm *er,e*t$'ns al'ne
s$-n$+$,an,e and relat$'n t' a real 'b&e,t) under t(e ,'nd$t$'n t(at
t($s 'r t(at *er,e*t$'n5 $nd$,at$n- an 'b&e,t5 $s $n ,'m*lete
,'nne,t$'n /$t( all 't(ers $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e rules '+ t(e un$ty
'+ e1*er$en,e! T(us /e ,an say6 9T(e t($n-s t(at really e1$sted $n
*ast t$me are -$0en $n t(e trans,endental 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e!9 3ut
t(ese are t' me real 'b&e,ts) 'nly $n s' +ar as I ,an re*resent t'
my '/n m$nd) t(at a re-ress$0e ser$es '+ *'ss$ble *er,e*t$'ns5
+'ll'/$n- t(e $nd$,at$'ns '+ ($st'ry) 'r t(e +''tste*s '+ ,ause and
e++e,t5 $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( em*$r$,al la/s5 t(at) $n 'ne /'rd) t(e
,'urse '+ t(e /'rld ,'ndu,ts us t' an ela*sed ser$es '+ t$me as t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *resent t$me! T($s ser$es $n *ast t$me $s re*resented
as real) n't $n $tsel+) but 'nly $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e! T(us) /(en I say t(at ,erta$n e0ents ',,urred $n *ast
t$me) I merely assert t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ *r'l'n-$n- t(e ,(a$n '+
e1*er$en,e) +r'm t(e *resent *er,e*t$'n) u*/ards t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ns
t(at determ$ne $t a,,'rd$n- t' t$me!
I+ I re*resent t' mysel+ all 'b&e,ts e1$st$n- $n all s*a,e and t$me)
I d' n't t(ereby *la,e t(ese $n s*a,e and t$me *r$'r t' all
e1*er$en,e4 'n t(e ,'ntrary) su,( a re*resentat$'n $s n't($n- m're
t(an t(e n't$'n '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) $n $ts abs'lute
,'m*leteness! In e1*er$en,e al'ne are t('se 'b&e,ts) /($,( are n't($n-
but re*resentat$'ns) -$0en! 3ut) /(en I say t(ey e1$sted *r$'r t' my
e1*er$en,e) t($s means 'nly t(at I must be-$n /$t( t(e *er,e*t$'n
*resent t' me and +'ll'/ t(e tra,% $nd$,ated unt$l I d$s,'0er t(em
$n s'me *art 'r re-$'n '+ e1*er$en,e! T(e ,ause '+ t(e em*$r$,al
,'nd$t$'n '+ t($s *r'-ress$'n5 and ,'nse.uently at /(at member t(ere$n
I must st'*) and at /(at *'$nt $n t(e re-ress I am t' +$nd t($s
member5 $s trans,endental) and (en,e ne,essar$ly $n,'-n$;able! 3ut
/$t( t($s /e (a0e n't t' d'4 'ur ,'n,ern $s 'nly /$t( t(e la/ '+
*r'-ress$'n $n e1*er$en,e) $n /($,( 'b&e,ts) t(at $s) *(en'mena) are
-$0en! It $s a matter '+ $nd$++eren,e) /(et(er I say) 9I may $n t(e
*r'-ress '+ e1*er$en,e d$s,'0er stars) at a (undred t$mes -reater
d$stan,e t(an t(e m'st d$stant '+ t('se n'/ 0$s$ble)9 'r) 9Stars at
t($s d$stan,e may be met $n s*a,e) alt('u-( n' 'ne (as) 'r e0er /$ll
d$s,'0er t(em!9 F'r) $+ t(ey are -$0en as t($n-s $n t(emsel0es)
/$t('ut any relat$'n t' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t(ey are +'r me
n'n5e1$stent) ,'nse.uently) are n't 'b&e,ts) +'r t(ey are n't
,'nta$ned $n t(e re-ress$0e ser$es '+ e1*er$en,e! 3ut) $+ t(ese
*(en'mena must be em*l'yed $n t(e ,'nstru,t$'n 'r su**'rt '+ t(e
,'sm'l'-$,al $dea '+ an abs'lute /('le) and /(en /e are d$s,uss$n- a
.uest$'n t(at '0erste*s t(e l$m$ts '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t(e
*r'*er d$st$n,t$'n '+ t(e d$++erent t(e'r$es '+ t(e real$ty '+
sensu'us 'b&e,ts $s '+ -reat $m*'rtan,e) $n 'rder t' a0'$d t(e
$llus$'n /($,( must ne,essar$ly ar$se +r'm t(e m$s$nter*retat$'n '+
'ur em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns!
SECTION DII! Cr$t$,al S'lut$'n '+ t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Pr'blem!

T(e ant$n'my '+ *ure reas'n $s based u*'n t(e +'ll'/$n-
d$ale,t$,al ar-ument6 9I+ t(at /($,( $s ,'nd$t$'ned $s -$0en) t(e
/('le ser$es '+ $ts ,'nd$t$'ns $s als' -$0en4 but sensu'us 'b&e,ts are
-$0en as ,'nd$t$'ned4 ,'nse.uently!!!9 T($s syll'-$sm) t(e ma&'r '+
/($,( seems s' natural and e0$dent) $ntr'du,es as many ,'sm'l'-$,al
$deas as t(ere are d$++erent %$nds '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $n t(e synt(es$s '+
*(en'mena) $n s' +ar as t(ese ,'nd$t$'ns ,'nst$tute a ser$es! T(ese
$deas re.u$re abs'lute t'tal$ty $n t(e ser$es) and t(us *la,e reas'n
$n $ne1tr$,able embarrassment! 3e+'re *r',eed$n- t' e1*'se t(e +alla,y
$n t($s d$ale,t$,al ar-ument) $t /$ll be ne,essary t' (a0e a ,'rre,t
understand$n- '+ ,erta$n ,'n,e*t$'ns t(at a**ear $n $t!
In t(e +$rst *la,e) t(e +'ll'/$n- *r'*'s$t$'n $s e0$dent) and
$ndub$tably ,erta$n6 9I+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $s -$0en) a re-ress $n t(e
ser$es '+ all $ts ,'nd$t$'ns $s t(ereby $m*erat$0ely re.u$red!9 F'r
t(e 0ery ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ,'nd$t$'ned $s a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ s'met($n-
related t' a ,'nd$t$'n) and) $+ t($s ,'nd$t$'n $s $tsel+
,'nd$t$'ned) t' an't(er ,'nd$t$'n5 and s' 'n t(r'u-( all t(e members
'+ t(e ser$es! T($s *r'*'s$t$'n $s) t(ere+'re) analyt$,al and (as
n't($n- t' +ear +r'm trans,endental ,r$t$,$sm! It $s a l'-$,al
*'stulate '+ reas'n6 t' *ursue) as +ar as *'ss$ble) t(e ,'nne,t$'n
'+ a ,'n,e*t$'n /$t( $ts ,'nd$t$'ns!
I+) $n t(e se,'nd *la,e) b't( t(e ,'nd$t$'ned and t(e ,'nd$t$'n
are t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) and $+ t(e +'rmer $s -$0en) n't 'nly $s
t(e re-ress t' t(e latter re.u$s$te) but t(e latter $s really -$0en
/$t( t(e +'rmer! N'/) as t($s $s true '+ all t(e members '+ t(e
ser$es) t(e ent$re ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) and /$t( t(em t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned) $s at t(e same t$me -$0en $n t(e 0ery +a,t '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ned) t(e e1$sten,e '+ /($,( $s *'ss$ble 'nly $n and t(r'u-(
t(at ser$es) be$n- -$0en! In t($s ,ase) t(e synt(es$s '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ned /$t( $ts ,'nd$t$'n) $s a synt(es$s '+ t(e understand$n-
merely) /($,( re*resents t($n-s as t(ey are) /$t('ut re-ard$n- /(et(er
and ('/ /e ,an ,'-n$;e t(em! 3ut $+ I (a0e t' d' /$t( *(en'mena)
/($,() $n t(e$r ,(ara,ter '+ mere re*resentat$'ns) are n't -$0en) $+ I
d' n't atta$n t' a ,'-n$t$'n '+ t(em =$n 't(er /'rds) t' t(emsel0es)
+'r t(ey are n't($n- m're t(an em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'ns>) I am n't
ent$tled t' say6 9I+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $s -$0en) all $ts ,'nd$t$'ns
=as *(en'mena> are als' -$0en!9 I ,ann't) t(ere+'re) +r'm t(e +a,t
'+ a ,'nd$t$'ned be$n- -$0en) $n+er t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e
ser$es '+ $ts ,'nd$t$'ns! F'r *(en'mena are n't($n- but an em*$r$,al
synt(es$s $n a**re(ens$'n 'r *er,e*t$'n) and are t(ere+'re -$0en
'nly $n $t! N'/) $n s*ea%$n- '+ *(en'mena $t d'es n't +'ll'/ t(at)
$+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $s -$0en) t(e synt(es$s /($,( ,'nst$tutes $ts
em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'n $s als' t(ereby -$0en and *resu**'sed4 su,( a
synt(es$s ,an be establ$s(ed 'nly by an a,tual re-ress $n t(e ser$es
'+ ,'nd$t$'ns! 3ut /e are ent$tled t' say $n t($s ,ase t(at a
re-ress t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ a ,'nd$t$'ned) $n 't(er /'rds) t(at a
,'nt$nu'us em*$r$,al synt(es$s $s en&'$ned4 t(at) $+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ns
are n't -$0en) t(ey are at least re.u$red4 and t(at /e are ,erta$n
t' d$s,'0er t(e ,'nd$t$'ns $n t($s re-ress!
2e ,an n'/ see t(at t(e ma&'r) $n t(e ab'0e ,'sm'l'-$,al
syll'-$sm) ta%es t(e ,'nd$t$'ned $n t(e trans,endental s$-n$+$,at$'n
/($,( $t (as $n t(e *ure ,ate-'ry) /($le t(e m$n'r s*ea%s '+ $t $n t(e
em*$r$,al s$-n$+$,at$'n /($,( $t (as $n t(e ,ate-'ry as a**l$ed t'
*(en'mena! T(ere $s) t(ere+'re) a d$ale,t$,al +alla,y $n t(e
syll'-$sm5 a s'*($sma +$-urae d$,t$'n$s! 3ut t($s +alla,y $s n't a
,'ns,$'usly de0$sed 'ne) but a *er+e,tly natural $llus$'n '+ t(e
,'mm'n reas'n '+ man! F'r) /(en a t($n- $s -$0en as ,'nd$t$'ned) /e
*resu**'se $n t(e ma&'r $ts ,'nd$t$'ns and t(e$r ser$es)
un*er,e$0ed) as $t /ere) and unseen4 be,ause t($s $s n't($n- m're t(an
t(e l'-$,al re.u$rement '+ ,'m*lete and sat$s+a,t'ry *rem$sses +'r a
-$0en ,'n,lus$'n! In t($s ,ase) t$me $s alt'-et(er le+t 'ut $n t(e
,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned /$t( t(e ,'nd$t$'n4 t(ey are su**'sed t'
be -$0en $n t(emsel0es) and ,'ntem*'rane'usly! It $s) m're'0er) &ust
as natural t' re-ard *(en'mena =$n t(e m$n'r> as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es and as 'b&e,ts *resented t' t(e *ure understand$n-) as $n
t(e ma&'r) $n /($,( ,'m*lete abstra,t$'n /as made '+ all ,'nd$t$'ns '+
$ntu$t$'n! 3ut $t $s under t(ese ,'nd$t$'ns al'ne t(at 'b&e,ts are
-$0en! N'/ /e '0erl''%ed a remar%able d$st$n,t$'n bet/een t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns! T(e synt(es$s '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'ned /$t( $ts ,'nd$t$'n)
and t(e ,'m*lete ser$es '+ t(e latter =$n t(e ma&'r> are n't l$m$ted
by t$me) and d' n't ,'nta$n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,,ess$'n! On t(e
,'ntrary) t(e em*$r$,al synt(es$s and t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $n
t(e *(en'menal /'rld5 subsumed $n t(e m$n'r5 are ne,essar$ly
su,,ess$0e and -$0en $n t$me al'ne! It +'ll'/s t(at I ,ann't
*resu**'se $n t(e m$n'r) as I d$d $n t(e ma&'r) t(e abs'lute
t'tal$ty '+ t(e synt(es$s and '+ t(e ser$es t(ere$n re*resented4 +'r
$n t(e ma&'r all t(e members '+ t(e ser$es are -$0en as t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es5 /$t('ut any l$m$tat$'ns 'r ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me) /($le $n
t(e m$n'r t(ey are *'ss$ble 'nly $n and t(r'u-( a su,,ess$0e
re-ress) /($,( ,ann't e1$st) e1,e*t $t be a,tually ,arr$ed $nt'
e1e,ut$'n $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena!
A+ter t($s *r''+ '+ t(e 0$,$'usness '+ t(e ar-ument ,'mm'nly
em*l'yed $n ma$nta$n$n- ,'sm'l'-$,al assert$'ns) b't( *art$es may
n'/ be &ustly d$sm$ssed) as ad0an,$n- ,la$ms /$t('ut -r'unds 'r t$tle!
3ut t(e *r',ess (as n't been ended by ,'n0$n,$n- t(em t(at 'ne 'r b't(
/ere $n t(e /r'n- and (ad ma$nta$ned an assert$'n /($,( /as /$t('ut
0al$d -r'unds '+ *r''+! N't($n- seems t' be ,learer t(an t(at) $+
'ne ma$nta$ns6 9T(e /'rld (as a be-$nn$n-)9 and an't(er6 9T(e /'rld
(as n' be-$nn$n-)9 'ne '+ t(e t/' must be r$-(t! 3ut $t $s l$%e/$se
,lear t(at) $+ t(e e0$den,e 'n b't( s$des $s e.ual) $t $s $m*'ss$ble
t' d$s,'0er 'n /(at s$de t(e trut( l$es4 and t(e ,'ntr'0ersy
,'nt$nues) alt('u-( t(e *art$es (a0e been re,'mmended t' *ea,e
be+'re t(e tr$bunal '+ reas'n! T(ere rema$ns) t(en) n' 't(er means
'+ settl$n- t(e .uest$'n t(an t' ,'n0$n,e t(e *art$es) /(' re+ute ea,(
't(er /$t( su,( ,'n,lus$0eness and ab$l$ty) t(at t(ey are d$s*ut$n-
ab'ut n't($n-) and t(at a trans,endental $llus$'n (as been m',%$n-
t(em /$t( 0$s$'ns '+ real$ty /(ere t(ere $s n'ne! T(e m'de '+
ad&ust$n- a d$s*ute /($,( ,ann't be de,$ded u*'n $ts '/n mer$ts) /e
s(all n'/ *r',eed t' lay be+'re 'ur readers!
Oen' '+ Elea) a subtle d$ale,t$,$an) /as se0erely re*r$manded by
Plat' as a s'*($st) /(') merely +r'm t(e base m't$0e '+ e1($b$t$n- ($s
s%$ll $n d$s,uss$'n) ma$nta$ned and sub0erted t(e same *r'*'s$t$'n
by ar-uments as *'/er+ul and ,'n0$n,$n- 'n t(e 'ne s$de as 'n t(e
't(er! He ma$nta$ned) +'r e1am*le) t(at C'd =/(' /as *r'bably
n't($n- m're) $n ($s 0$e/) t(an t(e /'rld> $s ne$t(er +$n$te n'r
$n+$n$te) ne$t(er $n m't$'n n'r $n rest) ne$t(er s$m$lar n'r
d$ss$m$lar t' any 't(er t($n-! It seemed t' t('se *($l's'*(ers /('
,r$t$,$;ed ($s m'de '+ d$s,uss$'n t(at ($s *ur*'se /as t' deny
,'m*letely b't( '+ t/' sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry *r'*'s$t$'ns5 /($,( $s
absurd! 3ut I ,ann't bel$e0e t(at t(ere $s any &ust$,e $n t($s
a,,usat$'n! T(e +$rst '+ t(ese *r'*'s$t$'ns I s(all *resently ,'ns$der
$n a m're deta$led manner! 2$t( re-ard t' t(e 't(ers) $+ by t(e /'rd
'+ C'd (e underst''d merely t(e Un$0erse) ($s mean$n- must (a0e
been5 t(at $t ,ann't be *ermanently *resent $n 'ne *la,e5 t(at $s)
at rest5 n'r be ,a*able '+ ,(an-$n- $ts *la,e5 t(at $s) '+ m'0$n-5
be,ause all *la,es are $n t(e un$0erse) and t(e un$0erse $tsel+ $s)
t(ere+'re) $n n' *la,e! A-a$n) $+ t(e un$0erse ,'nta$ns $n $tsel+
e0eryt($n- t(at e1$sts) $t ,ann't be s$m$lar 'r d$ss$m$lar t' any
't(er t($n-) be,ause t(ere $s) $n +a,t) n' 't(er t($n- /$t( /($,( $t
,an be ,'m*ared! I+ t/' '**'s$te &ud-ements *resu**'se a ,'nt$n-ent
$m*'ss$ble) 'r arb$trary ,'nd$t$'n) b't(5 $n s*$te '+ t(e$r '**'s$t$'n
=/($,( $s) ('/e0er) n't *r'*erly 'r really a ,'ntrad$,t$'n>5 +all
a/ay4 be,ause t(e ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( ensured t(e 0al$d$ty '+ b't() (as
$tsel+ d$sa**eared!
I+ /e say6 9E0eryb'dy (as e$t(er a -''d 'r a bad smell)9 /e (a0e
'm$tted a t($rd *'ss$ble &ud-ement5 $t (as n' smell at all4 and t(us
b't( ,'n+l$,t$n- statements may be +alse! I+ /e say6 9It $s e$t(er
-''d5smell$n- 'r n't -''d5smell$n- =0el sua0e'lens 0el
n'n5sua0e'lens>)9 b't( &ud-ements are ,'ntrad$,t'r$ly '**'sed4 and t(e
,'ntrad$,t'ry '**'s$te '+ t(e +'rmer &ud-ement5 s'me b'd$es are n't
-''d5smell$n-5 embra,es als' t('se b'd$es /($,( (a0e n' smell at
all! In t(e *re,ed$n- *a$r '+ '**'sed &ud-ements =*er d$s*arata>)
t(e ,'nt$n-ent ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ b'dy =smell> atta,(ed t'
b't( ,'n+l$,t$n- statements) $nstead '+ (a0$n- been 'm$tted $n t(e
latter) /($,( $s ,'nse.uently n't t(e ,'ntrad$,t'ry '**'s$te '+ t(e
I+) a,,'rd$n-ly) /e say6 9T(e /'rld $s e$t(er $n+$n$te $n e1tens$'n)
'r $t $s n't $n+$n$te =n'n est $n+$n$tus>94 and $+ t(e +'rmer
*r'*'s$t$'n $s +alse) $ts ,'ntrad$,t'ry '**'s$te5 t(e /'rld $s n't
$n+$n$te5 must be true! And t(us I s('uld deny t(e e1$sten,e '+ an
$n+$n$te) /$t('ut) ('/e0er a++$rm$n- t(e e1$sten,e '+ a +$n$te
/'rld! 3ut $+ /e ,'nstru,t 'ur *r'*'s$t$'n t(us6 9T(e /'rld $s
e$t(er $n+$n$te 'r +$n$te =n'n5$n+$n$te>)9 b't( statements may be
+alse! F'r) $n t($s ,ase) /e ,'ns$der t(e /'rld as *er se determ$ned
$n re-ard t' .uant$ty) and /($le) $n t(e 'ne &ud-ement) /e deny $ts
$n+$n$te and ,'nse.uently) *er(a*s) $ts $nde*endent e1$sten,e4 $n
t(e 't(er) /e a**end t' t(e /'rld) re-arded as a t($n- $n $tsel+) a
,erta$n determ$nat$'n5 t(at '+ +$n$tude4 and t(e latter may be +alse
as /ell as t(e +'rmer) $+ t(e /'rld $s n't -$0en as a t($n- $n $tsel+)
and t(us ne$t(er as +$n$te n'r as $n+$n$te $n .uant$ty! T($s %$nd '+
'**'s$t$'n I may be all'/ed t' term d$ale,t$,al4 t(at '+
,'ntrad$,t'r$es may be ,alled analyt$,al '**'s$t$'n! T(us t(en) '+ t/'
d$ale,t$,ally '**'sed &ud-ements b't( may be +alse) +r'm t(e +a,t)
t(at t(e 'ne $s n't a mere ,'ntrad$,t'ry '+ t(e 't(er) but a,tually
en'un,es m're t(an $s re.u$s$te +'r a +ull and ,'m*lete ,'ntrad$,t$'n!
2(en /e re-ard t(e t/' *r'*'s$t$'ns5 9T(e /'rld $s $n+$n$te $n
.uant$ty)9 and) 9T(e /'rld $s +$n$te $n .uant$ty)9 as ,'ntrad$,t'ry
'**'s$tes) /e are assum$n- t(at t(e /'rld5 t(e ,'m*lete ser$es '+
*(en'mena5 $s a t($n- $n $tsel+! F'r $t rema$ns as a *ermanent
.uant$ty) /(et(er I deny t(e $n+$n$te 'r t(e +$n$te re-ress $n t(e
ser$es '+ $ts *(en'mena! 3ut $+ /e d$sm$ss t($s assum*t$'n5 t($s
trans,endental $llus$'n5 and deny t(at $t $s a t($n- $n $tsel+) t(e
,'ntrad$,t'ry '**'s$t$'n $s metam'r*('sed $nt' a merely d$ale,t$,al
'ne4 and t(e /'rld) as n't e1$st$n- $n $tsel+5 $nde*endently '+ t(e
re-ress$0e ser$es '+ my re*resentat$'ns5 e1$sts $n l$%e manner ne$t(er
as a /('le /($,( $s $n+$n$te n'r as a /('le /($,( $s +$n$te $n $tsel+!
T(e un$0erse e1$sts +'r me 'nly $n t(e em*$r$,al re-ress '+ t(e ser$es
'+ *(en'mena and n't *er se! I+) t(en) $t $s al/ays ,'nd$t$'ned) $t $s
ne0er ,'m*letely 'r as a /('le4 and $t $s) t(ere+'re) n't an
un,'nd$t$'ned /('le and d'es n't e1$st as su,() e$t(er /$t( an
$n+$n$te) 'r /$t( a +$n$te .uant$ty!
2(at /e (a0e (ere sa$d '+ t(e +$rst ,'sm'l'-$,al $dea5 t(at '+ t(e
abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ .uant$ty $n *(en'mena5 a**l$es als' t' t(e
't(ers! T(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $s d$s,'0erable 'nly $n t(e
re-ress$0e synt(es$s $tsel+) and n't $n t(e *(en'men'n ,'ns$dered as a
t($n- $n $tsel+5 -$0en *r$'r t' all re-ress! Hen,e I am ,'m*elled t'
say6 9T(e a--re-ate '+ *arts $n a -$0en *(en'men'n $s $n $tsel+
ne$t(er +$n$te n'r $n+$n$te4 and t(ese *arts are -$0en 'nly $n t(e
re-ress$0e synt(es$s '+ de,'m*'s$t$'n5 a synt(es$s /($,( $s ne0er
-$0en $n abs'lute ,'m*leteness) e$t(er as +$n$te) 'r as $n+$n$te!9 T(e
same $s t(e ,ase /$t( t(e ser$es '+ sub'rd$nated ,auses) 'r '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ned u* t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned and ne,essary e1$sten,e) /($,( ,an
ne0er be re-arded as $n $tsel+) $nd $n $ts t'tal$ty) e$t(er as
+$n$te 'r as $n+$n$te4 be,ause) as a ser$es '+ sub'rd$nate
re*resentat$'ns) $t subs$sts 'nly $n t(e dynam$,al re-ress and
,ann't be re-arded as e1$st$n- *re0$'usly t' t($s re-ress) 'r as a
sel+5subs$stent ser$es '+ t($n-s!
T(us t(e ant$n'my '+ *ure reas'n $n $ts ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas
d$sa**ears! F'r t(e ab'0e dem'nstrat$'n (as establ$s(ed t(e +a,t
t(at $t $s merely t(e *r'du,t '+ a d$ale,t$,al and $llus'ry
'**'s$t$'n) /($,( ar$ses +r'm t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t(e $dea '+
abs'lute t'tal$ty5 adm$ss$ble 'nly as a ,'nd$t$'n '+ t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es5 t' *(en'mena) /($,( e1$st 'nly $n 'ur re*resentat$'ns)
and5 /(en ,'nst$tut$n- a ser$es5 $n a su,,ess$0e re-ress! T($s
ant$n'my '+ reas'n may) ('/e0er) be really *r'+$table t' 'ur
s*e,ulat$0e $nterests) n't $n t(e /ay '+ ,'ntr$but$n- any d'-mat$,al
add$t$'n) but as *resent$n- t' us an't(er mater$al su**'rt $n 'ur
,r$t$,al $n0est$-at$'ns! F'r $t +urn$s(es us /$t( an $nd$re,t *r''+ '+
t(e trans,endental $deal$ty '+ *(en'mena) $+ 'ur m$nds /ere n't
,'m*letely sat$s+$ed /$t( t(e d$re,t *r''+ set +'rt( $n t(e
Tran,endental Aest(et$,! T(e *r''+ /'uld *r',eed $n t(e +'ll'/$n-
d$lemma! I+ t(e /'rld $s a /('le e1$st$n- $n $tsel+) $t must be e$t(er
+$n$te 'r $n+$n$te! 3ut $t $s ne$t(er +$n$te n'r $n+$n$te5 as (as been
s('/n) 'n t(e 'ne s$de) by t(e t(es$s) 'n t(e 't(er) by t(e
ant$t(es$s! T(ere+'re t(e /'rld5 t(e ,'ntent '+ all *(en'mena5 $s
n't a /('le e1$st$n- $n $tsel+! It +'ll'/s t(at *(en'mena are n't($n-)
a*art +r'm 'ur re*resentat$'ns! And t($s $s /(at /e mean by
trans,endental $deal$ty!
T($s remar% $s '+ s'me $m*'rtan,e! It enables us t' see t(at t(e
*r''+s '+ t(e +'ur+'ld ant$n'my are n't mere s'*($str$es5 are n't
+alla,$'us) but -r'unded 'n t(e nature '+ reas'n) and 0al$d5 under t(e
su**'s$t$'n t(at *(en'mena are t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! T(e '**'s$t$'n '+
t(e &ud-ements /($,( +'ll'/ ma%es $t e0$dent t(at a +alla,y lay $n t(e
$n$t$al su**'s$t$'n) and t(us (el*s us t' d$s,'0er t(e true
,'nst$tut$'n '+ 'b&e,ts '+ sense! T($s trans,endental d$ale,t$, d'es
n't +a0'ur s,e*t$,$sm) alt('u-( $t *resents us /$t( a tr$um*(ant
dem'nstrat$'n '+ t(e ad0anta-es '+ t(e s,e*t$,al met('d) t(e -reat
ut$l$ty '+ /($,( $s a**arent $n t(e ant$n'my) /(ere t(e ar-uments '+
reas'n /ere all'/ed t' ,'n+r'nt ea,( 't(er $n und$m$n$s(ed +'r,e!
And alt('u-( t(e result '+ t(ese ,'n+l$,ts '+ reas'n $s n't /(at /e
e1*e,ted5 alt('u-( /e (a0e 'bta$ned n' *'s$t$0e d'-mat$,al add$t$'n t'
meta*(ys$,al s,$en,e5 /e (a0e st$ll rea*ed a -reat ad0anta-e $n t(e
,'rre,t$'n '+ 'ur &ud-ements 'n t(ese sub&e,ts '+ t('u-(t!
SECTION DIII! Re-ulat$0e Pr$n,$*le '+ Pure Reas'n $n relat$'n

t' t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Ideas!

T(e ,'sm'l'-$,al *r$n,$*le '+ t'tal$ty ,'uld n't -$0e us any ,erta$n
%n'/led-e $n re-ard t' t(e ma1$mum $n t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $n
t(e /'rld '+ sense) ,'ns$dered as a t($n- $n $tsel+! T(e a,tual
re-ress $n t(e ser$es $s t(e 'nly means '+ a**r'a,($n- t($s ma1$mum!
T($s *r$n,$*le '+ *ure reas'n) t(ere+'re) may st$ll be ,'ns$dered as
0al$d5 n't as an a1$'m enabl$n- us t' ,'-$tate t'tal$ty $n t(e
'b&e,t as a,tual) but as a *r'blem +'r t(e understand$n-) /($,(
re.u$res $t t' $nst$tute and t' ,'nt$nue) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e
$dea '+ t'tal$ty $n t(e m$nd) t(e re-ress $n t(e ser$es '+ t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned! F'r $n t(e /'rld '+ sense) t(at $s)
$n s*a,e and t$me) e0ery ,'nd$t$'n /($,( /e d$s,'0er $n 'ur
$n0est$-at$'n '+ *(en'mena $s $tsel+ ,'nd$t$'ned4 be,ause sensu'us
'b&e,ts are n't t($n-s $n t(emsel0es =$n /($,( ,ase an abs'lutely
un,'nd$t$'ned m$-(t be rea,(ed $n t(e *r'-ress '+ ,'-n$t$'n>) but
are merely em*$r$,al re*resentat$'ns t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ /($,( must
al/ays be +'und $n $ntu$t$'n! T(e *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n $s t(ere+'re
*r'*erly a mere rule5 *res,r$b$n- a re-ress $n t(e ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns +'r -$0en *(en'mena) and *r'($b$t$n- any *ause 'r rest 'n
an abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned! It $s) t(ere+'re) n't a *r$n,$*le '+
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e 'r '+ t(e em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n '+
sensu'us 'b&e,ts5 ,'nse.uently n't a *r$n,$*le '+ t(e understand$n-4
+'r e0ery e1*er$en,e $s ,'n+$ned /$t($n ,erta$n *r'*er l$m$ts
determ$ned by t(e -$0en $ntu$t$'n! St$ll less $s $t a ,'nst$tut$0e
*r$n,$*le '+ reas'n aut('r$;$n- us t' e1tend 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
sensu'us /'rld bey'nd all *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! It $s merely a
*r$n,$*le +'r t(e enlar-ement and e1tens$'n '+ e1*er$en,e as +ar as $s
*'ss$ble +'r (uman +a,ult$es! It +'rb$ds us t' ,'ns$der any
em*$r$,al l$m$ts as abs'lute! It $s) (en,e) a *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n)
/($,() as a rule) d$,tates ('/ /e 'u-(t t' *r',eed $n 'ur em*$r$,al
re-ress) but $s unable t' ant$,$*ate 'r $nd$,ate *r$'r t' t(e
em*$r$,al re-ress /(at $s -$0en $n t(e 'b&e,t $tsel+! I (a0e termed $t
+'r t($s reas'n a re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n4 /($le t(e
*r$n,$*le '+ t(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) as
e1$st$n- $n $tsel+ and -$0en $n t(e 'b&e,t) $s a ,'nst$tut$0e
,'sm'l'-$,al *r$n,$*le! T($s d$st$n,t$'n /$ll at 'n,e dem'nstrate
t(e +alse(''d '+ t(e ,'nst$tut$0e *r$n,$*le) and *re0ent us +r'm
attr$but$n- =by a trans,endental subre*t$'> 'b&e,t$0e real$ty t' an
$dea) /($,( $s 0al$d 'nly as a rule!
In 'rder t' understand t(e *r'*er mean$n- '+ t($s rule '+ *ure
reas'n) /e must n't$,e +$rst t(at $t ,ann't tell us /(at t(e 'b&e,t
$s) but 'nly ('/ t(e em*$r$,al re-ress $s t' be *r',eeded /$t( $n
'rder t' atta$n t' t(e ,'m*lete ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,t! I+ $t -a0e
us any $n+'rmat$'n $n res*e,t t' t(e +'rmer statement) $t /'uld be a
,'nst$tut$0e *r$n,$*le5 a *r$n,$*le $m*'ss$ble +r'm t(e nature '+ *ure
reas'n! It /$ll n't t(ere+'re enable us t' establ$s( any su,(
,'n,lus$'ns as6 9T(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns +'r a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned $s
$n $tsel+ +$n$te!9 'r) 9It $s $n+$n$te!9 F'r) $n t($s ,ase) /e
s('uld be ,'-$tat$n- $n t(e mere $dea '+ abs'lute t'tal$ty) an
'b&e,t /($,( $s n't and ,ann't be -$0en $n e1*er$en,e4 $nasmu,( as
/e s('uld be attr$but$n- a real$ty 'b&e,t$0e and $nde*endent '+ t(e
em*$r$,al synt(es$s) t' a ser$es '+ *(en'mena! T($s $dea '+ reas'n
,ann't t(en be re-arded as 0al$d5 e1,e*t as a rule +'r t(e
re-ress$0e synt(es$s $n t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,(
/e must *r',eed +r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'ned) t(r'u-( all $ntermed$ate and
sub'rd$nate ,'nd$t$'ns) u* t' t(e un,'nd$t$'ned4 alt('u-( t($s -'al $s
unatta$ned and unatta$nable! F'r t(e abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned ,ann't
be d$s,'0ered $n t(e s*(ere '+ e1*er$en,e!
2e n'/ *r',eed t' determ$ne ,learly 'ur n't$'n '+ a synt(es$s
/($,( ,an ne0er be ,'m*lete! T(ere are t/' terms ,'mm'nly em*l'yed +'r
t($s *ur*'se! T(ese terms are re-arded as e1*ress$'ns '+ d$++erent and
d$st$n-u$s(able n't$'ns) alt('u-( t(e -r'und '+ t(e d$st$n,t$'n (as
ne0er been ,learly e1*'sed! T(e term em*l'yed by t(e mat(emat$,$ans $s
*r'-ressus $n $n+$n$tum! T(e *($l's'*(ers *re+er t(e e1*ress$'n
*r'-ressus $n $nde+$n$tum! 2$t('ut deta$n$n- t(e reader /$t( an
e1am$nat$'n '+ t(e reas'ns +'r su,( a d$st$n,t$'n) 'r /$t( remar%s
'n t(e r$-(t 'r /r'n- use '+ t(e terms) I s(all endea0'ur ,learly t'
determ$ne t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) s' +ar as $s ne,essary +'r t(e *ur*'se $n
t($s Cr$t$.ue!
2e may) /$t( *r'*r$ety) say '+ a stra$-(t l$ne) t(at $t may be
*r'du,ed t' $n+$n$ty! In t($s ,ase t(e d$st$n,t$'n bet/een a
*r'-ressus $n $n+$n$tum and a *r'-ressus $n $nde+$n$tum $s a mere
*$e,e '+ subtlety! F'r) alt('u-( /(en /e say) 9Pr'du,e a stra$-(t
l$ne)9 $t $s m're ,'rre,t t' say $n $nde+$n$tum t(an $n $n+$n$tum4
be,ause t(e +'rmer means) 9Pr'du,e $t as +ar as y'u *lease)9 t(e
se,'nd) 9J'u must n't ,ease t' *r'du,e $t94 t(e e1*ress$'n $n
$n+$n$tum $s) /(en /e are s*ea%$n- '+ t(e *'/er t' d' $t) *er+e,tly
,'rre,t) +'r /e ,an al/ays ma%e $t l'n-er $+ /e *lease5 'n t'
$n+$n$ty! And t($s remar% ('lds -''d $n all ,ases) /(en /e s*ea% '+
a *r'-ressus) t(at $s) an ad0an,ement +r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'n t' t(e
,'nd$t$'ned4 t($s *'ss$ble ad0an,ement al/ays *r',eeds t' $n+$n$ty! 2e
may *r',eed +r'm a -$0en *a$r $n t(e des,end$n- l$ne '+ -enerat$'n
+r'm +at(er t' s'n) and ,'-$tate a ne0er5end$n- l$ne '+ des,endants
+r'm $t! F'r $n su,( a ,ase reas'n d'es n't demand abs'lute t'tal$ty
$n t(e ser$es) be,ause $t d'es n't *resu**'se $t as a ,'nd$t$'n and as
-$0en =datum>) but merely as ,'nd$t$'ned) and as ,a*able '+ be$n-
-$0en =dab$le>!
Dery d$++erent $s t(e ,ase /$t( t(e *r'blem6 9H'/ +ar t(e re-ress)
/($,( as,ends +r'm t(e -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ns) must
e1tend94 /(et(er I ,an say6 9It $s a re-ress $n $n+$n$tum)9 'r 'nly
9$n $nde+$n$tum94 and /(et(er) +'r e1am*le) sett$n- 'ut +r'm t(e (uman
be$n-s at *resent al$0e $n t(e /'rld) I may as,end $n t(e ser$es '+
t(e$r an,est'rs) $n $n+$n$tum5 mr /(et(er all t(at ,an be sa$d $s)
t(at s' +ar as I (a0e *r',eeded) I (a0e d$s,'0ered n' em*$r$,al -r'und
+'r ,'ns$der$n- t(e ser$es l$m$ted) s' t(at I am &ust$+$ed) and
$ndeed) ,'m*elled t' sear,( +'r an,est'rs st$ll +urt(er ba,%) alt('u-(
I am n't 'bl$-ed by t(e $dea '+ reas'n t' *resu**'se t(em!
"y ans/er t' t($s .uest$'n $s6 9I+ t(e ser$es $s -$0en $n
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'n as a /('le) t(e re-ress $n t(e ser$es '+ $ts
$nternal ,'nd$t$'ns *r',eeds $n $n+$n$tum4 but) $+ 'nly 'ne member
'+ t(e ser$es $s -$0en) +r'm /($,( t(e re-ress $s t' *r',eed t'
abs'lute t'tal$ty) t(e re-ress $s *'ss$ble 'nly $n $nde+$n$tum!9 F'r
e1am*le) t(e d$0$s$'n '+ a *'rt$'n '+ matter -$0en /$t($n ,erta$n
l$m$ts5 '+ a b'dy) t(at $s5 *r',eeds $n $n+$n$tum! F'r) as t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ t($s /('le $s $ts *art) and t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *art a
*art '+ t(e *art) and s' 'n) and as $n t($s re-ress '+ de,'m*'s$t$'n
an un,'nd$t$'ned $nd$0$s$ble member '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $s n't
t' be +'und4 t(ere are n' reas'ns 'r -r'unds $n e1*er$en,e +'r
st'**$n- $n t(e d$0$s$'n) but) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) t(e m're rem'te
members '+ t(e d$0$s$'n are a,tually and em*$r$,ally -$0en *r$'r t'
t($s d$0$s$'n! T(at $s t' say) t(e d$0$s$'n *r',eeds t' $n+$n$ty! On
t(e 't(er (and) t(e ser$es '+ an,est'rs '+ any -$0en (uman be$n- $s
n't -$0en) $n $ts abs'lute t'tal$ty) $n any e1*er$en,e) and yet t(e
re-ress *r',eeds +r'm e0ery -eneal'-$,al member '+ t($s ser$es t'
'ne st$ll ($-(er) and d'es n't meet /$t( any em*$r$,al l$m$t
*resent$n- an abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned member '+ t(e ser$es! 3ut as
t(e members '+ su,( a ser$es are n't ,'nta$ned $n t(e em*$r$,al
$ntu$t$'n '+ t(e /('le) *r$'r t' t(e re-ress) t($s re-ress d'es n't
*r',eed t' $n+$n$ty) but 'nly $n $nde+$n$tum) t(at $s) /e are ,alled
u*'n t' d$s,'0er 't(er and ($-(er members) /($,( are t(emsel0es al/ays
In ne$t(er ,ase5 t(e re-ressus $n $n+$n$tum) n'r t(e re-ressus $n
$nde+$n$tum) $s t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns t' be ,'ns$dered as
a,tually $n+$n$te $n t(e 'b&e,t $tsel+! T($s m$-(t be true '+ t($n-s
$n t(emsel0es) but $t ,ann't be asserted '+ *(en'mena) /($,() as
,'nd$t$'ns '+ ea,( 't(er) are 'nly -$0en $n t(e em*$r$,al re-ress
$tsel+! Hen,e) t(e .uest$'n n' l'n-er $s) 92(at $s t(e .uant$ty '+
t($s ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $n $tsel+5 $s $t +$n$te 'r $n+$n$te@9 +'r $t
$s n't($n- $n $tsel+4 but) 9H'/ $s t(e em*$r$,al re-ress t' be
,'mmen,ed) and ('/ +ar 'u-(t /e t' *r',eed /$t( $t@9 And (ere a s$-nal
d$st$n,t$'n $n t(e a**l$,at$'n '+ t($s rule be,'mes a**arent! I+ t(e
/('le $s -$0en em*$r$,ally) $t $s *'ss$ble t' re,ede $n t(e ser$es
'+ $ts $nternal ,'nd$t$'ns t' $n+$n$ty! 3ut $+ t(e /('le $s n't -$0en)
and ,an 'nly be -$0en by and t(r'u-( t(e em*$r$,al re-ress) I ,an 'nly
say6 9It $s *'ss$ble t' $n+$n$ty) t' *r',eed t' st$ll ($-(er
,'nd$t$'ns $n t(e ser$es!9 In t(e +$rst ,ase) I am &ust$+$ed $n
assert$n- t(at m're members are em*$r$,ally -$0en $n t(e 'b&e,t t(an I
atta$n t' $n t(e re-ress ='+ de,'m*'s$t$'n>! In t(e se,'nd ,ase) I
am &ust$+$ed 'nly $n say$n-) t(at I ,an al/ays *r',eed +urt(er $n
t(e re-ress) be,ause n' member '+ t(e ser$es! $s -$0en as abs'lutely
,'nd$t$'ned) and t(us a ($-(er member $s *'ss$ble) and an $n.u$ry /$t(
re-ard t' $t $s ne,essary! In t(e 'ne ,ase $t $s ne,essary t' +$nd
't(er members '+ t(e ser$es) $n t(e 't(er $t $s ne,essary t' $n.u$re
+'r 't(ers) $nasmu,( as e1*er$en,e *resents n' abs'lute l$m$tat$'n
'+ t(e re-ress! F'r) e$t(er y'u d' n't *'ssess a *er,e*t$'n /($,(
abs'lutely l$m$ts y'ur em*$r$,al re-ress) and $n t($s ,ase t(e re-ress
,ann't be re-arded as ,'m*lete4 'r) y'u d' *'ssess su,( a l$m$tat$0e
*er,e*t$'n) $n /($,( ,ase $t $s n't a *art '+ y'ur ser$es =+'r t(at
/($,( l$m$ts must be d$st$n,t +r'm t(at /($,( $s l$m$ted by $t>) and
$t $s $n,umbent y'u t' ,'nt$nue y'ur re-ress u* t' t($s ,'nd$t$'n) and
s' 'n!
T(ese remar%s /$ll be *la,ed $n t(e$r *r'*er l$-(t by t(e$r
a**l$,at$'n $n t(e +'ll'/$n- se,t$'n!
SECTION IF! O+ t(e Em*$r$,al Use '+ t(e Re-ulat$0e Pr$n,$*le

'+ Reas'n /$t( re-ard t' t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Ideas!

2e (a0e s('/n t(at n' trans,endental use ,an be made e$t(er '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n 'r '+ understand$n-! 2e (a0e s('/n) l$%e/$se)
t(at t(e demand '+ abs'lute t'tal$ty $n t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $n
t(e /'rld '+ sense ar$ses +r'm a trans,endental em*l'yment '+
reas'n) rest$n- 'n t(e '*$n$'n t(at *(en'mena are t' be re-arded as
t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! It +'ll'/s t(at /e are n't re.u$red t' ans/er
t(e .uest$'n res*e,t$n- t(e abs'lute .uant$ty '+ a ser$es5 /(et(er
$t $s $n $tsel+ l$m$ted 'r unl$m$ted! 2e are 'nly ,alled u*'n t'
determ$ne ('/ +ar /e must *r',eed $n t(e em*$r$,al re-ress +r'm
,'nd$t$'n t' ,'nd$t$'n) $n 'rder t' d$s,'0er) $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e
rule '+ reas'n) a +ull and ,'rre,t ans/er t' t(e .uest$'ns *r'*'sed by
reas'n $tsel+!
T($s *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n $s (en,e 0al$d 'nly as a rule +'r t(e
e1tens$'n '+ a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e5 $ts $n0al$d$ty as a *r$n,$*le
,'nst$tut$0e '+ *(en'mena $n t(emsel0es (a0$n- been su++$,$ently
dem'nstrated! And t(us) t'') t(e ant$n'm$al ,'n+l$,t '+ reas'n /$t(
$tsel+ $s ,'m*letely *ut an end t'4 $nasmu,( as /e (a0e n't 'nly
*resented a ,r$t$,al s'lut$'n '+ t(e +alla,y lur%$n- $n t(e '**'s$te
statements '+ reas'n) but (a0e s('/n t(e true mean$n- '+ t(e $deas
/($,( -a0e r$se t' t(ese statements! T(e d$ale,t$,al *r$n,$*le '+
reas'n (as) t(ere+'re) been ,(an-ed $nt' a d',tr$nal *r$n,$*le! 3ut $n
+a,t) $+ t($s *r$n,$*le) $n t(e sub&e,t$0e s$-n$+$,at$'n /($,( /e (a0e
s('/n t' be $ts 'nly true sense) may be -uaranteed as a *r$n,$*le '+
t(e un,eas$n- e1tens$'n '+ t(e em*l'yment '+ 'ur understand$n-) $ts
$n+luen,e and 0alue are &ust as -reat as $+ $t /ere an a1$'m +'r t(e a
*r$'r$ determ$nat$'n '+ 'b&e,ts! F'r su,( an a1$'m ,'uld n't e1ert a
str'n-er $n+luen,e 'n t(e e1tens$'n and re,t$+$,at$'n '+ 'ur
%n'/led-e) 't(er/$se t(an by *r',ur$n- +'r t(e *r$n,$*les '+ t(e
understand$n- t(e m'st /$dely e1*anded em*l'yment $n t(e +$eld '+
I! S'lut$'n '+ t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Idea '+ t(e T'tal$ty '+ t(e

C'm*'s$t$'n '+ P(en'mena $n t(e Un$0erse!

Here) as /ell as $n t(e ,ase '+ t(e 't(er ,'sm'l'-$,al *r'blems) t(e
-r'und '+ t(e re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n $s t(e *r'*'s$t$'n t(at
$n 'ur em*$r$,al re-ress n' e1*er$en,e '+ an abs'lute l$m$t) and
,'nse.uently n' e1*er$en,e '+ a ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( $s $tsel+
abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned) $s d$s,'0erable! And t(e trut( '+ t($s
*r'*'s$t$'n $tsel+ rests u*'n t(e ,'ns$derat$'n t(at su,( an
e1*er$en,e must re*resent t' us *(en'mena as l$m$ted by n't($n- 'r t(e
mere 0'$d) 'n /($,( 'ur ,'nt$nued re-ress by means '+ *er,e*t$'n
must abut5 /($,( $s $m*'ss$ble!
N'/ t($s *r'*'s$t$'n) /($,( de,lares t(at e0ery ,'nd$t$'n atta$ned
$n t(e em*$r$,al re-ress must $tsel+ be ,'ns$dered em*$r$,ally
,'nd$t$'ned) ,'nta$ns t(e rule $n term$n$s) /($,( re.u$res me) t'
/(ate0er e1tent I may (a0e *r',eeded $n t(e as,end$n- ser$es) al/ays
t' l''% +'r s'me ($-(er member $n t(e ser$es5 /(et(er t($s member $s
t' be,'me %n'/n t' me t(r'u-( e1*er$en,e) 'r n't!
N't($n- +urt(er $s ne,essary) t(en) +'r t(e s'lut$'n '+ t(e +$rst
,'sm'l'-$,al *r'blem) t(an t' de,$de) /(et(er) $n t(e re-ress t' t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned .uant$ty '+ t(e un$0erse =as re-ards s*a,e and t$me>)
t($s ne0er l$m$ted as,ent 'u-(t t' be ,alled a re-ressus $n
$n+$n$tum 'r $nde+$n$tum!
T(e -eneral re*resentat$'n /($,( /e +'rm $n 'ur m$nds '+ t(e
ser$es '+ all *ast states 'r ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e /'rld) 'r '+ all t(e
t($n-s /($,( at *resent e1$st $n $t) $s $tsel+ n't($n- m're t(an a
*'ss$ble em*$r$,al re-ress) /($,( $s ,'-$tated5 alt('u-( $n an
undeterm$ned manner5 $n t(e m$nd) and /($,( -$0es r$se t' t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns +'r a -$0en 'b&e,t!7 N'/ I (a0e a
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e un$0erse) but n't an $ntu$t$'n5 t(at $s) n't an
$ntu$t$'n '+ $t as a /('le! T(us I ,ann't $n+er t(e ma-n$tude '+ t(e
re-ress +r'm t(e .uant$ty 'r ma-n$tude '+ t(e /'rld) and determ$ne t(e
+'rmer by means '+ t(e latter4 'n t(e ,'ntrary) I must +$rst '+ all
+'rm a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e .uant$ty 'r ma-n$tude '+ t(e /'rld +r'm t(e
ma-n$tude '+ t(e em*$r$,al re-ress! 3ut '+ t($s re-ress I %n'/ n't($n-
m're t(an t(at I 'u-(t t' *r',eed +r'm e0ery -$0en member '+ t(e
ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns t' 'ne st$ll ($-(er! 3ut t(e .uant$ty '+ t(e
un$0erse $s n't t(ereby determ$ned) and /e ,ann't a++$rm t(at t($s
re-ress *r',eeds $n $n+$n$tum! Su,( an a++$rmat$'n /'uld ant$,$*ate
t(e members '+ t(e ser$es /($,( (a0e n't yet been rea,(ed) and
re*resent t(e number '+ t(em as bey'nd t(e -ras* '+ any em*$r$,al
synt(es$s4 $t /'uld ,'nse.uently determ$ne t(e ,'sm$,al .uant$ty *r$'r
t' t(e re-ress =alt('u-( 'nly $n a ne-at$0e manner>5 /($,( $s
$m*'ss$ble! F'r t(e /'rld $s n't -$0en $n $ts t'tal$ty $n any
$ntu$t$'n6 ,'nse.uently) $ts .uant$ty ,ann't be -$0en *r$'r t' t(e
re-ress! It +'ll'/s t(at /e are unable t' ma%e any de,larat$'n
res*e,t$n- t(e ,'sm$,al .uant$ty $n $tsel+5 n't e0en t(at t(e
re-ress $n $t $s a re-ress $n $n+$n$tum4 /e must 'nly endea0'ur t'
atta$n t' a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e .uant$ty '+ t(e un$0erse) $n
,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e rule /($,( determ$nes t(e em*$r$,al re-ress $n $t!
3ut t($s rule merely re.u$res us ne0er t' adm$t an abs'lute l$m$t t'
'ur ser$es5 ('/ +ar s'e0er /e may (a0e *r',eeded $n $t) but al/ays) 'n
t(e ,'ntrary) t' sub'rd$nate e0ery *(en'men'n t' s'me 't(er as $ts
,'nd$t$'n) and ,'nse.uently t' *r',eed t' t($s ($-(er *(en'men'n! Su,(
a re-ress $s) t(ere+'re) t(e re-ressus $n $nde+$n$tum) /($,() as n't
determ$n$n- a .uant$ty $n t(e 'b&e,t) $s ,learly d$st$n-u$s(able
+r'm t(e re-ressus $n $n+$n$tum!
7T(e ,'sm$,al ser$es ,an ne$t(er be -reater n'r smaller t(an t(e
*'ss$ble em*$r$,al re-ress) u*'n /($,( $ts ,'n,e*t$'n $s based! And as
t($s re-ress ,ann't be a determ$nate $n+$n$te re-ress) st$ll less a
determ$nate +$n$te =abs'lutely l$m$ted>) $t $s e0$dent t(at /e
,ann't re-ard t(e /'rld as e$t(er +$n$te 'r $n+$n$te) be,ause t(e
re-ress) /($,( -$0es us t(e re*resentat$'n '+ t(e /'rld) $s ne$t(er
+$n$te n'r $n+$n$te!
It +'ll'/s +r'm /(at /e (a0e sa$d t(at /e are n't &ust$+$ed $n
de,lar$n- t(e /'rld t' be $n+$n$te $n s*a,e) 'r as re-ards *ast
t$me! F'r t($s ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an $n+$n$te -$0en .uant$ty $s
em*$r$,al4 but /e ,ann't a**ly t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an $n+$n$te
.uant$ty t' t(e /'rld as an 'b&e,t '+ t(e senses! I ,ann't say) 9T(e
re-ress +r'm a -$0en *er,e*t$'n t' e0eryt($n- l$m$ted e$t(er $n
s*a,e 'r t$me) *r',eeds $n $n+$n$tum)9 +'r t($s *resu**'ses an
$n+$n$te ,'sm$,al .uant$ty4 ne$t(er ,an I say) 9It $s +$n$te)9 +'r
an abs'lute l$m$t $s l$%e/$se $m*'ss$ble $n e1*er$en,e! It +'ll'/s
t(at I am n't ent$tled t' ma%e any assert$'n at all res*e,t$n- t(e
/('le 'b&e,t '+ e1*er$en,e5 t(e /'rld '+ sense4 I must l$m$t my
de,larat$'ns t' t(e rule a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( e1*er$en,e 'r em*$r$,al
%n'/led-e $s t' be atta$ned!
T' t(e .uest$'n) t(ere+'re) res*e,t$n- t(e ,'sm$,al .uant$ty) t(e
+$rst and ne-at$0e ans/er $s6 9T(e /'rld (as n' be-$nn$n- $n t$me) and
n' abs'lute l$m$t $n s*a,e!9
F'r) $n t(e ,'ntrary ,ase) $t /'uld be l$m$ted by a 0'$d t$me 'n t(e
'ne (and) and by a 0'$d s*a,e 'n t(e 't(er! N'/) s$n,e t(e /'rld) as a
*(en'men'n) ,ann't be t(us l$m$ted $n $tsel+ +'r a *(en'men'n $s n't a
t($n- $n $tsel+4 $t must be *'ss$ble +'r us t' (a0e a *er,e*t$'n '+
t($s l$m$tat$'n by a 0'$d t$me and a 0'$d s*a,e! 3ut su,( a
*er,e*t$'n5 su,( an e1*er$en,e $s $m*'ss$ble4 be,ause $t (as n'
,'ntent! C'nse.uently) an abs'lute ,'sm$,al l$m$t $s em*$r$,ally)
and t(ere+'re abs'lutely) $m*'ss$ble!7
7T(e reader /$ll remar% t(at t(e *r''+ *resented ab'0e $s 0ery
d$++erent +r'm t(e d'-mat$,al dem'nstrat$'n -$0en $n t(e ant$t(es$s '+
t(e +$rst ant$n'my! In t(at dem'nstrat$'n) $t /as ta%en +'r -ranted
t(at t(e /'rld $s a t($n- $n $tsel+5 -$0en $n $ts t'tal$ty *r$'r t'
all re-ress) and a determ$ned *'s$t$'n $n s*a,e and t$me /as den$ed t'
$t5 $+ $t /as n't ,'ns$dered as ',,u*y$n- all t$me and all s*a,e!
Hen,e 'ur ,'n,lus$'n d$++ered +r'm t(at -$0en ab'0e4 +'r /e $n+erred
$n t(e ant$t(es$s t(e a,tual $n+$n$ty '+ t(e /'rld!
Fr'm t($s +'ll'/s t(e a++$rmat$0e ans/er6 9T(e re-ress $n t(e ser$es
'+ *(en'mena5 as a determ$nat$'n '+ t(e ,'sm$,al .uant$ty) *r',eeds $n
$nde+$n$tum!9 T($s $s e.u$0alent t' say$n-6 9T(e /'rld '+ sense (as n'
abs'lute .uant$ty) but t(e em*$r$,al re-ress =t(r'u-( /($,( al'ne
t(e /'rld '+ sense $s *resented t' us 'n t(e s$de '+ $ts ,'nd$t$'ns>
rests u*'n a rule) /($,( re.u$res $t t' *r',eed +r'm e0ery member '+
t(e ser$es) as ,'nd$t$'ned) t' 'ne st$ll m're rem'te =/(et(er
t(r'u-( *ers'nal e1*er$en,e) 'r by means '+ ($st'ry) 'r t(e ,(a$n '+
,ause and e++e,t>) and n't t' ,ease at any *'$nt $n t($s e1tens$'n
'+ t(e *'ss$ble em*$r$,al em*l'yment '+ t(e understand$n-!9 And t($s
$s t(e *r'*er and 'nly use /($,( reas'n ,an ma%e '+ $ts *r$n,$*les!
T(e ab'0e rule d'es n't *res,r$be an un,eas$n- re-ress $n 'ne %$nd
'+ *(en'mena! It d'es n't) +'r e1am*le) +'rb$d us) $n 'ur as,ent
+r'm an $nd$0$dual (uman be$n- t(r'u-( t(e l$ne '+ ($s an,est'rs) t'
e1*e,t t(at /e s(all d$s,'0er at s'me *'$nt '+ t(e re-ress a
*r$me0al *a$r) 'r t' adm$t) $n t(e ser$es '+ (ea0enly b'd$es) a sun at
t(e +art(est *'ss$ble d$stan,e +r'm s'me ,entre! All t(at $t demands
$s a *er*etual *r'-ress +r'm *(en'mena t' *(en'mena) e0en alt('u-(
an a,tual *er,e*t$'n $s n't *resented by t(em =as $n t(e ,ase '+ 'ur
*er,e*t$'ns be$n- s' /ea% as t(at /e are unable t' be,'me ,'ns,$'us '+
t(em>) s$n,e t(ey) ne0ert(eless) bel'n- t' *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e!
E0ery be-$nn$n- $s $n t$me) and all l$m$ts t' e1tens$'n are $n
s*a,e! 3ut s*a,e and t$me are $n t(e /'rld '+ sense! C'nse.uently
*(en'mena $n t(e /'rld are ,'nd$t$'nally l$m$ted) but t(e /'rld $tsel+
$s n't l$m$ted) e$t(er ,'nd$t$'nally 'r un,'nd$t$'nally!
F'r t($s reas'n) and be,ause ne$t(er t(e /'rld n'r t(e ,'sm$,al
ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns t' a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned ,an be ,'m*letely -$0en)
'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e ,'sm$,al .uant$ty $s -$0en 'nly $n and t(r'u-(
t(e re-ress and n't *r$'r t' $t5 $n a ,'lle,t$0e $ntu$t$'n! 3ut t(e
re-ress $tsel+ $s really n't($n- m're t(an t(e determ$n$n- '+ t(e
,'sm$,al .uant$ty) and ,ann't t(ere+'re -$0e us any determ$ned
,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t5 st$ll less a ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a .uant$ty /($,( $s) $n
relat$'n t' a ,erta$n standard) $n+$n$te! T(e re-ress d'es n't)
t(ere+'re) *r',eed t' $n+$n$ty =an $n+$n$ty -$0en>) but 'nly t' an
$nde+$n$te e1tent) +'r 'r t(e '+ *resent$n- t' us a .uant$ty5 real$;ed
'nly $n and t(r'u-( t(e re-ress $tsel+!
II! S'lut$'n '+ t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Idea '+ t(e T'tal$ty '+

t(e #$0$s$'n '+ a 2('le -$0en $n Intu$t$'n!

2(en I d$0$de a /('le /($,( $s -$0en $n $ntu$t$'n) I *r',eed +r'm
a ,'nd$t$'ned t' $ts ,'nd$t$'ns! T(e d$0$s$'n '+ t(e *arts '+ t(e
/('le =subd$0$s$' 'r de,'m*'s$t$'> $s a re-ress $n t(e ser$es '+ t(ese
,'nd$t$'ns! T(e abs'lute t'tal$ty '+ t($s ser$es /'uld be a,tually
atta$ned and -$0en t' t(e m$nd) $+ t(e re-ress ,'uld arr$0e at
s$m*le *arts! 3ut $+ all t(e *arts $n a ,'nt$nu'us de,'m*'s$t$'n are
t(emsel0es d$0$s$ble) t(e d$0$s$'n) t(at $s t' say) t(e re-ress)
*r',eeds +r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'ned t' $ts ,'nd$t$'ns $n $n+$n$tum4
be,ause t(e ,'nd$t$'ns =t(e *arts> are t(emsel0es ,'nta$ned $n t(e
,'nd$t$'ned) and) as t(e latter $s -$0en $n a l$m$ted $ntu$t$'n) t(e
+'rmer are all -$0en al'n- /$t( $t! T($s re-ress ,ann't) t(ere+'re) be
,alled a re-ressus $n $nde+$n$tum) as (a**ened $n t(e ,ase '+ t(e
*re,ed$n- ,'sm'l'-$,al $dea) t(e re-ress $n /($,( *r',eeded +r'm t(e
,'nd$t$'ned t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ns n't -$0en ,'ntem*'rane'usly and al'n-
/$t( $t) but d$s,'0erable 'nly t(r'u-( t(e em*$r$,al re-ress! 2e are
n't) ('/e0er) ent$tled t' a++$rm '+ a /('le '+ t($s %$nd) /($,( $s
d$0$s$ble $n $n+$n$tum) t(at $t ,'ns$sts '+ an $n+$n$te number '+
*arts! F'r) alt('u-( all t(e *arts are ,'nta$ned $n t(e $ntu$t$'n '+
t(e /('le) t(e /('le d$0$s$'n $s n't ,'nta$ned t(ere$n! T(e d$0$s$'n
$s ,'nta$ned 'nly $n t(e *r'-ress$n- de,'m*'s$t$'n5 $n t(e re-ress
$tsel+) /($,( $s t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty and a,tual$ty '+ t(e
ser$es! N'/) as t($s re-ress $s $n+$n$te) all t(e members =*arts> t'
/($,( $t atta$ns must be ,'nta$ned $n t(e -$0en /('le as an a--re-ate!
3ut t(e ,'m*lete ser$es '+ d$0$s$'n $s n't ,'nta$ned t(ere$n! F'r t($s
ser$es) be$n- $n+$n$te $n su,,ess$'n and al/ays $n,'m*lete) ,ann't
re*resent an $n+$n$te number '+ members) and st$ll less a
,'m*'s$t$'n '+ t(ese members $nt' a /('le!
T' a**ly t($s remar% t' s*a,e! E0ery l$m$ted *art '+ s*a,e *resented
t' $ntu$t$'n $s a /('le) t(e *arts '+ /($,( are al/ays s*a,es5 t'
/(ate0er e1tent subd$0$ded! E0ery l$m$ted s*a,e $s (en,e d$0$s$ble
t' $n+$n$ty!
<et us a-a$n a**ly t(e remar% t' an e1ternal *(en'men'n en,l'sed
$n l$m$ts) t(at $s) a b'dy! T(e d$0$s$b$l$ty '+ a b'dy rests u*'n
t(e d$0$s$b$l$ty '+ s*a,e) /($,( $s t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ t(e b'dy as an e1tended /('le! A b'dy $s ,'nse.uently d$0$s$ble
t' $n+$n$ty) t('u-( $t d'es n't) +'r t(at reas'n) ,'ns$st '+ an
$n+$n$te number '+ *arts!
It ,erta$nly seems t(at) as a b'dy must be ,'-$tated as substan,e $n
s*a,e) t(e la/ '+ d$0$s$b$l$ty /'uld n't be a**l$,able t' $t as
substan,e! F'r /e may and 'u-(t t' -rant) $n t(e ,ase '+ s*a,e) t(at
d$0$s$'n 'r de,'m*'s$t$'n) t' any e1tent) ne0er ,an utterly ann$($late
,'m*'s$t$'n =t(at $s t' say) t(e smallest *art '+ s*a,e must st$ll
,'ns$st '+ s*a,es>4 't(er/$se s*a,e /'uld ent$rely ,ease t' e1$st5
/($,( $s $m*'ss$ble! 3ut) t(e assert$'n 'n t(e 't(er band t(at /(en
all ,'m*'s$t$'n $n matter $s ann$($lated $n t('u-(t) n't($n-
rema$ns) d'es n't seem t' (arm'n$;e /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
substan,e) /($,( must be *r'*erly t(e sub&e,t '+ all ,'m*'s$t$'n and
must rema$n) e0en a+ter t(e ,'n&un,t$'n '+ $ts attr$butes $n s*a,e5
/($,( ,'nst$tuted a b'dy5 $s ann$($lated $n t('u-(t! 3ut t($s $s n't
t(e ,ase /$t( substan,e $n t(e *(en'menal /'rld) /($,( $s n't a
t($n- $n $tsel+ ,'-$tated by t(e *ure ,ate-'ry! P(en'menal substan,e
$s n't an abs'lute sub&e,t4 $t $s merely a *ermanent sensu'us $ma-e)
and n't($n- m're t(an an $ntu$t$'n) $n /($,( t(e un,'nd$t$'ned $s
n't t' be +'und!
3ut) alt('u-( t($s rule '+ *r'-ress t' $n+$n$ty $s le-$t$mate and
a**l$,able t' t(e subd$0$s$'n '+ a *(en'men'n) as a mere ',,u*at$'n 'r
+$ll$n- '+ s*a,e) $t $s n't a**l$,able t' a /('le ,'ns$st$n- '+ a
number '+ d$st$n,t *arts and ,'nst$tut$n- a .uantum d$s,retum5 t(at $s
t' say) an 'r-an$;ed b'dy! It ,ann't be adm$tted t(at e0ery *art $n an
'r-an$;ed /('le $s $tsel+ 'r-an$;ed) and t(at) $n analys$n- $t t'
$n+$n$ty) /e must al/ays meet /$t( 'r-an$;ed *arts4 alt('u-( /e may
all'/ t(at t(e *arts '+ t(e matter /($,( /e de,'m*'se $n $n+$n$tum)
may be 'r-an$;ed! F'r t(e $n+$n$ty '+ t(e d$0$s$'n '+ a *(en'men'n
$n s*a,e rests alt'-et(er 'n t(e +a,t t(at t(e d$0$s$b$l$ty '+ a
*(en'men'n $s -$0en 'nly $n and t(r'u-( t($s $n+$n$ty) t(at $s) an
undeterm$ned number '+ *arts $s -$0en) /($le t(e *arts t(emsel0es
are -$0en and determ$ned 'nly $n and t(r'u-( t(e subd$0$s$'n4 $n a
/'rd) t(e $n+$n$ty '+ t(e d$0$s$'n ne,essar$ly *resu**'ses t(at t(e
/('le $s n't already d$0$ded $n se! Hen,e 'ur d$0$s$'n determ$nes a
number '+ *arts $n t(e /('le5 a number /($,( e1tends &ust as +ar as
t(e a,tual re-ress $n t(e d$0$s$'n4 /($le) 'n t(e 't(er (and) t(e 0ery
n't$'n '+ a b'dy 'r-an$;ed t' $n+$n$ty re*resents t(e /('le as already
and $n $tsel+ d$0$ded! 2e e1*e,t) t(ere+'re) t' +$nd $n $t a
determ$nate) but at t(e same t$me) $n+$n$te) number '+ *arts5 /($,( $s
sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry! F'r /e s('uld t(us (a0e a /('le ,'nta$n$n- a
ser$es '+ members /($,( ,'uld n't be ,'m*leted $n any re-ress5 /($,(
$s $n+$n$te) and at t(e same t$me ,'m*lete $n an 'r-an$;ed
,'m*'s$te! In+$n$te d$0$s$b$l$ty $s a**l$,able 'nly t' a .uantum
,'nt$nuum) and $s based ent$rely 'n t(e $n+$n$te d$0$s$b$l$ty '+
s*a,e) 3ut $n a .uantum d$s,retum t(e mult$tude '+ *arts 'r un$ts $s
al/ays determ$ned) and (en,e al/ays e.ual t' s'me number! T' /(at
e1tent a b'dy may be 'r-an$;ed) e1*er$en,e al'ne ,an $n+'rm us4 and
alt('u-() s' +ar as 'ur e1*er$en,e '+ t($s 'r t(at b'dy (as
e1tended) /e may n't (a0e d$s,'0ered any $n'r-an$, *art) su,( *arts
must e1$st $n *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e! 3ut ('/ +ar t(e trans,endental
d$0$s$'n '+ a *(en'men'n must e1tend) /e ,ann't %n'/ +r'm
e1*er$en,e5 $t $s a .uest$'n /($,( e1*er$en,e ,ann't ans/er4 $t $s
ans/ered 'nly by t(e *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n /($,( +'rb$ds us t'
,'ns$der t(e em*$r$,al re-ress) $n t(e analys$s '+ e1tended b'dy) as
e0er abs'lutely ,'m*lete!
C'n,lud$n- Remar% 'n t(e S'lut$'n '+ t(e Trans,endental

"at(emat$,al Ideas5 and Intr'du,t'ry t' t(e

S'lut$'n '+ t(e #ynam$,al Ideas!

2e *resented t(e ant$n'my '+ *ure reas'n $n a tabular +'rm) and /e
endea0'ured t' s('/ t(e -r'und '+ t($s sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'n 'n t(e
*art '+ reas'n) and t(e 'nly means '+ br$n-$n- $t t' a ,'n,lus$'n5
;namely) by de,lar$n- b't( ,'ntrad$,t'ry statements t' be +alse! 2e
re*resented $n t(ese ant$n'm$es t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ *(en'mena as
bel'n-$n- t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ned a,,'rd$n- t' relat$'ns '+ s*a,e and t$me5
/($,( $s t(e usual su**'s$t$'n '+ t(e ,'mm'n understand$n-! In t($s
res*e,t) all d$ale,t$,al re*resentat$'ns '+ t'tal$ty) $n t(e ser$es '+
,'nd$t$'ns t' a -$0en ,'nd$t$'ned) /ere *er+e,tly ('m'-ene'us! T(e
,'nd$t$'n /as al/ays a member '+ t(e ser$es al'n- /$t( t(e
,'nd$t$'ned) and t(us t(e ('m'-ene$ty '+ t(e /('le ser$es /as assured!
In t($s ,ase t(e re-ress ,'uld ne0er be ,'-$tated as ,'m*lete4 'r)
$+ t($s /as t(e ,ase) a member really ,'nd$t$'ned /as +alsely re-arded
as a *r$mal member) ,'nse.uently as un,'nd$t$'ned! In su,( an
ant$n'my) t(ere+'re) /e d$d n't ,'ns$der t(e 'b&e,t) t(at $s) t(e
,'nd$t$'ned) but t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns bel'n-$n- t' t(e 'b&e,t) and
t(e ma-n$tude '+ t(at ser$es! And t(us ar'se t(e d$++$,ulty5 a
d$++$,ulty n't t' be settled by any de,$s$'n re-ard$n- t(e ,la$ms '+
t(e t/' *art$es) but s$m*ly by ,utt$n- t(e %n't5 by de,lar$n- t(e
ser$es *r'*'sed by reas'n t' be e$t(er t'' l'n- 'r t'' s('rt +'r t(e
understand$n-) /($,( ,'uld $n ne$t(er ,ase ma%e $ts ,'n,e*t$'ns
ade.uate /$t( t(e $deas!
3ut /e (a0e '0erl''%ed) u* t' t($s *'$nt) an essent$al d$++eren,e
e1$st$n- bet/een t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- /($,( reas'n
endea0'urs t' ra$se t' t(e ran% '+ $deas5 t/' '+ t(ese $nd$,at$n- a
mat(emat$,al) and t/' a dynam$,al synt(es$s '+ *(en'mena! H$t(ert') $t
/as ne,essary t' s$-nal$;e t($s d$st$n,t$'n4 +'r) &ust as $n 'ur
-eneral re*resentat$'n '+ all trans,endental $deas) /e ,'ns$dered t(em
under *(en'menal ,'nd$t$'ns) s') $n t(e t/' mat(emat$,al $deas) 'ur
d$s,uss$'n $s ,'n,erned s'lely /$t( an 'b&e,t $n t(e /'rld '+
*(en'mena! 3ut as /e are n'/ ab'ut t' *r',eed t' t(e ,'ns$derat$'n
'+ t(e dynam$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-) and t(e$r
ade.uateness /$t( $deas) /e must n't l'se s$-(t '+ t($s d$st$n,t$'n!
2e s(all +$nd t(at $t '*ens u* t' us an ent$rely ne/ 0$e/ '+ t(e
,'n+l$,t $n /($,( reas'n $s $n0'l0ed! F'r) /($le $n t(e +$rst t/'
ant$n'm$es) b't( *art$es /ere d$sm$ssed) 'n t(e -r'und '+ (a0$n-
ad0an,ed statements based u*'n +alse (y*'t(es$s4 $n t(e *resent ,ase
t(e ('*e a**ears '+ d$s,'0er$n- a (y*'t(es$s /($,( may be ,'ns$stent
/$t( t(e demands '+ reas'n) and) t(e &ud-e ,'m*let$n- t(e statement '+
t(e -r'unds '+ ,la$m) /($,( b't( *art$es (ad le+t $n an unsat$s+a,t'ry
state) t(e .uest$'n may be settled 'n $ts '/n mer$ts) n't by
d$sm$ss$n- t(e ,la$mants) but by a ,'m*ar$s'n '+ t(e ar-uments 'n b't(
s$des! I+ /e ,'ns$der merely t(e$r e1tens$'n) and /(et(er t(ey are
ade.uate /$t( $deas) t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns may be re-arded as all
('m'-ene'us! 3ut t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e understand$n- /($,( l$es at t(e
bas$s '+ t(ese $deas) ,'nta$ns e$t(er a synt(es$s '+ t(e ('m'-ene'us
=*resu**'sed $n e0ery .uant$ty5 $n $ts ,'m*'s$t$'n as /ell as $n $ts
d$0$s$'n> 'r '+ t(e (eter'-ene'us) /($,( $s t(e ,ase $n t(e
dynam$,al synt(es$s '+ ,ause and e++e,t) as /ell as '+ t(e ne,essary
and t(e ,'nt$n-ent!
T(us $t (a**ens t(at $n t(e mat(emat$,al ser$es '+ *(en'mena n'
't(er t(an a sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n $s adm$ss$ble5 a ,'nd$t$'n /($,( $s
$tsel+ a member '+ t(e ser$es4 /($le t(e dynam$,al ser$es '+
sensu'us ,'nd$t$'ns adm$ts a (eter'-ene'us ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( $s n't a
member '+ t(e ser$es) but) as *urely $ntell$-$ble) l$es 'ut '+ and
bey'nd $t! And t(us reas'n $s sat$s+$ed) and an un,'nd$t$'ned *la,ed
at t(e (ead '+ t(e ser$es '+ *(en'mena) /$t('ut $ntr'du,$n-
,'n+us$'n $nt' 'r d$s,'nt$nu$n- $t) ,'ntrary t' t(e *r$n,$*les '+
t(e understand$n-!
N'/) +r'm t(e +a,t t(at t(e dynam$,al $deas adm$t a ,'nd$t$'n '+
*(en'mena /($,( d'es n't +'rm a *art '+ t(e ser$es '+ *(en'mena)
ar$ses a result /($,( /e s('uld n't (a0e e1*e,ted +r'm an ant$n'my! In
+'rmer ,ases) t(e result /as t(at b't( ,'ntrad$,t'ry d$ale,t$,al
statements /ere de,lared t' be +alse! In t(e *resent ,ase) /e +$nd t(e
,'nd$t$'ned $n t(e dynam$,al ser$es ,'nne,ted /$t( an em*$r$,ally
un,'nd$t$'ned) but n'n5sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n4 and t(us sat$s+a,t$'n $s
d'ne t' t(e understand$n- 'n t(e 'ne (and and t' t(e reas'n 'n t(e
't(er!7 2($le) m're'0er) t(e d$ale,t$,al ar-uments +'r un,'nd$t$'ned
t'tal$ty $n mere *(en'mena +all t' t(e -r'und) b't( *r'*'s$t$'ns '+
reas'n may be s('/n t' be true $n t(e$r *r'*er s$-n$+$,at$'n! T($s
,'uld n't (a**en $n t(e ,ase '+ t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas /($,(
demanded a mat(emat$,ally un,'nd$t$'ned un$ty4 +'r n' ,'nd$t$'n
,'uld be *la,ed at t(e (ead '+ t(e ser$es '+ *(en'mena) e1,e*t 'ne
/($,( /as $tsel+ a *(en'men'n and ,'nse.uently a member '+ t(e ser$es!
7F'r t(e understand$n- ,ann't adm$t am'n- *(en'mena a ,'nd$t$'n
/($,( $s $tsel+ em*$r$,ally un,'nd$t$'ned! 3ut $+ $t $s *'ss$ble t'
,'-$tate an $ntell$-$ble ,'nd$t$'n5 'ne /($,( $s n't a member '+ t(e
ser$es '+ *(en'mena5 +'r a ,'nd$t$'ned *(en'men'n) /$t('ut brea%$n-
t(e ser$es '+ em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns) su,( a ,'nd$t$'n may be adm$ss$ble
as em*$r$,ally un,'nd$t$'ned) and t(e em*$r$,al re-ress ,'nt$nue
re-ular) un,eas$n-) and $nta,t!
III! S'lut$'n '+ t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Idea '+ t(e T'tal$ty '+

t(e #edu,t$'n '+ C'sm$,al E0ents +r'm t(e$r Causes!

T(ere are 'nly t/' m'des '+ ,ausal$ty ,'-$table5 t(e ,ausal$ty '+
nature 'r '+ +reed'm! T(e +$rst $s t(e ,'n&un,t$'n '+ a *art$,ular
state /$t( an't(er *re,ed$n- $t $n t(e /'rld '+ sense) t(e +'rmer
+'ll'/$n- t(e latter by 0$rtue '+ a la/! N'/) as t(e ,ausal$ty '+
*(en'mena $s sub&e,t t' ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me) and t(e *re,ed$n- state)
$+ $t (ad al/ays e1$sted) ,'uld n't (a0e *r'du,ed an e++e,t /($,(
/'uld ma%e $ts +$rst a**earan,e at a *art$,ular t$me) t(e ,ausal$ty '+
a ,ause must $tsel+ be an e++e,t5 must $tsel+ (a0e be-un t' be) and
t(ere+'re) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(e understand$n-) $tsel+
re.u$res a ,ause!
2e must understand) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) by t(e term +reed'm) $n t(e
,'sm'l'-$,al sense) a +a,ulty '+ t(e s*'ntane'us 'r$-$nat$'n '+ a
state4 t(e ,ausal$ty '+ /($,() t(ere+'re) $s n't sub'rd$nated t'
an't(er ,ause determ$n$n- $t $n t$me! Freed'm $s $n t($s sense a
*ure trans,endental $dea) /($,() $n t(e +$rst *la,e) ,'nta$ns n'
em*$r$,al element4 t(e 'b&e,t '+ /($,() $n t(e se,'nd *la,e) ,ann't be
-$0en 'r determ$ned $n any e1*er$en,e) be,ause $t $s a un$0ersal la/
'+ t(e 0ery *'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) t(at e0eryt($n- /($,( (a**ens
must (a0e a ,ause) t(at ,'nse.uently t(e ,ausal$ty '+ a ,ause) be$n-
$tsel+ s'met($n- t(at (as (a**ened) must als' (a0e a ,ause! In t($s
0$e/ '+ t(e ,ase) t(e /('le +$eld '+ e1*er$en,e) ('/ +ar s'e0er $t may
e1tend) ,'nta$ns n't($n- t(at $s n't sub&e,t t' t(e la/s '+ nature!
3ut) as /e ,ann't by t($s means atta$n t' an abs'lute t'tal$ty '+
,'nd$t$'ns $n re+eren,e t' t(e ser$es '+ ,auses and e++e,ts) reas'n
,reates t(e $dea '+ a s*'ntane$ty) /($,( ,an be-$n t' a,t '+ $tsel+)
and /$t('ut any e1ternal ,ause determ$n$n- $t t' a,t$'n) a,,'rd$n-
t' t(e natural la/ '+ ,ausal$ty!
It $s es*e,$ally remar%able t(at t(e *ra,t$,al ,'n,e*t$'n '+ +reed'm
$s based u*'n t(e trans,endental $dea) and t(at t(e .uest$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e +'rmer $s d$++$,ult 'nly as $t $n0'l0es t(e
,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(e trut( '+ t(e latter! Freed'm) $n t(e *ra,t$,al
sense) $s t(e $nde*enden,e '+ t(e /$ll '+ ,'er,$'n by sensu'us
$m*ulses! A /$ll $s sensu'us) $n s' +ar as $t $s *at('l'-$,ally
a++e,ted =by sensu'us $m*ulses>4 $t $s termed an$mal =arb$tr$um
brutum>) /(en $t $s *at('l'-$,ally ne,ess$tated! T(e (uman /$ll $s
,erta$nly an arb$tr$um sens$t$0um) n't brutum) but l$berum4 be,ause
sensu'usness d'es n't ne,ess$tate $ts a,t$'n) a +a,ulty e1$st$n- $n
man '+ sel+5determ$nat$'n) $nde*endently '+ all sensu'us ,'er,$'n!
It $s *la$n t(at) $+ all ,ausal$ty $n t(e /'rld '+ sense /ere
natural5 and natural 'nly5 e0ery e0ent /'uld be determ$ned by
an't(er a,,'rd$n- t' ne,essary la/s) and t(at) ,'nse.uently)
*(en'mena) $n s' +ar as t(ey determ$ne t(e /$ll) must ne,ess$tate
e0ery a,t$'n as a natural e++e,t +r'm t(emsel0es4 and t(us all
*ra,t$,al +reed'm /'uld +all t' t(e -r'und /$t( t(e trans,endental
$dea! F'r t(e latter *resu**'ses t(at alt('u-( a ,erta$n t($n- (as n't
(a**ened) $t 'u-(t t' (a0e (a**ened) and t(at) ,'nse.uently) $ts
*(en'menal ,ause /as n't s' *'/er+ul and determ$nat$0e as t' e1,lude
t(e ,ausal$ty '+ 'ur /$ll5 a ,ausal$ty ,a*able '+ *r'du,$n- e++e,ts
$nde*endently '+ and e0en $n '**'s$t$'n t' t(e *'/er '+ natural
,auses) and ,a*able) ,'nse.uently) '+ s*'ntane'usly 'r$-$nat$n- a
ser$es '+ e0ents!
Here) t'') /e +$nd $t t' be t(e ,ase) as /e -enerally +'und $n t(e
sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'ns and *er*le1$t$es '+ a reas'n /($,( str$0es t' *ass
t(e b'unds '+ *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) t(at t(e *r'blem $s *r'*erly n't
*(ys$'l'-$,al) but trans,endental! T(e .uest$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty
'+ +reed'm d'es $ndeed ,'n,ern *sy,('l'-y4 but) as $t rests u*'n
d$ale,t$,al ar-uments '+ *ure reas'n) $ts s'lut$'n must en-a-e t(e
attent$'n '+ trans,endental *($l's'*(y! 3e+'re attem*t$n- t($s
s'lut$'n) a tas% /($,( trans,endental *($l's'*(y ,ann't de,l$ne) $t
/$ll be ad0$sable t' ma%e a remar% /$t( re-ard t' $ts *r',edure $n t(e
settlement '+ t(e .uest$'n!
I+ *(en'mena /ere t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) and t$me and s*a,e +'rms
'+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($n-s) ,'nd$t$'n and ,'nd$t$'ned /'uld al/ays
be members '+ t(e same ser$es4 and t(us /'uld ar$se $n t(e *resent
,ase t(e ant$n'my ,'mm'n t' all trans,endental $deas5 t(at t(e$r
ser$es $s e$t(er t'' -reat 'r t'' small +'r t(e understand$n-! T(e
dynam$,al $deas) /($,( /e are ab'ut t' d$s,uss $n t($s and t(e
+'ll'/$n- se,t$'n) *'ssess t(e *e,ul$ar$ty '+ relat$n- t' an 'b&e,t)
n't ,'ns$dered as a .uant$ty) but as an e1$sten,e4 and t(us) $n t(e
d$s,uss$'n '+ t(e *resent .uest$'n) /e may ma%e abstra,t$'n '+ t(e
.uant$ty '+ t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) and ,'ns$der merely t(e
dynam$,al relat$'n '+ t(e ,'nd$t$'n t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ned! T(e
.uest$'n) t(en) su--ests $tsel+) /(et(er +reed'm $s *'ss$ble4 and)
$+ $t $s) /(et(er $t ,an ,'ns$st /$t( t(e un$0ersal$ty '+ t(e
natural la/ '+ ,ausal$ty4 and) ,'nse.uently) /(et(er /e en'un,e a
*r'*er d$s&un,t$0e *r'*'s$t$'n /(en /e say6 9E0ery e++e,t must (a0e
$ts 'r$-$n e$t(er $n nature 'r $n +reed'm)9 'r /(et(er b't( ,ann't
e1$st t'-et(er $n t(e same e0ent $n d$++erent relat$'ns! T(e *r$n,$*le
'+ an unbr'%en ,'nne,t$'n bet/een all e0ents $n t(e *(en'menal
/'rld) $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e un,(an-eable la/s '+ nature) $s a
/ell5establ$s(ed *r$n,$*le '+ trans,endental analyt$, /($,( adm$ts
'+ n' e1,e*t$'n! T(e .uest$'n) t(ere+'re) $s6 92(et(er an e++e,t)
determ$ned a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ nature) ,an at t(e same t$me be
*r'du,ed by a +ree a-ent) 'r /(et(er +reed'm and nature mutually
e1,lude ea,( 't(er@9 And (ere) t(e ,'mm'n but +alla,$'us (y*'t(es$s '+
t(e abs'lute real$ty '+ *(en'mena man$+ests $ts $n&ur$'us $n+luen,e $n
embarrass$n- t(e *r',edure '+ reas'n! F'r $+ *(en'mena are t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es) +reed'm $s $m*'ss$ble! In t($s ,ase) nature $s t(e
,'m*lete and all5su++$,$ent ,ause '+ e0ery e0ent4 and ,'nd$t$'n and
,'nd$t$'ned) ,ause and e++e,t are ,'nta$ned $n t(e same ser$es) and
ne,ess$tated by t(e same la/! I+) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) *(en'mena are
(eld t' be) as t(ey are $n +a,t) n't($n- m're t(an mere
re*resentat$'ns) ,'nne,ted /$t( ea,( 't(er $n a,,'rdan,e /$t(
em*$r$,al la/s) t(ey must (a0e a -r'und /($,( $s n't *(en'menal! 3ut
t(e ,ausal$ty '+ su,( an $ntell$-$ble ,ause $s n't determ$ned 'r
determ$nable by *(en'mena4 alt('u-( $ts e++e,ts) as *(en'mena) must be
determ$ned by 't(er *(en'menal e1$sten,es! T($s ,ause and $ts
,ausal$ty e1$st t(ere+'re 'ut '+ and a*art +r'm t(e ser$es '+
*(en'mena4 /($le $ts e++e,ts d' e1$st and are d$s,'0erable $n t(e
ser$es '+ em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns! Su,( an e++e,t may t(ere+'re be
,'ns$dered t' be +ree $n relat$'n t' $ts $ntell$-$ble ,ause) and
ne,essary $n relat$'n t' t(e *(en'mena +r'm /($,( $t $s a ne,essary
,'nse.uen,e5 a d$st$n,t$'n /($,() stated $n t($s *er+e,tly -eneral and
abstra,t manner) must a**ear $n t(e ($-(est de-ree subtle and 'bs,ure!
T(e se.uel /$ll e1*la$n! It $s su++$,$ent) at *resent) t' remar% t(at)
as t(e ,'m*lete and unbr'%en ,'nne,t$'n '+ *(en'mena $s an unalterable
la/ '+ nature) +reed'm $s $m*'ss$ble5 'n t(e su**'s$t$'n t(at
*(en'mena are abs'lutely real! Hen,e t('se *($l's'*(ers /(' ad(ere
t' t(e ,'mm'n '*$n$'n 'n t($s sub&e,t ,an ne0er su,,eed $n re,'n,$l$n-
t(e $deas '+ nature and +reed'm!
P'ss$b$l$ty '+ Freed'm $n Harm'ny /$t( t(e Un$0ersal <a/

'+ Natural Ne,ess$ty!

T(at element $n a sensu'us 'b&e,t /($,( $s n't $tsel+ sensu'us) I
may be all'/ed t' term $ntell$-$ble! I+) a,,'rd$n-ly) an 'b&e,t
/($,( must be re-arded as a sensu'us *(en'men'n *'ssesses a +a,ulty
/($,( $s n't an 'b&e,t '+ sensu'us $ntu$t$'n) but by means '+ /($,( $t
$s ,a*able '+ be$n- t(e ,ause '+ *(en'mena) t(e ,ausal$ty '+ an 'b&e,t
'r e1$sten,e '+ t($s %$nd may be re-arded +r'm t/' d$++erent *'$nts '+
0$e/! It may be ,'ns$dered t' be $ntell$-$ble) as re-ards $ts
a,t$'n5 t(e a,t$'n '+ a t($n- /($,( $s a t($n- $n $tsel+) and
sensu'us) as re-ards $ts e++e,ts5 t(e e++e,ts '+ a *(en'men'n
bel'n-$n- t' t(e sensu'us /'rld! 2e s('uld a,,'rd$n-ly) (a0e t' +'rm
b't( an em*$r$,al and an $ntelle,tual ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e ,ausal$ty '+
su,( a +a,ulty 'r *'/er5 b't() ('/e0er) (a0$n- re+eren,e t' t(e same
e++e,t! T($s t/'+'ld manner '+ ,'-$tat$n- a *'/er res$d$n- $n a
sensu'us 'b&e,t d'es n't run ,'unter t' any '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'ns /($,(
/e 'u-(t t' +'rm '+ t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena 'r '+ a *'ss$ble
e1*er$en,e! P(en'mena5 n't be$n- t($n-s $n t(emsel0es5 must (a0e a
trans,endental 'b&e,t as a +'undat$'n) /($,( determ$nes t(em as mere
re*resentat$'ns4 and t(ere seems t' be n' reas'n /(y /e s('uld n't
as,r$be t' t($s trans,endental 'b&e,t) $n add$t$'n t' t(e *r'*erty
'+ sel+5*(en'men$;at$'n) a ,ausal$ty /('se e++e,ts are t' be met
/$t( $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena) alt('u-( $t $s n't $tsel+ a
*(en'men'n! 3ut e0ery e++e,t$0e ,ause must *'ssess a ,(ara,ter) t(at
$s t' say) a la/ '+ $ts ,ausal$ty) /$t('ut /($,( $t /'uld ,ease t'
be a ,ause! In t(e ab'0e ,ase) t(en) e0ery sensu'us 'b&e,t /'uld
*'ssess an em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter) /($,( -uaranteed t(at $ts a,t$'ns)
as *(en'mena) stand $n ,'m*lete and (arm'n$'us ,'nne,t$'n) ,'n+'rmably
t' un0ary$n- natural la/s) /$t( all 't(er *(en'mena) and ,an be
dedu,ed +r'm t(ese) as ,'nd$t$'ns) and t(at t(ey d' t(us) $n
,'nne,t$'n /$t( t(ese) ,'nst$tute a ser$es $n t(e 'rder '+ nature!
T($s sensu'us 'b&e,t must) $n t(e se,'nd *la,e) *'ssess an
$ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter) /($,( -uarantees $t t' be t(e ,ause '+ t('se
a,t$'ns) as *(en'mena) alt('u-( $t $s n't $tsel+ a *(en'men'n n'r
sub'rd$nate t' t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e /'rld '+ sense! T(e +'rmer may be
termed t(e ,(ara,ter '+ t(e t($n- as a *(en'men'n) t(e latter t(e
,(ara,ter '+ t(e t($n- as a t($n- $n $tsel+!
N'/ t($s a,t$0e sub&e,t /'uld) $n $ts ,(ara,ter '+ $ntell$-$ble
sub&e,t) be sub'rd$nate t' n' ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me) +'r t$me $s 'nly a
,'nd$t$'n '+ *(en'mena) and n't '+ t($n-s $n t(emsel0es! N' a,t$'n
/'uld be-$n 'r ,ease t' be $n t($s sub&e,t4 $t /'uld ,'nse.uently be
+ree +r'm t(e la/ '+ all determ$nat$'n '+ t$me5 t(e la/ '+ ,(an-e)
namely) t(at e0eryt($n- /($,( (a**ens must (a0e a ,ause $n t(e
*(en'mena '+ a *re,ed$n- state! In 'ne /'rd) t(e ,ausal$ty '+ t(e
sub&e,t) $n s' +ar as $t $s $ntell$-$ble) /'uld n't +'rm *art '+ t(e
ser$es '+ em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns /($,( determ$ne and ne,ess$tate an
e0ent $n t(e /'rld '+ sense! A-a$n) t($s $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter '+ a
t($n- ,ann't be $mmed$ately ,'-n$;ed) be,ause /e ,an *er,e$0e
n't($n- but *(en'mena) but $t must be ,a*able '+ be$n- ,'-$tated $n
(arm'ny /$t( t(e em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter4 +'r /e al/ays +$nd 'ursel0es
,'m*elled t' *la,e) $n t('u-(t) a trans,endental 'b&e,t at t(e bas$s
'+ *(en'mena alt('u-( /e ,an ne0er %n'/ /(at t($s 'b&e,t $s $n $tsel+!
In 0$rtue '+ $ts em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter) t($s sub&e,t /'uld at t(e same
t$me be sub'rd$nate t' all t(e em*$r$,al la/s '+ ,ausal$ty) and) as
a *(en'men'n and member '+ t(e sensu'us /'rld) $ts e++e,ts /'uld
(a0e t' be a,,'unted +'r by a re+eren,e t' *re,ed$n- *(en'mena!
Eternal *(en'mena must be ,a*able '+ $n+luen,$n- $t4 and $ts
a,t$'ns) $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( natural la/s) must e1*la$n t' us ('/ $ts
em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter) t(at $s) t(e la/ '+ $ts ,ausal$ty) $s t' be
,'-n$;ed $n and by means '+ e1*er$en,e! In a /'rd) all re.u$s$tes
+'r a ,'m*lete and ne,essary determ$nat$'n '+ t(ese a,t$'ns must be
*resented t' us by e1*er$en,e!
In 0$rtue '+ $ts $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter) 'n t(e 't(er (and =alt('u-(
/e *'ssess 'nly a -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t($s ,(ara,ter>) t(e sub&e,t
must be re-arded as +ree +r'm all sensu'us $n+luen,es) and +r'm all
*(en'menal determ$nat$'n! "'re'0er) as n't($n- (a**ens $n t($s
sub&e,t5 +'r $t $s a n'umen'n) and t(ere d'es n't ,'nse.uently e1$st
$n $t any ,(an-e) demand$n- t(e dynam$,al determ$nat$'n '+ t$me) and
+'r t(e same reas'n n' ,'nne,t$'n /$t( *(en'mena as ,auses5 t($s
a,t$0e e1$sten,e must $n $ts a,t$'ns be +ree +r'm and $nde*endent '+
natural ne,ess$ty) +'r 'r ne,ess$ty e1$sts 'nly $n t(e /'rld '+
*(en'mena! It /'uld be .u$te ,'rre,t t' say t(at $t 'r$-$nates 'r
be-$ns $ts e++e,ts $n t(e /'rld '+ sense +r'm $tsel+) alt('u-( t(e
a,t$'n *r'du,t$0e '+ t(ese e++e,ts d'es n't be-$n $n $tsel+! 2e s('uld
n't be $n t($s ,ase a++$rm$n- t(at t(ese sensu'us e++e,ts be-an t'
e1$st '+ t(emsel0es) be,ause t(ey are al/ays determ$ned by *r$'r
em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns5 by 0$rtue '+ t(e em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter) /($,( $s
t(e *(en'men'n '+ t(e $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter5 and are *'ss$ble 'nly as
,'nst$tut$n- a ,'nt$nuat$'n '+ t(e ser$es '+ natural ,auses! And
t(us nature and +reed'm) ea,( $n t(e ,'m*lete and abs'lute
s$-n$+$,at$'n '+ t(ese terms) ,an e1$st) /$t('ut ,'ntrad$,t$'n 'r
d$sa-reement) $n t(e same a,t$'n t'
E1*'s$t$'n '+ t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Idea '+ Freed'm $n Harm'ny

/$t( t(e Un$0ersal <a/ '+ Natural Ne,ess$ty!

I (a0e t('u-(t $t ad0$sable t' lay be+'re t(e reader at +$rst merely
a s%et,( '+ t(e s'lut$'n '+ t($s trans,endental *r'blem) $n 'rder t'
enable ($m t' +'rm /$t( -reater ease a ,lear ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
,'urse /($,( reas'n must ad'*t $n t(e s'lut$'n! I s(all n'/ *r',eed t'
e1($b$t t(e se0eral m'menta '+ t($s s'lut$'n) and t' ,'ns$der t(em
$n t(e$r 'rder!
T(e natural la/ t(at e0eryt($n- /($,( (a**ens must (a0e a ,ause)
t(at t(e ,ausal$ty '+ t($s ,ause) t(at $s) t(e a,t$'n '+ t(e ,ause
=/($,( ,ann't al/ays (a0e e1$sted) but must be $tsel+ an e0ent) +'r $t
*re,edes $n t$me s'me e++e,t /($,( $t (as 'r$-$nated>) must (a0e
$tsel+ a *(en'menal ,ause) by /($,( $t $s determ$ned and) and)
,'nse.uently) all e0ents are em*$r$,ally determ$ned $n an 'rder '+
nature5 t($s la/) I say) /($,( l$es at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ e1*er$en,e) and '+ a ,'nne,ted system '+ *(en'mena 'r
nature $s a la/ '+ t(e understand$n-) +r'm /($,( n' de*arture) and
t' /($,( n' e1,e*t$'n) ,an be adm$tted! F'r t' e1,e*t e0en a s$n-le
*(en'men'n +r'm $ts '*erat$'n $s t' e1,lude $t +r'm t(e s*(ere '+
*'ss$ble e1*er$en,e and t(us t' adm$t $t t' be a mere +$,t$'n '+
t('u-(t 'r *(ant'm '+ t(e bra$n!
T(us /e are 'bl$-ed t' a,%n'/led-e t(e e1$sten,e '+ a ,(a$n '+
,auses) $n /($,() ('/e0er) abs'lute t'tal$ty ,ann't be +'und! 3ut /e
need n't deta$n 'ursel0es /$t( t($s .uest$'n) +'r $t (as already
been su++$,$ently ans/ered $n 'ur d$s,uss$'n '+ t(e ant$n'm$es $nt'
/($,( reas'n +alls) /(en $t attem*ts t' rea,( t(e un,'nd$t$'ned $n t(e
ser$es '+ *(en'mena! I+ /e *erm$t 'ursel0es t' be de,e$0ed by t(e
$llus$'n '+ trans,endental $deal$sm) /e s(all +$nd t(at ne$t(er nature
n'r +reed'm e1$sts! N'/ t(e .uest$'n $s6 92(et(er) adm$tt$n- t(e
e1$sten,e '+ natural ne,ess$ty $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena) $t $s
*'ss$ble t' ,'ns$der an e++e,t as at t(e same t$me an e++e,t '+ nature
and an e++e,t '+ +reed'm5 'r) /(et(er t(ese t/' m'des '+ ,ausal$ty are
,'ntrad$,t'ry and $n,'m*at$ble@9
N' *(en'menal ,ause ,an abs'lutely and '+ $tsel+ be-$n a ser$es!
E0ery a,t$'n) $n s' +ar as $t $s *r'du,t$0e '+ an e0ent) $s $tsel+
an e0ent 'r ',,urren,e) and *resu**'ses an't(er *re,ed$n- state) $n
/($,( $ts ,ause e1$sted! T(us e0eryt($n- t(at (a**ens $s but a
,'nt$nuat$'n '+ a ser$es) and an abs'lute be-$nn$n- $s $m*'ss$ble $n
t(e sensu'us /'rld! T(e a,t$'ns '+ natural ,auses are) a,,'rd$n-ly)
t(emsel0es e++e,ts) and *resu**'se ,auses *re,ed$n- t(em $n t$me! A
*r$mal a,t$'n /($,( +'rms an abs'lute be-$nn$n-) $s bey'nd t(e
,ausal *'/er '+ *(en'mena!
N'/) $s $t abs'lutely ne,essary t(at) -rant$n- t(at all e++e,ts
are *(en'mena) t(e ,ausal$ty '+ t(e ,ause '+ t(ese e++e,ts must als'
be a *(en'men'n and bel'n- t' t(e em*$r$,al /'rld@ Is $t n't rat(er
*'ss$ble t(at) alt('u-( e0ery e++e,t $n t(e *(en'menal /'rld must be
,'nne,ted /$t( an em*$r$,al ,ause) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e un$0ersal la/ '+
nature) t($s em*$r$,al ,ausal$ty may be $tsel+ t(e e++e,t '+ a
n'n5em*$r$,al and $ntell$-$ble ,ausal$ty5 $ts ,'nne,t$'n /$t(
natural ,auses rema$n$n- ne0ert(eless $nta,t@ Su,( a ,ausal$ty /'uld
be ,'ns$dered) $n re+eren,e t' *(en'mena) as t(e *r$mal a,t$'n '+ a
,ause) /($,( $s $n s' +ar) t(ere+'re) n't *(en'menal) but) by reas'n
'+ t($s +a,ulty 'r *'/er) $ntell$-$ble4 alt('u-( $t must) at t(e
same t$me) as a l$n% $n t(e ,(a$n '+ nature) be re-arded as
bel'n-$n- t' t(e sensu'us /'rld!
A bel$e+ $n t(e re,$*r',al ,ausal$ty '+ *(en'mena $s ne,essary) $+
/e are re.u$red t' l''% +'r and t' *resent t(e natural ,'nd$t$'ns '+
natural e0ents) t(at $s t' say) t(e$r ,auses! T($s be$n- adm$tted as
une1,e*t$'nably 0al$d) t(e re.u$rements '+ t(e understand$n-) /($,(
re,'-n$;es n't($n- but nature $n t(e re-$'n '+ *(en'mena) are
sat$s+$ed) and 'ur *(ys$,al e1*lanat$'ns '+ *(ys$,al *(en'mena may
*r',eed $n t(e$r re-ular ,'urse) /$t('ut ($ndran,e and /$t('ut
'**'s$t$'n! 3ut $t $s n' stumbl$n-5bl',% $n t(e /ay) e0en assum$n- t(e
$dea t' be a *ure +$,t$'n) t' adm$t t(at t(ere are s'me natural ,auses
$n t(e *'ssess$'n '+ a +a,ulty /($,( $s n't em*$r$,al) but
$ntell$-$ble) $nasmu,( as $t $s n't determ$ned t' a,t$'n by
em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns) but *urely and s'lely u*'n -r'unds br'u-(t
+'r/ard by t(e understand$n-5 t($s a,t$'n be$n- st$ll) /(en t(e
,ause $s *(en'men$;ed) $n *er+e,t a,,'rdan,e /$t( t(e la/s '+
em*$r$,al ,ausal$ty! T(us t(e a,t$n- sub&e,t) as a ,ausal
*(en'men'n) /'uld ,'nt$nue t' *reser0e a ,'m*lete ,'nne,t$'n /$t(
nature and natural ,'nd$t$'ns4 and t(e *(en'men'n 'nly '+ t(e
sub&e,t =/$t( all $ts *(en'menal ,ausal$ty> /'uld ,'nta$n ,erta$n
,'nd$t$'ns) /($,() $+ /e as,end +r'm t(e em*$r$,al t' t(e
trans,endental 'b&e,t) must ne,essar$ly be re-arded as $ntell$-$ble!
F'r) $+ /e attend) $n 'ur $n.u$r$es /$t( re-ard t' ,auses $n t(e /'rld
'+ *(en'mena) t' t(e d$re,t$'ns '+ nature al'ne) /e need n't tr'uble
'ursel0es ab'ut t(e relat$'n $n /($,( t(e trans,endental sub&e,t)
/($,( $s ,'m*letely un%n'/n t' us) stands t' t(ese *(en'mena and t(e$r
,'nne,t$'n $n nature! T(e $ntell$-$ble -r'und '+ *(en'mena $n t($s
sub&e,t d'es n't ,'n,ern em*$r$,al .uest$'ns! It (as t' d' 'nly /$t(
*ure t('u-(t4 and) alt('u-( t(e e++e,ts '+ t($s t('u-(t and a,t$'n
'+ t(e *ure understand$n- are d$s,'0erable $n *(en'mena) t(ese
*(en'mena must ne0ert(eless be ,a*able '+ a +ull and ,'m*lete
e1*lanat$'n) u*'n *urely *(ys$,al -r'unds and $n a,,'rdan,e /$t(
natural la/s! And $n t($s ,ase /e attend s'lely t' t(e$r em*$r$,al and
'm$t all ,'ns$derat$'n '+ t(e$r $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter =/($,( $s t(e
trans,endental ,ause '+ t(e +'rmer> as ,'m*letely un%n'/n) e1,e*t $n
s' +ar as $t $s e1($b$ted by t(e latter as $ts em*$r$,al symb'l! N'/
let us a**ly t($s t' e1*er$en,e! "an $s a *(en'men'n '+ t(e sensu'us
/'rld and) at t(e same t$me) t(ere+'re) a natural ,ause) t(e ,ausal$ty
'+ /($,( must be re-ulated by em*$r$,al la/s! As su,() (e must *'ssess
an em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter) l$%e all 't(er natural *(en'mena! 2e remar%
t($s em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter $n ($s a,t$'ns) /($,( re0eal t(e *resen,e
'+ ,erta$n *'/ers and +a,ult$es! I+ /e ,'ns$der $nan$mate 'r merely
an$mal nature) /e ,an d$s,'0er n' reas'n +'r as,r$b$n- t' 'ursel0es
any 't(er t(an a +a,ulty /($,( $s determ$ned $n a *urely sensu'us
manner! 3ut man) t' /('m nature re0eals (ersel+ 'nly t(r'u-( sense)
,'-n$;es ($msel+ n't 'nly by ($s senses) but als' t(r'u-( *ure
a**er,e*t$'n4 and t($s $n a,t$'ns and $nternal determ$nat$'ns) /($,(
(e ,ann't re-ard as sensu'us $m*ress$'ns! He $s t(us t' ($msel+) 'n
t(e 'ne (and) a *(en'men'n) but 'n t(e 't(er (and) $n res*e,t '+
,erta$n +a,ult$es) a *urely $ntell$-$ble 'b&e,t5 $ntell$-$ble) be,ause
$ts a,t$'n ,ann't be as,r$bed t' sensu'us re,e*t$0$ty! T(ese +a,ult$es
are understand$n- and reas'n! T(e latter) es*e,$ally) $s $n a *e,ul$ar
manner d$st$n,t +r'm all em*$r$,ally5,'nd$t$'ned +a,ult$es) +'r $t
em*l'ys $deas al'ne $n t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ $ts 'b&e,ts) and by
means '+ t(ese determ$nes t(e understand$n-) /($,( t(en *r',eeds t'
ma%e an em*$r$,al use '+ $ts '/n ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,() l$%e t(e $deas '+
reas'n) are *ure and n'n5em*$r$,al!
T(at reas'n *'ssesses t(e +a,ulty '+ ,ausal$ty) 'r t(at at least
/e are ,'m*elled s' t' re*resent $t) $s e0$dent +r'm t(e
$m*erat$0es) /($,( $n t(e s*(ere '+ t(e *ra,t$,al /e $m*'se 'n many '+
'ur e1e,ut$0e *'/ers! T(e /'rds I 'u-(t e1*ress a s*e,$es '+
ne,ess$ty) and $m*ly a ,'nne,t$'n /$t( -r'unds /($,( nature d'es n't
and ,ann't *resent t' t(e m$nd '+ man! Understand$n- %n'/s n't($n-
$n nature but t(at /($,( $s) 'r (as been) 'r /$ll be! It /'uld be
absurd t' say t(at anyt($n- $n nature 'u-(t t' be 't(er t(an $t $s
$n t(e relat$'ns '+ t$me $n /($,( $t stands4 $ndeed) t(e 'u-(t) /(en
/e ,'ns$der merely t(e ,'urse '+ nature) bas ne$t(er a**l$,at$'n n'r
mean$n-! T(e .uest$'n) 92(at 'u-(t t' (a**en $n t(e s*(ere '+ nature@9
$s &ust as absurd as t(e .uest$'n) 92(at 'u-(t t' be t(e *r'*ert$es '+
a ,$r,le@9 All t(at /e are ent$tled t' as% $s) 92(at ta%es *la,e $n
nature@9 'r) $n t(e latter ,ase) 92(at are t(e *r'*ert$es '+ a
3ut t(e $dea '+ an 'u-(t 'r '+ duty $nd$,ates a *'ss$ble a,t$'n) t(e
-r'und '+ /($,( $s a *ure ,'n,e*t$'n4 /($le t(e -r'und '+ a merely
natural a,t$'n $s) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) al/ays a *(en'men'n! T($s a,t$'n
must ,erta$nly be *'ss$ble under *(ys$,al ,'nd$t$'ns) $+ $t $s
*res,r$bed by t(e m'ral $m*erat$0e 'u-(t4 but t(ese *(ys$,al 'r
natural ,'nd$t$'ns d' n't ,'n,ern t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e /$ll
$tsel+) t(ey relate t' $ts e++e,ts al'ne) and t(e ,'nse.uen,es '+
t(e e++e,t $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena! 2(ate0er number '+ m't$0es
nature may *resent t' my /$ll) /(ate0er sensu'us $m*ulses5 t(e m'ral
'u-(t $t $s bey'nd t(e$r *'/er t' *r'du,e! T(ey may *r'du,e a
0'l$t$'n) /($,() s' +ar +r'm be$n- ne,essary) $s al/ays ,'nd$t$'ned5 a
0'l$t$'n t' /($,( t(e 'u-(t enun,$ated by reas'n) sets an a$m and a
standard) -$0es *erm$ss$'n 'r *r'($b$t$'n! 3e t(e 'b&e,t /(at $t
may) *urely sensu'us5 as *leasure) 'r *resented by *ure reas'n5 as
-''d) reas'n /$ll n't y$eld t' -r'unds /($,( (a0e an em*$r$,al 'r$-$n!
Reas'n /$ll n't +'ll'/ t(e 'rder '+ t($n-s *resented by e1*er$en,e)
but) /$t( *er+e,t s*'ntane$ty) rearran-es t(em a,,'rd$n- t' $deas)
/$t( /($,( $t ,'m*els em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns t' a-ree! It de,lares) $n
t(e name '+ t(ese $deas) ,erta$n a,t$'ns t' be ne,essary /($,(
ne0ert(eless (a0e n't ta%en *la,e and /($,( *er(a*s ne0er /$ll ta%e
*la,e4 and yet *resu**'ses t(at $t *'ssesses t(e +a,ulty '+
,ausal$ty $n relat$'n t' t(ese a,t$'ns! F'r) $n t(e absen,e '+ t($s
su**'s$t$'n) $t ,'uld n't e1*e,t $ts $deas t' *r'du,e ,erta$n
e++e,ts $n t(e /'rld '+ e1*er$en,e!
N'/) let us st'* (ere and adm$t $t t' be at least *'ss$ble t(at
reas'n d'es stand $n a really ,ausal relat$'n t' *(en'mena! In t($s
,ase $t must5 *ure reas'n as $t $s5 e1($b$t an em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter!
F'r e0ery ,ause su**'ses a rule) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( ,erta$n
*(en'mena +'ll'/ as e++e,ts +r'm t(e ,ause) and e0ery rule re.u$res
un$+'rm$ty $n t(ese e++e,ts4 and t($s $s t(e *r'*er -r'und '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ,ause5 as a +a,ulty 'r *'/er! N'/ t($s ,'n,e*t$'n
='+ a ,ause> may be termed t(e em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter '+ reas'n4 and t($s
,(ara,ter $s a *ermanent 'ne) /($le t(e e++e,ts *r'du,ed a**ear) $n
,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e 0ar$'us ,'nd$t$'ns /($,( a,,'m*any and *artly
l$m$t t(em) $n 0ar$'us +'rms!
T(us t(e 0'l$t$'n '+ e0ery man (as an em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter) /($,(
$s n't($n- m're t(an t(e ,ausal$ty '+ ($s reas'n) $n s' +ar as $ts
e++e,ts $n t(e *(en'menal /'rld man$+est t(e *resen,e '+ a rule)
a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( /e are enabled t' e1am$ne) $n t(e$r se0eral %$nds
and de-rees) t(e a,t$'ns '+ t($s ,ausal$ty and t(e rat$'nal -r'unds
+'r t(ese a,t$'ns) and $n t($s /ay t' de,$de u*'n t(e sub&e,t$0e
*r$n,$*les '+ t(e 0'l$t$'n! N'/ /e learn /(at t($s em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter
$s 'nly +r'm *(en'menal e++e,ts) and +r'm t(e rule '+ t(ese /($,( $s
*resented by e1*er$en,e4 and +'r t($s reas'n all t(e a,t$'ns '+ man $n
t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena are determ$ned by ($s em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter)
and t(e ,'5'*erat$0e ,auses '+ nature! I+) t(en) /e ,'uld
$n0est$-ate all t(e *(en'mena '+ (uman 0'l$t$'n t' t(e$r l'/est
+'undat$'n $n t(e m$nd) t(ere /'uld be n' a,t$'n /($,( /e ,'uld n't
ant$,$*ate /$t( ,erta$nty) and re,'-n$;e t' be abs'lutely ne,essary
+r'm $ts *re,ed$n- ,'nd$t$'ns! S' +ar as relates t' t($s em*$r$,al
,(ara,ter) t(ere+'re) t(ere ,an be n' +reed'm4 and $t $s 'nly $n t(e
l$-(t '+ t($s ,(ara,ter t(at /e ,an ,'ns$der t(e (uman /$ll) /(en /e
,'n+$ne 'ursel0es t' s$m*le 'bser0at$'n and) as $s t(e ,ase $n
ant(r'*'l'-y) $nst$tute a *(ys$'l'-$,al $n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e m't$0e
,auses '+ (uman a,t$'ns!
3ut /(en /e ,'ns$der t(e same a,t$'ns $n relat$'n t' reas'n5 n't +'r
t(e *ur*'se '+ e1*la$n$n- t(e$r 'r$-$n) t(at $s) $n relat$'n t'
s*e,ulat$0e reas'n) but t' *ra,t$,al reas'n) as t(e *r'du,$n- ,ause '+
t(ese a,t$'ns5 /e s(all d$s,'0er a rule and an 'rder 0ery d$++erent
+r'm t('se '+ nature and e1*er$en,e! F'r t(e de,larat$'n '+ t($s
mental +a,ulty may be t(at /(at (as and ,'uld n't but ta%e *la,e $n
t(e ,'urse '+ nature) 'u-(t n't t' (a0e ta%en *la,e! S'met$mes) t'')
/e d$s,'0er) 'r bel$e0e t(at /e d$s,'0er) t(at t(e $deas '+ reas'n d$d
a,tually stand $n a ,ausal relat$'n t' ,erta$n a,t$'ns '+ man4 and
t(at t(ese a,t$'ns (a0e ta%en *la,e be,ause t(ey /ere determ$ned)
n't by em*$r$,al ,auses) but by t(e a,t '+ t(e /$ll u*'n -r'unds '+
N'/) -rant$n- t(at reas'n stands $n a ,ausal relat$'n t'
*(en'mena4 ,an an a,t$'n '+ reas'n be ,alled +ree) /(en /e %n'/
t(at) sensu'usly) $n $ts em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter) $t $s ,'m*letely
determ$ned and abs'lutely ne,essary@ 3ut t($s em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter $s
$tsel+ determ$ned by t(e $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter! T(e latter /e
,ann't ,'-n$;e4 /e ,an 'nly $nd$,ate $t by means '+ *(en'mena) /($,(
enable us t' (a0e an $mmed$ate ,'-n$t$'n 'nly '+ t(e em*$r$,al
,(ara,ter!7 An a,t$'n) t(en) $n s' +ar as $t $s t' be as,r$bed t' an
$ntell$-$ble ,ause) d'es n't result +r'm $t $n a,,'rdan,e /$t(
em*$r$,al la/s! T(at $s t' say) n't t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ *ure reas'n) but
'nly t(e$r e++e,ts $n t(e $nternal sense) *re,ede t(e a,t! Pure
reas'n) as a *urely $ntell$-$ble +a,ulty) $s n't sub&e,t t' t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me! T(e ,ausal$ty '+ reas'n $n $ts $ntell$-$ble
,(ara,ter d'es n't be-$n t' be4 $t d'es n't ma%e $ts a**earan,e at a
,erta$n t$me) +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ *r'du,$n- an e++e,t! I+ t($s /ere n't
t(e ,ase) t(e ,ausal$ty '+ reas'n /'uld be subser0$ent t' t(e
natural la/ '+ *(en'mena) /($,( determ$nes t(em a,,'rd$n- t' t$me) and
as a ser$es '+ ,auses and e++e,ts $n t$me4 $t /'uld ,'nse.uently ,ease
t' be +reed'm and be,'me a *art '+ nature! 2e are t(ere+'re
&ust$+$ed $n say$n-6 9I+ reas'n stands $n a ,ausal relat$'n t'
*(en'mena) $t $s a +a,ulty /($,( 'r$-$nates t(e sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n
'+ an em*$r$,al ser$es '+ e++e,ts!9 F'r t(e ,'nd$t$'n) /($,( res$des
$n t(e reas'n) $s n'n5sensu'us) and t(ere+'re ,ann't be 'r$-$nated) 'r
be-$n t' be! And t(us /e +$nd5 /(at /e ,'uld n't d$s,'0er $n any
em*$r$,al ser$es5 a ,'nd$t$'n '+ a su,,ess$0e ser$es '+ e0ents
$tsel+ em*$r$,ally un,'nd$t$'ned! F'r) $n t(e *resent ,ase) t(e
,'nd$t$'n stands 'ut '+ and bey'nd t(e ser$es '+ *(en'mena5 $t $s
$ntell$-$ble) and $t ,'nse.uently ,ann't be sub&e,ted t' any
sensu'us ,'nd$t$'n) 'r t' any t$me5determ$nat$'n by a *re,ed$n- ,ause!
7T(e real m'ral$ty '+ a,t$'ns5 t(e$r mer$t 'r demer$t) and e0en t(at
'+ 'ur '/n ,'ndu,t) $s ,'m*letely un%n'/n t' us! Our est$mates ,an
relate 'nly t' t(e$r em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter! H'/ mu,( $s t(e result '+
t(e a,t$'n '+ +ree /$ll) ('/ mu,( $s t' be as,r$bed t' nature and t'
blameless err'r) 'r t' a (a**y ,'nst$tut$'n '+ tem*erament =mer$t'
+'rtunae>) n' 'ne ,an d$s,'0er) n'r) +'r t($s reas'n) determ$ne /$t(
*er+e,t &ust$,e!
3ut) $n an't(er res*e,t) t(e same ,ause bel'n-s als' t' t(e ser$es
'+ *(en'mena! "an $s ($msel+ a *(en'men'n! H$s /$ll (as an em*$r$,al
,(ara,ter) /($,( $s t(e em*$r$,al ,ause '+ all ($s a,t$'ns! T(ere $s
n' ,'nd$t$'n5 determ$n$n- man and ($s 0'l$t$'n $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t($s
,(ara,ter5 /($,( d'es n't $tsel+ +'rm *art '+ t(e ser$es '+ e++e,ts $n
nature) and $s sub&e,t t' t(e$r la/5 t(e la/ a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( an
em*$r$,ally undeterm$ned ,ause '+ an e0ent $n t$me ,ann't e1$st! F'r
t($s reas'n n' -$0en a,t$'n ,an (a0e an abs'lute and s*'ntane'us
'r$-$nat$'n) all a,t$'ns be$n- *(en'mena) and bel'n-$n- t' t(e /'rld
'+ e1*er$en,e! 3ut $t ,ann't be sa$d '+ reas'n) t(at t(e state $n
/($,( $t determ$nes t(e /$ll $s al/ays *re,eded by s'me 't(er state
determ$n$n- $t! F'r reas'n $s n't a *(en'men'n) and t(ere+'re n't
sub&e,t t' sensu'us ,'nd$t$'ns4 and) ,'nse.uently) e0en $n relat$'n t'
$ts ,ausal$ty) t(e se.uen,e 'r ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t$me d' n't $n+luen,e
reas'n) n'r ,an t(e dynam$,al la/ '+ nature) /($,( determ$nes t(e
se.uen,e '+ t$me a,,'rd$n- t' ,erta$n rules) be a**l$ed t' $t!
Reas'n $s ,'nse.uently t(e *ermanent ,'nd$t$'n '+ all a,t$'ns '+ t(e
(uman /$ll! Ea,( '+ t(ese $s determ$ned $n t(e em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter
'+ t(e man) e0en be+'re $t (as ta%en *la,e! T(e $ntell$-$ble
,(ara,ter) '+ /($,( t(e +'rmer $s but t(e sensu'us s,(ema) %n'/s n'
be+'re 'r a+ter4 and e0ery a,t$'n) $rres*e,t$0e '+ t(e t$me5relat$'n
$n /($,( $t stands /$t( 't(er *(en'mena) $s t(e $mmed$ate e++e,t '+
t(e $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter '+ *ure reas'n) /($,() ,'nse.uently) en&'ys
+reed'm '+ a,t$'n) and $s n't dynam$,ally determ$ned e$t(er by
$nternal 'r e1ternal *re,ed$n- ,'nd$t$'ns! T($s +reed'm must n't be
des,r$bed) $n a merely ne-at$0e manner) as $nde*enden,e '+ em*$r$,al
,'nd$t$'ns) +'r $n t($s ,ase t(e +a,ulty '+ reas'n /'uld ,ease t' be a
,ause '+ *(en'mena4 but $t must be re-arded) *'s$t$0ely) as a
+a,ulty /($,( ,an s*'ntane'usly 'r$-$nate a ser$es '+ e0ents! At t(e
same t$me) $t must n't be su**'sed t(at any be-$nn$n- ,an ta%e *la,e
$n reas'n4 'n t(e ,'ntrary) reas'n) as t(e un,'nd$t$'ned ,'nd$t$'n
'+ all a,t$'n '+ t(e /$ll) adm$ts '+ n' t$me5,'nd$t$'ns) alt('u-(
$ts e++e,t d'es really be-$n $n a ser$es '+ *(en'mena5 a be-$nn$n-
/($,( $s n't) ('/e0er) abs'lutely *r$mal!
I s(all $llustrate t($s re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*le '+ reas'n by an
e1am*le) +r'm $ts em*l'yment $n t(e /'rld '+ e1*er$en,e4 *r'0ed $t
,ann't be by any am'unt '+ e1*er$en,e) 'r by any number '+ +a,ts)
+'r su,( ar-uments ,ann't establ$s( t(e trut( '+ trans,endental
*r'*'s$t$'ns! <et us ta%e a 0'luntary a,t$'n5 +'r e1am*le) a
+alse(''d5 by means '+ /($,( a man (as $ntr'du,ed a ,erta$n de-ree
'+ ,'n+us$'n $nt' t(e s',$al l$+e '+ (uman$ty) /($,( $s &ud-ed
a,,'rd$n- t' t(e m't$0es +r'm /($,( $t 'r$-$nated) and t(e blame '+
/($,( and '+ t(e e0$l ,'nse.uen,es ar$s$n- +r'm $t) $s $m*uted t'
t(e '++ender! 2e at +$rst *r',eed t' e1am$ne t(e em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter
'+ t(e '++en,e) and +'r t($s *ur*'se /e endea0'ur t' *enetrate t'
t(e s'ur,es '+ t(at ,(ara,ter) su,( as a de+e,t$0e edu,at$'n) bad
,'m*any) a s(ameless and /$,%ed d$s*'s$t$'n) +r$0'l$ty) and /ant '+
re+le,t$'n5 n't +'r-ett$n- als' t(e ',,as$'n$n- ,auses /($,( *re0a$led
at t(e m'ment '+ t(e trans-ress$'n! In t($s t(e *r',edure $s e1a,tly
t(e same as t(at *ursued $n t(e $n0est$-at$'n '+ t(e ser$es '+
,auses /($,( determ$ne a -$0en *(ys$,al e++e,t! N'/) alt('u-( /e
bel$e0e t(e a,t$'n t' (a0e been determ$ned by all t(ese ,$r,umstan,es)
/e d' n't t(e less blame t(e '++ender! 2e d' n't blame ($m +'r ($s
un(a**y d$s*'s$t$'n) n'r +'r t(e ,$r,umstan,es /($,( $n+luen,ed ($m)
nay) n't e0en +'r ($s +'rmer ,'urse '+ l$+e4 +'r /e *resu**'se t(at
all t(ese ,'ns$derat$'ns may be set as$de) t(at t(e ser$es '+
*re,ed$n- ,'nd$t$'ns may be re-arded as (a0$n- ne0er e1$sted) and t(at
t(e a,t$'n may be ,'ns$dered as ,'m*letely un,'nd$t$'ned $n relat$'n
t' any state *re,ed$n-) &ust as $+ t(e a-ent ,'mmen,ed /$t( $t an
ent$rely ne/ ser$es '+ e++e,ts! Our blame '+ t(e '++ender $s
-r'unded u*'n a la/ '+ reas'n) /($,( re.u$res us t' re-ard t($s
+a,ulty as a ,ause) /($,( ,'uld (a0e and 'u-(t t' (a0e 't(er/$se
determ$ned t(e be(a0$'ur '+ t(e ,ul*r$t) $nde*endently '+ all
em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns! T($s ,ausal$ty '+ reas'n /e d' n't re-ard as a
,'5'*erat$n- a-en,y) but as ,'m*lete $n $tsel+! It matters n't /(et(er
t(e sensu'us $m*ulses +a0'ured 'r '**'sed t(e a,t$'n '+ t($s
,ausal$ty) t(e '++en,e $s est$mated a,,'rd$n- t' $ts $ntell$-$ble
,(ara,ter5 t(e '++ender $s de,$dedly /'rt(y '+ blame) t(e m'ment (e
utters a +alse(''d! It +'ll'/s t(at /e re-ard reas'n) $n s*$te '+
t(e em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e a,t) as ,'m*letely +ree) and
t(ere+'re) t(ere+'re) as $n t(e *resent ,ase) ,ul*able!
T(e ab'0e &ud-ement $s ,'m*lete e0$den,e t(at /e are a,,ust'med t'
t($n% t(at reas'n $s n't a++e,ted by sensu'us ,'nd$t$'ns) t(at $n $t
n' ,(an-e ta%es *la,e5 alt('u-( $ts *(en'mena) $n 't(er /'rds) t(e
m'de $n /($,( $t a**ears $n $ts e++e,ts) are sub&e,t t' ,(an-e5 t(at
$n $t n' *re,ed$n- state determ$nes t(e +'ll'/$n-) and)
,'nse.uently) t(at $t d'es n't +'rm a member '+ t(e ser$es '+ sensu'us
,'nd$t$'ns /($,( ne,ess$tate *(en'mena a,,'rd$n- t' natural la/s!
Reas'n $s *resent and t(e same $n all (uman a,t$'ns and at all
t$mes4 but $t d'es n't $tsel+ e1$st $n t$me) and t(ere+'re d'es n't
enter u*'n any state $n /($,( $t d$d n't +'rmerly e1$st! It $s)
relat$0ely t' ne/ states 'r ,'nd$t$'ns) determ$n$n-) but n't
determ$nable! Hen,e /e ,ann't as%6 92(y d$d n't reas'n determ$ne
$tsel+ $n a d$++erent manner@9 T(e .uest$'n 'u-(t t' be t(us stated6
92(y d$d n't reas'n em*l'y $ts *'/er '+ ,ausal$ty t' determ$ne ,erta$n
*(en'mena $n a d$++erent manner@9 93ut t($s $s a .uest$'n /($,( adm$ts
'+ n' ans/er! F'r a d$++erent $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter /'uld (a0e
e1($b$ted a d$++erent em*$r$,al ,(ara,ter4 and) /(en /e say t(at) $n
s*$te '+ t(e ,'urse /($,( ($s /('le +'rmer l$+e (as ta%en) t(e
'++ender ,'uld (a0e re+ra$ned +r'm utter$n- t(e +alse(''d) t($s
means merely t(at t(e a,t /as sub&e,t t' t(e *'/er and aut('r$ty5
*erm$ss$0e 'r *r'($b$t$0e5 '+ reas'n! N'/) reas'n $s n't sub&e,t $n
$ts ,ausal$ty t' any ,'nd$t$'ns '+ *(en'mena 'r '+ t$me4 and a
d$++eren,e $n t$me may *r'du,e a d$++eren,e $n t(e relat$'n '+
*(en'mena t' ea,( 't(er5 +'r t(ese are n't t($n-s and t(ere+'re n't
,auses $n t(emsel0es5 but $t ,ann't *r'du,e any d$++eren,e $n t(e
relat$'n $n /($,( t(e a,t$'n stands t' t(e +a,ulty '+ reas'n!
T(us) t(en) $n 'ur $n0est$-at$'n $nt' +ree a,t$'ns and t(e ,ausal
*'/er /($,( *r'du,ed t(em) /e arr$0e at an $ntell$-$ble ,ause)
bey'nd /($,() ('/e0er) /e ,ann't -'4 alt('u-( /e ,an re,'-n$;e t(at $t
$s +ree) t(at $s) $nde*endent '+ all sensu'us ,'nd$t$'ns) and t(at) $n
t($s /ay) $t may be t(e sensu'usly un,'nd$t$'ned ,'nd$t$'n '+
*(en'mena! 3ut +'r /(at reas'n t(e $ntell$-$ble ,(ara,ter -enerates
su,( and su,( *(en'mena and e1($b$ts su,( and su,( an em*$r$,al
,(ara,ter under ,erta$n ,$r,umstan,es) $t $s bey'nd t(e *'/er '+ 'ur
reas'n t' de,$de! T(e .uest$'n $s as mu,( ab'0e t(e *'/er and t(e
s*(ere '+ reas'n as t(e +'ll'/$n- /'uld be6 92(y d'es t(e
trans,endental 'b&e,t '+ 'ur e1ternal sensu'us $ntu$t$'n all'/ '+ n'
't(er +'rm t(an t(at '+ $ntu$t$'n $n s*a,e@9 3ut t(e *r'blem) /($,( /e
/ere ,alled u*'n t' s'l0e) d'es n't re.u$re us t' enterta$n any su,(
.uest$'ns! T(e *r'blem /as merely t($s5 /(et(er +reed'm and natural
ne,ess$ty ,an e1$st /$t('ut '**'s$t$'n $n t(e same a,t$'n! T' t($s
.uest$'n /e (a0e -$0en a su++$,$ent ans/er4 +'r /e (a0e s('/n t(at) as
t(e +'rmer stands $n a relat$'n t' a d$++erent %$nd '+ ,'nd$t$'n
+r'm t('se '+ t(e latter) t(e la/ '+ t(e 'ne d'es n't a++e,t t(e la/
'+ t(e 't(er and t(at) ,'nse.uently) b't( ,an e1$st t'-et(er $n
$nde*enden,e '+ and /$t('ut $nter+eren,e /$t( ea,( 't(er!
T(e reader must be ,are+ul t' remar% t(at my $ntent$'n $n t(e
ab'0e remar%s (as n't been t' *r'0e t(e a,tual e1$sten,e '+ +reed'm)
as a +a,ulty $n /($,( res$des t(e ,ause '+ ,erta$n sensu'us *(en'mena!
F'r) n't t' ment$'n t(at su,( an ar-ument /'uld n't (a0e a
trans,endental ,(ara,ter) n'r (a0e been l$m$ted t' t(e d$s,uss$'n '+
*ure ,'n,e*t$'ns5 all attem*ts at $n+err$n- +r'm e1*er$en,e /(at
,ann't be ,'-$tated $n a,,'rdan,e /$t( $ts la/s) must e0er be
unsu,,ess+ul! Nay) m're) I (a0e n't e0en a$med at dem'nstrat$n- t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ +reed'm4 +'r t($s t'' /'uld (a0e been a 0a$n endea0'ur)
$nasmu,( as $t $s bey'nd t(e *'/er '+ t(e m$nd t' ,'-n$;e t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ a real$ty 'r '+ a ,ausal *'/er by t(e a$d '+ mere a
*r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns! Freed'm (as been ,'ns$dered $n t(e +'re-'$n-
remar%s 'nly as a trans,endental $dea) by means '+ /($,( reas'n a$ms
at 'r$-$nat$n- a ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena /$t(
t(e (el* '+ t(at /($,( $s sensu'usly un,'nd$t$'ned) $n0'l0$n-
$tsel+) ('/e0er) $n an ant$n'my /$t( t(e la/s /($,( $tsel+
*res,r$bes +'r t(e ,'ndu,t '+ t(e understand$n-! T(at t($s ant$n'my $s
based u*'n a mere $llus$'n) and t(at nature and +reed'm are at least
n't '**'sed5 t($s /as t(e 'nly t($n- $n 'ur *'/er t' *r'0e) and t(e
.uest$'n /($,( $t /as 'ur tas% t' s'l0e!
ID! S'lut$'n '+ t(e C'sm'l'-$,al Idea '+ t(e T'tal$ty '+

t(e #e*enden,e '+ P(en'menal E1$sten,es!

In t(e *re,ed$n- remar%s) /e ,'ns$dered t(e ,(an-es $n t(e /'rld
'+ sense as ,'nst$tut$n- a dynam$,al ser$es) $n /($,( ea,( member $s
sub'rd$nated t' an't(er5 as $ts ,ause! Our *resent *ur*'se $s t' a0a$l
'ursel0es '+ t($s ser$es '+ states 'r ,'nd$t$'ns as a -u$de t' an
e1$sten,e /($,( may be t(e ($-(est ,'nd$t$'n '+ all ,(an-eable
*(en'mena) t(at $s) t' a ne,essary be$n-! Our endea0'ur t' rea,()
n't t(e un,'nd$t$'ned ,ausal$ty) but t(e un,'nd$t$'ned e1$sten,e) '+
substan,e! T(e ser$es be+'re us $s t(ere+'re a ser$es '+
,'n,e*t$'ns) and n't '+ $ntu$t$'ns =$n /($,( t(e 'ne $ntu$t$'n $s
t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e 't(er>!
3ut $t $s e0$dent t(at) as all *(en'mena are sub&e,t t' ,(an-e and
,'nd$t$'ned $n t(e$r e1$sten,e) t(e ser$es '+ de*endent e1$sten,es
,ann't embra,e an un,'nd$t$'ned member) t(e e1$sten,e '+ /($,( /'uld
be abs'lutely ne,essary! It +'ll'/s t(at) $+ *(en'mena /ere t($n-s
$n t(emsel0es) and5 as an $mmed$ate ,'nse.uen,e +r'm t($s su**'s$t$'n5
,'nd$t$'n and ,'nd$t$'ned bel'n-ed t' t(e same ser$es '+ *(en'mena)
t(e e1$sten,e '+ a ne,essary be$n-) as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
e1$sten,e '+ sensu'us *(en'mena) /'uld be *er+e,tly $m*'ss$ble!
An $m*'rtant d$st$n,t$'n) ('/e0er) e1$sts bet/een t(e dynam$,al
and t(e mat(emat$,al re-ress! T(e latter $s en-a-ed s'lely /$t( t(e
,'mb$nat$'n '+ *arts $nt' a /('le) 'r /$t( t(e d$0$s$'n '+ a /('le
$nt' $ts *arts4 and t(ere+'re are t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ $ts ser$es *arts
'+ t(e ser$es) and t' be ,'nse.uently re-arded as ('m'-ene'us) and +'r
t($s reas'n) as ,'ns$st$n-) /$t('ut e1,e*t$'n) '+ *(en'mena! I+ t(e
+'rmer re-ress) 'n t(e ,'ntrary) t(e a$m '+ /($,( $s n't t'
establ$s( t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ an un,'nd$t$'ned /('le ,'ns$st$n- '+
-$0en *arts) 'r '+ an un,'nd$t$'ned *art '+ a -$0en /('le) but t'
dem'nstrate t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e dedu,t$'n '+ a ,erta$n state +r'm
$ts ,ause) 'r '+ t(e ,'nt$n-ent e1$sten,e '+ substan,e +r'm t(at /($,(
e1$sts ne,essar$ly) $t $s n't re.u$s$te t(at t(e ,'nd$t$'n s('uld +'rm
*art '+ an em*$r$,al ser$es al'n- /$t( t(e ,'nd$t$'ned!
In t(e ,ase '+ t(e a**arent ant$n'my /$t( /($,( /e are at *resent
deal$n-) t(ere e1$sts a /ay '+ es,a*e +r'm t(e d$++$,ulty4 +'r $t $s
n't $m*'ss$ble t(at b't( '+ t(e ,'ntrad$,t'ry statements may be true
$n d$++erent relat$'ns! All sensu'us *(en'mena may be ,'nt$n-ent)
and ,'nse.uently *'ssess 'nly an em*$r$,ally ,'nd$t$'ned e1$sten,e)
and yet t(ere may als' e1$st a n'n5em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e /('le
ser$es) 'r) $n 't(er /'rds) a ne,essary be$n-! F'r t($s ne,essary
be$n-) as an $ntell$-$ble ,'nd$t$'n) /'uld n't +'rm a member5 n't e0en
t(e ($-(est member5 '+ t(e ser$es4 t(e /('le /'rld '+ sense /'uld be
le+t $n $ts em*$r$,ally determ$ned e1$sten,e un$nter+ered /$t( and
un$n+luen,ed! T($s /'uld als' +'rm a -r'und '+ d$st$n,t$'n bet/een t(e
m'des '+ s'lut$'n em*l'yed +'r t(e t($rd and +'urt( ant$n'm$es! F'r)
/($le $n t(e ,'ns$derat$'n '+ +reed'm $n t(e +'rmer ant$n'my) t(e
t($n- $tsel+5 t(e ,ause =substant$a *(aen'men'n>5 /as re-arded as
bel'n-$n- t' t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns) and 'nly $ts ,ausal$ty t' t(e
$ntell$-$ble /'rld5 /e are 'bl$-ed $n t(e *resent ,ase t' ,'-$tate
t($s ne,essary be$n- as *urely $ntell$-$ble and as e1$st$n- ent$rely
a*art +r'm t(e /'rld '+ sense =as an ens e1tramundanum>4 +'r 't(er/$se
$t /'uld be sub&e,t t' t(e *(en'menal la/ '+ ,'nt$n-en,y and
In relat$'n t' t(e *resent *r'blem) t(ere+'re) t(e re-ulat$0e
*r$n,$*le '+ reas'n $s t(at e0eryt($n- $n t(e sensu'us /'rld *'ssesses
an em*$r$,ally ,'nd$t$'ned e1$sten,e5 t(at n' *r'*erty '+ t(e sensu'us
/'rld *'ssesses un,'nd$t$'ned ne,ess$ty5 t(at /e are b'und t'
e1*e,t) and) s' +ar as $s *'ss$ble) t' see% +'r t(e em*$r$,al
,'nd$t$'n '+ e0ery member $n t(e ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns5 and t(at
t(ere $s n' su++$,$ent reas'n t' &ust$+y us $n dedu,$n- any
e1$sten,e +r'm a ,'nd$t$'n /($,( l$es 'ut '+ and bey'nd t(e
em*$r$,al ser$es) 'r $n re-ard$n- any e1$sten,e as $nde*endent and
sel+5subs$stent4 alt('u-( t($s s('uld n't *re0ent us +r'm
re,'-n$;$n- t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t(e /('le ser$es be$n- based u*'n a
be$n- /($,( $s $ntell$-$ble) and +'r t($s reas'n +ree +r'm all
em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns!
3ut $t (as been +ar +r'm my $ntent$'n) $n t(ese remar%s) t' *r'0e
t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($s un,'nd$t$'ned and ne,essary be$n-) 'r e0en t'
e0$den,e t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ a *urely $ntell$-$ble ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e
e1$sten,e 'r all sensu'us *(en'mena! As b'unds /ere set t' reas'n)
t' *re0ent $t +r'm lea0$n- t(e -u$d$n- t(read '+ em*$r$,al
,'nd$t$'ns and l's$n- $tsel+ $n trans,endent t(e'r$es /($,( are
$n,a*able '+ ,'n,rete *resentat$'n4 s' $t /as my *ur*'se) 'n t(e 't(er
band) t' set b'unds t' t(e la/ '+ t(e *urely em*$r$,al
understand$n-) and t' *r'test a-a$nst any attem*ts 'n $ts *art at
de,$d$n- 'n t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s) 'r de,lar$n- t(e e1$sten,e '+
t(e $ntell$-$ble t' be $m*'ss$ble) merely 'n t(e -r'und t(at $t $s n't
a0a$lable +'r t(e e1*lanat$'n and e1*'s$t$'n '+ *(en'mena! It (as been
s('/n) at t(e same t$me) t(at t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ all t(e *(en'mena
'+ nature and t(e$r em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns $s .u$te ,'ns$stent /$t(
t(e arb$trary (y*'t(es$s '+ a ne,essary) alt('u-( *urely
$ntell$-$ble ,'nd$t$'n) t(at n' real ,'ntrad$,t$'n e1$sts bet/een t(em
and t(at) ,'nse.uently) b't( may be true! T(e e1$sten,e '+ su,( an
abs'lutely ne,essary be$n- may be $m*'ss$ble4 but t($s ,an ne0er be
dem'nstrated +r'm t(e un$0ersal ,'nt$n-en,y and de*enden,e '+ sensu'us
*(en'mena) n'r +r'm t(e *r$n,$*le /($,( +'rb$ds us t' d$s,'nt$nue
t(e ser$es at s'me member '+ $t) 'r t' see% +'r $ts ,ause $n s'me
s*(ere '+ e1$sten,e bey'nd t(e /'rld '+ nature! Reas'n -'es $ts /ay $n
t(e em*$r$,al /'rld) and +'ll'/s) t'') $ts *e,ul$ar *at( $n t(e s*(ere
'+ t(e trans,endental!
T(e sensu'us /'rld ,'nta$ns n't($n- but *(en'mena) /($,( are mere
re*resentat$'ns) and al/ays sensu'usly ,'nd$t$'ned4 t($n-s $n
t(emsel0es are n't) and ,ann't be) 'b&e,ts t' us! It $s n't t' be
/'ndered at) t(ere+'re) t(at /e are n't &ust$+$ed $n lea*$n- +r'm s'me
member '+ an em*$r$,al ser$es bey'nd t(e /'rld '+ sense) as $+
em*$r$,al re*resentat$'ns /ere t($n-s $n t(emsel0es) e1$st$n- a*art
+r'm t(e$r trans,endental -r'und $n t(e (uman m$nd) and t(e ,ause '+
/('se e1$sten,e may be s'u-(t 'ut '+ t(e em*$r$,al ser$es! T($s
/'uld ,erta$nly be t(e ,ase /$t( ,'nt$n-ent t($n-s4 but $t ,ann't be
/$t( mere re*resentat$'ns '+ t($n-s) t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ /($,( $s
$tsel+ merely a *(en'men'n and ,an relate t' n' 't(er re-ress t(an
t(at /($,( determ$nes *(en'mena) t(at $s) t(e em*$r$,al! 3ut t'
,'-$tate an $ntell$-$ble -r'und '+ *(en'mena) as +ree) m're'0er)
+r'm t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ t(e latter) ,'n+l$,ts ne$t(er /$t( t(e
unl$m$ted nature '+ t(e em*$r$,al re-ress) n'r /$t( t(e ,'m*lete
,'nt$n-en,y '+ *(en'mena! And t(e dem'nstrat$'n '+ t($s /as t(e 'nly
t($n- ne,essary +'r t(e s'lut$'n '+ t($s a**arent ant$n'my! F'r $+ t(e
,'nd$t$'n '+ e0ery ,'nd$t$'ned5 as re-ards $ts e1$sten,e5 $s sensu'us)
and +'r t($s reas'n a *art '+ t(e same ser$es) $t must be $tsel+
,'nd$t$'ned) as /as s('/n $n t(e ant$t(es$s '+ t(e +'urt( ant$n'my!
T(e embarrassments $nt' /($,( a reas'n) /($,( *'stulates t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned) ne,essar$ly +alls) must) t(ere+'re) ,'nt$nue t'
e1$st4 'r t(e un,'nd$t$'ned must be *la,ed $n t(e s*(ere '+ t(e
$ntell$-$ble! In t($s /ay) $ts ne,ess$ty d'es n't re.u$re) n'r d'es $t
e0en *erm$t) t(e *resen,e '+ an em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'n6 and $t $s)
,'nse.uently) un,'nd$t$'nally ne,essary!
T(e em*$r$,al em*l'yment '+ reas'n $s n't a++e,ted by t(e assum*t$'n
'+ a *urely $ntell$-$ble be$n-4 $t ,'nt$nues $ts '*erat$'ns 'n t(e
*r$n,$*le '+ t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+ all *(en'mena) *r',eed$n- +r'm
em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns t' st$ll ($-(er and ($-(er ,'nd$t$'ns) t(emsel0es
em*$r$,al! &ust as l$ttle d'es t($s re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*le e1,lude t(e
assum*t$'n '+ an $ntell$-$ble ,ause) /(en t(e .uest$'n re-ards
merely t(e *ure em*l'yment '+ reas'n5 $n relat$'n t' ends 'r a$ms!
F'r) $n t($s ,ase) an $ntell$-$ble ,ause s$-n$+$es merely t(e
trans,endental and t' us un%n'/n -r'und '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ sensu'us
*(en'mena) and $ts e1$sten,e) ne,essary and $nde*endent '+ all
sensu'us ,'nd$t$'ns) $s n't $n,'ns$stent /$t( t(e ,'nt$n-en,y '+
*(en'mena) 'r /$t( t(e unl$m$ted *'ss$b$l$ty '+ re-ress /($,( e1$sts
$n t(e ser$es '+ em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns!
C'n,lud$n- Remar%s 'n t(e Ant$n'my '+ Pure Reas'n!

S' l'n- as t(e 'b&e,t '+ 'ur rat$'nal ,'n,e*t$'ns $s t(e t'tal$ty '+
,'nd$t$'ns $n t(e /'rld '+ *(en'mena) and t(e sat$s+a,t$'n) +r'm
t($s s'ur,e) '+ t(e re.u$rements '+ reas'n) s' l'n- are 'ur $deas
trans,endental and ,'sm'l'-$,al! 3ut /(en /e set t(e un,'nd$t$'ned5
/($,( $s t(e a$m '+ all 'ur $n.u$r$es5 $n a s*(ere /($,( l$es 'ut '+
t(e /'rld '+ sense and *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e) 'ur $deas be,'me
trans,endent! T(ey are t(en n't merely ser0$,eable t'/ards t(e
,'m*let$'n '+ t(e e1er,$se '+ reas'n =/($,( rema$ns an $dea) ne0er
e1e,uted) but al/ays t' be *ursued>4 t(ey deta,( t(emsel0es ,'m*letely
+r'm e1*er$en,e and ,'nstru,t +'r t(emsel0es 'b&e,ts) t(e mater$al
'+ /($,( (as n't been *resented by e1*er$en,e) and t(e 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty '+ /($,( $s n't based u*'n t(e ,'m*let$'n '+ t(e em*$r$,al
ser$es) but u*'n *ure a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns! T(e $ntell$-$ble 'b&e,t '+
t(ese trans,endent $deas may be ,'n,eded) as a trans,endental
'b&e,t! 3ut /e ,ann't ,'-$tate $t as a t($n- determ$nable by ,erta$n
d$st$n,t *red$,ates relat$n- t' $ts $nternal nature) +'r $t (as n'
,'nne,t$'n /$t( em*$r$,al ,'n,e*t$'ns4 n'r are /e &ust$+$ed $n
a++$rm$n- t(e e1$sten,e '+ any su,( 'b&e,t! It $s) ,'nse.uently) a
mere *r'du,t '+ t(e m$nd al'ne! O+ all t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al $deas)
('/e0er) $t $s t(at ',,as$'n$n- t(e +'urt( ant$n'my /($,( ,'m*els us
t' 0enture u*'n t($s ste*! F'r t(e e1$sten,e '+ *(en'mena) al/ays
,'nd$t$'ned and ne0er sel+5subs$stent) re.u$res us t' l''% +'r an
'b&e,t d$++erent +r'm *(en'mena5 an $ntell$-$ble 'b&e,t) /$t( /($,(
all ,'nt$n-en,y must ,ease! 3ut) as /e (a0e all'/ed 'ursel0es t'
assume t(e e1$sten,e '+ a sel+5subs$stent real$ty 'ut '+ t(e +$eld
'+ e1*er$en,e) and are t(ere+'re 'bl$-ed t' re-ard *(en'mena as merely
a ,'nt$n-ent m'de '+ re*resent$n- $ntell$-$ble 'b&e,ts em*l'yed by
be$n-s /($,( are t(emsel0es $ntell$-en,es5 n' 't(er ,'urse rema$ns +'r
us t(an t' +'ll'/ an al'-y and em*l'y t(e same m'de $n +'rm$n- s'me
,'n,e*t$'n '+ $ntell$-$ble t($n-s) '+ /($,( /e (a0e n't t(e least
%n'/led-e) /($,( nature tau-(t us t' use $n t(e +'rmat$'n '+ em*$r$,al
,'n,e*t$'ns! E1*er$en,e made us a,.ua$nted /$t( t(e ,'nt$n-ent! 3ut /e
are at *resent en-a-ed $n t(e d$s,uss$'n '+ t($n-s /($,( are n't
'b&e,ts '+ e1*er$en,e4 and must) t(ere+'re) dedu,e 'ur %n'/led-e '+
t(em +r'm t(at /($,( $s ne,essary abs'lutely and $n $tsel+) t(at $s)
+r'm *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns! Hen,e t(e +$rst ste* /($,( /e ta%e 'ut '+ t(e
/'rld '+ sense 'bl$-es us t' be-$n 'ur system '+ ne/ ,'-n$t$'n /$t(
t(e $n0est$-at$'n '+ a ne,essary be$n-) and t' dedu,e +r'm 'ur
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ $t all 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ $ntell$-$ble t($n-s! T($s
/e *r'*'se t' attem*t $n t(e +'ll'/$n- ,(a*ter!
CHAPTER III! T(e Ideal '+ Pure Reas'n!

SECTION I! O+ t(e Ideal $n Ceneral!

2e (a0e seen t(at *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns d' n't *resent 'b&e,ts t' t(e
m$nd) e1,e*t under sensu'us ,'nd$t$'ns4 be,ause t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+
'b&e,t$0e real$ty d' n't e1$st $n t(ese ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( ,'nta$n) $n
+a,t) n't($n- but t(e mere +'rm '+ t('u-(t! T(ey may) ('/e0er) /(en
a**l$ed t' *(en'mena) be *resented $n ,'n,ret'4 +'r $t $s *(en'mena
t(at *resent t' t(em t(e mater$als +'r t(e +'rmat$'n '+ em*$r$,al
,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,( are n't($n- m're t(an ,'n,rete +'rms '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n-! 3ut $deas are st$ll +urt(er
rem'0ed +r'm 'b&e,t$0e real$ty t(an ,ate-'r$es4 +'r n' *(en'men'n
,an e0er *resent t(em t' t(e (uman m$nd $n ,'n,ret'! T(ey ,'nta$n a
,erta$n *er+e,t$'n) atta$nable by n' *'ss$ble em*$r$,al ,'-n$t$'n4 and
t(ey -$0e t' reas'n a systemat$, un$ty) t' /($,( t(e un$ty '+
e1*er$en,e attem*ts t' a**r'1$mate) but ,an ne0er ,'m*letely atta$n!
3ut st$ll +urt(er rem'0ed t(an t(e $dea +r'm 'b&e,t$0e real$ty $s
t(e Ideal) by /($,( term I understand t(e $dea) n't $n ,'n,ret') but
$n $nd$0$du'5 as an $nd$0$dual t($n-) determ$nable 'r determ$ned by
t(e $dea al'ne! T(e $dea '+ (uman$ty $n $ts ,'m*lete *er+e,t$'n
su**'ses n't 'nly t(e ad0an,ement '+ all t(e *'/ers and +a,ult$es)
/($,( ,'nst$tute 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n '+ (uman nature) t' a ,'m*lete
atta$nment '+ t(e$r +$nal a$ms) but als' e0eryt($n- /($,( $s re.u$s$te
+'r t(e ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+ t(e $dea4 +'r '+ all ,'ntrad$,t'ry
*red$,ates) 'nly 'ne ,an ,'n+'rm /$t( t(e $dea '+ t(e *er+e,t man!
2(at I (a0e termed an $deal /as $n Plat'?s *($l's'*(y an $dea '+ t(e
d$0$ne m$nd5 an $nd$0$dual 'b&e,t *resent t' $ts *ure $ntu$t$'n) t(e
m'st *er+e,t '+ e0ery %$nd '+ *'ss$ble be$n-s) and t(e ar,(ety*e '+
all *(en'menal e1$sten,es!
2$t('ut r$s$n- t' t(ese s*e,ulat$0e (e$-(ts) /e are b'und t' ,'n+ess
t(at (uman reas'n ,'nta$ns n't 'nly $deas) but $deals) /($,(
*'ssess) n't) l$%e t('se '+ Plat') ,reat$0e) but ,erta$nly *ra,t$,al
*'/er5 as re-ulat$0e *r$n,$*les) and +'rm t(e bas$s '+ t(e
*er+e,t$b$l$ty '+ ,erta$n a,t$'ns! "'ral ,'n,e*t$'ns are n't *er+e,tly
*ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n) be,ause an em*$r$,al element5 '+
*leasure 'r *a$n5 l$es at t(e +'undat$'n '+ t(em! In relat$'n)
('/e0er) t' t(e *r$n,$*le) /(ereby reas'n sets b'unds t' a +reed'm
/($,( $s $n $tsel+ /$t('ut la/) and ,'nse.uently /(en /e attend merely
t' t(e$r +'rm) t(ey may be ,'ns$dered as *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ reas'n!
D$rtue and /$sd'm $n t(e$r *er+e,t *ur$ty are $deas! 3ut t(e /$se
man '+ t(e St'$,s $s an $deal) t(at $s t' say) a (uman be$n-
e1$st$n- 'nly $n t('u-(t and $n ,'m*lete ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( t(e $dea '+
/$sd'm! As t(e $dea *r'0$des a rule) s' t(e $deal ser0es as an
ar,(ety*e +'r t(e *er+e,t and ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+ t(e ,'*y! T(us
t(e ,'ndu,t '+ t($s /$se and d$0$ne man ser0es us as a standard '+
a,t$'n) /$t( /($,( /e may ,'m*are and &ud-e 'ursel0es) /($,( may
(el* us t' re+'rm 'ursel0es) alt('u-( t(e *er+e,t$'n $t demands ,an
ne0er be atta$ned by us! Alt('u-( /e ,ann't ,'n,ede 'b&e,t$0e
real$ty t' t(ese $deals) t(ey are n't t' be ,'ns$dered as ,($meras4 'n
t(e ,'ntrary) t(ey *r'0$de reas'n /$t( a standard) /($,( enables $t t'
est$mate) by ,'m*ar$s'n) t(e de-ree '+ $n,'m*leteness $n t(e 'b&e,ts
*resented t' $t! 3ut t' a$m at real$;$n- t(e $deal $n an e1am*le $n
t(e /'rld '+ e1*er$en,e5 t' des,r$be) +'r $nstan,e) t(e ,(ara,ter '+
t(e *er+e,tly /$se man $n a r'man,e5 $s $m*ra,t$,able! Nay m're) t(ere
$s s'met($n- absurd $n t(e attem*t4 and t(e result must be l$ttle
ed$+y$n-) as t(e natural l$m$tat$'ns) /($,( are ,'nt$nually brea%$n-
$n u*'n t(e *er+e,t$'n and ,'m*leteness '+ t(e $dea) destr'y t(e
$llus$'n $n t(e st'ry and t(r'/ an a$r '+ sus*$,$'n e0en 'n /(at $s
-''d $n t(e $dea) /($,( (en,e a**ears +$,t$t$'us and unreal!
Su,( $s t(e ,'nst$tut$'n '+ t(e $deal '+ reas'n) /($,( $s al/ays
based u*'n determ$nate ,'n,e*t$'ns) and ser0es as a rule and a m'del
+'r l$m$tat$'n 'r '+ ,r$t$,$sm! Dery d$++erent $s t(e nature '+ t(e
$deals '+ t(e $ma-$nat$'n! O+ t(ese $t $s $m*'ss$ble t' *resent an
$ntell$-$ble ,'n,e*t$'n4 t(ey are a %$nd '+ m'n'-ram) dra/n
a,,'rd$n- t' n' determ$nate rule) and +'rm$n- rat(er a 0a-ue
*$,ture5 t(e *r'du,t$'n '+ many d$0erse e1*er$en,es5 t(an a
determ$nate $ma-e! Su,( are t(e $deals /($,( *a$nters and
*(ys$'-n'm$sts *r'+ess t' (a0e $n t(e$r m$nds) and /($,( ,an ser0e
ne$t(er as a m'del +'r *r'du,t$'n n'r as a standard +'r
a**re,$at$'n! T(ey may be termed) t('u-( $m*r'*erly) sensu'us
$deals) as t(ey are de,lared t' be m'dels '+ ,erta$n *'ss$ble
em*$r$,al $ntu$t$'ns! T(ey ,ann't) ('/e0er) +urn$s( rules 'r standards
+'r e1*lanat$'n 'r e1am$nat$'n /$t(
In $ts $deals) reas'n a$ms at ,'m*lete and *er+e,t determ$nat$'n
a,,'rd$n- t' a *r$'r$ rules4 and (en,e $t ,'-$tates an 'b&e,t) /($,(
must be ,'m*letely determ$nable $n ,'n+'rm$ty /$t( *r$n,$*les)
alt('u-( all em*$r$,al ,'nd$t$'ns are absent) and t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
t(e 'b&e,t $s 'n t($s a,,'unt trans,endent!
SECTION II! O+ t(e Trans,endental Ideal =Pr't'ty*'n


E0ery ,'n,e*t$'n $s) $n relat$'n t' t(at /($,( $s n't ,'nta$ned $n
$t) undeterm$ned and sub&e,t t' t(e *r$n,$*le '+ determ$nab$l$ty! T($s
*r$n,$*le $s t(at) '+ e0ery t/' ,'ntrad$,t'r$ly '**'sed *red$,ates)
'nly 'ne ,an bel'n- t' a ,'n,e*t$'n! It $s a *urely l'-$,al *r$n,$*le)
$tsel+ based u*'n t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'ntrad$,t$'n4 $nasmu,( as $t ma%es
,'m*lete abstra,t$'n '+ t(e ,'ntent and attends merely t' t(e
l'-$,al +'rm '+ t(e ,'-n$t$'n!
3ut a-a$n) e0eryt($n-) as re-ards $ts *'ss$b$l$ty) $s als' sub&e,t
t' t(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( 'ne
'+ all t(e *'ss$ble ,'ntrad$,t'ry *red$,ates '+ t($n-s must bel'n-
t' $t! T($s *r$n,$*le $s n't based merely u*'n t(at '+
,'ntrad$,t$'n4 +'r) $n add$t$'n t' t(e relat$'n bet/een t/'
,'ntrad$,t'ry *red$,ates) $t re-ards e0eryt($n- as stand$n- $n a
relat$'n t' t(e sum '+ *'ss$b$l$t$es) as t(e sum t'tal '+ all
*red$,ates '+ t($n-s) and) /($le *resu**'s$n- t($s sum as an a
*r$'r$ ,'nd$t$'n) *resents t' t(e m$nd e0eryt($n- as re,e$0$n- t(e
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ $ts $nd$0$dual e1$sten,e +r'm t(e relat$'n $t bears t')
and t(e s(are $t *'ssesses $n) t(e a+'resa$d sum '+ *'ss$b$l$t$es!7
T(e *r$n,$*le '+ ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n relates t(e ,'ntent and n't t'
t(e l'-$,al +'rm! It $s t(e *r$n,$*le '+ t(e synt(es$s '+ all t(e
*red$,ates /($,( are re.u$red t' ,'nst$tute t(e ,'m*lete ,'n,e*t$'n '+
a t($n-) and n't a mere *r$n,$*le analyt$,al re*resentat$'n) /($,(
en'un,es t(at 'ne '+ t/' ,'ntrad$,t'ry *red$,ates must bel'n- t' a
,'n,e*t$'n! It ,'nta$ns) m're'0er) a trans,endental *resu**'s$t$'n5
t(at) namely) '+ t(e mater$al +'r all *'ss$b$l$ty) /($,( must
,'nta$n a *r$'r$ t(e data +'r t($s 'r t(at *art$,ular *'ss$b$l$ty!
7T(us t($s *r$n,$*le de,lares e0eryt($n- t' *'ssess a relat$'n t'
a ,'mm'n ,'rrelate5 t(e sum5t'tal '+ *'ss$b$l$ty) /($,() $+ d$s,'0ered
t' e1$st $n t(e $dea '+ 'ne $nd$0$dual t($n-) /'uld establ$s( t(e
a++$n$ty '+ all *'ss$ble t($n-s) +r'm t(e $dent$ty '+ t(e -r'und '+
t(e$r ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n! T(e determ$nab$l$ty '+ e0ery
,'n,e*t$'n $s sub'rd$nate t' t(e un$0ersal$ty =All-eme$n(e$t)
un$0ersal$tas> '+ t(e *r$n,$*le '+ e1,luded m$ddle4 t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ a t($n- t' t(e t'tal$ty =All(e$t) un$0ers$tas> '+ all
*'ss$ble *red$,ates!
T(e *r'*'s$t$'n) E0eryt($n- /($,( e1$sts $s ,'m*letely determ$ned)
means n't 'nly t(at 'ne '+ e0ery *a$r '+ -$0en ,'ntrad$,t'ry
attr$butes) but t(at 'ne '+ all *'ss$ble attr$butes) $s al/ays
*red$,able '+ t(e t($n-4 $n $t t(e *red$,ates are n't merely
,'m*ared l'-$,ally /$t( ea,( 't(er) but t(e t($n- $tsel+ $s
trans,endentally ,'m*ared /$t( t(e sum5t'tal '+ all *'ss$ble
*red$,ates! T(e *r'*'s$t$'n $s e.u$0alent t' say$n-6 9T' atta$n t' a
,'m*lete %n'/led-e '+ a t($n-) $t $s ne,essary t' *'ssess a
%n'/led-e '+ e0eryt($n- t(at $s *'ss$ble) and t' determ$ne $t
t(ereby $n a *'s$t$0e 'r ne-at$0e manner!9 T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+
,'m*lete determ$nat$'n $s ,'nse.uently a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( ,ann't be
*resented $n $ts t'tal$ty $n ,'n,ret') and $s t(ere+'re based u*'n
an $dea) /($,( (as $ts seat $n t(e reas'n5 t(e +a,ulty /($,(
*res,r$bes t' t(e understand$n- t(e la/s '+ $ts (arm'n$'us and *er+e,t
e1er,$se relates
N'/) alt('u-( t($s $dea '+ t(e sum5t'tal '+ all *'ss$b$l$ty) $n s'
+ar as $t +'rms t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ t(e ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+
e0eryt($n-) $s $tsel+ undeterm$ned $n relat$'n t' t(e *red$,ates /($,(
may ,'nst$tute t($s sum5t'tal) and /e ,'-$tate $n $t merely t(e
sum5t'tal '+ all *'ss$ble *red$,ates5 /e ne0ert(eless +$nd) u*'n
,l'ser e1am$nat$'n) t(at t($s $dea) as a *r$m$t$0e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e
m$nd) e1,ludes a lar-e number '+ *red$,ates5 t('se dedu,ed and t('se
$rre,'n,$lable /$t( 't(ers) and t(at $t $s e0'l0ed as a ,'n,e*t$'n
,'m*letely determ$ned a *r$'r$! T(us $t be,'mes t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an
$nd$0$dual 'b&e,t) /($,( $s ,'m*letely determ$ned by and t(r'u-( t(e
mere $dea) and must ,'nse.uently be termed an $deal '+ *ure reas'n!
2(en /e ,'ns$der all *'ss$ble *red$,ates) n't merely l'-$,ally)
but trans,endentally) t(at $s t' say) /$t( re+eren,e t' t(e ,'ntent
/($,( may be ,'-$tated as e1$st$n- $n t(em a *r$'r$) /e s(all +$nd
t(at s'me $nd$,ate a be$n-) 't(ers merely a n'n5be$n-! T(e l'-$,al
ne-at$'n e1*ressed $n t(e /'rd n't d'es n't *r'*erly bel'n- t' a
,'n,e*t$'n) but 'nly t' t(e relat$'n '+ 'ne ,'n,e*t$'n t' an't(er $n a
&ud-ement) and $s ,'nse.uently .u$te $nsu++$,$ent t' *resent t' t(e
m$nd t(e ,'ntent '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n! T(e e1*ress$'n n't m'rtal d'es n't
$nd$,ate t(at a n'n5be$n- $s ,'-$tated $n t(e 'b&e,t4 $t d'es n't
,'n,ern t(e ,'ntent at all! A trans,endental ne-at$'n) 'n t(e
,'ntrary) $nd$,ates n'n5be$n- $n $tsel+) and $s '**'sed t'
trans,endental a++$rmat$'n) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ /($,( '+ $tsel+
e1*resses a be$n-! Hen,e t($s a++$rmat$'n $nd$,ates a real$ty) be,ause
$n and t(r'u-( $t 'b&e,ts are ,'ns$dered t' be s'met($n-5 t' be
t($n-s4 /($le t(e '**'s$te ne-at$'n) 'n t(e 't(er band) $nd$,ates a
mere /ant) 'r *r$0at$'n) 'r absen,e) and) /(ere su,( ne-at$'ns al'ne
are atta,(ed t' a re*resentat$'n) t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ anyt($n-
,'rres*'nd$n- t' t(e re*resentat$'n!
N'/ a ne-at$'n ,ann't be ,'-$tated as determ$ned) /$t('ut ,'-$tat$n-
at t(e same t$me t(e '**'s$te a++$rmat$'n! T(e man b'rn bl$nd (as
n't t(e least n't$'n '+ dar%ness) be,ause (e (as n'ne '+ l$-(t4 t(e
0a-ab'nd %n'/s n't($n- '+ *'0erty) be,ause (e (as ne0er %n'/n /(at
$t $s t' be $n ,'m+'rt47 t(e $-n'rant man (as n' ,'n,e*t$'n '+ ($s
$-n'ran,e) be,ause (e (as n' ,'n,e*t$'n '+ %n'/led-e! All
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ ne-at$0es are a,,'rd$n-ly der$0ed 'r dedu,ed
,'n,e*t$'ns4 and real$t$es ,'nta$n t(e data) and) s' t' s*ea%) t(e
mater$al 'r trans,endental ,'ntent '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty and ,'m*lete
determ$nat$'n '+ all t($n-s!
7T(e $n0est$-at$'ns and ,al,ulat$'ns '+ astr'n'mers (a0e tau-(t us
mu,( t(at $s /'nder+ul4 but t(e m'st $m*'rtant less'n /e (a0e re,e$0ed
+r'm t(em $s t(e d$s,'0ery '+ t(e abyss '+ 'ur $-n'ran,e $n relat$'n
t' t(e un$0erse5 an $-n'ran,e t(e ma-n$tude '+ /($,( reas'n) /$t('ut
t(e $n+'rmat$'n t(us der$0ed) ,'uld ne0er (a0e ,'n,e$0ed! T($s
d$s,'0ery '+ 'ur de+$,$en,$es must *r'du,e a -reat ,(an-e $n t(e
determ$nat$'n '+ t(e a$ms '+ (uman reas'n!
I+) t(ere+'re) a trans,endental substratum l$es at t(e +'undat$'n '+
t(e ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+ t($n-s5 a substratum /($,( $s t' +'rm
t(e +und +r'm /($,( all *'ss$ble *red$,ates '+ t($n-s are t' be
su**l$ed) t($s substratum ,ann't be anyt($n- else t(an t(e $dea '+ a
sum5t'tal '+ real$ty ='mn$tud' real$tat$s>! In t($s 0$e/) ne-at$'ns
are n't($n- but l$m$tat$'ns5 a term /($,( ,'uld n't) /$t( *r'*r$ety)
be a**l$ed t' t(em) $+ t(e unl$m$ted =t(e all> d$d n't +'rm t(e true
bas$s '+ 'ur ,'n,e*t$'n!
T($s ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a sum5t'tal '+ real$ty $s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a
t($n- $n $tsel+) re-arded as ,'m*letely determ$ned4 and t(e ,'n,e*t$'n
'+ an ens real$ss$mum $s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an $nd$0$dual be$n-)
$nasmu,( as $t $s determ$ned by t(at *red$,ate '+ all *'ss$ble
,'ntrad$,t'ry *red$,ates) /($,( $nd$,ates and bel'n-s t' be$n-! It $s)
t(ere+'re) a trans,endental $deal /($,( +'rms t(e bas$s '+ t(e
,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+ e0eryt($n- t(at e1$sts) and $s t(e ($-(est
mater$al ,'nd$t$'n '+ $ts *'ss$b$l$ty5 a ,'nd$t$'n 'n /($,( must
rest t(e ,'-$tat$'n '+ all 'b&e,ts /$t( res*e,t t' t(e$r ,'ntent! Nay)
m're) t($s $deal $s t(e 'nly *r'*er $deal '+ /($,( t(e (uman m$nd $s
,a*able4 be,ause $n t($s ,ase al'ne a -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- $s
,'m*letely determ$ned by and t(r'u-( $tsel+) and ,'-n$;ed as t(e
re*resentat$'n '+ an $nd$0$duum!
T(e l'-$,al determ$nat$'n '+ a ,'n,e*t$'n $s based u*'n a
d$s&un,t$0e syll'-$sm) t(e ma&'r '+ /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e l'-$,al
d$0$s$'n '+ t(e e1tent '+ a -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n) t(e m$n'r l$m$ts
t($s e1tent t' a ,erta$n *art) /($le t(e ,'n,lus$'n determ$nes t(e
,'n,e*t$'n by t($s *art! T(e -eneral ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a real$ty ,ann't be
d$0$ded a *r$'r$) be,ause) /$t('ut t(e a$d '+ e1*er$en,e) /e ,ann't
%n'/ any determ$nate %$nds '+ real$ty) stand$n- under t(e +'rmer as
t(e -enus! T(e trans,endental *r$n,$*le '+ t(e ,'m*lete
determ$nat$'n '+ all t($n-s $s t(ere+'re merely t(e re*resentat$'n
'+ t(e sum5t'tal '+ all real$ty4 $t $s n't a ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( $s t(e
-enus '+ all *red$,ates under $tsel+) but 'ne /($,( ,'m*re(ends t(em
all /$t($n $tsel+! T(e ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+ a t($n- $s
,'nse.uently based u*'n t(e l$m$tat$'n '+ t($s t'tal '+ real$ty) s'
mu,( be$n- *red$,ated '+ t(e t($n-) /($le all t(at rema$ns '0er $s
e1,luded5 a *r',edure /($,( $s $n e1a,t a-reement /$t( t(at '+ t(e
d$s&un,t$0e syll'-$sm and t(e determ$nat$'n '+ t(e 'b&e,ts $n t(e
,'n,lus$'n by 'ne '+ t(e members '+ t(e d$0$s$'n! It +'ll'/s t(at
reas'n) $n lay$n- t(e trans,endental $deal at t(e +'undat$'n '+ $ts
determ$nat$'n '+ all *'ss$ble t($n-s) ta%es a ,'urse $n e1a,t
anal'-y /$t( t(at /($,( $t *ursues $n d$s&un,t$0e syll'-$sms5 a
*r'*'s$t$'n /($,( +'rmed t(e bas$s '+ t(e systemat$, d$0$s$'n '+ all
trans,endental $deas) a,,'rd$n- t' /($,( t(ey are *r'du,ed $n ,'m*lete
*arallel$sm /$t( t(e t(ree m'des '+ syll'-$st$, reas'n$n- em*l'yed
by t(e (uman m$nd!
It $s sel+5e0$dent t(at reas'n) $n ,'-$tat$n- t(e ne,essary ,'m*lete
determ$nat$'n '+ t($n-s) d'es n't *resu**'se t(e e1$sten,e '+ a
be$n- ,'rres*'nd$n- t' $ts $deal) but merely t(e $dea '+ t(e $deal5
+'r t(e *ur*'se '+ dedu,$n- +r'm t(e un,'nd$t$'nal t'tal$ty '+
,'m*lete determ$nat$'n) T(e $deal $s t(ere+'re t(e *r't'ty*e '+ all
t($n-s) /($,() as de+e,t$0e ,'*$es =e,ty*a>) re,e$0e +r'm $t t(e
mater$al '+ t(e$r *'ss$b$l$ty) and a**r'1$mate t' $t m're 'r less)
t('u-( $t $s $m*'ss$ble t(at t(ey ,an e0er atta$n t' $ts *er+e,t$'n!
T(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s must t(ere+'re be re-arded as der$0ed5
e1,e*t t(at '+ t(e t($n- /($,( ,'nta$ns $n $tsel+ all real$ty) /($,(
must be ,'ns$dered t' be *r$m$t$0e and 'r$-$nal! F'r all ne-at$'ns5
and t(ey are t(e 'nly *red$,ates by means '+ /($,( all 't(er t($n-s
,an be d$st$n-u$s(ed +r'm t(e ens real$ss$mum5 are mere l$m$tat$'ns '+
a -reater and a ($-(er5 nay) t(e ($-(est real$ty4 and t(ey
,'nse.uently *resu**'se t($s real$ty) and are) as re-ards t(e$r
,'ntent) der$0ed +r'm $t! T(e man$+'ld nature '+ t($n-s $s 'nly an
$n+$n$tely 0ar$'us m'de '+ l$m$t$n- t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e ($-(est
real$ty) /($,( $s t(e$r ,'mm'n substratum4 &ust as all +$-ures are
*'ss$ble 'nly as d$++erent m'des '+ l$m$t$n- $n+$n$te s*a,e! T(e
'b&e,t '+ t(e $deal '+ reas'n5 an 'b&e,t e1$st$n- 'nly $n reas'n
$tsel+5 $s als' termed t(e *r$mal be$n- =ens 'r$-$nar$um>4 as (a0$n-
n' e1$sten,e su*er$'r t' ($m) t(e su*reme be$n- =ens summum>4 and as
be$n- t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ all 't(er be$n-s) /($,( ran% under $t) t(e
be$n- '+ all be$n-s =ens ent$um>! 3ut n'ne '+ t(ese terms $nd$,ate t(e
'b&e,t$0e relat$'n '+ an a,tually e1$st$n- 'b&e,t t' 't(er t($n-s) but
merely t(at '+ an $dea t' ,'n,e*t$'ns4 and all 'ur $n0est$-at$'ns $nt'
t($s sub&e,t st$ll lea0e us $n *er+e,t un,erta$nty /$t( re-ard t'
t(e e1$sten,e '+ t($s be$n-!
A *r$mal be$n- ,ann't be sa$d t' ,'ns$st '+ many 't(er be$n-s /$t(
an e1$sten,e /($,( $s der$0at$0e) +'r t(e latter *resu**'se t(e
+'rmer) and t(ere+'re ,ann't be ,'nst$tut$0e *arts '+ $t! It +'ll'/s
t(at t(e $deal '+ t(e *r$mal be$n- must be ,'-$tated as s$m*le!
T(e dedu,t$'n '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all 't(er t($n-s +r'm t($s
*r$mal be$n- ,ann't) str$,tly s*ea%$n-) be ,'ns$dered as a l$m$tat$'n)
'r as a %$nd '+ d$0$s$'n '+ $ts real$ty4 +'r t($s /'uld be re-ard$n-
t(e *r$mal be$n- as a mere a--re-ate5 /($,( (as been s('/n t' be
$m*'ss$ble) alt('u-( $t /as s' re*resented $n 'ur +$rst r'u-(
s%et,(! T(e ($-(est real$ty must be re-arded rat(er as t(e -r'und t(an
as t(e sum5t'tal '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all t($n-s) and t(e man$+'ld
nature '+ t($n-s be based) n't u*'n t(e l$m$tat$'n '+ t(e *r$mal be$n-
$tsel+) but u*'n t(e ,'m*lete ser$es '+ e++e,ts /($,( +l'/ +r'm $t!
And t(us all 'ur *'/ers '+ sense) as /ell as all *(en'menal real$ty)
*(en'menal real$ty) may be /$t( *r'*r$ety re-arded as bel'n-$n- t'
t($s ser$es '+ e++e,ts) /($le t(ey ,'uld n't (a0e +'rmed *arts '+
t(e $dea) ,'ns$dered as an a--re-ate! Pursu$n- t($s tra,%) and
(y*'stat$;$n- t($s $dea) /e s(all +$nd 'ursel0es aut('r$;ed t'
determ$ne 'ur n't$'n '+ t(e Su*reme 3e$n- by means '+ t(e mere
,'n,e*t$'n '+ a ($-(est real$ty) as 'ne) s$m*le) all5su++$,$ent)
eternal) and s' 'n5 $n 'ne /'rd) t' determ$ne $t $n $ts
un,'nd$t$'ned ,'m*leteness by t(e a$d '+ e0ery *'ss$ble *red$,ate! T(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a be$n- $s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ C'd $n $ts
trans,endental sense) and t(us t(e $deal '+ *ure reas'n $s t(e
'b&e,t5matter '+ a trans,endental t(e'l'-y!
3ut) by su,( an em*l'yment '+ t(e trans,endental $dea) /e s('uld
be '0er ste**$n- t(e l$m$ts '+ $ts 0al$d$ty and *ur*'se! F'r reas'n
*la,ed $t) as t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ all real$ty) at t(e bas$s '+ t(e
,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+ t($n-s) /$t('ut re.u$r$n- t(at t($s
,'n,e*t$'n be re-arded as t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an 'b&e,t$0e e1$sten,e!
Su,( an e1$sten,e /'uld be *urely +$,t$t$'us) and t(e (y*'stat$;$n- '+
t(e ,'ntent '+ t(e $dea $nt' an $deal) as an $nd$0$dual be$n-) $s a
ste* *er+e,tly unaut('r$;ed! Nay) m're) /e are n't e0en ,alled u*'n t'
assume t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ su,( an (y*'t(es$s) as n'ne '+ t(e
dedu,t$'ns dra/n +r'm su,( an $deal /'uld a++e,t t(e ,'m*lete
determ$nat$'n '+ t($n-s $n -eneral5 +'r t(e sa%e '+ /($,( al'ne $s t(e
$dea ne,essary!
It $s n't su++$,$ent t' ,$r,ums,r$be t(e *r',edure and t(e d$ale,t$,
'+ reas'n4 /e must als' endea0'ur t' d$s,'0er t(e s'ur,es '+ t($s
d$ale,t$,) t(at /e may (a0e $t $n 'ur *'/er t' -$0e a rat$'nal
e1*lanat$'n '+ t($s $llus$'n) as a *(en'men'n '+ t(e (uman m$nd! F'r
t(e $deal) '+ /($,( /e are at *resent s*ea%$n-) $s based) n't u*'n
an arb$trary) but u*'n a natural) $dea! T(e .uest$'n (en,e ar$ses6 H'/
(a**ens $t t(at reas'n re-ards t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all t($n-s as
dedu,ed +r'm a s$n-le *'ss$b$l$ty) t(at) t' /$t) '+ t(e ($-(est
real$ty) and *resu**'ses t($s as e1$st$n- $n an $nd$0$dual and
*r$mal be$n-@ *
T(e ans/er $s ready4 $t $s at 'n,e *resented by t(e *r',edure '+
trans,endental analyt$,! T(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ sensu'us 'b&e,ts $s a
relat$'n '+ t(ese 'b&e,ts t' t('u-(t) $n /($,( s'met($n- =t(e
em*$r$,al +'rm> may be ,'-$tated a *r$'r$4 /($le t(at /($,(
,'nst$tutes t(e matter5 t(e real$ty '+ t(e *(en'men'n =t(at element
/($,( ,'rres*'nds t' sensat$'n>5 must be -$0en +r'm /$t('ut) as
't(er/$se $t ,'uld n't e0en be ,'-$tated by) n'r ,'uld $ts *'ss$b$l$ty
be *resentable t' t(e m$nd! N'/) a sensu'us 'b&e,t $s ,'m*letely
determ$ned) /(en $t (as been ,'m*ared /$t( all *(en'menal
*red$,ates) and re*resented by means '+ t(ese e$t(er *'s$t$0ely 'r
ne-at$0ely! 3ut) as t(at /($,( ,'nst$tutes t(e t($n- $tsel+5 t(e
real $n a *(en'men'n) must be -$0en) and t(at) $n /($,( t(e real '+
all *(en'mena $s -$0en) $s e1*er$en,e) 'ne) s'le) and all5embra,$n-5
t(e mater$al '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all sensu'us 'b&e,ts must be
*resu**'sed as -$0en $n a /('le) and $t $s u*'n t(e l$m$tat$'n '+ t($s
/('le t(at t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all em*$r$,al 'b&e,ts) t(e$r d$st$n,t$'n
+r'm ea,( 't(er and t(e$r ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n) are based! N'/) n'
't(er 'b&e,ts are *resented t' us bes$des sensu'us 'b&e,ts) and
t(ese ,an be -$0en 'nly $n ,'nne,t$'n /$t( a *'ss$ble e1*er$en,e4 $t
+'ll'/s t(at a t($n- $s n't an 'b&e,t t' us) unless $t *resu**'ses t(e
/('le 'r sum5t'tal '+ em*$r$,al real$ty as t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ $ts
*'ss$b$l$ty! N'/) a natural $llus$'n leads us t' ,'ns$der t($s
*r$n,$*le) /($,( $s 0al$d 'nly '+ sensu'us 'b&e,ts) as 0al$d /$t(
re-ard t' t($n-s $n -eneral! And t(us /e are $ndu,ed t' ('ld t(e
em*$r$,al *r$n,$*le '+ 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s)
as *(en'mena) by lea0$n- 'ut t($s l$m$tat$0e ,'nd$t$'n) t' be a
trans,endental *r$n,$*le '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s $n -eneral! t
2e *r',eed a+ter/ards t' (y*'stat$;e t($s $dea '+ t(e sum5t'tal '+
all real$ty) by ,(an-$n- t(e d$str$but$0e un$ty '+ t(e em*$r$,al
e1er,$se '+ t(e understand$n- $nt' t(e ,'lle,t$0e un$ty '+ an
em*$r$,al /('le5 a d$ale,t$,al $llus$'n) and by ,'-$tat$n- t($s
/('le 'r sum '+ e1*er$en,e as an $nd$0$dual t($n-) ,'nta$n$n- $n
$tsel+ all em*$r$,al real$ty! T($s $nd$0$dual t($n- 'r be$n- $s
t(en) by means '+ t(e ab'0e5ment$'ned trans,endental subre*t$'n)
subst$tuted +'r 'ur n't$'n '+ a t($n- /($,( stands at t(e (ead '+
t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ all t($n-s) t(e real ,'nd$t$'ns '+ /('se ,'m*lete
determ$nat$'n $t *resents!7 d
7T($s $deal '+ t(e ens real$ss$mum5 alt('u-( merely a mental
re*resentat$'n5 $s +$rst 'b&e,t$0$;ed) t(at $s) (as an 'b&e,t$0e
e1$sten,e attr$buted t' $t) t(en (y*'stat$;ed) and +$nally) by t(e
natural *r'-ress '+ reas'n t' t(e ,'m*let$'n '+ un$ty) *ers'n$+$ed) as
/e s(all s('/ *resently! F'r t(e re-ulat$0e un$ty '+ e1*er$en,e $s n't
based u*'n *(en'mena t(emsel0es) but u*'n t(e ,'nne,t$'n '+ t(e
0ar$ety '+ *(en'mena by t(e understand$n- $n a ,'ns,$'usness) and t(us
t(e un$ty '+ t(e su*reme real$ty and t(e ,'m*lete determ$nab$l$ty '+
all t($n-s) seem t' res$de $n a su*reme understand$n-) and)
,'nse.uently) $n a ,'ns,$'us $ntell$-en,e! ,
SECTION III! O+ t(e Ar-uments em*l'yed by S*e,ulat$0e Reas'n $n
Pr''+ '+ t(e E1$sten,e '+ a Su*reme 3e$n-!
N't/$t(stand$n- t(e *ress$n- ne,ess$ty /($,( reas'n +eels) t' +'rm
s'me *resu**'s$t$'n t(at s(all ser0e t(e understand$n- as a *r'*er
bas$s +'r t(e ,'m*lete determ$nat$'n '+ $ts ,'n,e*t$'ns) t(e
$deal$st$, and +a,t$t$'us nature '+ su,( a *resu**'s$t$'n $s t''
e0$dent t' all'/ reas'n +'r a m'ment t' *ersuade $tsel+ $nt' a
bel$e+ '+ t(e 'b&e,t$0e e1$sten,e '+ a mere ,reat$'n '+ $ts '/n
t('u-(t! 3ut t(ere are 't(er ,'ns$derat$'ns /($,( ,'m*el reas'n t'
see% 'ut s'me rest$n- *la,e $n t(e re-ress +r'm t(e ,'nd$t$'ned t' t(e
un,'nd$t$'ned) /($,( $s n't -$0en as an a,tual e1$sten,e +r'm t(e mere
,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t) alt('u-( $t al'ne ,an -$0e ,'m*leteness t' t(e
ser$es '+ ,'nd$t$'ns! And t($s $s t(e natural ,'urse '+ e0ery (uman
reas'n) e0en '+ t(e m'st unedu,ated) alt('u-( t(e *at( at +$rst
entered $t d'es n't al/ays ,'nt$nue t' +'ll'/! It d'es n't be-$n
+r'm ,'n,e*t$'ns) but +r'm ,'mm'n e1*er$en,e) and re.u$res a bas$s
$n a,tual e1$sten,e! 3ut t($s bas$s $s $nse,ure) unless $t rests
u*'n t(e $mm'0able r',% '+ t(e abs'lutely ne,essary! And t($s
+'undat$'n $s $tsel+ un/'rt(y '+ trust) $+ $t lea0e under and ab'0e $t
em*ty s*a,e) $+ $t d' n't +$ll all) and lea0e n' r''m +'r a /(y 'r a
/(ere+'re) $+ $t be n't) $n 'ne /'rd) $n+$n$te $n $ts real$ty! /
I+ /e adm$t t(e e1$sten,e '+ s'me 'ne t($n-) /(ate0er $t may be)
/e must als' adm$t t(at t(ere $s s'met($n- /($,( e1$sts ne,essar$ly!
F'r /(at $s ,'nt$n-ent e1$sts 'nly under t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ s'me 't(er
t($n-) /($,( $s $ts ,ause4 and +r'm t($s /e must -' 'n t' ,'n,lude t(e
e1$sten,e '+ a ,ause /($,( $s n't ,'nt$n-ent) and /($,( ,'nse.uently
e1$sts ne,essar$ly and un,'nd$t$'nally! Su,( $s t(e ar-ument by
/($,( reas'n &ust$+$es $ts ad0an,es t'/ards a *r$mal be$n-! /
N'/ reas'n l''%s r'und +'r t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a be$n- t(at may be
adm$tted) /$t('ut $n,'ns$sten,y) t' be /'rt(y '+ t(e attr$bute '+
abs'lute ne,ess$ty) n't +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ $n+err$n- a *r$'r$) +r'm
t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a be$n-) $ts 'b&e,t$0e e1$sten,e =+'r $+ reas'n
all'/ed $tsel+ t' ta%e t($s ,'urse) $t /'uld n't re.u$re a bas$s $n
-$0en and a,tual e1$sten,e) but merely t(e su**'rt '+ *ure
,'n,e*t$'ns>) but +'r t(e *ur*'se '+ d$s,'0er$n-) am'n- all 'ur
,'n,e*t$'ns '+ *'ss$ble t($n-s) t(at ,'n,e*t$'n /($,( *'ssesses n'
element $n,'ns$stent /$t( t(e $dea '+ abs'lute ne,ess$ty! F'r t(at
t(ere must be s'me abs'lutely ne,essary e1$sten,e) $t re-ards as a
trut( already establ$s(ed! N'/) $+ $t ,an rem'0e e0ery e1$sten,e
$n,a*able '+ su**'rt$n- t(e attr$bute '+ abs'lute ne,ess$ty) e1,e*t$n-
'ne5 t($s must be t(e abs'lutely ne,essary be$n-) /(et(er $ts
ne,ess$ty $s ,'m*re(ens$ble by us) t(at $s) dedu,$ble +r'm t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ $t al'ne) 'r n't! ,
N'/ t(at) t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ /($,( ,'nta$ns a t(ere+'re t' e0ery
/(ere+'re) /($,( $s n't de+e,t$0e $n any res*e,t /(ate0er) /($,( $s
all5su++$,$ent as a ,'nd$t$'n) seems t' be t(e be$n- '+ /($,( /e ,an
&ustly *red$,ate abs'lute ne,ess$ty5 +'r t($s reas'n) t(at) *'ssess$n-
t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ all t(at $s *'ss$ble) $t d'es n't and ,ann't
$tsel+ re.u$re any ,'nd$t$'n! And t(us $t sat$s+$es) $n 'ne res*e,t at
least) t(e re.u$rements '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ abs'lute ne,ess$ty! In
t($s 0$e/) $t $s su*er$'r t' all 't(er ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,() as
de+$,$ent and $n,'m*lete) d' n't *'ssess t(e ,(ara,ter$st$, '+
$nde*enden,e '+ all ($-(er ,'nd$t$'ns! It $s true t(at /e ,ann't $n+er
+r'm t($s t(at /(at d'es n't ,'nta$n $n $tsel+ t(e su*reme and
,'m*lete ,'nd$t$'n5 t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ all 't(er t($n-s5 must *'ssess
'nly a ,'nd$t$'ned e1$sten,e4 but as l$ttle ,an /e assert t(e
,'ntrary) +'r t($s su**'sed be$n- d'es n't *'ssess t(e 'nly
,(ara,ter$st$, /($,( ,an enable reas'n t' ,'-n$;e by means '+ an a
*r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'n t(e un,'nd$t$'ned and ne,essary nature '+ $ts
e1$sten,e! e
T(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an ens real$ss$mum $s t(at /($,( best a-rees
/$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an un,'nd$t$'ned and ne,essary be$n-! T(e
+'rmer ,'n,e*t$'n d'es n't sat$s+y all t(e re.u$rements '+ t(e latter4
but /e (a0e n' ,('$,e) /e are 'bl$-ed t' ad(ere t' $t) +'r /e +$nd
t(at /e ,ann't d' /$t('ut t(e e1$sten,e '+ a ne,essary be$n-4 and e0en
alt('u-( /e adm$t $t) /e +$nd $t 'ut '+ 'ur *'/er t' d$s,'0er $n t(e
/('le s*(ere '+ *'ss$b$l$ty any be$n- t(at ,an ad0an,e /ell-r'unded
,la$ms t' su,( a d$st$n,t$'n! ,
T(e +'ll'/$n- $s) t(ere+'re) t(e natural ,'urse '+ (uman reas'n!
It be-$ns by *ersuad$n- $tsel+ '+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ s'me ne,essary
be$n-! In t($s be$n- $t re,'-n$;es t(e ,(ara,ter$st$,s '+
un,'nd$t$'ned e1$sten,e! It t(en see%s t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(at /($,( $s
$nde*endent '+ all ,'nd$t$'ns) and +$nds $t $n t(at /($,( $s $tsel+
t(e su++$,$ent ,'nd$t$'n '+ all 't(er t($n-s5 $n 't(er /'rds) $n
t(at /($,( ,'nta$ns all real$ty! 3ut t(e unl$m$ted all $s an
abs'lute un$ty) and $s ,'n,e$0ed by t(e m$nd as a be$n- 'ne and
su*reme4 and t(us reas'n ,'n,ludes t(at t(e Su*reme 3e$n-) as t(e
*r$mal bas$s '+ all t($n-s) *'ssesses an e1$sten,e /($,( $s abs'lutely
ne,essary! n
T($s ,'n,e*t$'n must be re-arded as $n s'me de-ree sat$s+a,t'ry)
$+ /e adm$t t(e e1$sten,e '+ a ne,essary be$n-) and ,'ns$der t(at
t(ere e1$sts a ne,ess$ty +'r a de+$n$te and +$nal ans/er t' t(ese
.uest$'ns! In su,( a ,ase) /e ,ann't ma%e a better ,('$,e) 'r rat(er
/e (a0e n' ,('$,e at all) but +eel 'ursel0es 'bl$-ed t' de,lare $n
+a0'ur '+ t(e abs'lute un$ty '+ ,'m*lete real$ty) as t(e ($-(est
s'ur,e '+ t(e *'ss$b$l$ty '+ t($n-s! 3ut $+ t(ere e1$sts n' m't$0e +'r
,'m$n- t' a de+$n$te ,'n,lus$'n) and /e may lea0e t(e .uest$'n
unans/ered t$ll /e (a0e +ully /e$-(ed b't( s$des5 $n 't(er /'rds) /(en
/e are merely ,alled u*'n t' de,$de ('/ mu,( /e (a**en t' %n'/ ab'ut
t(e .uest$'n) and ('/ mu,( /e merely +latter 'ursel0es t(at /e %n'/5
t(e ab'0e ,'n,lus$'n d'es n't a**ear t' be s' -reat ad0anta-e) but) 'n
t(e ,'ntrary) seems de+e,t$0e $n t(e -r'unds u*'n /($,( $t $s
su**'rted! s
F'r) adm$tt$n- t(e trut( '+ all t(at (as been sa$d) t(at) namely)
t(e $n+eren,e +r'm a -$0en e1$sten,e =my '/n) +'r e1am*le> t' t(e
e1$sten,e '+ an un,'nd$t$'ned and ne,essary be$n- $s 0al$d and
unassa$lable4 t(at) $n t(e se,'nd *la,e) /e must ,'ns$der a be$n-
/($,( ,'nta$ns all real$ty) and ,'nse.uently all t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+
't(er t($n-s) t' be abs'lutely un,'nd$t$'ned4 and adm$tt$n- t'')
t(at /e (a0e t(us d$s,'0ered t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- t' /($,( may be
attr$buted) /$t('ut $n,'ns$sten,y) abs'lute ne,ess$ty5 $t d'es n't
+'ll'/ +r'm all t($s t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a l$m$ted be$n-) $n
/($,( t(e su*reme real$ty d'es n't res$de) $s t(ere+'re $n,'m*at$ble
/$t( t(e $dea '+ abs'lute ne,ess$ty! F'r) alt('u-( I d' n't d$s,'0er
t(e element '+ t(e un,'nd$t$'ned $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a be$n-5 an
element /($,( $s man$+estly e1$stent $n t(e sum5t'tal '+ all
,'nd$t$'ns5 I am n't ent$tled t' ,'n,lude t(at $ts e1$sten,e $s
t(ere+'re ,'nd$t$'ned4 &ust as I am n't ent$tled t' a++$rm) $n a
(y*'t(et$,al syll'-$sm) t(at /(ere a ,erta$n ,'nd$t$'n d'es n't
e1$st =$n t(e *resent) ,'m*leteness) as +ar as *ure ,'n,e*t$'ns are
,'n,erned>) t(e ,'nd$t$'ned d'es n't e1$st e$t(er! On t(e ,'ntrary) /e
are +ree t' ,'ns$der all l$m$ted be$n-s as l$%e/$se un,'nd$t$'nally
ne,essary) alt('u-( /e are unable t' $n+er t($s +r'm t(e -eneral
,'n,e*t$'n /($,( /e (a0e '+ t(em! T(us ,'ndu,ted) t($s ar-ument $s
$n,a*able '+ -$0$n- us t(e least n't$'n '+ t(e *r'*ert$es '+ a
ne,essary be$n-) and must be $n e0ery res*e,t /$t('ut result! n
T($s ar-ument ,'nt$nues) ('/e0er) t' *'ssess a /e$-(t and an
aut('r$ty) /($,() $n s*$te '+ $ts 'b&e,t$0e $nsu++$,$en,y) $t (as
ne0er been d$0ested '+! F'r) -rant$n- t(at ,erta$n res*'ns$b$l$t$es
l$e u*'n us) /($,() as based 'n t(e $deas '+ reas'n) deser0e t' be
res*e,ted and subm$tted t') alt('u-( t(ey are $n,a*able '+ a real 'r
*ra,t$,al a**l$,at$'n t' 'ur nature) 'r) $n 't(er /'rds) /'uld be
res*'ns$b$l$t$es /$t('ut m't$0es) e1,e*t u*'n t(e su**'s$t$'n '+ a
Su*reme 3e$n- t' -$0e e++e,t and $n+luen,e t' t(e *ra,t$,al la/s6 $n
su,( a ,ase /e s('uld be b'und t' 'bey 'ur ,'n,e*t$'ns) /($,()
alt('u-( 'b&e,t$0ely $nsu++$,$ent) d') a,,'rd$n- t' t(e standard '+
reas'n) *re*'nderate '0er and are su*er$'r t' any ,la$ms t(at may be
ad0an,ed +r'm any 't(er .uarter! T(e e.u$l$br$um '+ d'ubt /'uld $n
t($s ,ase be destr'yed by a *ra,t$,al add$t$'n4 $ndeed) Reas'n /'uld
be ,'m*elled t' ,'ndemn (ersel+) $+ s(e re+used t' ,'m*ly /$t( t(e
demands '+ t(e &ud-ement) n' su*er$'r t' /($,( /e %n'/5 ('/e0er
de+e,t$0e (er understand$n- '+ t(e -r'unds '+ t(ese demands m$-(t be! d
T($s ar-ument) alt('u-( $n +a,t trans,endental) $nasmu,( as $t rests
u*'n t(e $ntr$ns$, $nsu++$,$en,y '+ t(e ,'nt$n-ent) $s s' s$m*le and
natural) t(at t(e ,'mm'nest understand$n- ,an a**re,$ate $ts 0alue! 2e
see t($n-s ar'und us ,(an-e) ar$se) and *ass a/ay4 t(ey) 'r t(e$r
,'nd$t$'n) must t(ere+'re (a0e a ,ause! T(e same demand must a-a$n
be made '+ t(e ,ause $tsel+5 as a datum '+ e1*er$en,e! N'/ $t $s
natural t(at /e s('uld *la,e t(e ($-(est ,ausal$ty &ust /(ere /e *la,e
su*reme ,ausal$ty) $n t(at be$n-) /($,( ,'nta$ns t(e ,'nd$t$'ns '+ all
*'ss$ble e++e,ts) and t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ /($,( $s s' s$m*le as t(at
'+ an all5embra,$n- real$ty! T($s ($-(est ,ause) t(en) /e re-ard as
abs'lutely ne,essary) be,ause /e +$nd $t abs'lutely ne,essary t'
r$se t' $t) and d' n't d$s,'0er any reas'n +'r *r',eed$n- bey'nd $t!
T(us) am'n- all nat$'ns) t(r'u-( t(e dar%est *'lyt(e$sm -l$mmer s'me
+a$nt s*ar%s '+ m'n't(e$sm) t' /($,( t(ese $d'laters (a0e been led)
n't +r'm re+le,t$'n and *r'+'und t('u-(t) but by t(e study and natural
*r'-ress '+ t(e ,'mm'n understand$n-! *
T(ere are 'nly t(ree m'des '+ *r'0$n- t(e e1$sten,e '+ a #e$ty) 'n
t(e -r'unds '+ s*e,ulat$0e reas'n! t
All t(e *at(s ,'ndu,t$n- t' t($s end be-$n e$t(er +r'm determ$nate
e1*er$en,e and t(e *e,ul$ar ,'nst$tut$'n '+ t(e /'rld '+ sense) and
r$se) a,,'rd$n- t' t(e la/s '+ ,ausal$ty) +r'm $t t' t(e ($-(est ,ause
e1$st$n- a*art +r'm t(e /'rld5 'r +r'm a *urely $ndeterm$nate
e1*er$en,e) t(at $s) s'me em*$r$,al e1$sten,e5 'r abstra,t$'n $s
made '+ all e1*er$en,e) and t(e e1$sten,e '+ a su*reme ,ause $s
,'n,luded +r'm a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'ns al'ne! T(e +$rst $s t(e
*(ys$,'t(e'l'-$,al ar-ument) t(e se,'nd t(e ,'sm'l'-$,al) t(e t($rd
t(e 'nt'l'-$,al! "'re t(ere are n't) and m're t(ere ,ann't be! t
I s(all s('/ $t $s as unsu,,ess+ul 'n t(e 'ne *at(5 t(e em*$r$,al5
as 'n t(e 't(er5 t(e trans,endental5 and t(at $t stret,(es $ts /$n-s
$n 0a$n) t' s'ar bey'nd t(e /'rld '+ sense by t(e mere m$-(t '+
s*e,ulat$0e t('u-(t! As re-ards t(e 'rder $n /($,( /e must d$s,uss
t('se ar-uments) $t /$ll be e1a,tly t(e re0erse '+ t(at $n /($,(
reas'n) $n t(e *r'-ress '+ $ts de0el'*ment) atta$ns t' t(em5 t(e 'rder
$n /($,( t(ey are *la,ed ab'0e! F'r $t /$ll be made man$+est t' t(e
reader t(at) alt('u-( e1*er$en,e *resents t(e ',,as$'n and t(e
start$n-5*'$nt) $t $s t(e trans,endental $dea '+ reas'n /($,( -u$des
$t $n $ts *$l-r$ma-e and $s t(e -'al '+ all $ts stru--les! I s(all
t(ere+'re be-$n /$t( an e1am$nat$'n '+ t(e trans,endental ar-ument)
and a+ter/ards $n.u$re /(at add$t$'nal stren-t( (as a,,rued t' t($s
m'de '+ *r''+ +r'm t(e add$t$'n '+ t(e em*$r$,al element! m
SECTION ID! O+ t(e Im*'ss$b$l$ty '+ an Ont'l'-$,al Pr''+ '+
t(e E1$sten,e '+ C'd!
It $s e0$dent +r'm /(at (as been sa$d t(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an
abs'lutely ne,essary be$n- $s a mere $dea) t(e 'b&e,t$0e real$ty '+
/($,( $s +ar +r'm be$n- establ$s(ed by t(e mere +a,t t(at $t $s a need
'+ reas'n! On t(e ,'ntrary) t($s $dea ser0es merely t' $nd$,ate a
,erta$n unatta$nable *er+e,t$'n) and rat(er l$m$ts t(e '*erat$'ns
t(an) by t(e *resentat$'n '+ ne/ 'b&e,ts) e1tends t(e s*(ere '+ t(e
understand$n-! 3ut a stran-e an'maly meets us at t(e 0ery t(res('ld4
+'r t(e $n+eren,e +r'm a -$0en e1$sten,e $n -eneral t' an abs'lutely
ne,essary e1$sten,e seems t' be ,'rre,t and una0'$dable) /($le t(e
,'nd$t$'ns '+ t(e understand$n- re+use t' a$d us $n +'rm$n- any
,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a be$n-! ,
P($l's'*(ers (a0e al/ays tal%ed '+ an abs'lutely ne,essary be$n-)
and (a0e ne0ert(eless de,l$ned t' ta%e t(e tr'uble '+ ,'n,e$0$n-
/(et(er5 and ('/5 a be$n- '+ t($s nature $s e0en ,'-$table) n't t'
ment$'n t(at $ts e1$sten,e $s a,tually dem'nstrable! A 0erbal
de+$n$t$'n '+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n $s ,erta$nly easy en'u-(6 $t $s s'met($n-
t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ /($,( $s $m*'ss$ble! 3ut d'es t($s de+$n$t$'n
t(r'/ any l$-(t u*'n t(e ,'nd$t$'ns /($,( render $t $m*'ss$ble t'
,'-$tate t(e n'n5e1$sten,e '+ a t($n-5 ,'nd$t$'ns /($,( /e /$s( t'
as,erta$n) t(at /e may d$s,'0er /(et(er /e t($n% anyt($n- $n t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a be$n- 'r n't@ F'r t(e mere +a,t t(at I t(r'/
a/ay) by means '+ t(e /'rd un,'nd$t$'ned) all t(e ,'nd$t$'ns /($,( t(e
understand$n- (ab$tually re.u$res $n 'rder t' re-ard anyt($n- as
ne,essary) $s 0ery +ar +r'm ma%$n- ,lear /(et(er by means '+ t(e
,'n,e*t$'n '+ t(e un,'nd$t$'nally ne,essary I t($n% '+ s'met($n-) 'r
really '+ n't($n- at all! r
Nay) m're) t($s ,(an,e5,'n,e*t$'n) n'/ be,'me s' ,urrent) many
(a0e endea0'ured t' e1*la$n by e1am*les /($,( seemed t' render any
$n.u$r$es re-ard$n- $ts $ntell$-$b$l$ty .u$te needless! E0ery
-e'metr$,al *r'*'s$t$'n5 a tr$an-le (as t(ree an-les5 $t /as sa$d)
$s abs'lutely ne,essary4 and t(us *e'*le tal%ed '+ an 'b&e,t /($,( lay
'ut '+ t(e s*(ere '+ 'ur understand$n- as $+ $t /ere *er+e,tly *la$n
/(at t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ su,( a be$n- meant! /
All t(e e1am*les addu,ed (a0e been dra/n) /$t('ut e1,e*t$'n) +r'm
&ud-ements) and n't +r'm t($n-s! 3ut t(e un,'nd$t$'ned ne,ess$ty '+
a &ud-ement d'es n't +'rm t(e abs'lute ne,ess$ty '+ a t($n-! On t(e
,'ntrary) t(e abs'lute ne,ess$ty '+ a &ud-ement $s 'nly a
,'nd$t$'ned ne,ess$ty '+ a t($n-) 'r '+ t(e *red$,ate $n a
&ud-ement! T(e *r'*'s$t$'n ab'0e5ment$'ned d'es n't en'un,e t(at t(ree
an-les ne,essar$ly e1$st) but) u*'n ,'nd$t$'n t(at a tr$an-le
e1$sts) t(ree an-les must ne,essar$ly e1$st5 $n $t! And t(us t($s
l'-$,al ne,ess$ty (as been t(e s'ur,e '+ t(e -reatest delus$'ns!
Ha0$n- +'rmed an a *r$'r$ ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n-) t(e ,'ntent '+
/($,( /as made t' embra,e e1$sten,e) /e bel$e0ed 'ursel0es sa+e $n
,'n,lud$n- t(at) be,ause e1$sten,e bel'n-s ne,essar$ly t' t(e 'b&e,t
'+ t(e ,'n,e*t$'n =t(at $s) under t(e ,'nd$t$'n '+ my *'s$t$n- t($s
t($n- as -$0en>) t(e e1$sten,e '+ t(e t($n- $s als' *'s$ted
ne,essar$ly) and t(at $t $s t(ere+'re abs'lutely ne,essary5 merely
be,ause $ts e1$sten,e (as been ,'-$tated $n t(e ,'n,e*t$'n! b
I+) $n an $dent$,al &ud-ement) I ann$($late t(e *red$,ate $n
t('u-(t) and reta$n t(e sub&e,t) a ,'ntrad$,t$'n $s t(e result4 and
(en,e I say) t(e +'rmer bel'n-s ne,essar$ly t' t(e latter! 3ut $+ I
su**ress b't( sub&e,t and *red$,ate $n t('u-(t) n' ,'ntrad$,t$'n
ar$ses4 +'r t(ere $s n't($n- at all) and t(ere+'re n' means '+ +'rm$n-
a ,'ntrad$,t$'n! T' su**'se t(e e1$sten,e '+ a tr$an-le and n't t(at
'+ $ts t(ree an-les) $s sel+5,'ntrad$,t'ry4 but t' su**'se t(e
n'n5e1$sten,e '+ b't( tr$an-le and an-les $s *er+e,tly adm$ss$ble! And
s' $s $t /$t( t(e ,'n,e*t$'n '+ an abs'lutely ne,essary be$n-!
Ann$($late $ts e1$sten,e $n t('u-(t) and y'u ann$($late t(e t($n-
$tsel+ /$t( all $ts *red$,ates4 ('/ t(en ,an t(ere be any r''m +'r
,'ntrad$,t$'n@ E1ternally) t(ere $s n't($n- t' -$0e r$se t' a
,'ntrad$,t$'n) +'r a t($n- ,ann't be ne,essary e1ternally4 n'r
$nternally) +'r) by t(e ann$($lat$'n 'r su**ress$'n '+ t(e t($n-
$tsel+) $ts $nternal *r'*ert$es are als' ann$($lated! C'd $s
'mn$*'tent5 t(at $s a ne,essary &ud-ement! H$s 'mn$*'ten,e ,ann't be
den$ed) $+ t(e e1$sten,e '+ a #e$ty $s *'s$ted5 t(e e1$sten,e) t(at
$s) '+ an $n+$n$te be$n-) t(e t/' ,'n,e*t$'ns be$n- $dent$,al! 3ut
/(en y'u say) C'd d'es n't e1$st) ne$t(er 'mn$*'ten,e n'r any 't(er
*red$,ate $s a++$rmed4 t(ey must all d$sa**ear /$t( t(e sub&e,t) and
$n t($s &ud-ement t(ere ,ann't e1$st t(e least sel+5,'ntrad$,t$'n! $
J'u (a0e t(us seen t(at /(en t(e *red$,ate '+ a &ud-ement $s
ann$($lated $n t('u-(t al'n- /$t( t(e sub&e,t) n' $nternal
,'ntrad$,t$'n ,an ar$se) be t(e *red$,ate /(at $t may! T(ere $s n'
*'ss$b$l$ty '+ e0ad$n- t(e ,'n,lus$'n5 y'u +$nd y'ursel0es ,'m*elled
t' de,lare6 T(ere are ,erta$n sub&e,ts /($,( ,ann't be ann$($lated
$n t('u-(t! 3ut t($s $s n't($n- m're t(an say$n-6 T(ere e1$st sub&e,ts
/($,( are abs'lutely ne,essary5 t(e 0ery (y*'t(es$s /($,( y'u are
,alled u*'n t' establ$s(! F'r I +$nd mysel+ unable t' +'rm t(e
sl$-(test ,'n,e*t$'n '+ a t($n- /($,( /(en ann$