Table I. Chemical Composition of Alloy 625 Electrode and
2.25Cr-1Mo Steel (All Values in Weight Percent)
Element 625 Filler Alloy 2.25Cr-1Mo Substrate
Iron 4.12 balance
Nickel balance Ͻ0.01
Chromium 21.32 2.06
Silicon 0.23 0.27
Niobium 2.84 —
Molybdenum 8.57 0.90
Manganese 0.24 0.43
Titanium 0.22 —
Carbon 0.024 0.132
Phosphorus 0.017 0.024
Sulfur Ͻ0.001 0.014
Fig. 1—LOM photomicrograph of the overlay deposit in the region of a
solidification crack.
at 30 V, 225 A (165 mm/s electrode velocity), and 16 mm/s
travel speed with argon shielding gas. Voltage was measured
between the torch contact tube and substrate and thus rep-
resents the combined voltage drops between the arc and
electrode. Multiple passes were applied with a 50 pct over-
lap between passes and an interpass temperature of 100 ЊC
to 150 ЊC.
B. Microstructural Characterization
A sample was sectioned from the middle of the overlay
and mounted for observation by light optical microscopy
(LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron
probe microanalysis (EPMA). The sample was polished to
a 0.04-␮m finish using colloidal silica and etched electro-
lytically in a 10 pct chromic acid/90 pct water solution at
Ϸ3 V. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted in the
secondary electron and backscattered electron modes at an
accelerating voltage of 20 kV. After observation by LOM
and SEM, small areas of parallel dendrites were bracketed
for EPMA by microhardness indentations and the sample
was repolished to a 0.04-␮m finish and carbon coated. An
EPMA trace was also conducted across the entire overlay
thickness from the fusion line area to the weld metal sur-
face. Electron probe microanalysis was conducted at an ac-
celerating voltage of 15 kV and beam current of Ϸ20 nA.
The K

lines were used for elements Fe, Ni, Cr, and Si,
while L

lines were used for Mo and Nb. Considering the
EPMA voltage and the average atomic number, atomic
weight, and density of the overlay deposit, the electron
probe will have an interaction diameter of Ϸ1 ␮m.
data were reduced to weight percentages using the ZAF
A small sample of all weld metal was obtained by ma-
chining away the substrate. The sample was used for bulk
chemical analysis and DTA. The DTA was conducted on
a Netzsch STA 409 thermal analyzer using argon cover gas
and an alumina crucible. The sample size was 0.65 g and
pure Ni was used as the reference material. The sample was
heated to 1000 ЊC at a rate of 20 ЊC/min and then heated
through the melting range to 1440 ЊC at a rate of 5 ЊC/min.
The alloy was then cooled at a faster rate of 20 ЊC/min
through the solidification temperature range to simulate no-
nequilibrium solidification as closely as possible within the
equipment cooling rate capacity. The weight of the sample
was simultaneously monitored by a thermogravometric bal-
ance to ensure no weight change occurred during the test.
The DTA system was calibrated by determining the melting
temperature of pure Ni and found to be within 2 ЊC of the
literature value. Reaction temperatures were taken as de-
viations from the local baseline. Light optical microscopy,
SEM, and EPMA were conducted on the DTA specimen
by the procedure described previously. The area fraction of
minor constituent in the DTA sample was determined on a
LECO* 2001 quantitative image analysis (QIA) system.
*LECO is a trademark of LECO Corporation, St. Joseph, MI.
The area fraction was assumed to be equal to the volume
A. Microstructural Characterization
Solidification cracks were observed in the overlay de-
posit upon observation by LOM. Figure 1 shows an LOM
photomicrograph of the overlay deposit in the region of a
solidification crack. A secondary constituent is observed in
the interdendritic areas and grain boundaries. The observed
solidification cracks were always associated with this con-
stituent. The crack shown in Figure 1 is presented at higher
magnification in Figure 2 where the secondary constituent
exhibits a lamellar eutectic-type morphology. The DTA
specimen showed the same behavior as the weld overlay
deposit in which a single interdendritic constituent was ob-
served of essentially identical morphology (Figures 3 and
4) but was coarser due to the slower cooling rate. The back-