Human Rights Notes

ovfabian_2014-2015
International Covenant on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights
Adopted and opened for signature, ratifcation and accession by
General Assembly resolution 22A !""I# of $% &ecember $'%%
entry into force ( )anuary $'*%, in accordance +ith article 2*
Preamble
The States Parties to the present ovenant!
onsi"ering that! in a##or"an#e $ith the prin#iples pro#laime" in the harter of the
%nite" Nations! re#ognition of the inherent "ignit& an" of the e'ual an" inalienable
rights of all members of the human famil& is the foun"ation of free"om! (usti#e an"
pea#e in the $orl"!
Re#ogni)ing that these rights "erive from the inherent "ignit& of the human person!
Re#ogni)ing that! in a##or"an#e $ith the %niversal *e#laration of Human Rights! the
i"eal of free human beings en(o&ing free"om from fear an" $ant #an onl& be
a#hieve" if #on"itions are #reate" $hereb& ever&one ma& en(o& his e#onomi#!
so#ial an" #ultural rights! as $ell as his #ivil an" politi#al rights!
onsi"ering the obligation of States un"er the harter of the %nite" Nations to
promote universal respe#t for! an" observan#e of! human rights an" free"oms!
Reali)ing that the in"ivi"ual! having "uties to other in"ivi"uals an" to the
#ommunit& to $hi#h he belongs! is un"er a responsibilit& to strive for the promotion
an" observan#e of the rights re#ogni)e" in the present ovenant!
+gree upon the follo$ing arti#les,
,AR- I
Article 1
1- +ll peoples have the right of self-"etermination- .& virtue of that right the& freel&
"etermine their politi#al status an" freel& pursue their e#onomi#! so#ial an" #ultural
"evelopment-
2- +ll peoples ma&! for their o$n en"s! freel& "ispose of their natural $ealth an"
resour#es $ithout pre(u"i#e to an& obligations arising out of international e#onomi#
#o-operation! base" upon the prin#iple of mutual bene/t! an" international la$- 0n
no #ase ma& a people be "eprive" of its o$n means of subsisten#e-
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant! in#lu"ing those having responsibilit&
for the a"ministration of Non-Self-2overning an" Trust Territories! shall promote the
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reali)ation of the right of self-"etermination! an" shall respe#t that right! in
#onformit& $ith the provisions of the harter of the %nite" Nations-
,AR- II
Article 2
1- 3a#h State Part& to the present ovenant un"erta4es to ta4e steps! in"ivi"uall&
an" through international assistan#e an" #o-operation! espe#iall& e#onomi# an"
te#hni#al! to the ma5imum of its available resour#es! $ith a vie$ to a#hieving
progressivel& the full reali)ation of the rights re#ogni)e" in the present ovenant b&
all appropriate means! in#lu"ing parti#ularl& the a"option of legislative measures-
2- The States Parties to the present ovenant un"erta4e to guarantee that the
rights enun#iate" in the present ovenant $ill be e5er#ise" $ithout "is#rimination
of an& 4in" as to ra#e! #olour! se5! language! religion! politi#al or other opinion!
national or so#ial origin! propert&! birth or other status-
1- *eveloping #ountries! $ith "ue regar" to human rights an" their national
e#onom&! ma& "etermine to $hat e5tent the& $oul" guarantee the e#onomi# rights
re#ogni)e" in the present ovenant to non-nationals-
Article 3
The States Parties to the present ovenant un"erta4e to ensure the e'ual right of
men an" $omen to the en(o&ment of all e#onomi#! so#ial an" #ultural rights set
forth in the present ovenant-
Article 4
The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e that! in the en(o&ment of
those rights provi"e" b& the State in #onformit& $ith the present ovenant! the
State ma& sub(e#t su#h rights onl& to su#h limitations as are "etermine" b& la$ onl&
in so far as this ma& be #ompatible $ith the nature of these rights an" solel& for the
purpose of promoting the general $elfare in a "emo#rati# so#iet&-
Article 5
1- Nothing in the present ovenant ma& be interprete" as impl&ing for an& State!
group or person an& right to engage in an& a#tivit& or to perform an& a#t aime" at
the "estru#tion of an& of the rights or free"oms re#ogni)e" herein! or at their
limitation to a greater e5tent than is provi"e" for in the present ovenant-
2- No restri#tion upon or "erogation from an& of the fun"amental human rights
re#ogni)e" or e5isting in an& #ountr& in virtue of la$! #onventions! regulations or
#ustom shall be a"mitte" on the prete5t that the present ovenant "oes not
re#ogni)e su#h rights or that it re#ogni)es them to a lesser e5tent-
,AR- III
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Article 6
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the right to $or4! $hi#h
in#lu"es the right of ever&one to the opportunit& to gain his living b& $or4 $hi#h he
freel& #hooses or a##epts! an" $ill ta4e appropriate steps to safeguar" this right-
2- The steps to be ta4en b& a State Part& to the present ovenant to a#hieve the full
reali)ation of this right shall in#lu"e te#hni#al an" vo#ational gui"an#e an" training
programmes! poli#ies an" te#hni'ues to a#hieve stea"& e#onomi#! so#ial an"
#ultural "evelopment an" full an" pro"u#tive emplo&ment un"er #on"itions
safeguar"ing fun"amental politi#al an" e#onomi# free"oms to the in"ivi"ual-
Article 7
The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the right of ever&one to the
en(o&ment of (ust an" favourable #on"itions of $or4 $hi#h ensure! in parti#ular,
6a7 Remuneration $hi#h provi"es all $or4ers! as a minimum! $ith,
6i7 8air $ages an" e'ual remuneration for $or4 of e'ual value $ithout "istin#tion of
an& 4in"! in parti#ular $omen being guarantee" #on"itions of $or4 not inferior to
those en(o&e" b& men! $ith e'ual pa& for e'ual $or49
6ii7 + "e#ent living for themselves an" their families in a##or"an#e $ith the
provisions of the present ovenant9
6b7 Safe an" health& $or4ing #on"itions9
6#7 3'ual opportunit& for ever&one to be promote" in his emplo&ment to an
appropriate higher level! sub(e#t to no #onsi"erations other than those of seniorit&
an" #ompeten#e9
6" 7 Rest! leisure an" reasonable limitation of $or4ing hours an" perio"i# holi"a&s
$ith pa&! as $ell as remuneration for publi# holi"a&s
Article 8
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant un"erta4e to ensure,
6a7 The right of ever&one to form tra"e unions an" (oin the tra"e union of his #hoi#e!
sub(e#t onl& to the rules of the organi)ation #on#erne"! for the promotion an"
prote#tion of his e#onomi# an" so#ial interests- No restri#tions ma& be pla#e" on the
e5er#ise of this right other than those pres#ribe" b& la$ an" $hi#h are ne#essar& in
a "emo#rati# so#iet& in the interests of national se#urit& or publi# or"er or for the
prote#tion of the rights an" free"oms of others9
6b7 The right of tra"e unions to establish national fe"erations or #onfe"erations an"
the right of the latter to form or (oin international tra"e-union organi)ations9
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6#7 The right of tra"e unions to fun#tion freel& sub(e#t to no limitations other than
those pres#ribe" b& la$ an" $hi#h are ne#essar& in a "emo#rati# so#iet& in the
interests of national se#urit& or publi# or"er or for the prote#tion of the rights an"
free"oms of others9
6"7 The right to stri4e! provi"e" that it is e5er#ise" in #onformit& $ith the la$s of the
parti#ular #ountr&-
2- This arti#le shall not prevent the imposition of la$ful restri#tions on the e5er#ise
of these rights b& members of the arme" for#es or of the poli#e or of the
a"ministration of the State-
1- Nothing in this arti#le shall authori)e States Parties to the 0nternational :abour
;rganisation onvention of 1<4= #on#erning 8ree"om of +sso#iation an" Prote#tion
of the Right to ;rgani)e to ta4e legislative measures $hi#h $oul" pre(u"i#e! or
appl& the la$ in su#h a manner as $oul" pre(u"i#e! the guarantees provi"e" for in
that onvention-
Article 9
The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the right of ever&one to so#ial
se#urit&! in#lu"ing so#ial insuran#e-
Article 10
The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e that,
1- The $i"est possible prote#tion an" assistan#e shoul" be a##or"e" to the famil&!
$hi#h is the natural an" fun"amental group unit of so#iet&! parti#ularl& for its
establishment an" $hile it is responsible for the #are an" e"u#ation of "epen"ent
#hil"ren- >arriage must be entere" into $ith the free #onsent of the inten"ing
spouses-
2- Spe#ial prote#tion shoul" be a##or"e" to mothers "uring a reasonable perio"
before an" after #hil"birth- *uring su#h perio" $or4ing mothers shoul" be a##or"e"
pai" leave or leave $ith a"e'uate so#ial se#urit& bene/ts-
1- Spe#ial measures of prote#tion an" assistan#e shoul" be ta4en on behalf of all
#hil"ren an" &oung persons $ithout an& "is#rimination for reasons of parentage or
other #on"itions- hil"ren an" &oung persons shoul" be prote#te" from e#onomi#
an" so#ial e5ploitation- Their emplo&ment in $or4 harmful to their morals or health
or "angerous to life or li4el& to hamper their normal "evelopment shoul" be
punishable b& la$- States shoul" also set age limits belo$ $hi#h the pai"
emplo&ment of #hil" labour shoul" be prohibite" an" punishable b& la$-
Article 11
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the right of ever&one to an
a"e'uate stan"ar" of living for himself an" his famil&! in#lu"ing a"e'uate foo"!
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#lothing an" housing! an" to the #ontinuous improvement of living #on"itions- The
States Parties $ill ta4e appropriate steps to ensure the reali)ation of this right!
re#ogni)ing to this e?e#t the essential importan#e of international #o-operation
base" on free #onsent-
2- The States Parties to the present ovenant! re#ogni)ing the fun"amental right of
ever&one to be free from hunger! shall ta4e! in"ivi"uall& an" through international
#o-operation! the measures! in#lu"ing spe#i/# programmes! $hi#h are nee"e",
6a7 To improve metho"s of pro"u#tion! #onservation an" "istribution of foo" b&
ma4ing full use of te#hni#al an" s#ienti/# 4no$le"ge! b& "isseminating 4no$le"ge
of the prin#iples of nutrition an" b& "eveloping or reforming agrarian s&stems in
su#h a $a& as to a#hieve the most e@#ient "evelopment an" utili)ation of natural
resour#es9
6b7 Ta4ing into a##ount the problems of both foo"-importing an" foo"-e5porting
#ountries! to ensure an e'uitable "istribution of $orl" foo" supplies in relation to
nee"-
Article 12
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the right of ever&one to the
en(o&ment of the highest attainable stan"ar" of ph&si#al an" mental health-
2- The steps to be ta4en b& the States Parties to the present ovenant to a#hieve
the full reali)ation of this right shall in#lu"e those ne#essar& for,
6a7 The provision for the re"u#tion of the stillbirth-rate an" of infant mortalit& an"
for the health& "evelopment of the #hil"9
6b7 The improvement of all aspe#ts of environmental an" in"ustrial h&giene9
6#7 The prevention! treatment an" #ontrol of epi"emi#! en"emi#! o##upational an"
other "iseases9
6"7 The #reation of #on"itions $hi#h $oul" assure to all me"i#al servi#e an" me"i#al
attention in the event of si#4ness-
Article 13
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the right of ever&one to
e"u#ation- The& agree that e"u#ation shall be "ire#te" to the full "evelopment of
the human personalit& an" the sense of its "ignit&! an" shall strengthen the respe#t
for human rights an" fun"amental free"oms- The& further agree that e"u#ation
shall enable all persons to parti#ipate e?e#tivel& in a free so#iet&! promote
un"erstan"ing! toleran#e an" frien"ship among all nations an" all ra#ial! ethni# or
religious groups! an" further the a#tivities of the %nite" Nations for the
maintenan#e of pea#e-
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2- The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e that! $ith a vie$ to
a#hieving the full reali)ation of this right,
6a7 Primar& e"u#ation shall be #ompulsor& an" available free to all9
6b7 Se#on"ar& e"u#ation in its "i?erent forms! in#lu"ing te#hni#al an" vo#ational
se#on"ar& e"u#ation! shall be ma"e generall& available an" a##essible to all b&
ever& appropriate means! an" in parti#ular b& the progressive intro"u#tion of free
e"u#ation9
6#7 Higher e"u#ation shall be ma"e e'uall& a##essible to all! on the basis of
#apa#it&! b& ever& appropriate means! an" in parti#ular b& the progressive
intro"u#tion of free e"u#ation9
6"7 8un"amental e"u#ation shall be en#ourage" or intensi/e" as far as possible for
those persons $ho have not re#eive" or #omplete" the $hole perio" of their
primar& e"u#ation9
6e7 The "evelopment of a s&stem of s#hools at all levels shall be a#tivel& pursue"!
an a"e'uate fello$ship s&stem shall be establishe"! an" the material #on"itions of
tea#hing sta? shall be #ontinuousl& improve"-
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant un"erta4e to have respe#t for the
libert& of parents an"! $hen appli#able! legal guar"ians to #hoose for their #hil"ren
s#hools! other than those establishe" b& the publi# authorities! $hi#h #onform to
su#h minimum e"u#ational stan"ar"s as ma& be lai" "o$n or approve" b& the State
an" to ensure the religious an" moral e"u#ation of their #hil"ren in #onformit& $ith
their o$n #onvi#tions-
4- No part of this arti#le shall be #onstrue" so as to interfere $ith the libert& of
in"ivi"uals an" bo"ies to establish an" "ire#t e"u#ational institutions! sub(e#t
al$a&s to the observan#e of the prin#iples set forth in paragraph 0 of this arti#le an"
to the re'uirement that the e"u#ation given in su#h institutions shall #onform to
su#h minimum stan"ar"s as ma& be lai" "o$n b& the State-
Article 14
3a#h State Part& to the present ovenant $hi#h! at the time of be#oming a Part&!
has not been able to se#ure in its metropolitan territor& or other territories un"er its
(uris"i#tion #ompulsor& primar& e"u#ation! free of #harge! un"erta4es! $ithin t$o
&ears! to $or4 out an" a"opt a "etaile" plan of a#tion for the progressive
implementation! $ithin a reasonable number of &ears! to be /5e" in the plan! of the
prin#iple of #ompulsor& e"u#ation free of #harge for all-
Article 15
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the right of ever&one,
6a7 To ta4e part in #ultural life9
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6b7 To en(o& the bene/ts of s#ienti/# progress an" its appli#ations9
6#7 To bene/t from the prote#tion of the moral an" material interests resulting from
an& s#ienti/#! literar& or artisti# pro"u#tion of $hi#h he is the author-
2- The steps to be ta4en b& the States Parties to the present ovenant to a#hieve
the full reali)ation of this right shall in#lu"e those ne#essar& for the #onservation!
the "evelopment an" the "i?usion of s#ien#e an" #ulture-
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant un"erta4e to respe#t the free"om
in"ispensable for s#ienti/# resear#h an" #reative a#tivit&-
4- The States Parties to the present ovenant re#ogni)e the bene/ts to be "erive"
from the en#ouragement an" "evelopment of international #onta#ts an" #o-
operation in the s#ienti/# an" #ultural /el"s-
,AR- I0
Article 16
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant un"erta4e to submit in #onformit&
$ith this part of the ovenant reports on the measures $hi#h the& have a"opte"
an" the progress ma"e in a#hieving the observan#e of the rights re#ogni)e" herein-
2-
6a7 +ll reports shall be submitte" to the Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations!
$ho shall transmit #opies to the 3#onomi# an" So#ial oun#il for #onsi"eration in
a##or"an#e $ith the provisions of the present ovenant9
6b7 The Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations shall also transmit to the
spe#iali)e" agen#ies #opies of the reports! or an& relevant parts therefrom! from
States Parties to the present ovenant $hi#h are also members of these spe#iali)e"
agen#ies in so far as these reports! or parts therefrom! relate to an& matters $hi#h
fall $ithin the responsibilities of the sai" agen#ies in a##or"an#e $ith their
#onstitutional instruments-
Article 17
1- The States Parties to the present ovenant shall furnish their reports in stages! in
a##or"an#e $ith a programme to be establishe" b& the 3#onomi# an" So#ial oun#il
$ithin one &ear of the entr& into for#e of the present ovenant after #onsultation
$ith the States Parties an" the spe#iali)e" agen#ies #on#erne"-
2- Reports ma& in"i#ate fa#tors an" "i@#ulties a?e#ting the "egree of ful/lment of
obligations un"er the present ovenant-
1- Ahere relevant information has previousl& been furnishe" to the %nite" Nations
or to an& spe#iali)e" agen#& b& an& State Part& to the present ovenant! it $ill not
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be ne#essar& to repro"u#e that information! but a pre#ise referen#e to the
information so furnishe" $ill su@#e-
Article 18
Pursuant to its responsibilities un"er the harter of the %nite" Nations in the /el" of
human rights an" fun"amental free"oms! the 3#onomi# an" So#ial oun#il ma&
ma4e arrangements $ith the spe#iali)e" agen#ies in respe#t of their reporting to it
on the progress ma"e in a#hieving the observan#e of the provisions of the present
ovenant falling $ithin the s#ope of their a#tivities- These reports ma& in#lu"e
parti#ulars of "e#isions an" re#ommen"ations on su#h implementation a"opte" b&
their #ompetent organs-
Article 19
The 3#onomi# an" So#ial oun#il ma& transmit to the ommission on Human Rights
for stu"& an" general re#ommen"ation or! as appropriate! for information the
reports #on#erning human rights submitte" b& States in a##or"an#e $ith arti#les 1B
an" 1C! an" those #on#erning human rights submitte" b& the spe#iali)e" agen#ies
in a##or"an#e $ith arti#le 1=-
Article 20
The States Parties to the present ovenant an" the spe#iali)e" agen#ies #on#erne"
ma& submit #omments to the 3#onomi# an" So#ial oun#il on an& general
re#ommen"ation un"er arti#le 1< or referen#e to su#h general re#ommen"ation in
an& report of the ommission on Human Rights or an& "o#umentation referre" to
therein-
Article 21
The 3#onomi# an" So#ial oun#il ma& submit from time to time to the 2eneral
+ssembl& reports $ith re#ommen"ations of a general nature an" a summar& of the
information re#eive" from the States Parties to the present ovenant an" the
spe#iali)e" agen#ies on the measures ta4en an" the progress ma"e in a#hieving
general observan#e of the rights re#ogni)e" in the present ovenant-
Article 22
The 3#onomi# an" So#ial oun#il ma& bring to the attention of other organs of the
%nite" Nations! their subsi"iar& organs an" spe#iali)e" agen#ies #on#erne" $ith
furnishing te#hni#al assistan#e an& matters arising out of the reports referre" to in
this part of the present ovenant $hi#h ma& assist su#h bo"ies in "e#i"ing! ea#h
$ithin its /el" of #ompeten#e! on the a"visabilit& of international measures li4el& to
#ontribute to the e?e#tive progressive implementation of the present ovenant-
Article 23
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The States Parties to the present ovenant agree that international a#tion for the
a#hievement of the rights re#ogni)e" in the present ovenant in#lu"es su#h
metho"s as the #on#lusion of #onventions! the a"option of re#ommen"ations! the
furnishing of te#hni#al assistan#e an" the hol"ing of regional meetings an"
te#hni#al meetings for the purpose of #onsultation an" stu"& organi)e" in
#on(un#tion $ith the 2overnments #on#erne"-
Article 24
Nothing in the present ovenant shall be interprete" as impairing the provisions of
the harter of the %nite" Nations an" of the #onstitutions of the spe#iali)e"
agen#ies $hi#h "e/ne the respe#tive responsibilities of the various organs of the
%nite" Nations an" of the spe#iali)e" agen#ies in regar" to the matters "ealt $ith in
the present ovenant-
Article 25
Nothing in the present ovenant shall be interprete" as impairing the inherent right
of all peoples to en(o& an" utili)e full& an" freel& their natural $ealth an" resour#es-
,AR- 0
Article 26
1- The present ovenant is open for signature b& an& State >ember of the %nite"
Nations or member of an& of its spe#iali)e" agen#ies! b& an& State Part& to the
Statute of the 0nternational ourt of Dusti#e! an" b& an& other State $hi#h has been
invite" b& the 2eneral +ssembl& of the %nite" Nations to be#ome a part& to the
present ovenant-
2- The present ovenant is sub(e#t to rati/#ation- 0nstruments of rati/#ation shall be
"eposite" $ith the Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations-
1- The present ovenant shall be open to a##ession b& an& State referre" to in
paragraph 1 of this arti#le-
4- +##ession shall be e?e#te" b& the "eposit of an instrument of a##ession $ith the
Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations-
5- The Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations shall inform all States $hi#h have
signe" the present ovenant or a##e"e" to it of the "eposit of ea#h instrument of
rati/#ation or a##ession-
Article 27
1- The present ovenant shall enter into for#e three months after the "ate of the
"eposit $ith the Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations of the thirt&-/fth
instrument of rati/#ation or instrument of a##ession-
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2- 8or ea#h State ratif&ing the present ovenant or a##e"ing to it after the "eposit
of the thirt&-/fth instrument of rati/#ation or instrument of a##ession! the present
ovenant shall enter into for#e three months after the "ate of the "eposit of its o$n
instrument of rati/#ation or instrument of a##ession-
Article 28
The provisions of the present ovenant shall e5ten" to all parts of fe"eral States
$ithout an& limitations or e5#eptions-
Article 29
1- +n& State Part& to the present ovenant ma& propose an amen"ment an" /le it
$ith the Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations- The Se#retar&-2eneral shall
thereupon #ommuni#ate an& propose" amen"ments to the States Parties to the
present ovenant $ith a re'uest that the& notif& him $hether the& favour a
#onferen#e of States Parties for the purpose of #onsi"ering an" voting upon the
proposals- 0n the event that at least one thir" of the States Parties favours su#h a
#onferen#e! the Se#retar&-2eneral shall #onvene the #onferen#e un"er the auspi#es
of the %nite" Nations- +n& amen"ment a"opte" b& a ma(orit& of the States Parties
present an" voting at the #onferen#e shall be submitte" to the 2eneral +ssembl& of
the %nite" Nations for approval-
2- +men"ments shall #ome into for#e $hen the& have been approve" b& the
2eneral +ssembl& of the %nite" Nations an" a##epte" b& a t$o-thir"s ma(orit& of
the States Parties to the present ovenant in a##or"an#e $ith their respe#tive
#onstitutional pro#esses-
1- Ahen amen"ments #ome into for#e the& shall be bin"ing on those States Parties
$hi#h have a##epte" them! other States Parties still being boun" b& the provisions
of the present ovenant an" an& earlier amen"ment $hi#h the& have a##epte"-
Article 30
0rrespe#tive of the noti/#ations ma"e un"er arti#le 2B! paragraph 5! the Se#retar&-
2eneral of the %nite" Nations shall inform all States referre" to in paragraph 0 of the
same arti#le of the follo$ing parti#ulars,
6a7 Signatures! rati/#ations an" a##essions un"er arti#le 2B9
6b7 The "ate of the entr& into for#e of the present ovenant un"er arti#le 2C an" the
"ate of the entr& into for#e of an& amen"ments un"er arti#le 2<-
Article 31
1- The present ovenant! of $hi#h the hinese! 3nglish! 8ren#h! Russian an"
Spanish te5ts are e'uall& authenti#! shall be "eposite" in the ar#hives of the %nite"
Nations-
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Human Rights Notes
ovfabian_2014-2015
2- The Se#retar&-2eneral of the %nite" Nations shall transmit #erti/e" #opies of the
present ovenant to all States referre" to in arti#le 2B-
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