ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING

Mini Project Work
By
KALYAN SANJAY KAREDI ARIS KUMAR KETA
!"#A$%A%&%#' !"#A$%A%&%$'
SANDEEP GONTUKUPULI
!"#A$%A%&()'
De*+rt,ent o- In-or,+tion Tec.no/o0y1
Sri 2+3+4i En0ineerin0 Co//e0e1
!A--i/i+te5 to JNT Uni4er3ity1 K+kin+5+'
A*ri/ &"%"
1
1
ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING
Mini Project Work
By
KALYAN SANJAY KAREDI ARIS KUMAR KETA
!"#A$%A%&%#' !"#A$%A%&%$'
SANDEEP GONTUKUPULI
(06A81A1243)
Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
aard of the !e"ree of B6Tec.
Un5er t.e G7i5+nce o-
K6 R+jen5r+ Pr+3+5
A33i3t+nt Pro-e33or1 IT De*t
SRI 2ASA2I ENGINEERING COLLEGE1 TADEPALLIGUDEM
De*+rt,ent o- In-or,+tion Tec.no/o0y
SRI 2ASA2I ENGINEERING COLLEGE
!A--i/i+te5 to JNT Uni4er3ity1 K+kin+5+'
T+5e*+//i075e,89)(%"%
&""#8&"%"
2
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
#e are $er% "rateful to our project "uide Mr6 K R+jen5r+ Pr+3+51 Assistant
Professor for the "uidance throu"hout the de$elopment of this project or& b%
pro$idin" us required information' (e has been a "reat source of inspiration and he
pro$ided utmost support and encoura"ement to brin" the best out of oursel$es'
#e con$e% our sincere "ratitude to Mr6 G6Srini4+3 R+o1 (ead of the
!epartment and Principal Mr6 K 2 B.+3k+r R+o for the cooperation e)tended for the
completion of our project
#e ish to ta&e this opportunit% to e)press our deepest "ratitude to all the
people ho ha$e e)tended their cooperation in $arious a%s durin" our project' *t is our
pleasure to ac&noled"e the help of all those respected indi$iduals'
Project A33oci+te3
K6K+/y+n S+nj+y !"#A$%A%&%#'1
K6+ri3. K7,+r !"#A$%A%&%$'1
G6S+n5ee* !"#A$%A%&()'6
3
3
ABSTRACT
B73ine33 Proce33 Work :/o; Inte0r+tion t.ro70. S+/e3 is a full% inte"rated
business mana"ement s%stem that co$ers functional areas li&e +ales, *n$entor%
Production, Purchase, -inance and Accountin" etc. /his s%stem is used to mana"e the
resource to the fullest e)tend' /he inte"rated features are Accounts 0ecei$able,
Accounts Pa%able, Purchase 1rders, +ales 1rders, 2ash 3ana"ement, 2ustomer !ata
3ana"ement, +upplier !ata 3ana"ement, 2hart of Accounts and man% more'
/he main objecti$e of this project is functional inte"ration' /his project aims to
automate all the processes that are tri""ered because of a sales order, -or e)ample,
based on this sales order the application queries the finished "oods in$entor% and chec&s
ith the a$ailable requested stoc& for the product, if the stoc& is a$ailable then based on
the distance beteen the are house and customer location it "enerates deli$er% date
alon" ith the in$oice'
/his project focuses to co$er and inte"rate all aspects li&e Administration,
Accounts, Purchases, *n$entor%, Production, /ransportation and +ales'

4
4

TABLE O: CONTENTS
In5e< P+0e No
Ackno;/e50e,ent============================6i
A>3tr+ct666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666ii
T+>/e o- Content3============================6iii
Li3t o- :i07re3============================666=4
%6 Intro57ction666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
1'1 !escription'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
1'2 Purpose'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
1'3 Ad$anta"es'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
&6 So-t;+re +n5 +r5;+re Re?7ire,ent3666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
2'1 +oftare 0equirements''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
2'2 (ardare 0equirements'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
)6 Liter+t7re S7r4ey666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
(6 So-t;+re Re?7ire,ent3 An+/y3i366666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
4'1 4)istin" +%stem''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
4'2 Proposed +%stem''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
96 So-t;+re De3i0n6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
5'1' !-!''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'1'1 2onte)t 6e$el !-!''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'1'2 /op 6e$el !-!''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'2 736 !ia"rams'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'2'1 2lass !ia"ram''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'2'2 *nteraction !ia"ram'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'2'2'1 +equence !ia"ram''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'2'2'2 2ollaboration !ia"ram''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'2'3 7se case !ia"ram''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'3 2ontrol -lo !ia"rams''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'3'1 Acti$it% !ia"ram''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'3'2 +tate 2hart !ia"ram'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'4 !atabase !esi"n'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5'4'1 4 0 !ia"ram''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
5
5
5'5 2ode /emplates'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
#6 Te3tin06666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
@6 O7t*7t Screen366666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
$6 Conc/73ion666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
A6 Bi>/io0r+*.y66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
6
6
LIST O: :IGURES
96% Conte<t Le4e/ D:D66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666"A
96& To* Le4e/ D:D66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%"
96) C/+33 Di+0r+,6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%&
96( A5,ini3tr+tion Se?7ence6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%(
969 Se?7ence &6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%9
96# Se?7ence )6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%#
96@ Co//+>or+tion %66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%@
96$ Co//+>or+tion & 6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%$
96A Co//+>or+tion )66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%$
96%" O4er+// 73e C+3e Di+0r+, 66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666%A
96%% S7**/ier 73e C+3e Di+0r+, 6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666&"
96%& Lo0in Acti4ity 666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666&&
96%) Re0i3tr+tion Acti4ity 66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666&&
96%( A5,ini3tr+tion Acti4ity 666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666&)
96%9 C73to,er Acti4ity 6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666&(
96%# S7**/ier Acti4ity 666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666&9
96%@ E R Di+0r+, 666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666&@
#6% Le4e/3 o- Te3tin0666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666)&
@6% Lo0in Screen666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666)@
@6& C73to,er Det+i/3 Screen 6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666)$
@6) Pro57ct C+t+/o0 666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666)A
@6( S7**/ier Det+i/36666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666("
@69 P7rc.+3e Or5er Det+i/3666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666(%
@6# Mo5i-y Pro57ct In-or,+tion Screen666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666(&
@6@ Pro57ct :or, Screen6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666()
@6$ C73to,er P+y,ent Det+i/3 Screen 666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666((
@6A S7**/ier P+y,ent Det+i/36666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666(9
@6%" Tr7ck A//ot,ent666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666(#
@6%% A55 M+teri+/ :or,6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666(@
8
8
@6%& Se/ect S7**/ier666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666($
@6%) Re*ort Pro57ct66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666(A
@6%( Tr+i/ B+/+nce666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666669"
%6 INTRODUCTION
%6% De3cri*tion
/he term 4nterprise 0esource Plannin" (40P) is most commonl% referenced in
the conte)t of commerciall% a$ailable softare s%stems' 40P s%stems pro$ide an
inte"rated suite of information technolo"% applications that support the operations of an
enterprise and are not, as the acron%m 40P implies, limited to plannin" functions' /he
acti$ities supported b% 40P s%stems include all core functions of an enterprise,
includin" financial mana"ement, human resources mana"ement, and operations'
*ncreasin"l%, 40P $endors are offerin" 9bolt:on; products that pro$ide speciali<ed
functionalit% to au"ment the core, such as Ad$anced Plannin" and +chedulin" (AP+),
and 2ustomer 0elationship 3ana"ement (203)'
/he main $alue 40P s%stems pro$ide is the opportunit% to inte"rate an entire
or"ani<ation' 4nd to end business processes that ere traditionall% disjointed, no share
information throu"h a common database' /he information flo is much more efficient
in that there are clear lines of business processes across the enterprise'
%6& P7r*o3e
/he main $alue 40P s%stems pro$ide is the opportunit% to inte"rate an entire
or"ani<ation' 4nd to end business processes that ere traditionall% disjointed, no share
information throu"h a common database' /he information flo is much more efficient
in that there are clear lines of business processes across the enterprise'
%6) A54+nt+0e3
1' /o store properl% the librar% items in order to maintain their securit%
8
8
2' /o enter and preser$e details of the $arious issue and &eep a trac& on their
returns'/o maintain the suppliers and publishers details so that the orders can be
placed on time'
& SO:TWARE AND ARDWARE REBUIREMENTS
A set of pro"rams associated ith the operation of a computer is called softare'
+oftare is the part of the computer s%stem, hich enables the user to interact ith
se$eral ph%sical hardare de$ices'
/he minimum softare requirement specifications for de$elopin" this project are as
follos=
&6% So-t;+re Re?7ire,ent S*eci-ic+tion
O*er+tin0 Sy3te, C Win5o; &"""1 DP
Pre3ent+tion /+yer C J+4+1 Ser4/et31 JSP
D+t+>+3e C My SBL
D+t+>+3e /+yer C j5>c6
Pre3ent+tion C Po;er Point &"")
Doc7,ent+tion Too/ C M3 O--ice
&6& +r5;+re Re?7ire,ent S*eci-ic+tion
/he collection of internal electronic circuits and e)ternal ph%sical de$ices used
in buildin" a computer is called the (ardare' /he minimum hardare requirement
specifications for de$elopin" this project are as follos=
Proce33or C +tandard processor ith a speed of 1'6 >(< or more
RAM C &9# MB RAM or ,ore
+r5 Di3k C &" GB or ,ore
Monitor C St+n5+r5 co/or ,onitor
Key>o+r5 C St+n5+r5 key>o+r5
Mo73e C St+n5+r5 ,o73e
?
?
)6 LITERATURE RE2IEW
4nterprise 0esource Plannin" softare s%stems (40P) encompass a ide ran"e
of softare products supportin" da%:to:da% business operations and decision:ma&in"'
40P ser$es man% industries and numerous functional areas in an inte"rated fashion,
attemptin" to automate operations from suppl% chain mana"ement, in$entor% control,
manufacturin" schedulin" and production, sales support, customer relationship
mana"ement, financial and cost accountin", human resources and almost an% other data
oriented mana"ement process' 40P s%stems are desi"ned to enhance or"ani<ation@s
competiti$eness b% up"radin" an or"ani<ation@s abilit% to "enerate timel% and accurate
information throu"hout the enterprise and its suppl% chain'
A successful 40P s%stem implementation can shorten production c%cles,
increases accurac% of demand for materials mana"ement A sourcin" and leads to
in$entor% reduction because of material mana"ement, etc' 3oreo$er it can be used as a
primar% tool for re:en"ineerin"' (oe$er $arious studies ha$e re$ealed that not all 40P
implementations are successful' Accordin" to >ra% A' 6an"enalter (2000)1 40P
implementation failure rate is from 40B to 60B, %et companies tr% to implement these
s%stems because the% are absolutel% essential to responsi$e plannin" and
communication'
*t has been found that, unique ris&s in 40P implementation arises due to ti"htl%
lin&ed interdependencies of business processes, relational databases, and process
reen"ineerin" (+all% #ri"ht, Arnold 3' #ri"ht, 2002)' +imilarl%, business ris&s dri$e
from the models, artifacts, and processes that are chosen and adopted as a part of
implementation and are "enerated from the firm@s portfolio of 3AP@s ith respect to
their internal consistenc% and their e)ternal match ith business partners'
1r"ani<ational ris&s deri$e from the en$ironment C includin" personnel and
or"ani<ational structure C in hich the s%stem is chosen and implemented (!aniel 4'
1@6ear%, 2000)' Accordin" to 7mble A 7mble (2002), three main factors that can be
held responsible for failure of 40P s%stem are= poor plannin" or poor mana"ementD
chan"e in business "oals durin" projectD and lac& of business mana"ement support' *n
another stud%, it has been found that companies spent lar"e mone% in de$elopin" 40P
s%stems that are not utili<ed' *t is quite common for 40P project to finish late, cost more
than predicted, unreliable and difficult to maintain' 3oreo$er EP0 also had a hi"h
failure rate ith consultants estimatin" that as man% as 80B of the Eusiness Processin"
0een"ineerin" projects fails ((ammer and 2hamp%, 1??3)'
(ammer (1??0) ad$ocates that the poer of modern technolo"% should be used
to radicall% desi"n business processes to achie$e dramatic impro$ements in their
10
10
performance' -rom a softare perspecti$e 40P s%stems is complete' Eut from the
business perspecti$e it is found that softare and business processes needs to be
ali"ned, hich in$ol$es a mi)ture of business process desi"n and softare
confi"urations ((amer, 1??0)' +o a purel% technical approach to 40P s%stem desi"n is
insufficient'
(6 SO:TWARE REBUIREMENT ANALYSIS
(6% E<i3tin0 Sy3te, ;it. Li,it+tion3
As some of the or"ani<ational operations are trac&ed usin" files and some other
manuall%, hence thins process is associated ith man% limitations li&e'
• 4)istin" s%stem is not user friendl%
• +%stem as not ell or"ani<ed and precise
• *t as time consumin"
• *nformation as redundant and in:consistent
• 2onstraints couldn@t be applied
• *t didn@t inte"rated all the modules
• !ecision ma&in" as difficult
A customer places an order' /his order enters in to $arious s%stems in different
departmentsD from finance to distribution to sales and mar&etin"F As all these are
manuall% done it is time consumin", and also creates the opportunit% for errors'
(6% Pro*o3e5 Sy3te, :e+t7re3
• E% folloin" the ne approach the information can be accessed from an% here
just ith a mouse clic&' /his helps the users b% sa$in" lot of time and pro$idin"
the user ith the up to date information
• /he pac&a"e should pro$ide different functionalities li&e "eneration of
Guotations A sales orders, trac&in" of ra materials for production , reports
"eneration as per requirement and man% more'
• All the transactions made should results either success or failure to pro$ide
consistenc%
• /his project pro$ides a $er% "ood user interface e for the user to access
information ith least effort
11
11
• /he s%stem pro$ides $arious functionalities to the user for an% t%pe of details
about the $arious t%pes of ser$ices and facilities
96 SO:TWARE DESIGN
/he main focus of the anal%sis phase of +oftare de$elopment is on 9#hat
needs to be done;' /he objects disco$ered durin" the anal%sis can ser$e as the
frameor& or !esi"n' /he class@s attributes, methods and association identified durin"
anal%sis must be desi"ned for implementation lan"ua"e' He classes must be
introduced to store intermediate results durin" the pro"ram e)ecution'
4mphasis shifts from the application domain o implementation and computer
such as user interfaces or $ie la%er and access la%er' !urin" anal%sis, e loo& at the
ph%sical entities or business objects in the s%stem, that is, hich pla%ers and ho the%
cooperate to do the or& of the application' /hese objects represent tan"ible elements of
the business'
!urin" the !esi"n phase, e ele$ate the model into lo"ical entities, some of
hich mi"ht relate more to the computer domain as people or emplo%ees' (ere his "oal
is to desi"n the classes that e need to implement the s%stem the difference is that, at
this le$el e focus on the $ie and access classes, such as ho to maintain information
or the best a% o interact ith a user or present information'
De3i0n *roce33C
!urin" the desi"n phase the classes identified in object:oriented anal%sis 3ust
be re$isited ith a shift focus to their implementation' He classes or attribute and
3ethods must be an added for implementation purposes and user interfaces' /he object:
oriented desi"n process consists of the folloin" acti$ities=
1' Appl% desi"n a)ioms to desi"n classes, their attributes, methods, associations,
structure
And protocols 0efine and complete the static 736 class dia"ram b% addin" details to
the 736 dia"ram' /his step consists of folloin" acti$ities' I0efine attributes I!esi"n
12
12
methods and protocols b% utili<in" a 736 acti$it% dia"ram to represent the method@s
al"orithms'
I0efine associations beteen classes
I0efine class hierarch% and desi"n ith inheritance
I*terate and refine a"ain
2' !esi"n the access la%er
• 2reate mirror classes= -or e$er% business class identified and created' -or
e)ample, if there are three business classes, create three access la%er classes'
• *dentif% access la%er class relationships'
• +implif% classes and their relationships= /he main "oal here is to eliminate
redundant classes and structures'
I0edundant classes= !o not &eep to classes that perform similar translate
results
acti$ities' +impl% select one and eliminate the other'
I3ethod classes= 0e$isit the classes that consist of onl% one or to methods to
see if the% can be eliminated or combined ith e)istin" classes'
• *terate and refine a"ain'
!efine the $ie la%er classes
o !esi"n the macro le$el user interface, identif%in" $ie la%er objects'
o !esi"n the micro le$el user interface, hich includes these acti$ities=
I !esi"n the $ie la%er objects b% appl%in" the desi"n a)ioms and
corollaries'
I Euilt a protot%pe of the $ie la%er interface'
• /est usabilit% and user satisfaction
• *terate and refine'
3' *terate refine the hole desi"n process' -rom the class dia"ram, %ou can be"in to
e)trapolate hich classes %ou ill ha$e to built and hich e)istin" classes %ou can
reuse' As %ou do this, also be"in this, also be"in thin&in" about the inheritance
structure' *f %ou ha$e se$eral classes that seem relates but ha$e specific differences'
13
13
!esi"n also must be traceable across requirements, anal%sis, desi"n from the
0equirements model'
DESIGN ADIOMS
A)ioms are a fundamental truth that ala%s is obser$ed to be $alid and for
hich there is no counter e)ample or e)ception' +uch e)plains that a)ioms ma% be
h%pothesi<ed form a lar"e number of obser$ations b% nothin" the common phenomena
shared b% all casesD the% cannot be pro$en or deri$ed, but the% can be in$alidated b%
counter e)amples or e)ceptions' A theorem is a proposition that ma% not be self:e$ident
but can be pro$en from accepted a)ioms' *f therefore, is equi$alent to a la or principle'
A corollar% is a proposition that follos from an a)ioms or another proposition that has
been pro$en' A"ain, corollar% is shon to be $alid or not $alid in the same manner as a
theorem' *n the to important a)ioms a)iom 1 deals ith relationships beteen s%stem
components and a)iom 2 deals ith the comple)it% of desi"n'
T.e -o//o;in0 t.e t;o i,*ort+nt +<io,3
A)iom 1= /he independence a)iom, hich maintain the independence of the
components'
A)iom 2= /he information a)ioms that maintain the information content of the desi"n'
A)ioms1 states that, durin" the desi"n process, as e "o from requirement and use case
to a s%stem component, each component must satisf% that requirement ithout affectin"
other requirements'
An a)iom 2 is concerned ith simplicit%' +cientific theoreticians often rel% on a "eneral
rule &non as 1ccam@s ra<or, after #illiam of 1ccam' (e sa%s, 9/he best theor%
e)plains the &non facts ith a minimum amount of comple)it% and ma)imum
simplicit% and strai"htforardness';
/he best desi"ns usuall% in$ol$e the least comple) code but not necessaril% the feest
number of classes or methods' 3inimi<in" comple)it% should be the "oal, because that
produces the most easil% maintained and enhanced application' *n an object:oriented
s%stem, the best a% to minimi<e comple)it% is to use inheritance and the s%stems built
in classes and to add as little as possible to hat alread% is there'
14
14
-rom the to desi"n a)ioms, man% corollaries ma% be deri$ed as a direct consequence
of the a)ioms' /hese corollaries ma% be more useful in mar&in" specific desi"n
decisions, since the% can be applied to actual situations'
• 7ncoupled desi"n ith less information content= (i"hl% cohesi$e objects can
impro$e couplin" because onl% a minimal amount of essential information need
be passed beteen objects' /he de"ree or stren"th of couplin" beteen to
components is measured b% the amount and comple)it% of information
transmitted beteen them'
• +in"le purpose= 4ach class must ha$e sin"le, clearl% defined purposes'
• 6ar"e number of simple classes= Jeepin" the classes simple allos reusabilit%'
6ar"e and comple) classes are too speciali<ed to be reused'
• +tron" mappin"= /here must be a stron" association beteen the ph%sical
s%stem and lo"ical desi"n' !urin" the desi"n phase, e need to desi"n this class,
desi"n its methods, its association ith other objects' +o a stron" mappin" lin&s
classes should be identified'
• +tandardi<ation= promote standardi<ation b% desi"nin" interchan"eable and
reusin" e)istin" classes or components'
• !esi"n ith inheritance= 2ommon beha$ior must be mo$ed to super classes' /he
super class:sub class structure must ma&e lo"ical sense'
Re-inin0 +ttri>7te3 +n5 ,et.o53
Attributes identified in object oriented anal%<ed must be refined in the desi"n phase'
*n the anal%sis phase, the name of the attributes as sufficient' Eut in the desi"n phase,
detailed information must be added to the model' /he three basic t%pes of attributes are=
6 +in"le $alued attributes= /his has onl% $alue or state'
6 3ultiplicit% or multi$alue attributes= /his has a collection of man% $alues at an%
point in time'
6 *nstance connection attributes= /his is required to pro$ide the mappin" needed
b% an object to fulfill its responsibilities'
UML +ttri>7te *re3ent+tion
Kisibilit% name= t%pe:e)pressionLinitial:$alue
15
15
Kisibilit% indicates either public $isibilit% or protected $isibilit% or pri$ate
$isibilit%' /he public $isibilit% indicates that the attribute can be accessible to all classes'
/he protected $isibilit% indicates that the accessibilit% is "i$en to the subclasses and
operations of the class' /he pri$ate $isibilit% indicates that the accessibilit% can be "i$en
onl% to the operations of the class onl%'
/%pe e)pression is a lan"ua"e dependent specification of the implementation t%pe of an
attribute' *nitial $alue is a lan"ua"e dependent e)pression for the initial $alue is
optional'
96% D+t+ :/o;
T.ere +re t;o ty*e3 o- D+t+ :/o; Di+0r+,3 t.ey +re
1' Conte<t Le4e/ D:D
2' To* Le4e/ D:D
Conte<t Le4e/ D:D
*n the 2onte)t 6e$el the hole s%stem is shon as a sin"le process'

• Ho data stores are shon'
• *nputs to the o$erall s%stem are shon to"ether ith data sources (as
4)ternal entities)'
• 1utputs from the o$erall s%stem are shon to"ether ith their destinations
(as 4)ternal entities)'
96%6% Conte<t Le4e/ D:D
16
16
:i0 96% Conte<t Le4e/ D:D
96%6& To* Le4e/ D:D
/he /op 6e$el !-! "i$es the o$er$ie of the hole s%stem identif%in" the major
s%stem processes and data flo' /his le$el focuses on the sin"le process that is dran in
the conte)t dia"ram b% MNoomin" in@ on its contents and illustrates hat it does in more
detail'
18
18
96& To*8/e4e/ D:D
18
18
96& UML DIAGRAMS
96&6% CLASS DIAGRAM
!urin" anal%sis, e identif% attributes and operations ithout specif%in"
their t%pes or their parameters' !urin" object desi"n, e refine the anal%sis and s%stem
desi"n models b% addin" t%pe and $isibilit% information'
/he t%pe of an attribute specifies the ran"e of $alues the attribute can ta&e
and the operations that can be applied to the attribute'
1peration parameters and return $alues are t%ped in the same a% as attributes
are' /he t%pe constraints the ran"e of $alues the parameter or the return $alue can ta&e'
/he t%pe of the return $alue is called the si"nature of the operation' /he $isibilit% of an
attribute or an operation specifies hether it can be used b% other classes or not' 736
defines three le$els of $isibilit%'
• Pri$ate= A pri$ate attribute can be accessed onl% b% the class in hich it is
defined' +imilarl%, a pri$ate operation can be in$o&ed onl% b% the class in hich
it is defined'
• Public= A public attribute or operation can be accessed b% an% class'
• Protected= A protected attribute or operation can be accesses b% the class in
hich it is defined and an% descendent of the class'
1?
1?
Members
Users
ID : string
username : string
password : string
name : string
email : string
date : date
address : string
view()
close()
Login
Username : string
password : string
validation()
save()
cancel()
close()
Admin
Permission : string
Credentials : string
Create()
update()
delete()
close()
view()
search()
egistration
!oo"s
ID : string
name : string
t#pe : string
language : string
#ear : number
UL : string
create()
update()
delete()
close()
view()
search()
!oo"s $tatus
id : string
name : string
t#pe : string
language : string
#ear : string
date o% issue : string
renewal : string
return : string
cart : string
create()
update()
delete()
close()
view()
search()
&''n
&''n
(''n
(''(
&''n
(''(
(''(
(''(
(''(
&''n
(''(
&''n
&''n
&''n
:i0 96) C/+33 Di+0r+,
20
20
96&6& INTERACTION DIAGRAMS
96&6&6% SEBUENCE DIAGRAM
An interaction dia"ram shos an interaction, consistin" of a set of objects and their
relationships, includin" the messa"es that ma% be dispatched amon" them'
A sequence dia"ram is an interaction dia"ram that emphasi<es the time orderin" of
messa"es'
>raphicall%, a sequence dia"ram is a table that shos objects arran"ed alon" ):a)is
and messa"es, ordered in increasin" time, alon" the %:a)is'
Content3
+equence dia"rams commonl% contain the folloin"=
1bjects
6in&s
3essa"es
6i&e all other dia"rams, sequence dia"rams ma% contain notes and constrains
21
21
A5,ini3tr+tor Se?7ence
Customer $ales Inventor# )inance *ransport
Places $+
Chec"s %or ),
Availabilit# is chec"ed
), available
,enerates $I
Pa#s bill
$ends AC-
Customer A.C processing
Dispatches goods
:i0 96( A5,ini3tr+tion Se?7ence
22
22
Se?7ence &
$ends production schedule
Customer $ales Inventor# )inance *ransport Production
Places $+
Chec" ), $tatus
Availabilit# is chec"ed
e/uisition to $chedule
Chec" M status
M available
Pa#s !ill
Dispatches goods
$ends AC-
Customer A.C processing
,enerates $I
:i0 969 Se?7ence %
23
23
Se?7ence )
$ales Customer Inventor# Production Purchase )inance *ransport
Places $+
Chec"s ), status
Availabilit# is chec"ed
e/uisition to schedule
M status chec"ed
M unavailable
e/uisition to purchase
Purchase processing
$ends AC-
,enerates $I
Pa#s bill
Customer A.C processing
$ends AC-
Dispatches goods
:i0 96# Se?7ence )
24
24
96&6&6& COLLABORATION DIAGRAMS
: 2ollaboration is a societ% of classes, interfaces, and other elements that or&
to"ether to pro$ide some cooperati$e beha$ior that@s bi""er than the sum of all its parts'
: 2ollaboration is also the specification of ho an element, such as a classifier or an
operation, is reali<ed b% a set of classifiers and associations pla%in" specific roles used
in a specific a%
Content3
2ollaboration dia"rams commonl% contain the folloin"=
 1bjects
 6in&s
 3essa"es
6i&e all other dia"rams, sequence dia"rams ma% contain notes and constrains'
Co//+>or+tion
Customer $ales Inventor#
)inance *ransport
(: Places $+ 0: Chec"s %or ),
1: Availabilit# is chec"ed
2: ), available 3: ,enerates $I
4: Pa#s bill
5: Customer A.C processing
6: $ends AC-
7: Dispatches goods
:i0 96@ Co//+>or+tion %
25
25
Co//+>or+tion &
Customer $ales Inventor#
)inance *ransport Production
(: Places $+ 0: Chec" ), $tatus
1: Availabilit# is chec"ed
2: e/uisition to $chedule
3: Chec" M status
4: M available
5: $ends production schedule
6: ,enerates $I
7: Pa#s !ill
(&: Customer A.C processing
((: $ends AC-
(0: Dispatches goods
-i" 5'8 2ollaboration 2
Co//+>or+tion
Customer $ales Inventor#
)inance
Production
*ransport
1: Availabilit# is chec"ed
(0: Customer A.C processing
Purchase
6: Purchase processing
(: Places $+
(&: ,enerates $I
((: Pa#s bill
0: Chec"s ), status
(1: $ends AC-
5: e/uisition to purchase
(2: Dispatches goods
2: e/uisition to schedule
4: M unavailable
3: M status chec"ed
7: $ends AC-
-i" 5'? 2ollaboration 3
26
26
5.2.3 USE CASE DIAGRAM
U3e C+3e Di+0r+,
• A use case dia"ram is a dia"ram that shos a set of use cases and actors and
relationships'
Content3
• 7se case commonl% contain
 7se cases
 Actors
 !ependenc%, "enerali<ation and association relationships
O4er+// 73e c+3e
Customer
8eri%#ing ),
8eri%#ing M
etailer
Distributor
Inventor# dept
*rac" inventor# status
$ales dept
)inance dept
*ransport dept
Customer placing $+
$I processing
Customer A.C processing
Dispatching goods process
99include::
99include::
28
28
-i" 5'10 1$erall 7se case !ia"ram
S7**/ier U3e c+3e
;<isting Customer =ew Customer
$upplier
$toring supplier in%ormation
$ending P+
Cler"
eceiving Invoice %rom supplier
Administrator
-i" 5'11 +upplier 7secase
28
28
96) CONTROL :LOW DIAGRAMS
96)6% Acti4ity Di+0r+,3C
Acti4ity Di+0r+,C
An acti$it% dia"ram shos the flo from acti$it% to acti$it%' An acti$it% is an on"oin" non:
atomic e)ecution ithin a state machine'
Acti$ities ultimatel% result in some action, hich is made up of e)ecutable atomic
computations that result in a chan"e in state of the s%stem or the return of a $alue'
Acti$it% dia"rams commonl% contain
• Acti$it% states and action states
• /ransitions
• 1bjects
6i&e all other dia"rams, acti$it% dia"rams ma% contain notes and constrains'
2?
2?
Lo0in Proce33
Providing
$ervices
8alidation
etr#
$ervices
99=o::
99>;$::
-i" 5'12 6o"in Acti$it%
Re0i3tr+tion Proce33C
admin validation
Invalidate
details
99=+::
Provide
Credentials
99>;$::
Providing
$ervices
30
30
-i" 5'13 0e"istration Acti$it%
A5,ini3tr+tor Proce33
$tart
Administrative
$#stem
)inance
$#stem
*ransport
$#stem
Inwards +utwards Customer
*ransport
$upplier
*ransport
I) products are
available
I) P'I is $ent
Purchase
$#stem
$ends awmaterial
$top
!illing $#stem Customer
>;$
-i" 5'14 Administration Acti$it%
31
31
C73to,er Proce33
Customer
places $+
Inventor# is chec"ed
(%or order processing)
Is %inished goods
available
e/uisition to
production
=o
Is rawmaterial
available
e/uisition to
purchase
=o
Production
schedulling
>es
$I
processing
Customer bill
processing
Dispatching
goods
Close order
>es
-i" 5'15 2ustomer Acti$it%
32
32
S7**/ier Proce33
-i" 5'16 +upplier Acti$it%
supplier sends
/utations
?uotation
processed
)inalising
/utations
=ormal
evaluation
$tandard
evaluation
eceives ac"nowledgement
%rom client
33
33
96( DATABASE DESIGN
96(6% E8R Di+0r+,3
An entit%:relationship (40) dia"ram is a speciali<ed "raphic that illustrates the
interrelationships beteen entities in a database' 40 dia"rams often use s%mbols to
represent three different t%pes of information' Eo)es are commonl% used to represent
entities' !iamonds are normall% used to represent relationships and o$als are used to
represent attributes'
/he Euildin" Eloc&s are
• 4ntities
• 0elationships
• Attributes
An entit% ma% be a ph%sical object such as a house or a car, an e$ent such as a
house sale or a car ser$ice, or a concept such as a customer transaction or order'
Althou"h the term entit% is the one most commonl% used, folloin" 2hen e should
reall% distin"uish beteen an entit% and an entit%:t%pe' An entit%:t%pe is a cate"or%' An
entit%, strictl% spea&in", is an instance of a "i$en entit%:t%pe' /here are usuall% man%
instances of an entit%:t%pe' Eecause the term entit%:t%pe is somehat cumbersome,
most people tend to use the term entit% as a s%non%m for this term'
A relationship captures ho to or more entities are related to one another'
0elationships can be thou"ht of as $erbs, lin&in" to or more nouns' 4)amples= an
ons relationship beteen a compan% and a computer, a super$ises relationship
beteen an emplo%ee and a department, a performs relationship beteen an artist and a
son", a pro$ed relationship beteen a mathematician and a theorem' 0elationships are
represented as diamonds, connected b% lines to each of the entities in the relationship'
34
34
CU$*+M;
CU$*@ID: 8ACAA0(03)
CU$*@=AM;: 8ACAA0(1&)
ADD(: 8ACAA0((&&)
ADD0: 8ACAA0((&&)
CI*>: 8ACAA0((3)
BIP: =UM!;(4)
$*A*;: 8ACAA0((3)
;MAIL: 8ACAA0(1&)
*;L;PA+=;@=+(: 8ACAA0(0&)
C+U=*>: 8ACAA0((3)
*;L;PA+=;@=+0: 8ACAA0(0&)
)AC: 8ACAA0(0&)
I=8;=*+>@)I=I$A;D,++D$
P+D@ID: =UM!;(3)
P+D@=AM;: 8ACAA0(1&)
P+D@D;$C: 8ACAA0(1&)
A*;: =UM!;((0D0)
+L: =UM!;(3)
?*>@+=@AA=D: =UM!;(3)
I=8;=*+>@AEMA*;IAL
M@ID: =UM!;(3)
M@=AM;: 8ACAA0(1&)
M@D;$C: 8ACAA0(1&)
;@+D;@L8L: =UM!;((&)
?*>@+=AA=D: =UM!;((&)
M@A*;: =UM!;((&)
P+D@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
MAC@+L: =UM!;((&)
$UPP@=+$: 8ACAA0(3&&)
PA>M;=*PAID
PAID@ID: =UM!;((&)
P+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
PAIDDA*;: DA*;
AM+U=*: =UM!;((0D0)
P@D;$C: 8ACAA0(0&)
PA>M;=*;CI8;D
p@id: =UM!;((&)
$+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
amount: =UM!;((0D0)
p@date: DA*;
p@desc: 8ACAA0(0&&&)
P@*>P;: 8ACAA0(0&)
P+DUC*I+=@MA$*;
P+DUC*I+=@=+: =UM!;(3)
P+D@DA*;: DA*;
?*>: =UM!;(3)
P+D@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
$*A*U$: 8ACAA0((&)
PUCAA$;@+D;@D*L
sl@no: =UM!;(3)
P+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
$UPP@=+: 8ACAA0(1&) ()-)
$*A*U$: 8ACAA0(0&)
PUCAA$;@+D;@MA$*;
P+@=+: =UM!;(3)
+D;@DA*;: DA*;
$+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
M@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
?*>: =UM!;(3)
$@PIC;: =UM!;((0D0)
?U+*A*I+=@MA$*;
?U*@=+: =UM!;(3)
?U*@DA*;: DA*;
M@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
?*>: =UM!;(3)
U=I*@PIC;: =UM!;(3)
D@DA*;: DA*;
$UPP@=+: 8ACAA0(1&) ()-)
P+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
$*A*U$: 8ACAA0(0&)
$AL;$@I=8+IC;
$AL;$@I=8@=+: =UM!;(3)
$+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
$AL;$@I=8@DA*;: DA*;
$AL;$@I=8@AM*: =UM!;((0D0)
D;LI8;>@DA*;: DA*;
*AC;$: =UM!;(3)
$AL;$@I=8@D;*AIL$
$;IAL@=+: =UM!;((&)
$AL;$@I=8@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
P+D@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
?*>: =UM!;(3)
$AL;$@+D;
$+@=+: =UM!;(3)
$+@DA*;: DA*;
?*>: =UM!;(3)
*+*@AM*: =UM!;((0D0)
CU$*@ID: 8ACAA0(03) ()-)
$*A*U$: 8ACAA0(2)
$AL;$@+D;@D*L
$+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
P+D@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
?*>: =UM!;(3)
$UPPLI;
$UPP@=+: 8ACAA0(1&)
$UPP@=AM;: 8ACAA0(1&)
ADD(: 8ACAA0((&&)
ADD0: 8ACAA0((&&)
CI*>: 8ACAA0((3)
BIPC+D;: =UM!;(4)
$*A*;: 8ACAA0((3)
C+U=*>: 8ACAA0((3)
*;L@=+(: 8ACAA0(0&)
*;L@=+0: 8ACAA0(0&)
)AC: 8ACAA0(0&)
;MAIL: 8ACAA0(1&)
;CP: =UM!;(1)
M@ID$: 8ACAA0(3&&)
*A=$P+*
*@ID: =UM!;(3)
CU$*@ID: 8ACAA0(03) ()-)
ALL+*;DDA*;: DA*;
D;LI8;>DA*;: DA*;
*@AM+U=*: =UM!;((0D0)
*UC-=+: 8ACAA0(0&)
L+,I=
L+,I=ID: 8ACAA0(0&)
PA$$E+D: 8ACAA0(0&)
P;$+=: 8ACAA0(0&)
*A=$P+*@D;*AIL$
$L@=+: =UM!;(3)
*@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
$+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
PUCAA,;@+D;@C+=)IM;D
$L@=+: =UM!;(3)
D@DA*;: DA*;
U=I*@PIC;: =UM!;((0D0)
?*>: =UM!;(3)
P+@=+: =UM!;(3) ()-)
$UPP@=+: 8ACAA0(1&) ()-)
AEADDI*I+=
$L@=+: =UM!;(3)
M@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
?*>@ADD;D: =UM!;(4)
A@DA*;: DA*;
$*A*U$: 8ACAA0(0&)
)I=I$A;DADDI*I+=
$L@=+: =UM!;(3)
?*>@ADD;D: =UM!;(4)
A@DA*;: DA*;
$*A*U$: 8ACAA0(0&)
P+D@ID: =UM!;(3) ()-)
P+DUC*I+=@$;**I=,$
$@=o: =UM!;(3)
IMPL@Date: DA*;
Pro@Capacit#: =UM!;(3)
-i" 5'18 4 0 !ia"ram
35
35
969 CODINGECODE TEMPLATES
9696% J+4+ Ser4er P+0e3
O+P not onl% enjo%s cross:platform and cross:#eb:ser$er support, but effecti$el%
melds the poer of ser$er:side Oa$a technolo"% ith features of static (/36 pa"es'
O+P pa"es t%picall% comprise of= +tatic (/36 P Q36 components'
:+pecial O+P ta"s'
:1ptionall%, snippets of code ritten in the ja$a pro"rammin" lan"ua"e called 9script
lets';
JSP Advantages
Se*+r+tion o- 3t+tic -ro, 5yn+,ic content= *n O+P, the lo"ic to "enerate the d%namic
content is &ept separate from the static presentation templates b% encapsulatin" it ithin
e)ternal Oa$a beans components' #hen a pa"e desi"ner ma&es an% chan"es to the
presentation template, the O+P pa"e is automaticall% recompiled and reloaded into the
eb ser$er b% the O+P en"ine'
Write Once R7n Any;.ereC O+P technolo"% brin"s the 9#rite 1nce, 0un an%here;
paradi"m to interacti$e #eb pa"es'
Dyn+,ic content c+n >e 3er4e5 in + 4+riety o- -or,+t3C /here is nothin" that
mandates the static template data ithin a O+P pa"e to be of a certain format'
JSP Architecture
/he purpose of O+P is to pro$ide a declarati$e, presentation:centric method of
de$elopin" ser$lets' O+P pa"es are subject to a translation phase and a request:
processin" phase' /he translation phase is carried phase is carried out onl% once, unless
the O+P pa"e chan"es, in hich case it is repeated' /he O+P en"ine itself t%picall% carries
out the translation phase, hen it recei$es a request for the O+P pa"e for the first time'
Li-e Cyc/e o- A JSPC 6ife c%cle of a O+P consists of the folloin" three methods=
Rjsp*nit
Rjsp+er$ice
Rjsp!estro%
36
36
JSP Synt+<
Directi4e3
O+Ps can define information for the container ith directi$es' (ere is hat directi$es
loo& li&e in a "eneral form=
SBT directi$e attributeLUsome KalueU attributeLUanother KalueU ''' BV
/here are three directi$es=
SBT pa"e ''' BV specifies information that affects the pa"e
• SBT include ''' BV includes a file at the location of the include directi$e (parsed)
• SBT ta"lib ''' BV allos the use of custom ta"s in the pa"e
SBT pa"e lan"ua"eLUja$aU BV ill ala%s be the first line of e$er% O+P file'
Dec/+r+tion3
!eclarations are used to specif% supplemental methods and $ariables' Wou can thin& of
these are the pa"eXs pri$ate functionsD the% can onl% be called b% the O+P here the% are
defined, or b% another O+P that includes it (usin" the ST include V directi$e)'
(ere is a sample declaration=
SBY PP this inte"er can be used an%here in this O+P pa"e
pri$ate int m%Kariable L :1D PP this function can be called from an%here in this O+P
pa"e
public boolean isPositi$e() Z
return ( m%Kariable V 0 )D
[
BV
Scri*t/et3
+criptlets are bits of Oa$a code' /he% can do an%thin" but the% ill most li&el%
concentrate on "eneratin" (/36 code or settin" up $ariables to be part of later
e)pressions'
E<*re33ion3
4)pressions are special:purpose mini:+criptlets used for e$aluatin" e)pressions'
/his could be somethin" as simple as outputtin" the $alue of a $ariable, or a more
complicated Oa$a e)pression, li&e callin" a function and outputtin" the result' SBL
counter BV Hote that counter is defined as an int, but e do not need to e)plicitl%
con$ert it to a strin"'
38
38
#6 TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION
/estin"
• Te3tin0 Met.o5o/o0ie3
• Elac& bo) /estin"=
• #hite bo) /estin"'
• >ra% Eo) /estin"'
• Le4e/3 o- Te3tin0
o 7nit /estin"'
o 3odule /estin"'
o *nte"ration /estin"'
o +%stem /estin"'
o 7ser Acceptance /estin"'
• Ty*e3 O- Te3tin0
o +mo&e /estin"'
o +anitar% /estin"'
o 0e"ression /estin"'
o 0e:/estin"'
o +tatic /estin"'
o !%namic /estin"'
o Alpha:/estin"'
o Eeta:/estin"'
o 3on&e% /estin"'
o 2ompatibilit% /estin"'
o *nstallation /estin"'
o Adhoc /estin"'
o 4)t.'
• TCD !Te3t C+3e Doc7,ent+tion'
38
38
• STLC
1'1 /est Plannin"'
1'2 /est !e$elopment'
1'3 /est 4)ecution'
1'4 0esult Anal%sis'
1'5 Eu":/racin"'
1'6 0eportin"'
• Micro3o-t Win5o;3 F St+n5+r53
• M+n7+/ Te3tin0
• A7to,+tion Te3tin0 !Too/3'
o #in 0unner'
o /est !irector
Te3tin0C
3' /he process of e)ecutin" a s%stem ith the intent of findin" an error'
4' /estin" is defined as the process in hich defects are identified, isolated,
subjected for rectification and ensured that product is defect free in order to
produce the qualit% product and hence customer satisfaction'
5' Gualit% is defined as justification of the requirements
6' !efect is nothin" but de$iation from the requirements
8' !efect is nothin" but bu"'
8' /estin" ::: /he presence of bu"s
?' /estin" can demonstrate the presence of bu"s, but not their absence
10' !ebu""in" and /estin" are not the same thin"Y
11' /estin" is a s%stematic attempt to brea& a pro"ram or the A7/
12' !ebu""in" is the art or method of unco$erin" h% the script Ppro"ram did not
e)ecute properl%'
3?
3?
Te3tin0 Met.o5o/o0ie3C
• B/+ck >o< Te3tin0= is the testin" process in hich tester can perform testin"
on an application ithout ha$in" an% internal structural &noled"e of
application'
7suall% /est 4n"ineers are in$ol$ed in the blac& bo) testin"'
• W.ite >o< Te3tin0= is the testin" process in hich tester can perform testin"
on an application ith ha$in" internal structural &noled"e'
7suall% /he !e$elopers are in$ol$ed in hite bo) testin"'
• Gr+y Bo< Te3tin0= is the process in hich the combination of blac& bo) and
hite bo) techniques are used'
Le4e/3 o- Te3tin0C
Module1 Module2 Module3
Units Units Units
iPp Integration oPp iPp Integration o/p
System Testing Presentation ! "usiness !#ata"ases
UAT user acceptance testing
+/62 (+1-/#A04 /4+/*H> 6*-4 2W264)
Te3t P/+nnin0C %6/est Plan is defined as a strate"ic document hich
describes the procedure ho to perform $arious testin" on total
application in the most efficient a%'
&6 1bjecti$e of testin",
)6 Areas that need to be tested,
(6 Areas that should not be tested,
40
40
96 +chedulin" 0esource Plannin",
@6 Areas to be automated, $arious testin" tools used
Te3t De4e/o*,ent= %6 /est case !e$elopment (chec& list)
&6 /est Procedure preparation' (!escription of the test cases)
Te3t E<ec7tion= %6 *mplementation of test cases' 1bser$in" the result'
Re37/t An+/y3i3= %6 4)pected $alue= is nothin" but e)pected beha$ior
1f application'
&6 Actual $alue= is nothin" but actual beha$ior of the
application
B70 Tr+cin0C 2ollect all the failed cases, prepare documents'
Re*ortin0C Prepare document (status of the application)

Ty*e3 O- Te3tin0C
1' S,oke Te3tin0= is the process of initial testin" in hich tester loo&s for the
a$ailabilit% of all the functionalit% of the application in order to perform detailed testin"
on them' (3ain chec& is for a$ailable forms)
2' S+nity Te3tin0C is a t%pe of testin" that is conducted on an application initiall% to
chec& for the proper beha$ior of an application that is to chec& all the functionalit% are
a$ailable before the detailed testin" is conducted b% on them'
3' Re0re33ion Te3tin0C is one of the best and important testin"' 0e"ression testin" is
the process in hich the functionalit%, hich is alread% tested before, is once a"ain
tested hene$er some ne chan"e is added in order to chec& hether the e)istin"
functionalit% remains same'
4' Re8Te3tin0C is the process in hich testin" is performed on some functionalit%
hich is alread% tested before to ma&e sure that the defects are reproducible and to rule
out the en$ironments issues if at all an% defects are there'
5' St+tic Te3tin0C is the testin", hich is performed on an application hen it is not
been e)ecuted' e)= >7*, !ocument /estin"
6' Dyn+,ic Te3tin0C is the testin" hich is performed on an application hen it is
bein" e)ecuted' e)= -unctional testin"'
41
41
8' A/*.+ Te3tin0C it is a t%pe of user acceptance testin", hich is conducted on an
application hen it is just before released to the customer'
$6Bet+8Te3tin0C it is a t%pe of 7A/ that is conducted on an application hen it is
released to the customer, hen deplo%ed in to the real time en$ironment and bein"
accessed b% the real time users'
A6Monkey Te3tin0C is the process in hich abnormal operations, be%ond capacit%
operations are done on the application to chec& the stabilit% of it in spite of the users
abnormal beha$ior'
%"6Co,*+ti>i/ity te3tin0C it is the testin" process in hich usuall% the products are
tested on the en$ironments ith different combinations of databases (application
ser$ers, brosers.etc) *n order to chec& ho far the product is compatible ith all
these en$ironments platform combination'
%%6In3t+//+tion Te3tin0C it is the process of testin" in hich the tester tr% to install or tr%
to deplo% the module into the correspondin" en$ironment b% folloin" the "uidelines
produced in the deplo%ment document and chec& hether the installation is successful
or not'
%&6A5.oc Te3tin0C Adhoc /estin" is the process of testin" in hich unli&e the formal
testin" here in test case document is used, ith out that test case document testin"
can be done of an application, to co$er that testin" of the future hich are not co$ered
in that test case document' Also it is intended to perform >7* testin" hich ma%
in$ol$e the cosmotic issues'
TCD !Te3t C+3e Doc7,ent'C
Te3t C+3e Doc7,ent Cont+in3
 Te3t Sco*e !or' Te3t o>jecti4e
 Te3t Scen+rio
 Te3t Proce57re
 Te3t c+3e
/his is the sample test case document for the Acadamic details of student project=
Te3t 3co*eC
 /est co$era"e is pro$ided for the screen 9 Acadamic status entr%; form of a
student module of uni$ersit% mana"ement s%stem application
42
42
 Areas of the application to be tested
Te3t Scen+rioC
 #hen the office personals use this screen for the mar&s entr%, calculate the status
details, sa$in" the information on student@s basis and quit the form'
Te3t Proce57reC
 /he procedure for testin" this screen is planned in such a a% that the data entr%,
status calculation functionalit%, sa$in" and quittin" operations are tested in terms
of >ui testin", Positi$e testin", He"ati$e testin" usin" the correspondin" >ui test
cases, Positi$e test cases, He"ati$e test cases respecti$el%
Te3t C+3e3C
 /emplate for /est 2ase
/'2'Ho !escription 4)p Act 0esult
G7i5e/ine3 -or Te3t C+3e3=
• GUI Te3t C+3e3C
• /otal no of features that need to be chec&
• 6oo& A -eel
• 6oo& for !efault $alues if at all an% (date A /ime, if at all an% require)
• 6oo& for spell chec&
E<+,*/e -or GUI Te3t c+3e3=
/'2'
Ho !escription 4)pected $alue
Actual
$alue 0esult

1
2hec& for all the features in
the screen
/he screen must contain
all the features
2
2hec& for the ali"nment of
the objects as per the $alidations
/he ali"nment should be
in proper a%
43
43
Po3iti4e Te3t C+3e3C
• /he positi$e flo of the functionalit% must be considered
• Kalid inputs must be used for testin"
• 3ust ha$e the positi$e perception to $erif% hether the requirements are
justified'

E<+,*/e -or Po3iti4e Te3t c+3e3C
/'2'
Ho
!escription 4)pected $alue Actual
$alue
0esult
1 2hec& for the date /ime
Auto !ispla%
/he date and time of the
s%stem must be displa%ed
2 4nter the $alid 0oll no into the
student roll no field
*t should accept
Ne0+ti4e Te3t C+3e3C
• 3ust ha$e ne"ati$e perception'
• *n$alid inputs must be used for test'
EDAMPLE O: NEGATI2E TEST CASE
/'2'
Ho
!escription 4)pected $alue Actual
$alue
0esult
1 /r% to modif% the
information in date and time
3odification should
not
be allo
2 4nter in$alid data in to the
student details form, clic&
on
+a$e
*t should not accept
in$alid data, sa$e
should not allo
44
44
@ OUTPUT SCREEN
-i" 8'1 6o"in -orm
45
45
-i" 8'2 2ustomer !etails
46
46
-i" 8'3 Product 2atalo"
48
48
-i" 8'4 +upplier !etails
48
48
-i" 8'5 Purchase 1rder !etail
4?
4?
-i" 8'6 3odif% Product *nformation +creen
50
50
-i" 8'8 Product -orm +creen
51
51
-i" 8'8 2ustomer pa%ment detail screens
52
52
-i" 8'? +upplier Pa%ment !etails
53
53
-i" 8'10 /ruc& Allotment
t
54
54
-i" 8'11 Add 3aterial -orm
55
55
-i" 8'12 +elect +upplier
56
56
-i" 8'13 0eport Product
58
58
-i" 8'14 /rail Ealance
58
58
$6 CONCLUSION
/he s%stem@s capabilit% is to &eep trac& of all the information is its main feature,
hich helps the mana"ement to &no the current position of the or"ani<ation acti$ities
b% just "lancin" throu"h s%stem "enerated details'
/he s%stem has been de$eloped considerin" e$er% sin"le qualit% factor' !ue to
this reason the s%stem is hi"hl% secure from the crash don problem' 3oreo$er, the
s%stem is hi"hl% reliable and due to the securit% and inte"rit% features, pro$ides for the
s%stem, unauthori<ed users cannot access the s%stem'
5?
5?
A6 BIBLIOGRAPY
Sy3te, An+/y3i3 +n5 De3i0n
H' 3unro
An An+/y3i3 +n5 De3i0n o- In-or,+tion Sy3te,3
Arthur 3' 6an"er
So-t;+re En0ineerin0
: +te$e 3c2onnell
D+t+>+3e M+n+0e,ent Sy3te,
: 0a"hu 0ama&rishnan
JSPC A Be0innerG3 G7i5e
: (erbert +childt
J+4+ Ser4er P+0e3 Pro0r+,,in0C A 4i37+/ *ro-e33ion+/ 07i5e -or De3i0n
: +cott 3itchell
60
60