# Principles of Physics I PHY-111, Fall’13

PHY 111, Fall’13 Principles of Physics I
MLR,MNS,BRACU
mlrahman@bracu.ac.bd
Heat and Temperature
Formulus:
• Diﬀerent temperature scales are relate by
C
5
=
F−32
9
=
K−273.15
5
• Linear expansion of solid, ∆L = αL
0
∆T,
where α is the coeﬃcient of linear expansion
• Area expansion, ∆A = βA
0
∆T, where β is the
coeﬃcient of area expansion
• Volume expansion, ∆V = γV
0
∆T, where γ is
the coeﬃcient of volume expansion
• For isotropic solids, β = 2α and γ = 3α
• Heart Capacity, =
∆Q
∆T
,
• Speciﬁc Heat, C =
∆Q
m ∆T
• Heat gained or lost by a body of mass m as it
undergoes a temperature change ∆T, is given
by ∆Q = mC∆T
• Heat gain by body = Heat lost by body
• Quantity of Heat transmitted from face 1 to
face 2 in time ∆t,is given by Q = K
A(θ
1
−θ
2
)∆t
L
where K is the thermal conductivity of the
materials
• By conservation of mass, m = ρ
o
V
o
= ρ
1
V
1
Units(in SI):
• Specific heat C = J/kg.
o
C
• Thermal conductivity, K = Cal/s.cm.
o
C =
W/m.K
• 1 Cal/s.cm.
o
C = 418 W/m.K
• 1 Cal = 1 kcal = 1000 cal
• 1 cal/gm.
o
C = 4184 J/kg.
o
C
• The heat of fusion of water at 0
o
335 kJ/kg or 80 cal/gm
• The heat of vaporization of water at 100
o
C is
about 2.26 MJ/kg or 540 cal/gm
• Specific heat of water = 4180 J/kg.
o
C =
1 cal/g.
o
C
Heat and Temperature M.L.Rahman Page 1 of 3
Principles of Physics I PHY-111, Fall’13
Heat and Temperature !!!!!
Level One
1. At what temperature do the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales coincide? (Ans: −40
o
C)
2. A steel tape is calibrated at 20
o
C. On a cold day when the temperature is −15
o
C, what will be the
percentage error in the tape? α
s
= 1.1 ×10
−5 o
C
−1
(Ans: 0.039)
3. Suppose a 60 kg person consumes 2500 Cal of food in one day. If the entire heat equivalent of this
food were retained by the person’s body, how large a temperature change would it cause? For body,
C
body
= 0.83 cal/g
o
C, remember that 1 Cal = 1 kcal = 1000 cal. (Ans: 50
o
C)
4. How much heat is required to change 10 gm of ice at exactly 0
o
C to steam at 100
o
C (Ans: 7.2 kcal)
5. Determine the temperature that results when 1 kg of ice at exactly 0
o
C is mixed with 9 kg of water
at 50
o
C (Ans: 37
o
C)
6. 10 kg of steam at 100
o
C is condensed in 500 kg of water at 40
o
C. What is the resulting temperature?
(Ans: 51.8
o
C)
7. Calculate the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a metal block with a heat capacity
of 23.1 J/
o
C by 30
o
C. (Ans: 693 J)
8. An electric heater supplies 500 J of heat energy to a copper cylinder of mass 32.4 gm. Find the
increase in temperature of the cylinder. Given that speciﬁc heat of copper is 385 J/kg
o
C. (Ans:
40.08
o
C)
9. The opposite faces of a metal plate of 0.2 cm thickness are at a diﬀerence of temperature of 100
o
C.
If the area of the plate is 200 cm
2
,ﬁnd the quantity of heat that will ﬂow through the plate in one
minute. Give that thermal conductivity K = 0.2 CGS unit. (Ans: 12 ×10
5
cal)
Level Two
1. A cylinder of diameter 1 cm at 30
o
C is to be slid into a hole in a steel plate. The hole has a diameter of
0.99940 cm at 30
o
C. To what temperature must the plate be heated? For steel α
s
= 1.1×10
−5 o
C
−1
(Ans: 57
o
C)
2. A glass ﬂask is ﬁlled to the mark with 20 cm
3
of mercury at 18
o
C. If the ﬂask and its contents are
heated to 30
o
C, how much mercury will be above the mark? Given that α
g
= 9 × 10
−6 o
C
−1
and
β
m
= 182 ×10
−6 o
C
−1
(Ans: 0.15 cm
3
)
3. A thermos bottle contains 250 gm of coﬀee at 90
o
C. To this is added 20 gm of milk at 5
o
C.After
equilibrium is established,what is is the temperature of the liquid? Assume that no heat loss to the
bottle and Speciﬁc heat of coﬀee and milk have the same value of 1 cal/g
o
C. (Ans: 84
o
C)
4. A 200 gm copper calorimeter can contains 150 gm of oil at 20
o
C. To the oil is added 80 gm of
aluminum at 300
o
C. What will be the temperature of the system after equilibrium is established?
Given that speciﬁc heat C
cop
= 0.093 cal/g
o
C, C
Al
= 0.21 cal/g
o
C and C
oil
= 0.37 cal/g
o
C. (Ans:
72
o
C)
5. A 20 gm piece of aluminium at 90
o
C is dropped into a cavity in a large block of ice at 0
o
C. How
much ice does the aluminium melt? Give that speciﬁc heat of aluminium C
al
= 0.21 cal/g
o
C. (Ans:
4.7 gm)
6. A 3 gm bullet moving at 180 m/s enters a bag of sand and stops. By what amount does the tem-
peratures of the bullet change if all its KE becomes thermal energy that is added to the bullet? For
bullet C
bullet
= 0.0305 cal/g
o
C = 128 J/kg
o
C. (Ans: 127
o
C)
Heat and Temperature M.L.Rahman Page 2 of 3
Principles of Physics I PHY-111, Fall’13
7. How much heat must be absorbed by ice of mass m = 720 gm at −10
o
C to take it to liquid state at
15
o
C. If we supply the ice with a total energy of only 210 kJ (as heat), what the are the ﬁnal state
and temperature of water? (Ans: Q = 300 kJ, 580 gm water and 140 gm ice at
o
C)
8. A metal plate 4 mm thick has a temperature diﬀerence of 32
o
C between its faces. Its transmits
200 kcal/h through an area of 5 cm
2
. Calculate the thermal conductivity of this metal in W/m.K.
(Ans: 58.5 W/m.K)
Level Three
1. The density of gold is 19.30 gm/cm
3
at 20
o
C and the coeﬃcient of linear expansion is 14.3 ×
10
−6 o
C
−1
. Compute the density of gold at 90
o
C. (Ans: 19.2 gm/cm
3
)
2. When a building is constructed at −10
o
C, a steel beam (cross-sectional area 45 cm
2
) is put in place
with its ends cemented in pillars. If the sealed ends cannot move, what will be the compressional force
in the beam when the temperature is 25
o
C. For steel α
s
= 1.1×10
−5 o
C
−1
and Y = 2×10
1
1 N/m
2
.
(Ans: 3.5 ×10
5
N)
3. Water is boiled in a rectangular steel tank, the bottom of which is 2 mm thick. If the water level falls
at the rate of 0.01 m in 5 minutes, what is the temperature of lower surface of the tank? Thermal
conductivity of steel is 0.012 SI unit and laten heat of steam is 540 kcal/kg (Ans: 103
o
C)
4. A beverage cooler is in the shape of a cube,42 cm on each inside edge. Its 3 cm thick walls are made
of plastic. When the outside temperature is 20
o
C, how much ice will melt inside the cooler each
hour? For plastic thermal conductivity K
p
= 0.050 W/m.k (Ans: 0.38 kg)
Heat and Temperature M.L.Rahman Page 3 of 3