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CHAPTER

19

SUMMARY

Heat and work in thermodynamic processes: Athermo-

dynamic system has the potential to exchange energy

with its surroundings by heat transfer or by mechanical

work. When a system at pressure p changes volume

from to it does an amount of work W given by the

integral of p with respect to volume. If the pressure is

constant, the work done is equal to p times the change in

volume. Anegative value of W means that work is done

on the system. (See Example 19.1.)

In any thermodynamic process, the heat added to the

system and the work done by the system depend not

only on the initial and ﬁnal states, but also on the path

(the series of intermediate states through which the sys-

tem passes).

V

2

, V

1

(19.2)

(19.3)

(constant pressure only)

W = p1V

2

- V

1

2

W =

L

V

2

V

1

p dV

The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics: The ﬁrst law of ther-

modynamics states that when heat Q is added to a sys-

tem while the system does work W, the internal energy

U changes by an amount equal to This law can

also be expressed for an inﬁnitesimal process. (See

Examples 19.2, 19.3, and 19.5.)

The internal energy of any thermodynamic system

depends only on its state. The change in internal energy

in any process depends only on the initial and ﬁnal

states, not on the path. The internal energy of an isolated

system is constant. (See Example 19.4.)

Q - W.

(19.4)

(19.6)

(inﬁnitesimal process)

dU = dQ - dW

¢U = Q - W

Important kinds of thermodynamic processes:

• Adiabatic process: No heat transfer into or out of a system;

• Isochoric process: Constant volume;

• Isobaric process: Constant pressure;

• Isothermal process: Constant temperature.

W = p1V

2

- V

1

2.

W = 0.

Q = 0.

Thermodynamics of ideal gases: The internal energy of

an ideal gas depends only on its temperature, not on its

pressure or volume. For other substances the internal

energy generally depends on both pressure and

temperature.

The molar heat capacities and of an ideal gas

differ by R, the ideal-gas constant. The dimensionless

ratio of heat capacities, is denoted by (See

Example 19.6.)

g. C

p

>C

V

,

C

p

C

V

(19.17)

(19.18) g =

C

p

C

V

C

p

= C

V

+ R

Adiabatic processes in ideal gases: For an adiabatic

process for an ideal gas, the quantities and

are constant. The work done by an ideal gas during an

adiabatic expansion can be expressed in terms of the

initial and ﬁnal values of temperature, or in terms of the

initial and ﬁnal values of pressure and volume. (See

Example 19.7.)

pV

g

TV

g-1

(19.25)

(19.26) =

1

g - 1

1p

1

V

1

- p

2

V

2

2

=

C

V

R

1p

1

V

1

- p

2

V

2

2

W = nC

V

1T

1

- T

2

2

Work 5 Area

1

2

p

1

p

2

V

1

V

2

V

O

p

5͐

V

1

p dV .0

V

2

Volume increases

(V

2

. V

1

):

work and area

are positive.

Q 5 150 J W 5 100 J

⌬U 5 Q 2 W 5 1 50 J

Surroundings

(environment)

System

O

p

3

2

1

4

a

Isochoric

T

2

, T

a

Adiabatic

T

1

, T

a

p

a

V

a

Isobaric

T

3

. T

a

Isothermal

T

4

5 T

a

V

p

1

p

V

1

O

V

Q 5 DU

Q 5 DU 1 W

T

1

, U

1

T

2

, U

2

V

2

p

2

W

p

b

a p

a

V

a

O

V

p

b

V

b

T T 1 dT

W

Adiabatic process a S b:

Q 5 0, ⌬U 5 2W

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