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Hierarchical Cell Structure
Objectives
The participant is able to
− create hierarchical cell structures
Contents
1 Objectives
2 Mobile Speed Sensitive Handover
3 Priority Layer
4 Exercises
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5 - 2 A30181-X1789-X004-01-7635
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1 Objectives
As mentioned in hapt!1" the capacit# o$ a mobile radio net%or& is 'i(en b# the number
o$ radio channels )
T*
per unit area A" e!'! per &m
2
+
N
A
CPF x
N
K
x
1
CA
CH total
=
%here )
total
+ total number o$ $re,uencies $or the radio net%or&"
-+ cluster si.e"
A+ cell area"
/0+ channels per $re,uenc#!
*ence" there are t%o possibilities to increase the net%or& capacit#+
• to increase the number o$ channels per 1T2 b# decreasin' the cluster si.e"
• to increase the densit# o$ 1T2 locations" i!e! to use smaller cells!
A reduction o$ cluster si.e can be achie(ed b# the inter$erence reducin' $eatures
discussed in
hapt! 6!
3n this chapter %e $ocus on the the second possibilit#+ the capacit# increase b#
introducin' micro cells!
To 'i(e an e4ample" reducin' the cell radius $rom 1000 m to 100 m reduces the cell area
b# $actor 100! *ence" the number o$ channels per area is increased b# the same $actor
100! This illustrates the hu'e potential o$ micro cells!
1ut this e4tremel# hi'h capacit# is not e4pected to be needed all o(er the radio net%or&"
but onl# in certain re'ions" e!'!
• *ot 2pots as 5ail%a# 2tation" Airport or a 2hoppin' 6all %hich can be co(ered b# a
small number o$ micro cells 71 !!! 108"
• it# enter co(ered b# about 100 micro cells!
9ue to economical reasons micro cells are intended to be ser(ed b# cheaper and smaller
1T2s 76icro 1T2s8 %hich are eas# to be installed %ith antennas installed belo% the roo$
top le(el" especiall# $or the second scenario %ith a lar'e number o$ micro cells!
)e(ertheless" in principle it is possible to install (er# small cells 7also called micro cells
in the $ollo%in' sections8 $or hot spot co(era'e 7scenario 18 usin' classical 1T2s!
6icro cells shall be embedded in an 7e4istin'8 o(erla#er net%or& o$ 7con(entional8 macro
cells!
A net%or& consistin' o$ 7at least8 t%o la#ers o$ cells o$ di:erent dimensions 7macro -
micro cells8 is called a *ierarchical ell 2tructure!
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The o(erla#er macro cells are needed $or the $ollo%in' reasons+
• to achie(e a 'lobal co(era'e"
• to ser(e as a rescue cell in the case o$ a rapid decrease o$ lin& ,ualit# 7road corner
e:ect8"
• to serve fast moving MSs.
Additionall#" the macro cell can be used
• to ser(e o(er;o% tra<c load $rom the micro cells 7all channels bus# %ithin the micro
cells8"
• as a redundanc# measure in case o$ a $ailure o$ a micro cell 1T2!
3n the $ollo%in' chapter it is $ocused on the aspect o$ separatin' mobiles accordin' to
their (elocit# 7$ast mo(in' mobiles ser(er b# macro cells - slo% mo(in' mobiles ser(ed
b# micro cells8!
The $ollo%in' e4ample illustrates %h# it is ad(isable to install macro cells to ser(e $ast
mo(in' mobiles+
Example:
Assumptions+
• onl# micro cells o$ radius 5 = 100 m 7no macro cell8
• mobile speed 20 m>s = 72 &m>h
• mean call duration 100 s
• 10 simultaneousl# acti(e calls per cell
onse,uences+
=? 1 hando(er per call each 10 s
=? 10 hando(ers per call
=? 1 hando(er per second per cell!
=? 2er(in' $ast mo(in' mobiles b# micro cells %ould cause a hi'h hando(er rate@
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=? 2er(in' $ast mo(in' mobiles b# macro cells reduces the hando(er rate
=? si'niAcant reduction o$ call drop probabilit#
=? si'niAcant reduction o$ unnecessar# hando(er si'nalin' load
The discussion is summari.ed on the $ollo%in'+
Hierarchical Cell Structure
Upper layer: macro cells
• hi'h transmit po%er
• antenna abo(e roo$ top le(el
• 'lobal co(era'e
• basicall# handles hi'h speed mobile
• Lower layer: micro cells
• lo% transmit po%er
• antenna belo% roo$ top le(el
• co(era'e o$ re'ions o$ hi'h tra<c load
• basicall# handles lo% speed mobile
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The $ollo%in' A'ure 'i(es an illustration o$ the application o$ hierarchical cell structures+
• indoor co(era'e b# an outdoor 1T2B mobiles passin' that 1T2 on the street are ser(ed
b# the macro cellB
• a par&in' lot ser(ed b# a micro cellB
• a bus# street can#on ser(ed b# a chain o$ micro cellsB in this e4ample micro cells are
assumed to ha(e a radius o$ 200 m 7alon' the bus# street8 and to ser(e pedestrians
7C 1 m>s = 3!6 &m>h8 as %ell as mobiles %ith a speed up to about 10 m>s = 36 &m>hB
mobiles mo(in' in side road are ser(ed b# the macro cellB the# shall be &ept in the
macro cell %hen the# cross the bus# street can#on 7no hando(er into the micro cell8B
this illustrates that %hether to ser(e a mobile b# the micro or macro cell is not matter
o$ absolute mobile speed" but o$ mobile speed relati(e to the dimension o$ the micro
cell" i!e! the criterion $or ser(in' a mobile b# a micro cell should be the e4pected
duration o$ sta# %ithin the respecti(e micro cell!
This criterion is used $or the ell 2election mechanism $or phase 2 62s 7idle mode8
alread# mentioned in hapter 4!1 as %ell as $or the 6obile 2peed 2ensiti(e *ando(er
described in the $ollo%in' chapter!
3t should be noted that the 6obile 2peed *ando(er %or&s properl# $or both phase 1 and
phase 2 62s+ phase 2 mobiles alread# set up a call in the correct la#er and the hando(er
al'orithm &eeps them in that la#er 7as lon' as the# do not chan'e their speed8B phase1
62s ma# set up the call in the %ron' la#er" but the hando(er al'orithm %ill steer them to
the correct la#er a$ter some seconds!
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0i'! 1
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2 obile Spee! Sensitive Han!over
6obile speed sensiti(it# is achie(ed
• b# introducin' timers T7n8 $or each connection in a cell and each hando(er candidate
micro cell n 7analo'ous to the timers deAned $or cell selection o$ phase 2 62s8
• and b# usin' a time dependent hando(er mar'in $or the better cell criterion!
The timer is started i$ both o$ the $ollo%in' conditions are $ulAlled+
5XDEFG)EDD7n8 ? 5XDEFG63)7n8 H 6a470" 62GTX/I5G6AX7n8 - / 8 7T18
/1JT7n8 ? *KG6A5J3)7n8 7T28
i!e! i$ the mobiles enters the co(era'e area o$ a micro cell!
)ote+ The ,uantities used in these ine,ualities are deAned in hapt! 4!2!2
A$ter each 2A* $rame in %hich these conditions are $ulAlled the timer is incremented
b# 1! 3$ one o$ these conditions is not $ulAlled the timer is reset to 0!
A better cell hando(er is initiated i$
/1JT7n8 ? *KG6A5J3)GT36E7n8 718
%here the time dependent hando(er mar'in is 'i(en b#
*KG6A5J3)GT36E7n8 = *KG6A5J3)7n8 H *KG2TAT3GK002ET7n8
$or T7n8 L 9EDAMGT36E7n8 7*K618
*KG6A5J3)GT36E7n8
= *KG6A5J3)7n8 H *KG2TAT3GK002ET7n8 - *KG9M)A63GK002ET7n8
$or T7n8?= 9EDAMGT36E7n8 7*K628
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"arameters #or obile Spee! Sensitive Han!over
E$%"&'()%HO
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
*A)9 - 9/1JT*K T5OE>0AD2E - -
0i'! 2
0la' to enable 7T5OE8 and disable 70AD2E the mobile speed sensiti(e hando(er
al'orithm!
HO%S(*(+C%O,,SE(
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - *K62K00 0!!!127 1 d1
0i'! 3
*KG2TAT3GK002ET is added to the hando(er mar'in o$ those nei'hbor cells o$ the lo%er
la#er structure %hose timer has not #et been started or is still runnin'! A hi'h (alue o$
*KG2TAT3GK002ET e:ecti(el# pre(ents a hando(er into the respecti(e cell durin' the
runtime o$ the timer $or that cell!
HO%)-$*+C%O,,SE(
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - *K69K00 0!!!127 1 d1
0i'! 4
0or those nei'hbor cells o$ the lo%er la#er structure" %hose timer has e4pired" the
hando(er mar'in is reduced b# *KG9M)A63GK002ET" i!e! correspondin' hando(er
mar'in is 'i(en b#
*KG6A5J3)GT36E7n8
= *KG6A5J3)7n8 H *KG2TAT3GK002ET7n8 - *KG9M)A63GK002ET7n8!
This is the mar'in A4in' the cell borders o$ the cell o$ the lo%er la#er and replacin' the
usual *KG6A5J3)7n8 %ithin the standard hando(er 7hapter 4!28
Kn timer e4pir# the reduced *KG6A5J3)7n8 allo%s a po%er bud'et hando(er into a cell
o$ the lo%er la#er structure $or a slo% mo(in' mobile %hich is e4pected to be still in the
co(era'e area o$ that cell!
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Kn the contrar#" a $ast mo(in' mobile is e4pected to ha(e le$t the co(era'e area o$ an
embedded cell o$ the lo%er la#er structure %hile the timer $or that cell is runnin' and
there$ore the conditions $or a better cell hando(er %ill be (iolated and thus pre(entin' a
hando(er re,uest into that cell! onse,uentl# $ast mo(in' mobiles are &ept in the macro
cell!
A $ast mo(in' mobile initiall# connected to a cell o$ the lo%er la#er structure 7e!'! a
phase 1 mobile or mobile ha(in' chan'ed its speed8 is steered to the upper la#er
structure b# re,uestin' $or it a hando(er based on the absolute le(el criterion!
3t should be noted that *KG6A5J3)GT36E is not onl# used as a threshold $or po%er
bud'et hando(er decisions" but also $or ran&in' o$ cell %ithin the tar'et cell list" i!e! the
order criterion $or the tar'et cell list 7re$er to hapt! 4!2!38 is modiAed to
/53KG)EDD7n8 = /1JT7n8 - *KG6A5J3)GT36E7n8!
This means that a rescue hando(er 7Qualit#" De(el and 9istance8 into a cell o$ the lo%er
la#er 'et a lo%er priorit# be$ore the e4pir# o$ the timer!
To pre(ent a po%er bud'et hando(er $rom a cell o$ the lo%er la#er to an macro cell n
*KG6A5J3)7n8
has to be set to a hi'h (alue $or each macro nei'hbor cell! 3t should be noted that there
is no time dependent hando(er mar'in $or the transition micro to macro cell 7macro cell
is not barred8!
)EL*-%(+E
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - *K69T36E 0!!!255 1 T
2A*
0i'! 5
9EDAMGT36E deAnes the time a cell o$ the lo%er la#er structure is RbarredS 7b# appl#in'
the *KG2TAT3GK002ET8 $or an incomin' hando(er a$ter the mobile has entered the
Rco(era'e area R o$ that cell deAned b# conditions 7T18 and 7T28!
9EDAMGT36E7n8 C cell si.e o$ nei'hbor micro cell n> (
critical
%here (
critical
is that mobile speed abo(e %hich mobiles are considered as $ast!
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HO%*.'+$
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - *K6 0!!!48
-24!!!24 d1
1 d1
0i'! 6
The meanin' o$ the *KG6A5J3) $or the mobile speed sensiti(e hando(er di:ers $rom
that $or the standard hando(er! 0or the standard hando(er it deAnes the threshold $or a
better cell hando(erB $or the mobile speed sensiti(e hando(er it deAnes the location o$
the timer start accordin' to the condition 7T28! The role o$ the hando(er mar'in is
trans$erred to *KG6A5J3)GT36E!
hoosin' small or e(en ne'ati(e (alues $or *KG6A5J3) results in an earl# timer start
and thereb# a(oids cell border displacements and inter$erence problems! 2ettin'
*KG6A5J3) to lar'e ne'ati(e (alues e:ecti(el# cancels condition 7T28" and
conse,uentl# the timer start is onl# tri''ered b# condition 7T18! *ence" in this case the
cell borders o$ the lo%er la#er structure are independent o$ the cell site positions %ith
respect to the cell sites in the upper la#er structure!
+C.O%CELL
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - 635KEDD T5OE>0AD2E - -
0i'! 7
0la' to indicate %hether a nei'hbor cell is handled as a micro cell b# the speed sensiti(e
hando(er al'orithm! Knl# $or micro nei'hbor cells the abo(e mentioned timers are
started and a hando(er is pre(ented usin' the o:sets!
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Example 1:
0i'ures 8 72tart in 6icro ell8 and 9 72tart in 6acro ell8 illustrate the parameter settin'
$or the mobile speed sensiti(e hando(er!
The recei(ed le(el $rom the micro cells 7micro cell distance+ 400 m8 has been ideali.ed
b# the K2T 231 IalAsh-3&e'ami model 7street can#on" line o$ si'ht" re$er to J26
03!308+
5XDEF7d8 = const - 26 T lo' d
The recei(ed le(el $rom the macro cell %as ideali.ed to be constant 75XDEF = 268 %ithin
the re'ion o$ the micro cells!
3n this e4ample the adNustment o$ transmit po%er %as chosen in such %a# that 5XDEF =
26
7-84 d1m8 at the position %here /1JT = 0" i!e!
5XDEF7d8 = 8 - 26 T lo' d U&mV!
hoosin'
5XDEFG63)7n8 = 20 and *KG6A5J3)7n8 = 0
$or nei'hbor micro cells n" the timer is started at the position
4
start
at %hich /1JT7micro -? micro8 = 0 or /1JT7micro -? 6acro8 = 0!
A $ast mo(in' mobile startin' in a micro cell per$orms a hando(er to the macro cell at
the position+
4
le(
at %hich the recei(ed micro cell le(el $alls belo% DG5XDEFG*7micro8 7= 14 in this
e4ample8
0or the 'i(en e4ample one has+ 4
le(
- 4
start
C 380 m!
*ence" callin' the (elocit# $or distin'uishin' bet%een slo% and $ast (
crit
7= 10 m>s8" the
parameter 9EDAMGT36E7micro -? micro8 has to be set to
9EDAMGT36E7micro -? micro8 = 74
le(
- 4
start
8 > (
crit
= 38 s!
9EDAMGT36E7micro -? micro8 can be reduced b# increasin' DG5XDEFG*7micro8" e!'!
5XDEFG63) = 23 and DG5XDEFG* = 20!
Than one has 4
le(
- 4
start
C 140 m" i!e!
9EDAMGT36E7micro -? micro8 = 74
le(
- 4
start
8 > (
crit
= 14 s!
*o%e(er" in a real en(ironment due to $adin' e:ects there is a limitation o$ reducin' the
h#steresis bet%een DG5XDEFG* and 5XDEFG63) 7an e4ample %ill be sho%n belo%8!
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0or the case o$ start in the macro cell" the $ast mo(in' mobile lea(es the co(era'e area
at the second position 4
out
%here /1JT76acro -? micro8 = 0! This means+
9EDAMGT36E76acro -? micro8 = 74
le(
- 4
start
8 > (
crit
= 400 m > 10 m>s = 40 s!
The hando(er o:set parameters $or the po%er bud'et hando(er micro -? micro and
6acro -? micro can be set in the $ollo%in' %a#+
*KG2TAT3GK002ET = 127 *KG9M)A63GK002ET = 121!
This leads to an e:ecti(e hando(er mar'in a$ter timer e4pir# o$
*KG6A5J3)GT36E = *KG6A5J3)H
*KG2TAT3GK002ET - *KG9M)A63GK002ET = 6 d1!
To pre(ent po%er bud'et hando(er $rom micro to macro cells one should use+
*KG6A5J3) 7micro -? 6acro8 = 24 d1!
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0i'! 8
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0i'! 9
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Simulation .esults:
The $ollo%in' e4ample presents the parameter settin's and the beha(ior o$ the speed
sensiti(e hando(er al'orithm $or a more realistic scenario!
The in(esti'ated scenario is a chain o$ 6 micro cells o(erlaid b# one macro cell! The
$ollo%in' A'ures sho%+
• the recei(ed do%nlin& le(el $rom the 6 micro cells 7distance 400 m8 and $rom the
macro cell
7A'! 118!
• the respecti(e ser(in' cell at a 'i(en location $or di:erent (alues o$ the 62 (elocit#
$or 2 cases+
− 62 starts in the micro cell 7A'! 128"
− 62 starts in the macro cell 7A'! 138!
The recei(ed le(els sho%n in the A'ure 11 are ta&en $rom real measure! !ata %hich
are composed to build up this scenario! The scenario %as in(esti'ated b# computer
simulations" i!e! %ithin the computers Wa mobile dri(es throu'h these cellsR %here the
speed o$ the mobile is incremented in steps o$ 6 &m>h $orm 3 &m>h to 57 &m>h!
The A'ures $or the channel occupanc# sho% that critical (elocit# $or separatin' bet%een
slo% and $ast %as chosen to be appro4imatel# 36 &m>h! 79i:erent shadin' represent the
di:erent micro cells!8
The $ollo%in' parameter settin' has been used $or the simulations+
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Tar'et
2er(in'
→ 6icro → 6acro
6icro → *KG6A5J3) = 0 d1
*KG2TAT3GK002ET =126 d1
*KG9M)A63GK002ET =120 d1
9EDAMGT36E = 15 sec
*KG6A5J3)GT36E = 6 d1
5XDEFG63) = -90
d1m
DG5XDEFG* =-100
d1m
*KG6A5J3) = 20 d1
*KG2TAT3GK002ET = -
*KG9M)A63GK002ET = -
9EDAMGT36E = -
*KG6A5J3)GT36E = -
5XDEFG63) = -90 d1m
DG5XDEFG* =-100 d1m
6acro → *KG6A5J3) = 0 d1
*KG2TAT3GK002ET =126 d1
*KG9M)A63GK002ET =117 d1
9EDAMGT36E = 60 sec
*KG6A5J3)GT36E = 9 d1
5XDEFG63) = -90
d1m
DG5XDEFG* =-100
d1m
0i'! 10
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0i'! 11 5ecei(ed do%nlin& le(el $rom micro cells and macro cell
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0i'! 12 hannel Kccupanc# 72er(in' ell8 as a $unction o$ location and mobile speed
$or start in Arst micro cell
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0i'! 13 hannel Kccupanc# 7ser(in' cell8 as a $unction o$ location and mobile speed
$or start in macro cell
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/ "riority Layer
3n a *ierarchical ell 2tructure the tra<c should be supported on multiple la#ers o$ cells!
A )et%or& Kperator can $or e4ample implement a three la#er net%or& ha(in' the bi''est
cell on the Opper Da#er 76acro ells8" used to 'uarantee the co(era'e %hen it is not
possible other%ise" the normal cell 7t#pical ran'e lar'er than 1&m8 on the 6iddle Da#er"
and the microcells on the lo%er la#er are used to handle hi'h tra<c areas!
A *ierarchical ell 2tructure conA'ured %ith priorit# le(els is also re,uired in case o$
6ultiband 2#stems 7J26-928!
3n a hierarchical cell structure it is necessar# to a(oid a con'estion in the 6acro cells and
to use as much as possible the microcells! There$ore it is proposed" besides to the
alread# implemented 2peed 2ensiti(e *K 7controlled b# the dedicated KX6
parameters8" to pro(ide the $ollo%in' possibilities +
a8 0or each adNacent >ser(in' cell shall be indicated the priorit# la#er it belon's to ! This
is set b# an KX6 parameter ha(in' a ran'e 0-15" to cope also %ith possible $uture
use 7e!'! pico cells" speciAc ser(ices supported onl# in one la#er" ect!8!
The la#er speciAes the R/riorit#S o$ the cell!
Da#er 0 has the hi'hest priorit# and la#er 15 the lo%est one!
a! The list o$ pre$erred tar'et cells a$ter bein' built accordin' to the present criteria is
re%or&ed" ta&in' into account the hierarchical priorit# o$ the cells" the hando(er
causes and %hen it is re,uired also a comparison %ith a le(el threshold to
'uarantee that in the adNacent cell there is an acceptable si'nal le(el !
Han!over Causes
The hando(er ma# be due to imperati(e causes or to /1JT" in the Arst case all the cells
in the tar'et list are considered %hate(er are their hierarchical priorit# and ho% it is
considered the 62 speeds" accordin' to the 2peed 2ensiti(e *K al'orithm B in case o$
/1JT *K " the *K is not intended to be mandator# so it is carried out onl# i$ a suitable
cell is $ound" that is a cell ha(in' a priorit# e,ual or hi'her than the ser(in' one !
The operator is $ree to choose the priorit# la#er $or each cell " this means $or e4ample "
that a di:erent priorit# can be 'i(en to cells o$ the same la#er!
3t is then possible to appl# the 2peed 2ensiti(e *K al'orithm to e(aluate the mobile
speed 7tipicall# this is done $or the lo%er la#er and > or the standard one" those cells
should ha(e the alread# e4istin' 6icrocell ;a' = true8 B i$ the mobile is classiAed as slo%"
the la#er maintains its priorit# other%ise it is penali.ed! The operator has to deAne the
penali.ed la#er $or the cell %here the mobile is considered as an hi'h speed 62!
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"arameters #or priority layers in HCS
E$%H+E.*.CH+C*L%CELL%HO
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
*A)9 - *3E5 T5OE >
0AD2E
- -
0i'! 14
0la' to enable 7T5OE8 or disable 70AD2E8 the *irarchical ell 2tructure al'orithm!
".+O.+(-%L*-E.
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
*A)9 - /D 0!!!15 1 -
0i'! 15
3t indicates the priority o# the servin0 cell!
0 = hi'hest priorit#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!15 = lo%est priorit#
".+O.+(-%L*-E.%$CELL
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - /D) 0!!!15 1 -
0i'! 16
3t indicates the priority o# the a!jacent cell !
0 = hi'hest priorit#!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!15 = lo%est priorit#
"E$*L(-%".+O.+(-%L*-E.%$CELL
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - //D) 0!!!15 1 -
0i'! 17
3t deAnes the penali1e! priority o# the a!jacent cell to be applied in case o$ hi'h
speed mobile!
The attribute deAnes the priorit# used $or microcells $or that the speed sensiti(e
hando(er timer is currentl# runnin'!
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H+E.*.CH+C*L%CELL%.*$2%,L*'
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
*A)9 - *3E50 5A)-0 >
5A)-1
- -
0i'! 18
This ;a' is used on ser(in' cell basis to choose bet%een t%o di:erent ran&in' methods
in case o$ imperative han!over 7 ,ualit#" le(el" distance8 i$ *3E5 = T5OE!
LE3EL%O,,SE(%$CELL
KbNect /ac&a'e 91 )ame 5an'e 2tep 2i.e Onit
A9P - DEFK) 0!!!63 1 1 d1
0i'! 19
De(el o:set $or the si'nal le(el o$ adNacent cell7n8 in case o$ ran&in' method 1
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"riority in the Cell .an4in0
3n the case o$ powerbu!0et han!over onl# the cells ha(in' a (alue o$+
• "&'(
5n6
7 HO%*.'+$
5n6
8
• "L$C
5n6
≤ "L
are inserted in the tar'et cell list!
1! These cells are sorted in increasin' order o$ priorit# -"L$C
5n6
2! *a(in' the same priorit# these cells are sorted b#+ "&'(
5n6
9 HO%*.'+$
5n6
0or the imperative han!over t%o ran&in' possibilities are $oreseen " accordin' to the
settin' o$ a *3E5A5*3ADGEDDG5A)-G0DAJ!
.an4:+ All cells %here+
.;LE3%$CELL
5n6
7 .;LE3%+$
5n6
< *;5 :=S%(;">.%*;
5n6
9 " 6
are sorted in in the tar'et cell list into t%o 'roups+
1! ells %here+
"&'(
5n6
9 HO%*.'+$
5n6
7 :
are $ollo%ed b# those cells %here+
"&'(
5n6
9 HO%*.'+$
5n6
≤ :
2! 3nside these 'roups the cells are sorted in increasin' order o$ priorit# - "L$C
5n6
3! *a(in' the same priorit# these cells are sorted b#+ "&'(
5n6
9 HO%*.'+$
5n6
.an41+ All cells %here+
.;LE3%$CELL
5n6
7 .;LE3%+$
5n6
< *;5 :=S%(;">.%*;
5n6
9 " 6
are sorted in in the tar'et cell list into t%o 'roups+
1! ells %here+
.;LE3%$CELL
5n 6
7 .;LE3%+$
5n6
<*;5:=S%(;">.%*;
5n6
9"6
<LE3EL%O,,SE(%$CELL
5n6
are $ollo%ed b# those cells %here+
.;LE3%$CELL
5n 6
≤ .;LE3%+$
5n6
<*;5:=S%(;">.%*;
5n6
9"6
<LE3EL%O,,SE(%$CELL
5n6
2! 3nside these 'roups the cells are sorted in increasin' order o$ priorit# - "L$C
5n6
3! *a(in' the same priorit# these cells are sorted b#+ "&'(
5n6
9 HO%*.'+$
5n6
3$ the ;a' is set to Y5A)-0Z the cell ran&in' is re%or&ed separatel# in the set o$ cells
ha(in'
/1JT ? *KG6A5J3) and in the other one " that is /1JT L *KG6A5J3)!
Iith the ;a' set to 5A)-1 the operator has the possibilit# to or'ani.e t%o sets o$ cells
on the basis o$ a si'nal le(el that it has been considered Y2u<cientZ B this method allo%s
to $urther encoura'e" %ith respect to the pre(ious 5A)-0 the *K to%ards the lo%er
la#ers!
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? Exercises
Exercise 1: Spee! sensitive Han!over
onsider a hierarchical cell structure %ith t%o micro cells %ith 1T2 distance 300 m
762GTX/I5G6AX 7micro8 = 23 d1m8 and an o(erlaid macro cell %ith 62GTX/I5G6AX
7macro8 = 33 d1m! An 62 o$ J26 po%er class 2 is mo(in' $rom the le$t to the ri'ht!
" 1"" #"" $"" %"" &""
A
'
$" ( )*LE+ ,-acro!
#"
1& ( )*LE+.M/N
1" ( L.)*LE+.HO
-icro 1 -icro #
)*LE+
distance 0-1
C
21""
The rec(ei(ed le(els $or the macro and the micro cells are ideali.ed in the picture abo(e!
13 The 62 starts in the macro cell and the $ollo%in' parameters ha(e been set+
*KG6A5J3) 7macro → micro8 = 0 *KG2TAT3GK002ET = 100 d1
9EDAMGT36E 7macro → micro8 = 60 sec *KG9M)A63GK002ET = 100 d1
alculate the critical (elocit# F
crit
" i!e! the (elocit# belo% %hich the 62 is dropped to
the micro cell 1 and abo(e %hich it sta#s in the macro cell
13 Osin' the same mar'in's and o:sets $or a micro → micro hando(er" %hich
9EDAMGT36E 7micro → micro8 is re,uired to obtain the same F
crit
!
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Exercise 2: "riority Layer
oncider the $ollo%in' adNacent cell parameter settin's and measurement results $or a
J26 cell in connected mode o$ 62 po%erclass / = 33 d1m+
AdN-ell
1
AdN-ell
2
AdN-ell
3
AdN-ell
4
AdN-ell
5
AdN-ell
6
5XDEFG)EDD7n8 18 18 20 13 17 18
5XDEFG63)7n8 10 10 10 14 14 10
62GTX/I5G6AX7n8 39 d1m 37 d1m 37 d1m 33 d1m 37 d1m 39 d1m
/1JT7n8 3 d1 3 d1 5 d1 - 2 d1 2 d1 3 d1
*KG6A5J3)7n8 4 d1 2 d1 1 d1 1 d1 2 d1 1 d1
/D)7n8 1 3 8 2 4 3
DEFGK002ETG)7n8 1 d1 1 d1 6 d1 4 d1 4 d1 4 d1
The /riorit#GDa#er ser(in' cell is set to /D = 5
a8 Jenerate the tar'et cell list $or the *KGK)9G3)9 messa'e %ith the $ollo%in'
conditions+ *3E5=0AD2E " *K-cause=emer'enc#
a8 Jenerate the tar'et cell list $or the *KGK)9G3)9 messa'e %ith the $ollo%in'
conditions+ *3E5=T5OE " *K-cause=emer'enc# " *3E50=5A)-0
a8 Jenerate the tar'et cell list $or the *KGK)9G3)9 messa'e %ith the $ollo%in'
conditions+ *3E5=T5OE " *K-cause=emer'enc# " *3E50=5A)-1
a8 Jenerate the tar'et cell list $or the *KGK)9G3)9 messa'e %ith the $ollo%in'
conditions+ *3E5=T5OE " *K-cause=po%erbud'et
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5 - 28 A30181-X1789-X004-01-7635
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Solutions
Exercise 1: Spee! sensitive Han!over
1! /1JT 7macro →
micro8
= 5XDEFG)EDD 7micro8 - 5XDEF 7macro8
H 62GTX/I5G6AX 7macro8 - 62GTX/I5G6AX 7micro8
= 5XDEFG)EDD 7micro8 - 5XDEF 7macro8 H 10 d1
Timer start at /1JT ? *KG6A5J3) = 0" i!e! 5XDEFG)EDD 7micro8=5XDEF7macro8 - 10
d1 i!e! at point A = -150 m!
2ince the static and d#namic o:set ha(e the same (alue" the hando(er mar'in is 0
a$ter reset o$ the barrin'! To do not hando(er to the Arst micro cell" the 62 has to be
be#ond point 1 a$ter timer e4pir# o$ 9EDAMGT36E → Fcrit = 71 - A8 > 9EDAMGT36E = 300
m > 60 s = 5 m>s = 18 &m>s
2! /1JT 7micro 1→
micro 28
= 5XDEFG)EDD 7micro 28 - 5XDEF 7micro 18
? *KG6A5J3) 7micro → micro8 = 0
Timer start at point 1! A le(el hando(er $rom the micro to the macro cell is per$ormed
at point " i!e! $or a slo% mo(in' 62 7F L F
crit
8 the o:set has to be reset be$ore +
9EDAMGT36E 7micro 1→ micro 28 = 7 - 18 > F
crit
= 100 m > 5 m>s = 20 s!
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Exercise 2: "riority Layer
a8 AdN-ells 1" 2" 3 and 6 $ulAll the condition to be member in the tar'et cell list+
5XDEFG)EDD7n8 ? 5XDEFG63)7n8 H 6a47 0 " 62GTX/I5G6AX7n8 - / 8
The ran&in' in this tar'et cell list is due to+ /1JT7n8 - *KG6A5J3)7n8
Tar'et cell list+
AdN-ell /1JT7n8 -*KG6A5J3)7n8
3 4 d1
6 2 d1
2 1 d1
1 - 1 d1
b8 AdN-ells 1" 2" 3 and 6 $ulAll the condition to be member in the tar'et cell list+
5XDEFG)EDD7n8 ? 5XDEFG63)7n8 H 6a47 0 " 62GTX/I5G6AX7n8 - / 8
The ran&in' in this tar'et cell list is due to+ 1! /1JT7n8 ? *KG6A5J3)7n8
2! /D)7n8
3! /1JT7n8 - *KG6A5J3)7n8
Tar'et cell list+
AdN-ell /1JT7n8 ?
*KG6A5J3)7n8
/D)7n8 /1JT7n8 -*KG6A5J3)7n8
6 ME2 3 2 d1
2 ME2 3 1 d1
3 ME2 8 4 d1
1 )K 1 - 1 d1
c8 AdN-ells 1" 2" 3 and 6 $ulAll the condition to be member in the tar'et cell list+
5XDEFG)EDD7n8 ? 5XDEFG63)7n8 H 6a47 0 " 62GTX/I5G6AX7n8 - / 8
The ran&in' in this tar'et cell list is due to+ 1! DEFEDGK002ETG)7n8 condition
2! /D)7n8
3! /1JT7n8 - *KG6A5J3)7n8
Tar'et cell list+
AdN-ell DEFEDGK002ETG)7n8
condition
/D)7n8 /1JT7n8 -*KG6A5J3)7n8
1 ME2 1 - 1 d1
2 ME2 3 1 d1
6 )K 3 2 d1
3 )K 8 4 d1
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DEFEDGK002ETG)7n8 condition+
5XDEFG)EDD7n8 ? 5XDEFG63)7n8H6a470"62GTX/I5G6AX7n8-/8
HDEFEDGK002ETG)7n8
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d8 The condition to be member in the tar'et cell list is no%+
5XDEFG)EDD7n8 ? 5XDEFG63)7n8 H 6a470"62GTX/I5G6AX7n8 - /8 X
/1JT7n8 ? *KG6A5J3)7n8
/D ≥ /D)7n8
the condition is $ulAlled $or AdN-ells 2 and 6 !
Tar'et cell list+
AdN-ell /D)7n8 /1JT7n8 -*KG6A5J3)7n8
6 3 2 d1
2 3 1 d1
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