Pedestrian Detection System

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SEMINAR REPORT
ON


Guided by
Prof.S.V.Jagtap

Submitted by
Shikha Sharma
B.E -I.T
Roll No-52

Bansilal Ramnath agaRwal ChaRitaBle tRust’s
Vishwakarma Institute Technology
PUNE – 411 037

Pedstrian Detection System

Pedestrian Detection System
2


Bansilal Ramnath agaRwal ChaRitaBle tRust’s
Vishwakarma Institute Technology
PUNE – 411 037

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar titled Pedestrian Detection System is
successfully presented and submitted by
Shikha Sharma
J-52

as the partial fulfillment for the Bachelor degree in Information Technology as
prescribed by the University of Pune in the academic year 2011-12.


7-11-2011 Prof.S.V.Jagtap
Date: Guide Head of Department
Pedestrian Detection System
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Acknowledgement

On the submission of our Seminar report, I would like to extend my gratitude and sincere
thanks to my seminar guide Prof.S.V.Jagtap for her constant motivation and support during the
course of our work . I truly appreciate and value her esteemed guidance and encouragement from
the beginning to the end of this seminar report. She has been the source of inspiration throughout
the seminar project work and without her invaluable advice and assistance it would not have
been possible for me to complete this seminar report.












Shikha Sharma

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Contents
1. What and Why Pedestrian Detection System….……………………………… ..07
1.1 What is Pedestrian Detection System?.................................................................07
1.2Architecture of Pedestrian Detection System ……………………………...........08
1.3 Why Pedestrian Detection System…………………………………………… …09
2. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………......10
2.1 Context ……………………………………………………………………......10
2.2 Overview Diagram…………………………………………………………….11
2.3 Benefits…………………………………………………………………………11
3. Functional Block Diagram…………………………….…………………………….12
3.1Block Diagram ……………………………………………………………………...12
3.2Explanation…………………………………………………………………............13
3.3Working Mechanism…………………………………………………………........13
4 Description ……………………………………………………………………………14
4.1 Edge based target recognition…………………………………………………...14
4.1.1Naive Approach Binary Matching……………………….………….…………14
4.1.2Chamfer Distance…….…………………………………………………….......14
4.1.3 Hausdorff Measure………………………………………………………… …15
4.1.4 Partial Hausdorff Measure ………………………………………………...15
4.1.5 Distance transform………………………………………………………….15
4.2 Matching Multiple Templates………………………………………………...16
4.3 AdaBoost Algorithm…………………………………………………………...17
5. Pedestrian Detection methods…………………………………………………….......18
5.1 Range Sensor Based method...…………………………………………..….....18
5.2Vision Sensor Based Method…….………………………………………….….19
6. Implementation …………………………………………………………………..20
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6.1 Monocular Camera…………………………………………………………........20
6.2 Stereo Camera……………………………………………..............................21
6.3 Infrared Camera……………………………………………………………….22
6.4 Image Processor……………………………………………………………….23
7. Observation………..…………………………………………….………..................23
7.1Overall Scenario…………………………………………………..…………….23
7.2 Advantages………………………………………………………………………24
7.3 Disadvantages……………………………………………………………………25
8. Improvement………………………………………………………………………….25
9. Conclusion and Future scope……………………………………………….……….25
10. References………………………………………………………………….….…….26











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List of figures
1. Architecture of Pedestrian Detection System…………………………...…08

2. Pedestrian Detection………………………………………………….……...10

3. Overview Diagram.…………………………………………………………..11

4. Block Diagram……………………………………………………………….12
5. Edge Template……………………………………………………………....14
6. Distance Transform…….……………………………………………………15
7. Lookup Table………………………………………………………………...16
8. Tree Structure………………………………………………………………..16
9. Laser Scanner Map…………………………………………………………..18
10. Pedestrian detection Using Vision Camera………………………………..19
11. Pedestrian detection Using Infrared Camera……………………………………….19
12. Monocular Camera...............................................................................20
13. Stereo Camera……………………………………………………………………………………21
14. Infrared Camera…………………………………………………………………………………22
15. Image Processor…………………………………………………………………………………23
16. Range of Pedestrian Detection System ………………………………….24







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1.What And Why Pedestrian Detection System
1.1 What is Pedestrian Detection
Pedestrian detection is an essential and significant task in any intelligent video
surveillance system, as it provides the fundamental information for semantic understanding of
the video footages. This system is designed to save the pedestrians on urban streets in
unfortunate unfavorable conditions
The aim is to develop active (video-based) driver assistance systems which detect
dangerous situations involving pedestrians ahead of time, allowing the possibility to warn the
driver or to automatically control the vehicle (e.g. braking). Such systems are particularly
valuable when the driver is distracted or visibility is poor. The system uses a computer fed by
information from a wide-angle radar system that detects objects and monitors their speed and
distance from the car, and from a camera fitted near the rear view mirror. Using this information
the computer identifies the objects and determines if they are on a collision path.If a collision is
imminent the car gives the driver an audible and visual warning and brakes hard if the driver
does not react quickly enough
Detectors are trained to search for pedestrians in the video frame by scanning the whole
frame. The detector would ―fire‖ if the image features inside the local search window meet
certain criteria. Some methods employ global features such as edge template.










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1.2 Architecture of Pedestrian Detection System

Fig:1 Architecture of Pedestrian Detection System

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1.3 Why Pedestrian Detection System
Almost two-thirds of the 1.2 million people killed annually in road traffic crashes
worldwide are pedestrians. Despite the magnitude of the problem, most attempts at reducing
pedestrian deaths have focused solely on education and traffic regulation. Hence, there is a need
of a system which would help reduce the probability of collision and the injury level, by assisting
the driver and taking necessary action in case of no response from the driver.
Pedestrians have the absolute right of way, absolutely, and except in the most extreme
circumstances—a child dashing out from between parked cars—the law will find the driver
culpable in an accident. The presumption is that pedestrians are defenseless against automobiles
and must be protected. Even so, the feds' safety statistics suggest that pedestrians are more often
to blame in these incidents. In 2009, nearly 40% of pedestrian fatalities were caused by
pedestrians' improper crossing or walking/playing/working in the roadway, according to the
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Recently, efforts have been made to develop a technology to ensure safety of a human in
a vehicle accident. In particular, it is required to protect a pedestrian from a fatal damage when
he/she collides with the vehicle, as well as to ensure safety of an occupant in the vehicle. It has
been considered, as a method to protect the pedestrian colliding with the vehicle, to reduce an
injury level (i.e. a strength of an impact caused by a collision) which is given to the pedestrian
who collides with the vehicle and then falls on a hood of the vehicle. By reducing the injury
level, the pedestrian is possibly protected from the fatal damage.
A vehicle such as an automobile, adopted in the embodiment is equipped with a camera
(visible camera, infrared camera, far infrared camera) serving as an image pickup device and a
pedestrian detection processing unit for recognizing a pedestrian from the image of the area
ahead of or around the vehicle, picked up by the camera. These are the main features of the
system.





.



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2.INTRODUCTION

2.1 Context
The pedestrian detection system is a video-based driver assistance system for the detection of
potentially dangerous situations with pedestrians, in order to either warn the driver, or, if no such
time remains, initiate appropriate protective measures (e.g. automatic vehicle braking). The use
of video sensors comes quite natural for this problem; they provide texture information at fine
horizontal and vertical resolution, which in turn enables the use of discriminative pattern
recognition techniques for distinguishing pedestrians from other static and dynamic objects in the
traffic environment. The human visual perception system is perhaps the best example of what
performance might be possible with such sensors, if only the appropriate processing were used.
Yet the pedestrian application is very challenging from machine vision perspective. It combines
the difficulties of a moving camera, a wide range of possible (deformable) object appearances,
cluttered backgrounds, stringent performance criteria and hard real-time constraints.


Fig:2 Pedestrian Detection

A vehicle such as an automobile, adopted in the embodiment is equipped with a camera
(visible camera, infrared camera, far infrared camera) serving as an image pickup device which
picks up the image of an area ahead of or around the vehicle. A pedestrian detection processing
unit for recognizing a pedestrian from the image of the area ahead of or around the vehicle,
picked up by the camera. These are the main features of the system. The camera picks up the
image if it is visible camera or, if it is an infrared camera it picks up the image by capturing a
small amount of infrared rays, which are electromagnetic waves having longer wavelength than
visible rays generated by an object even in dark.

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The pedestrian recognition/processing unit includes a computer such as a micro
computer. The computer includes a central processing unit (CPU) for controlling an entire
system according to a control program stored in ROM (read only memory). The Rom is used for
storing the control program and fixed data such as a whole body modeling and a head modeling
of a pedestrian, and a RAM (random access memory) serving as a temporary storage unit in
processing.
The aim is to develop active driver assistance systems which detect dangerous situations
involving pedestrians ahead of time, allowing the possibility to warn the driver or to
automatically control the vehicle (e.g. braking). Such systems are particularly valuable when the
driver is distracted or visibility is poor.

2.2 Overview diagram










2.3 Benefits
 Reduces pedestrian accidents by focusing on areas that are
prone to collisions. Implement multiple safety solutions with a single product.
 Interfaces with existing system components, requiring minimal additional equipment.
Mounts on existing intersection poles.
 Agencies can customize the types of alert response (audible/visual alerts, speed
governing, etc.). It may be set up to sound alerts by voice annunciation, beeps, flashing
Sensing
Regions Of Interest
Features Extraction
Classification
Pedestrian Non Pedestrian
Fig3.Overview Diagram
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LEDs, or any combination. All alerts and warnings can
also be remotely monitored in real time, with a running log of alert activity.
 Capable of recognizing when turns are being initiated early enough to receive pedestrian
alerts—and early enough for the driver to safely react.

3.Functional Block Diagram
3.1 Block Diagram
In Figure 4 we briefly summarize a prototype implementation of a stationary-camera pedestrian detection system
implemented using a combination of a CPU and an FPGA.

Figure 4: Block diagram of proof-of-concept pedestrian detection application using an FPGA and a CPU.





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3.2 Explanation
In the figure, the Pre-processing block comprises operations such as scaling and noise reduction,
intended to improve the quality of the image. The Image Analysis block incorporates motion
detection, pixel statistics such as averages, color information, edge information, etc. At this stage
of processing, the image is divided into small blocks. The object segmentation step groups
blocks having similar statistics and thus creates an object. The statistics used for this purpose are
based on user defined features specified in the hardware configuration file.
The Identification and Meta Data generation block generates analysis results from the identified
objects such as location, size, color information, and statistical information. It puts the analysis
results into a structured data format and transmits them to the CPU.
Finally, the On-screen Display block receives command information from the host and
superimposes graphics on the video image for display.
Field programmable gate arrays (―FPGAs‖) are flexible logic chips that can be reconfigured at
the gate and block levels. This flexibility enables the user to craft computation structures that are
tailored to the application at hand. It also allows selection of I/O interfaces and on-chip
peripherals matched to the application requirements. The ability to customize compute
structures, coupled with the massive amount of resources available in modern FPGAs, yields
high performance coupled with good cost- and energy-efficiency.
3.3 Working Mechanism
 To detect pedestrians in a video sequence, we learn a foreground model of the motion
and appearance of pedestrians from example video sequences.
 The pedestrian detector builds on earlier face detection work .
 The earlier work is extended by using motion information as well as appearance
information.
 This is in contrast to most prior work which attempts to build a model of the
background.
 The detector learned uses a set of simple motion and appearance features. The
appearance features are simple rectangle features acting on a single frame of the
video. The motion features are simple rectangle features acting on the difference image
between successive frames of the video.
 The optimal set of motion and appearance features are learned from a large library of
possible features using the AdaBoost learning algorithm.




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4.Description
4.1 Edge Based Target Recognition
Initially, we want to determine the presence and location of a template T in an image I.


Our template T is an edge-map, many such edge maps are stored in the ROM. The edge map of
image which is created is called as the feature image I. For the initial step to complete T (edge-
map) is slided over I, until it somehow delivers the best match.
There is a need to perform a search for the closest image pixel of each template pixel (distance
between template and image). There are a number of ways we can approach to accomplish this
need.
4.1.1 Naïve Approach: Binary Matching
A match is determined by counting the pixels that match between the template and the edge-
image. If this count is high enough (if it is close to the count of pixels in the template) then we
have a match. This approach only works well if the template really has the exact size, shape and
orientation as the image. It however, does not give us any information about how far the non-
matching pixels are off.
4.1.2 Chamfer Distance
This is a method where in we let T be our template and let I be the image’s edge-map.The
Chamfer distance is the average distance to the nearest feature.

This method doesn’t handle occlusion too well.


Fig5 Template
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4.1.3 Hausdorff Measure

In this method we let M be the set of object model pixels and let I be the set of image edge
pixels. Wherein h(M,I) is the distance of the worst matching object pixel to its closest image
pixel. There is a problem with this approach, the Hausdorff measure makes the assumption that
each object pixel occurs in the image. This is obviously not true when an object is occluded. This
method provides maximum distance between template and image, also it does not handle
occlusion at all.

4.1.4 Partial Hausdorff Measure

In Partial Hausdorff Measure K object pixels that are closest to the image. Wherein K can be
tweaked to the minimum number of pixels that we expect to find in an image.K can also be set
higher to reduce the rate of false positives, but we might miss some matches that way. Hence, we
can get distance of Kth cosest match, also we can treat occlusion by tweaking K.
4.1.5 Distance Transform
For each image we first compute the image’s edge map, we then compute the Distance
Transform (DT) which is an intensity map that marks the distance to the closest pixel on the edge
map.



This method provides us with inherent distance information that can be used by our template
matching algorithm. It acts as our lookup-table for finding the distance of the closest matching
object pixel that we previously needed to search for manually.
Fig 6. Distance Transform
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4.2 Matching Multiple Templates
In the real world, objects tend to appear in many different shapes, this might cause our
viewpoint to change. The object might actively change its shape (such as walking pedestrians).
To create a template for each expected combination of viewpoint and shape becomes very
tedious, especially for real-time purposes.
A tree structure is therefore employed. Our tree is ordered by generality, the most general
template is the root of our tree. The most general template is the one which has the lowest
maximum distance measure to all other templates. The leafs of our tree are all possible
templates.


Fig 7.Look up Table
Fig 8.Tree Structure
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One can start at the root template and try to find a match in our image. One should then
choose the distance threshold to be large enough so that our match could potentially
contain any of the child-nodes. If a match is found, one can descend down the tree, and
try to match the next level of templates (by focusing only on the area in the image that
has been matched by our parent). A smaller distance threshold shoul now be used, that is
still large enough to possibly contain each of our child-templates. This process is repeated
(usually using depth-first search) until one of our leafs matches. Speed up to three orders
of magnitude depending on various factorsis gained.

4.3 AdaBoost Algorithm
AdaBoost, short for Adaptive Boosting, is a machine learning algorithm. It is a meta-
algorithm, and can be used in conjunction with many other learning algorithms to improve their
performance. AdaBoost is adaptive in the sense that subsequent classifiers built are tweaked in
favor of those instances misclassified by previous classifiers. AdaBoost is sensitive to noisy data
and outliers. In some problems, however, it can be less susceptible to the overfitting problem
than most learning algorithms.
AdaBoost calls a weak classifier repeatedly in a series of rounds from a
total T classifiers. For each call a distribution of weights Dt is updated that indicates the
importance of examples in the data set for the classification. On each round, the weights of each
incorrectly classified example are increased (or alternatively, the weights of each correctly
classified example are decreased), so that the new classifier focuses more on those examples.
Given:
 training set: where
 number of iterations T
Initialize
For :
 Find the classifier h
t
from the family of weak classifiers ℋ that minimizes the error with
respect to the distribution D
t
:
, where I is the indicator function
 if then stop.
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 Choose , typically where is the weighted error rate of
classifier h
t
.
 Update:

where Z
t
is a normalization factor (chosen so that D
t + 1
will be a probability distribution,
i.e. sum one over all x).
Output the final classifier:

The equation to update the distribution D
t
is constructed so that:

Thus, after selecting an optimal classifier for the distribution , the examples that the
classifier identified correctly are weighted less and those that it identified incorrectly are
weighted more. Therefore, when the algorithm is testing the classifiers on the distribution ,
it will select a classifier that better identifies those examples that the previous classifier missed.

5. Pedestrian Detection Methods
5.1 Range sensor based method
Short range radars are integrated in the front bumper of the test vehicle. They are able to
observe and track multiple targets in the region of interest. However, one difficulty is to
distinguish between pedestrians and other objects. Its detection feature is that raw data is
clustered based on range discontinuities.


Fig 9. Laser Scanner Map
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5.2 Vision sensor based method
A vision-based system can recognize pedestrians in front of the moving vehicle, then warns
the driver of the dangerous situation loudly or slows the vehicle down automatically to
protect both drivers and pedestrians. In general, the vision-based pedestrian detection
process can be divided into three consecutive steps: pedestrian detection, pedestrian
recognition, and pedestrian tracking. It detects the pedestrian ahead or around the vehicle
using visible light camera. The detection features of this method are symmetry of legs,
brightness, shape, difference of two sequence images. This method gives accurate results in
daylight, it tends to become less reliable during the dark.





Pedestrian detection can be done using the visible light camera, but it is a known fact that it
tends to become increasingly less reliable in the dark (example, during the night). Therefore the
use of non-visible light (infrared camera) proves to be beneficial. All objects emit a certain
amount of blackbody radiation as a function of their temperatures. Generally speaking, the
higher an object's temperature is, the more infrared radiation as black-body radiation it emits. A
special camera can detect this radiation in a way similar to an ordinary camera does visible light.
It works even in total darkness because ambient light level does not matter.

Fig 11.pedesrtians detected using infrared camera





Fig 10.Pedesrtians detected using visible camera
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6.Implimentation
We can implement pedestrian detection system using following instruments:
6.1 Monocular Camera:
A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by
passing light through a series of lenses and sometimes prisms; the use of prisms results in
a lightweight telescope. Volume and weight are less than half those of binoculars of similar
optical properties, making it easy to carry. Monoculars produce 2-dimensional images, while
binoculars add perception of depth (3 dimensions).

Fig:12 monocular camera
A monocular with a straight optical path is relatively long; prisms can be used to fold the optical
path to make an instrument which is much shorter (see the article on binoculars for details). A
monocular with a straight optical path is relatively long; prisms can be used to fold the optical
path to make an instrument which is much shorter









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6.2 Stereo camera


Fig:13 Stereo camera
A stereo camera is a type of camera with two or more lenses with a separate image
sensor or film frame for each lens. This allows the camera to simulate human binocular vision,
and therefore gives it the ability to capture three-dimensional images, a process known as stereo
photography. Stereo cameras may be used for making stereoviews and 3D pictures for movies, or
for range imaging. The distance between the lenses in a typical stereo camera (the intra-axial
distance) is about the distance between one's eyes (known as the intra-ocular distance) and is
about 6.35cm, though a longer base line (greater inter-camera distance) produces more extreme
3-dimensionality.
Stereo cameras are sometimes mounted in cars to detect the lane's width and the
proximity of an object on the road.
The stereo camera, which uses six-dimensional image analysis is able to assess the
direction in which people are moving. It can also determine the range to an object with an
accuracy of between 20 and 30 centimers at a distance of 20 to 30 meters.
The stereo camera has a range of up to 60 meters, which, Continental said, provides huge
potential for improved braking systems.
Since the stereo camera also realizes the already familiar assistance systems, such as lane
departure warning, traffic sign recognition, and intelligent headlamp control, it is said that it will
set a new trend in the medium to long term.







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6.3 Infrared camera

Fig:14 Infrared camera
A thermographic camera or infrared camera is a device that forms an image using
infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of
the 450–750 nanometer range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in
wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 µm). All objects emit a certain amount of black body
radiation as a function of their temperatures. Generally speaking, the higher an object's
temperature is, the more infrared radiation as black-body radiation it emits. A special camera can
detect this radiation in a way similar to an ordinary camera does visible light. It works even in
total darkness because ambient light level does not matter.
Infrared cameras are being used for a wide variety of night vision applications. Infrared
cameras produce a clear image in the darkest of nights. Infrared cameras do not need any light
whatsoever to operate. An infrared camera can also see through light fog and smoke. Infrared
cameras produce a crisp image in practically all weather conditions.
An infrared camera can be incorporated in cars, busses, trucks, trains, … for driver vision
enhancement. An infrared camera sees up to 5 times further than headlights. Thanks to infrared
cameras the driver can see pedestrians and obstacles on the road from a further distance. This
way an infrared camera can help to avoid deadly accidents.

5.4 Image Processor
Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as
a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of
characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve
treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal-processing
techniques to it.
Image processing usually refers to digital image processing, but optical and analog image
processing also are possible.
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Fig:15 Processor

Image processing focuses on 2D images, how to transform one image to another, e.g., by
pixel-wise operations such as contrast enhancement, local operations such as edge extraction
or noise removal, or geometrical transformations such as rotating the image. This
characterization implies that image processing/analysis neither require assumptions nor
produce interpretations about the image content.
Computer vision includes 3D analysis from 2D images. This analyzes the 3D scene projected
onto one or several images, e.g., how to reconstruct structure or other information about the
3D scene from one or several images. Computer vision often relies on more or less complex
assumptions about the scene depicted in an image.

7. Observation
7.1 Overall Scenario
The "support function", which works by using radar and camera technology to watch out
for vehicles and pedestrians ahead of the car, is designed to save lives on urban streets.
The detection component consists of a cascade of module, each utilizing different visual
criteria to successively focus on relevant image regions, carefully balancing robustness and
efficiency considerations. The tracking component aggregates per-frame detections to
trajectories by a tracking module. Finally, the risk assessment and warning/control component
evaluates the probability of collision; if the latter exceeds a threshold an acoustic driver warning
is given or automatic vehicle braking is applied.



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Fig:16 Range of pedestrian detection system


7.2 Advantages
 Increased Safety: Reduce pedestrian accidents by focusing on areas that are
prone to collisions. Implement multiple safety solutions with a single product.
 Ease of Installation: Interfaces with existing system components, requiring minimal
additional equipment. Mounts on existing intersection poles.

 Flexibility: Agencies can customize the types of alert response (audible/visual alerts,
speed governing, etc.). It may be set up to sound alerts by voice annunciation, beeps,
flashing LEDs, or any combination. All alerts and warnings can
also be remotely monitored in real time, with a running log of alert activity.
 Timeliness: Capable of recognizing when turns are being initiated early enough to
receive pedestrian alerts—and early enough for the driver to safely react.




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7.3 Disadvantages
 A major complication is that because of the moving vehicle, one does not have the luxury
to use simple background subtraction methods (such as those used in surveillance
applications) to obtain a foreground region containing the human.
 A Pedestrian is a non-rigid body. In other words, the shape and size of a pedestrian
varies greatly, and therefore the model of a pedestrian is much more complex than that
of rigid objects.
 The clutter background. It does not matter if we are analyzing images from a typical city
or from a country trafficc environment, the background formed by vehicles, trees, wire
poles, and billboards is very cluttered. Most of these backgrounds can be taken for
pedestrians, due to possible similar shapes.

8. Improvement
The system described achieves a very good detection rate. However, the number of false
positives is undesirable for a real application. A possible way to improvethis rate is to combine
visual information with a laser scanner . If the data collected from the lasers canner is used to
define a region of interest (ROI) in the image , the number of sub-windows classified per
window will strongly decreased and, consequently, the false alarm rate will decrease as well.
Furthermore, taking into account the estimation of the distance between the car and the object, it
is possible to discard a great amount of false positives by ignoring inappropriate pedestrian sizes
on the image. The laser scanner can be used to define the horizontal limit of the ROI on the
image, the vertical limit can be set to the height of the image. Applying the above described
classifier only to this ROI, maintaining the same parameters and the same image set used in this
system, it is likely that the number of false positives decreased to atleast 35-39% of the ones
detected by the initial system. The system might speed up more than 2 times.

9. Conclusion and Future scope
The proposed system has the following properties:
 It is able to detect pedestrians in various poses, shapes,sizes and clothing.
 It runs in real-time with a good accuracy .
 It is robust to lighting variation, background changes and camera motion.
The missing detection of pedestrians is due to lack of contrast between pedestrians and
backgroundand to the enormous fexibility of the human body. In a future work, and in order to
improve the system, implementation the data fusion can be done. Using the data fusion it is
possible to use a classifier based on the laser scanner data combined with the vision based
classifier to give the output of the global system. Thus, it is expected to obtain more accurate
results and to significantly decrease the false alarm rate. Moreover, a filter - Kalman Filter – can
be integrated for the tracking of the pedestrians. Since, most of the times, false positives only
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appear on isolated image frames, they will be ignored during tracking. An extension can be
made so for the classifier to detect other objects, like cars, traffic signs, etc.

10. References
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedestrian_detection
 http://www.isr.uc.pt/~urbano/mtdts04/pdf/REF_3_Robotica.pdf
 file:///C:/Users/fruti/Desktop/BE/Seminar/New%20folder/pedestrain/Pedestrian%2
0detection%20system%20-1.htm#v=onepage&q&f=false
 S. Agarwal, A. Awan, and D. Roth, ―Learning to Detect Objects in Images via a
Sparse, Part-Based Representation,‖ IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine
Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1475- 1490, Nov. 2004.
 Markus Enzweiler, Student Member, “Monocular Pedestrian Detection:Survey and
Experiments” IEEE, and Dariu M. Gavrila





























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