# 643

CHAPTER
19
SUMMARY
Heat and work in thermodynamic processes: Athermo-
dynamic system has the potential to exchange energy
with its surroundings by heat transfer or by mechanical
work. When a system at pressure p changes volume
from to it does an amount of work W given by the
integral of p with respect to volume. If the pressure is
constant, the work done is equal to p times the change in
volume. Anegative value of W means that work is done
on the system. (See Example 19.1.)
In any thermodynamic process, the heat added to the
system and the work done by the system depend not
only on the initial and ﬁnal states, but also on the path
(the series of intermediate states through which the sys-
tem passes).
V
2
, V
1
(19.2)
(19.3)
(constant pressure only)
W = p1V
2
- V
1
2
W =
L
V
2
V
1
p dV
The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics: The ﬁrst law of ther-
modynamics states that when heat Q is added to a sys-
tem while the system does work W, the internal energy
U changes by an amount equal to This law can
also be expressed for an inﬁnitesimal process. (See
Examples 19.2, 19.3, and 19.5.)
The internal energy of any thermodynamic system
depends only on its state. The change in internal energy
in any process depends only on the initial and ﬁnal
states, not on the path. The internal energy of an isolated
system is constant. (See Example 19.4.)
Q - W.
(19.4)
(19.6)
(inﬁnitesimal process)
dU = dQ - dW
¢U = Q - W
Important kinds of thermodynamic processes:
• Adiabatic process: No heat transfer into or out of a system;
• Isochoric process: Constant volume;
• Isobaric process: Constant pressure;
• Isothermal process: Constant temperature.
W = p1V
2
- V
1
2.
W = 0.
Q = 0.
Thermodynamics of ideal gases: The internal energy of
an ideal gas depends only on its temperature, not on its
pressure or volume. For other substances the internal
energy generally depends on both pressure and
temperature.
The molar heat capacities and of an ideal gas
differ by R, the ideal-gas constant. The dimensionless
ratio of heat capacities, is denoted by (See
Example 19.6.)
g. C
p
>C
V
,
C
p
C
V
(19.17)
(19.18) g =
C
p
C
V
C
p
= C
V
+ R
process for an ideal gas, the quantities and
are constant. The work done by an ideal gas during an
adiabatic expansion can be expressed in terms of the
initial and ﬁnal values of temperature, or in terms of the
initial and ﬁnal values of pressure and volume. (See
Example 19.7.)
pV
g
TV
g-1
(19.25)
(19.26) =
1
g - 1
1p
1
V
1
- p
2
V
2
2
=
C
V
R
1p
1
V
1
- p
2
V
2
2
W = nC
V
1T
1
- T
2
2
Work 5 Area
1
2
p
1
p
2
V
1
V
2
V
O
p

V
1
p dV .0
V
2
Volume increases
(V
2
. V
1
):
work and area
are positive.
Q 5 150 J W 5 100 J
⌬U 5 Q 2 W 5 1 50 J
Surroundings
(environment)
System
O
p
3
2
1
4
a
Isochoric
T
2
, T
a
T
1
, T
a
p
a
V
a
Isobaric
T
3
. T
a
Isothermal
T
4
5 T
a
V
p
1
p
V
1
O
V
Q 5 DU
Q 5 DU 1 W
T
1
, U
1
T
2
, U
2
V
2
p
2
W
p
b
a p
a
V
a
O
V
p
b
V
b
T T 1 dT
W