Wire Rope General Information

A wire rope is a piece of flexible,
multiwired,
stranded machinery made of many
precision parts.
IWRC (independent
Wire Rope Core)
provides good crush
resistance and
increased strength.
Fiber Core provides
excellent flexibility
Usually a wire rope consists of a core eber! around which
a nuber of ultiwired strands are "laid" or helically bent.
#here are two general types of cores for wire rope fiber
cores and wire cores. #he fiber core ay be ade fro
natural or synthetic fibers. #he wire core can be an
Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)! or a $trand Core ($C).
#he purpose of the core is to provide support and aintain the position of the outer strands
during operation.
%ny nuber of ultiwired strands ay be laid around the core. #he ost popular arrangeent
is six strands around the core! as this cobination gives the best balance.
#he nuber of wires per strand ay vary fro & to '(! with the a)ority of wire ropes falling
into the *+wire! ('+wire! or &*+wire strand categories.
Understand what the "lays" of wire rope ean
",ay" of a wire rope is siply a description of the way wires and strands are placed during
construction. Right lay and left lay refers to the direction of strands. Right lay eans that the
strands pass fro left to right across the rope. ,eft lay eans )ust the opposite- strands pass
fro right to left.
Regular lay and lang lay describes the way wires are placed within each strand. Regular lay
eans that wire in the strands are laid opposite in direction to the lay of the strands. ,ang lay
eans that wires are laid in the sae direction as the lay of the strands.
.ost of the wire rope used is right lay! regular lay. #his specification has the widest range of
applications and eets the re/uireents of ost e/uipent. In fact! other lay specifications
are considered exceptions and ust be re/uested when ordering.
,ang lay is recoended for uch excavating! construction! and ining applications!
including draglines! hoist lines! dredgelines and other siilar lines. 0ere1s why. ,ang lay ropes
are ore flexible than regular lay ropes. #hey also have greater wearing surface per wire than
regular lay ropes.
Where properly recoended! installed and used! lang lay ropes can be used to greater
advantage than regular lay ropes. 0owever! lang lay ropes are ore susceptible to the abuses
of bending over sall diaeter sheaves! pinching in undersi2e sheave grooves! crushing
when winding on drus! and failing due to excessive rotation. ,eft lay rope has greatest usage
in oil fields on rod and tubing lines! blast hole rigs! and spudders where rotation of right lay
rope would loosen couplings. #he rotation of a left lay rope tightens a standard coupling.
Definition
Characteristics
.ost coon
lay in which the
wires wind in
one direction
and the strands
the opposite
direction. (right
lay shown)
,ess li3ely to 3in3 and untwist4 easier
to handle4
ore crush resistant than lang lay.
Wires in strand
and strands of
rope wind the
sae direction.
(right lay
shown)
Increased resistance to abrasion4
greater
flexibility and fatigue resistance than
regular lay4 will 3in3 and untwist.
$trands wound
to the right
around the
core. (regular
lay shown)
#he ost coon construction
$trands wound
to the left
around the
core. (regular
lay shown)
Used in a few special situations +
cable tool drilling line! for exaple.
%lternate
strands of right
regular lay and
right lang lay.
Cobines the best features of
regular and
lang lay for boo hoist or winch
lines.
6x Rope + 5xcellent abrasion resistance4 less bending fatigue
resistance. 6ragging and haulage in ines! inclined planes and
traways! sand lines.
6 x !" #
$eale
Characteristics
Resistant to abrasion and
crushing4 ediu fatigue
resistance
Typical Applications
0aulage rope! cho3er rope!
rotary drilling line
IWRC shown4 fiber core
available
6x%l &iller Wire
Characteristics
,ess abrasion resistance4 ore
bending fatigue resistance
Typical Applications
7ull Ropes! load lines! bac3haul
ropes! draglines
IWRC shown4 fiber core available
6x%'
&iller
Wire
Characteristics
.ost flexible rope in
classification4 best balance of
abrasion and fatigue resistance
Typical Applications
.ost widely used of all wire
ropes + cranes hoists! s3ip
hoists! haulage! ooring lines!
conveyors! etc.
IWRC shown fiber core available
6x%6 Warrin(ton $eale
Characteristics
8ood balance of abrasion and
fatigue resistance
Typical Applications
9oo hoists! logging and tubing
lines
IWRC shown! fiber core available
Characteristics )ypical Applications
6 x *!
Warrin(ton
$eale
(: outside wires.
$lightly ore
flexible than ; x
:< rope with the
sae abrasion resistance
IWRC shown! fiber core available
=verhead crane and obile crane hoist
ropes
6 x *6
Warrin(ton
$eale
(> outside wires.
.ore fatigue
resistance4 but
less abrasion
resistance than ; x :< rope.
IWRC shown4 fiber core available
=verhead crane and obile crane hoist
ropes4
winch lines4 large diaeter towing lines
6 x +!
Warrin(ton
$eale
(; outside wires.
8ood
cobination of
fatigue and
abrasion resistance for operating ropes
(WRC shown! fiber core available
=verhead crane and obile crane hoist
ropes4 shovel and dragline hoist ropes
6 x +! $eale
&iller Wire
$ae
characteristics
and applications
as ; x >(
Warrington $eale
IWRC shown! fiber core available
=verhead crane and obile crane hoist
ropes4
shovel and dragline hoist ropes
6 x +" $eale
Warrin(ton
$eale
(; outside wires.
9est fatigue
resistance and
abrasion
resistance in ; x &* classification
lWRC shown4 fiber core available
.ooring! towing and anchor lines
,-roduct .ist/ ,$er0ices/ ,Wire Rope Info/ ,Ri((in(/
,&abrication/
,12uipment/ ,$afety/ ,-lows/ ,)ire Chains/ ,Cablecraft/
,3ome/ ,Contact 4s/
Entire contents of this site Copyright © Broadway Splicing & Supply,
Inc. 1999
P.. Bo! "#$%, Spo&ane, '( 99"$" 1)*$$)#"1)*1*%
sala+ & ada,.
dear how r u.
what r u doing in these days.
what r other acti-ities.
i do not &now why i li&e u -ery +uch.
why u r not so close to anyone.
why u ha-e not +ade ur ,est & lo-ing friends.
do u ha-e any girl or ,oy friend.
ta&e care.
see u ne!t.
waiting for reply.
than&s.


Wire Rope




Farm Safety Association
)a5e Care of $ilo 4nloader 3oist Wire Rope
Wire rope brea3age during the hoisting of top silo unloaders occurs with alaring fre/uency. %t worst! such
ishaps have resulted in severe in)ury and death. 5ven where no one is in)ured! costly daage to e/uipent

and tie lost during a critical harvest period a3e the ?dropping@ of an unloader a very expensive incidentA
In soe cases! wire rope failure is the result of undersi2ed rope andBor incorrect rigging hardware being used
at the tie of installation. .ore often! brea3age occurs due to isuse andBor inade/uate aintenance.
Wire Rope Composition
% wire rope is coposed of a nuber of wire strands fored helically around a central axis. #he axial
eber is 3nown as the core! and ay be ade of various aterials! such as fibre or steel.
Wire rope is aptly described as a precision achine. In operation! its strands change position with respect to
each other. Individual wires within each strand prefor in a siilar anner. #he relationship between these
parts is carefully engineered to perit the rope to function soothly in operation.
%s with other precision e/uipent! internal lubrication ust be provided during fabrication. #his cobats
frictional forces (which oppose oveent of parts) and prevents corrosion.
=perating factors which affect a rope in service are tension! wear! bending! crushing and corrosion. Ceglect
and isuse will substantially reduce a wire rope@s useful life.
Choosin( the Ri(ht Rope
Wire rope is available in a variety of grades and configurations. #o the layan! the critical factors in selecting
a rope are brea3ing strength and diaeter.
%n ade/uate factor of safety is crucial in wire rope use. For silo unloader hoist rope! the recoended safety
factor is <-(. In other words! if a silo unloader weighs one ton! the wire rope used ust have a iniu
ultiate brea3ing strength of five tons.
Rope diaeter is iportant for copatibility with rigging hardware. In particular! the wire rope ust seat
properly in the sheaves (pulleys) to ensure freedo of oveent without undue wear to rope or sheave.
If there is any doubt about the suitability of wire rope for a particular application! as3 the contractor to provide
technical specifications that will confir an ade/uate safety factor. %gricultural engineers and wire rope
anufacturers@ representatives can inspect new or existing installations to deterine whether all coponents
eet iniu standards.
-oints to -onder
Careful installation of a new wire rope is critical. Din3ing will do irreparable daage and render the 3in3ed
portion of the rope useless. Installation of wire rope should be left to soeone who has thorough 3nowledge
of safe rigging procedures.
#he sheaves over which the wire rope travels ust be of the exact si2e specified for the rope being used! and
should be properly aligned. Chec3 the condition of sheaves on a regular! scheduled basis. $heaves that are
?fro2en@ due to corrosion will cause the wire rope to saw its way through.
5nsure that the rope spools properly on the winch dru. It should never be allowed to cross+wind.
% wire rope thible should be used in the loop eye at the end of the rope that is attached to the unloader. #he
thible prevents 3in3ing. U+bolt wire rope clips ust be attached with the base of the clip bearing against the
live end of the rope! while the ?U@ of the bolt presses against the dead end. Clip nuts should be tightened
before a rope is placed under tension! and again after the load is on the rope.
Care and .ubrication
Wire rope used to hoist silo unloaders is sub)ect to neglect because it is norally used only once a year.
Whether located inside or outside of a feed roo! all silo hoist rope is exposed to corrosive conditions.
Rope condition can be chec3ed and lubrication applied during the hoisting procedure. Watch for locali2ed
wear4 preature wear at one spot is coon and can be prevented if the cause is detected. Uneven wear
can be inii2ed by oving the rope periodically so that different stretches of it are at the critical wear
points. Consult a 3nowledgeable authority before attepting such a change.
Wire rope should bwe clean and dry before lubrication is applied. Use a wire brush or copressed air in
con)unction with a recoended cleaner+solvent to reove old lubricant and debris.
Recoended lubricants and proper application are a ust. Wire rope anufacturers can provide specific
details. Cever apply used cran3case oil4 it contains sall etal particles that can daage wire rope.
3oist with Care
0oisting of a silo unloader should always be done under careful supervision. Under no circustances should
an observer be stationed inside of the siloA
Use a recoended winch and dru. 0oist the unloader at a sooth! steady pace. #he silo unloader should
not be allowed tp ?bounce@! as this will result in extree stress on rope and rigging hardware. 9oth the wire
rope and winch coponents can be seriously daaged if the unloader is )aed against the roof of the silo.
$ummary
% ?dropped@ silo is unloader is often daaged beyond repair. $uch an occurrence also results in lost tie and
could lead to serious in)ury or death. Routine inspection and proper aintenance of wire rope and other
hoisting coponents should prevent a ishap.
6isclaier and Reproduction Inforation- Inforation in C%$6 does not represent CI=$0 policy. Inforation
included in C%$6 appears by perission of the author andBor copyright holder. .ore
NASD Review: 10/2003
#he inforation and recoendations contained in this publication are believed to be reliable and
representative of conteporary expert opinion on the sub)ect aterial. #he Far $afety %ssociation Inc. does
not guarantee absolute accuracy or sufficiency of sub)ect aterial! nor can it accept responsibility for health
and safety recoendations that ay have been oitted due to particular and exceptional conditions and
circustances.

#opic E $tate E Fideo E $panish E .iscellaneous E $earch E $ite .ap E Contact E 0elp E ,in3s
C%$6 0oe E C6C 0oe E CI=$0 0oe

% C 5 , I C 5G
Aceline that has been used in the remo0al construction of lines in
operation 6!789: at ;aruto#Awa<i strait in =apan.
Aceline 6>mm, .en(th %,*6>m, )ension $tren(th !'>tf.
POLYURETHANE COATED ACELINE (Water Proof)
Aceline is high strength an high elasticit! ro"e that has #een e$elo"e #! To%!o &ei%o Ro"e 'fg() Co() Lt(
It gi$es f*ll "la! to its "erfor+ance in teleco+,"o-er constr*ction sites( Pol!*rethane.coate Aceline has
e/cellent electric non.con*ctance an it0s acti$e in $ario*s %in of "o-er constr*ction sites(
1) "Aceline" for Cradle Block method
Aceline has e/cellent characteristics on Light Weight) High Tenacit!) Electric non.con*ctance an Non.&"in)aree1*ire in
Po-er Constr*ction sites -hich are re1*ire in Po-er Constr*ction sites (Ne- installation an re+o$al of ca#les) *ner
the li$e line conition( Aceline achie$e strength that raise a""ro/( 234) co+"are -ith for+er 5e$lar ro"es(
An it is e/"ecte isting*ishe "erfor+ance
Photo6 -ith '*lti.T*rn 'T.OW t!"e
'ain 'aterial6 Aceline 337.7C 89++ . 8:++
Relate 'aterial6 8) 2 ; <
2) "Aceline" for Protective Net
The crossings of Po-er Lines in o"eration) Roa an Rail-a! are i+"ortant constr*ction that safet! is re1*ire( Aceline f*lfills the "ro"ert!)
i(e() High Tenacit!) non.infl*ence of cli+ate) lo- elasticit!) non.-ater content) electric non.con*ctance) -hich -ill #e re1*ire on long s"an
scaffoling net( This is *sef*l in "o-er line constr*ction(
'ain 'aterial of Net Ro"e6
'ain Ro"e6 Aceline 33=7.7C 89++ . 8:++
'other Ro"e6 Aceline 33=7.7C >++ . 83++
'esh Ro"e6 Aceline 33=7.7C) AceLine 33?L.C :++ . ?++
Relate 'aterial6 8) 2) <) @) :
3) "Aceline" for hanging signal pennant
Constr*ction an o"eration of crane *ner li$e line is $er! angero*s(
Aceline that hangs signal "ennant) as inication of angero*s #o*nar! +ar%er) is lo- e/"ansion an contraction an electric non.con*ctance(
It0s eas! hanling) *e to soft "ol!*rethane coating) It0s acti$e in "re$ention of accients(
'ain 'aterial6 Aceline 33=7.7C (non.s"in)) Aceline 33?L.C (-ire ro"e str*ct*re)
Relate 'aterial6 8)9) @) ?
O"tion6 &no-.st*c% "re$ention t!"e -ith +ar% of "ro*ce ate is also a$aila#le
4) Production line of "Aceline" for Poer construction
)ype $tructure ?aterial &eature
HHI9+
9C
Core- %raid Fiber
Con+$pin
type
Water 7roof
Inner $heath-
7olyester
=uter $heath-
7olyurethane
AC1.I;1 >>7@#@C
;on#$pin, Water -roof
AC1.I;1 >>.#C
Wire Rope )ype ! x $tructure
6ia.
$/uare easure of
Core (%raid Fiber)
Weight #ension $trength
$/uare easure of
Core (%raid Fiber)
Weight #ension $trength
() : gB DC tf : gB DC tf
< + + + + <.;* :&.< ((.; (.(I
; *.>( &&.& (>.H (.>& I.( &(.; (;.( (.;>
* (H.: ><.: ('.& (.'* ((.& >>.H :(.& :.(*
I (&.H <'.' :;.& :.;I + + + +
' :H.> *<.& &*.; &.I& + + + +
(H :<.' '(.* >;.( >.*H + + + +
(: &*.H (&H.H ;<.' ;.*: + + + +
(> <H.H (;*.H 'I.( 83(3 + + + +
(; ;;.* :(>.H (:<.H (:.* + + + +
!) "igh#strength Aceline $ %ithout coating)
High.&trength Aceline A is ro"e that has #een e$elo""e for ca#le installation(
Ho-e$er) this is #eing *se for coe of P*lle! 7roc% an "arts of Protecti$e Net(
3i(h $tren(th AC1.I;1 >%6@ ;on#$pin $tructure
6ia.
$/uare
easure
of Core
Weight #ension $trength
() : gB DC tf
I :I.> <<.I &:.> &.&H
(H ><.> I'.& >'.H <.HH
(: ;:.> (:&.H *&.< *.<H
(> ';.& (II.H ((I.H (:.HH
(; (&H.H :<>.H (<:.H (<.<H
&) 'elated Accessories
() ".I,#I+#URC" 7%#. (Rope Clap at interediate position) :) 7ulley 9loc3 for 7rotective Cet
&) 0igh+$trength Connector for rope 9) &ignal "ennant
<) Wire 8rip for #ensioner
;) $pacer for 7rotective Cet
*) 9olt connector! Wire Clip for $ignal pennant
What is AcelineB6
Aceline is *sing High Tenacit! Ara+i Ci#er DTechnoraBD(Technora is a "ara.ara+i fi#er ine"enentl!
e$elo"e #! TeiEin) -hich has #een co++erciall!a$aila#le since 8>=?( It has high tensile strength) high
+o*l*s an e/cellent resistance to heat anche+icals) es"eciall! acis an al%alis( Technora is +ae fro+
co"ol!+ers an is "ro*ce in the ifferent"rocess fro+ PPTA("ol!."ara"hen!lene tere"hthala+ie) (Cor its
s*"erior "ro"erties as state a#o$e) Technora is *se in r*##er reinforce+ent) ro"es) "rotecti$egoos)
ce+ent an "lastic reinforce+ent an +an! other in*strial a""lications(Characteristics
(8) High tensile strength
The tensile strength of Technora is 2=g,e(29(?cn,te/)<@3%g,++2)) -hich is = ti+es as strong as steelan <
ti+es as strong as fi#erglass) "ol!ester an n!lon of the sa+e -eight( This "ro"ert! -ill ser$esignificantl! to
re*ce -eight(
(2) Catig*e resistance
High tenacit! fi#ers generall! sho- a loss of strength against re"eate a#rasion) fle/*re an stretch)Technora
has e/cellent fatig*e resistance) as co+"are to the other high tenacit! fi#ers(
(<) Di+ensional sta#ilit!
Technora has a stiff an highl! oriente +olec*lar str*ct*re -hich leas to a high +o*l*s) lo- cree"an
lo- stress rela/ation( D*e to its lo- ther+al shrin%age) it has goo i+ensional sta#ilit!(
(9) Heat resistance
Technora has a eco+"osition te+"erat*re of @33C( It can #e *se at 233C for long "erios of ti+e an)e$en
at 2@3C) it +aintains +ore than half of its tensile strength that -as +eas*re at roo+te+"erat*re(
(@) Che+ical resistance
Technora e/hi#its high resistance to #oth acis) al%alis an organic sol$ents( It is also resistant to sea-ater
an stea+(
7ac%
WIRE ROPE CONSISTS OF THREE BASIC
COMPONENTS,
1. 'I.ES /0(/ 1.2 /0E S/.(34
". 256/I)'I.E S/.(34S7 6(I4 0E6IC(668
(.534 ( C.E
9. /0E C.E

'ire for rope is +ade in
se-eral +aterials, and
types, these include steel
and stainless steel, with
wire or :,re cores.

/his is a-aila,le in a -ariety
of grades of steel, stainless
steel and gal-anised.

Stainless steel ropes types
9$% and 91; <uality.

/o chec& out the Brea&ing
6oads and Safe 'or&ing
6oads
on ropes,
go to breaking load tables

WIRE ROPE CORES
THE CORE
/he core for+s the heart of the rope and is the co+ponent a,out which
the +ain rope strands are laid. =/he core supports the strands>
/he core +ay ta&e one of se-eral for+s depending on the conditions
under which the rope will ,e used.
FIBRE CORE
FIBRE CORE. Adequate for many types of service providing maximum
flexibility and elasticity to the wire rope. made of hard fibres, usually
sisal or manila, most often used today is polypropylene.
/hese latter cores are useful where conditions surrounding rope use
could result in pre+ature failure of natural :,re cores. Sisal and +anila
:,re cores are i+pregnated during the cordage process with a suita,le
lu,ricant ha-ing preser-ati-e properties.
INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE
INDEPENDENT WIRE ROPE CORE. Consists of a ; ! ? strand
steel wire rope with a ? wire centre strand. /his core :nds greatest use
where ropes are su,@ected to se-ere pressure while running o-er
shea-es or winding onto dru+s. /his type of core should ,e used when
a rope operates in te+peratures da+aging to natural or +an)+ade
:,res. It pro-ides additional strength and less stretch.
STEEL STRAND CORE
STRAND CORE. Consists of a strand of steel wires, no+inally ?, 19
or 9? in nu+,ers. It is used occasionally in running rope of s+aller
dia+eters rather than I'.C. It +ay also ,e used in stranding ropes,
guys, suspender ropes, etc. 'here e!tra strength, reduced stretch and
+a!i+u+ resistance to weathering are re<uired.

MEASURING ROPE DIAMETER.