2.

8 Distance Formula, Circles, Midpoint Formula
A. Distance Formula
We seek a formula for the distance between two points:

Ý

´Ü¾

´Ü½

ݽ µ
ܾ

 

ݾ µ

ݾ

 

ݽ

ܽ
Ü

By the Pythagorean Theorem,

¾

´Ü¾

 

´Ü¾

 

· ´Ý¾

 

¾ · ´Ý
¾

 

ܽ µ

¾

ݽ µ

¾

Since distance is positive, we have:
Distance Formula:

Ô

1

ܽ µ

¾

ݽ µ

Circles A circle is the set of points a fixed distance Ö from a center ´ ´Ü ݵ Ö ´ By the distance formula. Ô Ö ´Ü   µ µ¾ · ´Ý 2   µ¾ µ: .B. Example Find the distance between ´ ½ ¾µ   and ´¿ µ Solution Use the distance formula: Ô   ½ µ¾ · ´ ¾   ½ µ¾ ´¿   ´ ½µµ¾ · ´    ¾µ¾ Ô ´ µ¾ · ´  µ¾ Ô ½ ·¿ Ô ´Ü¾ Ô Ü Ý Ý ¾ Ans Ô ¾ ½¿ C.

D. we have: Ans ´Ü   ¾µ¾ · ´ Example 2: Ý ´Ü · ½µ¾   ¾µ¾ · ´ Ý · ½µ¾   µ¾ · ´Ý   µ¾ Ö ¾ ¾ ½ Given a circle ܾ · ´Ý   ¿µ¾ . Examples Example 1: Find the equation of a circle with center ´¾  ½µ and radius . Solution ´Ü The equation of a circle in standard form: Thus.Eliminating the radical. we get: ´Ü Equation of Circle in Standard Form: Note: Ö   µ¾ · ´Ý   µ¾ Ö ¾ is called the radius of the circle. find the center and radius. Solution Since the equation of a circle in standard form is ´Ü   Ans center: radius: Ô ´¼ ¿µ 3 µ ¾ · ´Ý   µ¾ Ö ¾ . we have .

we complete the square in both Ü and Ý . To put it in standard form. In standard form. Putting the Equation of a Circle in Standard Form Sometimes the equation of a circle is not in standard form. Example 1: Put the equation of the circle ¾ Ü · ݾ   Ü · ¾Ý ½ into standard form. it is easy to identify the center and radius of the circle. Solution ¾ Ü · ݾ     ܵ ´Ü¾   ´Ü¾ Ans Ü ½ · ´ Ý ¾ · ¾Ý µ · µ ´Ü   ¿µ¾   ´Ü   ¿µ¾ · ´ Example 2: · ¾Ý Ü   ℄· ½ Ý · ´Ý · ½µ¾ Ý · ½µ¾ ¾ · ¾Ý · ½℄  ½  ½ ½ ½ ¾ Put the equation of the circle ¾Ü¾ · ¾Ý ¾   ½¼   ½¾    ½ Ü Solution ¾Ü¾ · ¾Ý ¾ ´¾Ü¾   ½¼ ¾´Ü¾   ¾ ¾ Ü   ½¼   ½¾ ܵ ܵ   Ü Ý · ´¾Ý ¾   ½¾ · ¾´Ý ¾ Ü · ¾   ݵ ݵ   ¾¾ ¢ · ¾´Ý ¾ 4 Ý · µ £ Ý into standard form. .E.

Find the center and radius. Put the equation in standard form. Connect the dots. Plot the Ü and Ý intercepts. Going any direction from the center by a radius amount reaches the circle. 3. Find the Ü and Ý intercepts. 5. 2. Graphing Circles To graph a circle: 1.¾ ¾ ¾ Ans Ü Ü   ¾   ¾¾  ¾ ¾ Ü  ¾ ¾ Ü  ¾ ¾ Ü  ¾ ¾ Ü  ¾ Ü ¾  ¾ ¢ · ¾´Ý   ¿µ¾   ½ · ¾´Ý   ¿µ¾   ¾¾   ¿¾ · ¾´Ý   ¿µ¾   · ¾´Ý   ¿µ¾ · ¾´Ý   ¿µ¾ · ¾´Ý   ¿µ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ · ´Ý £ ½ ¾ · ½ ¾ ½ ¾ · ½ ¾ ¾   ¿µ¾ F. 5 . 4.

Example: Find the center. Ü and Ý intercepts of the circle. radius. where ܾ · Ý ¾   ¾Ü · Ý   . Solution First. 6   . put the circle in standard form: ¾ Ü ´Ü¾  ¾ ´Ü¾  ¾ · ½µ   ½µ¾ · ´ ´Ü   ½µ¾ · ´ radius: ´½ Ô   ½¾ · Ý · ´Ý ¾ · ܵ Ü Ü ´Ü center: Ü  ¾ · ݾ Ý Ý    ½·´ · µ¾ · µ¾   ݵ Ý ¾ ·  ½ Ý ·½ µ  ½   ½¾ µ Ô ¾ ¿ -intercepts: set Ý ´Ü ¼:   ½µ¾ · ´¼ · µ¾ ½¾ ¾ ´   ½µ · ½ ½¾ ¾ ´   ½µ  Ô  ½ ¦   Ü Ü Ü Thus there are no Ü-intercepts. Then graph the circle.

Graph: Ý Ü circle 7 .Ý -intercepts: set Ü ´¼ ¼:   ½µ¾ · ´ Ý ¾ · µ ½¾ ¾ ½ · ´Ý · µ ½¾ ¾ ´Ý · µ Ý ½½ Ô ¦ ½½Ô   ¦ ½½ · Ý Thus the Ý -intercepts are   ¦ Ô ½½.

G. ´Ü¾ ´Ü½ ݾ µ ݽ µ midpoint ܽ Midpoint Formula: · ܾ ݽ · ݾ ¾ ¾ “average the Ü-coordinates and average the Ý -coordinates” Find the midpoint between ´ ½ Example: ¾µ and ´¿   µ Solution ܽ · ܾ ¾ Ans ´½ ݽ · ݾ ¾  ½ · ¿ ¾ ¾·´   ¾  ½µ 8 µ ¾  ¾ ¾ ¾ . Midpoint Formula The midpoint between two points is the point on the line halfway between them.