1

General extenders in 18
th
century novels: Relevance in language teaching
Thompson Olusegun Ewata
Department of History & Languages
Elizade University, Ilara!o"in, Ondo #tate $igeria
thompson%ewata&elizadeuniversity%edu%ng
&
'(emi !ahmud
Deptment of English #tudies
)de"unle )*asin University
)"ung+a )"o"o Ondo #tate $igeria
yemimahmud&gmail%,om
Abstract- .revious studies /Overstreet 0111 and 2arroll 3445, for e6ample7 esta+lished that the
general extenders have +een part of the English language8s development% 9ased on this assertion,
this study investigates the use of the general e6tenders in the 05
th
,entury English novels% The
,hoi,e of the novel genre and literature is +e,ause +oth are refle,tions of the sensi+ilities of the
age and so,iety that produ,ed them% This study will give us the opportunity to see how the use of
language has +een enhan,ed and preserved through writing% Three English novels, Robinson
Crusoe /0:017, Gulliver’s Travels /0:3;7 and Joseph Andrews /0:<37 formed the ,orpus of the
study% Using the e+oo" editions, the study applied the )nt2on,® 2on,ordan,e Tool to sear,h
for the identified items in the novels using the methodologies of ,orpus linguisti,s% The study
dis,overs that the novels used 27 general e6tenders /0= ad*un,tive and 03 dis*un,tive7 in 794
instan,es%
Keywords- 05
th
2entury, 2orpus Linguisti,s, >eneral E6tenders, $ovel, )nt2on,®
2on,ordan,e Tool
Introduction
Overstreet /0111, p% ;7 o+serves that ?ane )ustin8s Persuasion /05057 had an e6ample of
the general e6tenders /hen,e >E7 @and two of many e6amples in ?% D% #alingerAs The Catcher in
the Rye /01=07B% 2arroll /3445, p% 57 asserts that @e6tender tagsB are found throughout the history
of the English language% #in,e a,ademi, pursuits are not open and ,lose affairs, this study too"
up the mantle from where earlier s,holars left it and try esta+lishing or refuting their ,on,lusions
that the items have a pla,e in the history of the English language% Chile Overstreet ,onsidered a
novel written in the 01
th
,entury /05057, we studied three novels of the 05
th
,entury England% Our
,hoi,e of the 05
th
,entury timeframe is +ased on the fa,t that the 05
th
,entury was the era the
printing press and the prose narratives gained prominen,e% Ce limited our study to three novels
of the period- Daniel Defoe8s Robinson Crusoe /0:017, ?onathan #wift8s Gulliver’s Travels
/0:3;7 and Henry Dielding8s Joseph Andrews /0:<37% Our o+*e,tive in the study is not to review
or ,ritiEue the novels +ut to sear,h for the linguisti, items ,lassified as @general e6tenders%B
However, to do this, we need to understand- what the general e6tenders areF the novel as a genre
of literature and the period /05
th
,entury England7 in history%
2
The General xtenders in nglish
The linguisti, items have +een termed differently +y s,holars who studied them as a
result of the s,holars8 wor"ing from different perspe,tivesF applying different methodologies and
using different names /2arroll, p% 57% However, this study adopts the terminology of Overstreet
/pp% G H <7 who tagged them @8general e6tenders8- 'general8 +e,ause they are nonspe,ifi,, and
'e6tenders8 +e,ause they e6tend otherwise grammati,ally ,omplete utteran,es%B Overstreet
,lassified them into two ,ategories H Iad*un,tive,I /those +eginning with and (and stu! and
everything" and Idis*un,tive general e6tendersI /those +eginning with or (or so#ething! or
anything" depending on the ,oordinating ,on*un,tion they ,ollo,ate with%
The items des,ri+ed as @general e6tendersB has a long history of names in the literature of
vague referen,ing in a,ademi, dis,ourse- list co#pleters /?efferson 0114, Lerner 011<7, set
#ar$ing tags /Dines 0154, Card and 9irner 011G7, and vague category identiiers /2hannell
011<7, utterance inal tags /)i*mer 015=7, post noun hedges /!eyerhoff 01137, extension
particles /Du+ois 01137, discourse extenders /$orr+y and Cinter 34407, extender tag /2arroll
34457 among others%
Table 1: !istinction between the Ad"unctive and !is"unctive General xtenders
adjunctive general extenders disjunctive general extenders
and stuff /li"e that7 or something /li"e that7
and all /that7 or anything /li"e that7
and everything /li"e that7 or what
and +lah +lah +lah or whatever
and that or what have you
and the li"e or anyone /li"e that7
and su,h or any+ody /li"e that7
and what have you or someone /li"e that7
and so on or some+ody /li"e that7
and so forth or somepla,e /li"e that7
and whatnot or somewhere /li"e that7
and the rest
and this and that
and whatever
and you name it
and the whole "it and ,a+oodle
and the whole nine yards
and the whole +itJthing
and /all7 /thisJthat7
and /all7 /thisJthat7 KsortJ"indJtypeL of
K,rapJthingJ*azzJ*un"JmessJnonsenseJshitJstuffL
arid K,rapJthingsJ*un"JshitJstuffL /li"e thisJthat7
and {business/crap/things/junk/shit} of
{this/that}
(kind/sort/ilk/nature)
et cetera
#ource: Overstreet /0111, pp% G<7
3
This list is not e6haustiveF new or more li+eral e6amples are emerging every day,
espe,ially, in spo"en dis,ourse% The present study is, however, limited to the ,orpus of the three
05
th
,entury novels earlier spe,ified%
There is no ,onsensus among s,holars a+out the ,lassifi,ation of >Es% #ome see them as
featuring mostly in spo"en utteran,es /Overstreet and (ule 011:, Overstreet 0111F 2u,,hi, 344:7
while others /2arroll, 3445, Lewis, 344; for e6ample7 +elieve the items are ,ommon features of
written dis,ourse% Chile some /Overstreet, 0111, Cinter and $orr+y, 01117 see the items as
informal dis,ourse elements used among familiars, others show the items as features of formal
dis,ourse% 2u,,hi /344: shows the use of the items in offi,ial European parliamentary dis,ourse
while Ewata /forth,oming7 points out the use of the elements in $igerian newspaper editorials%
The elements have +een studied in different languages of the world and are argued to +e
@language universalsB /Ceydt, 344;7% They have also +een studied from the perspe,tives of age
/Cinter and $orr+y, 3444F !artMnez, 34007, ,lass /Dines, 01547- different professions and genres
/!etsNOetelN, 344;7F a,ademi, /Puzaite, 344<7 ,ourtroom and law, /2otterill, 344:7 +etween
>erman and $ew Qealand English /Terras,h"e and Holmes, 344:7 and so on%
)s earlier s,holars gave assorted names to the items, they also assigned different
fun,tions to them- list ,ompletion /?efferson, 01147, indi,ation that the items in the list are not
,ompleted +ut have other mem+ers /2arroll, p% 57, use as intentional vagueness elements that
o,,ur +y ,hoi,e /2utting, 344:, p% ;7F addi,tive elements in dis,ourse, politeness devi,es that
help in fa,e saving, refle,t the spea"ersA attitude towards the message or addressee and shared
+a,"ground "nowledge among others% This +rings us to the issue of the novel as a genre of
literature%
The $ovel as a Genre o% &iterature
The novel is a fi,tional narration written in prose and made long +y adventure a+out
ordinary people /#purgin, 344;, p% GF !oretti, 3445, p% 00=7F without a rigid or stri,t form%
9efore the novel, drama and poetry were the ma*or genres% The novel has two dimensions- oneF
so,iologi,al, in the sense that it +rings us to the star" realities of the ineEualities of the ,lass
system inherent in the human so,iety and the other psy,hologi,al, showing us the inner wor"ing
or thin"ing of the ,hara,ters /people7 who are normal human +eings we ,an asso,iate with in the
so,iety /#purgin, p% ;7%
The history of the novel is the history of the printing press% 9efore the press, te6ts where
,ons,ientiously ,opied +y hand whi,h made +oo"s e6pensive to produ,e and diffi,ult to get%
Litera,y was not as universal as we have now% Cith the invention of the printing press, it means
more +oo"s were printed and ,ould rea,h a wider audien,e than the handwritten ones /$ovels,
so,iety and history, 34417% )t the same time when the printing press was helping litera,yF
improved ,ommuni,ation through road networ" that lin"ed hitherto unlin"ed ,ities and towns
together was helping out in ,reating a new ,lass of the so,iety% The novel played a part in
,reating a new set of friends who were ,onne,ted through the ,hara,ters and events of the novels
they have read% )lso, the authors were getting paid for their efforts and the pu+lishing outfits
who pu+lished the novels +e,ame wealthy as there was great patronage for their efforts%
It is important to stress here that the novel gained the popularity and a,,eptan,e it had, in
England, +e,ause of the presen,e of a reading pu+li, and a form that was not too ,omple6 or
reEuired too mu,h efforts to grasp the message li"e the verse% )+ove all, the novel used a
te,hniEue that endeared it to its audien,e as the readers were always yearning for what will
4
happen ne6t, that is, the ,reation of suspense /!oretti, p% 00G7 H thus ,reating a sense of
adventure% The other ma*or driving for,e of the novel is the use of true to life details%
Ce must also mention that sin,e the novel dwells on the ordinary man in the so,iety
,ompared to poetry and drama that emphasised lofty ,hara,ters, it adapts itself to refle,ting the
language of the so,iety that produ,es it% This means that the language or language style prevalent
in the so,iety at the time of its produ,tion will +e refle,ted in the novel% It is this language and
so,iety that this study is leveraging on to e6amine the linguisti, elements that it fo,uses on%
The 18
th
century ngland
The life style of the people in England in the 05
th
,entury was different from what we
have now% Dor one, the te,hnologi,al advan,ements we have now were not availa+le +a," then
+ut it was the +eginning of the industrial revolution /Dlaherty, 3403, p% <7% It was also the time
#,otland and England +e,ame united through the ),t of Union and a time when the Oing of
England, an English "ing who ,ould not spea" English, >eorge 0, preferred staying over in
Hanover /part of >ermany7 than in England H meaning he ,ared less a+out the 9ritish /people
and nation8s affairs7% It was also the era when the government of England owed monumental
de+ts to some English people with means +e,ause of the war with #pain and the aftermath of
@Treaty of Utre,htB that granted monopolies to trade in Latin )meri,a whi,h resulted in the
formation of the #outh #ea 2ompany whi,h eventually ruined the e,onomies of the people and
the nation H the notorious @#outh #ea 9u++leB% It was also the time when the e6pansionist
tenden,ies of the 9ritish and European powers were in full swing% 9ritain already had ,olonies in
India /#outh )sia7, #outh )fri,a and $orth )meri,a% It was also the era of the "iller diseases
smallpo6, dysentery, tu+er,ulosis, typhus et,% The life of the ordinary man in the period was poor
and the ma*ority of the popula,e lived in the ,ountry side% It was the time the offi,ial title of the
@prime ministerB that is used now was not an offi,ial title +ut a mo,"ery /Lam+ert, n%d, para 57%
The novel ,ame at a time when the nation, England, was yearning for a saviour as the
genre +e,ame the toni, the so,iety needed to ,ure itself% The happenings in the so,iety +e,ame
ready made materials for ,reative men and women to use in their wor"s H things the average man
and woman ,an asso,iate with%
'ethodology
To prove its thesis, the study adopts the methodologies of ,orpus linguisti,s% 2orpus
linguisti,s is the aspe,t of linguisti,s "nowledge that has +een of great use and help in
understanding and tea,hing language through the prin,ipled systemati, ,olle,tions of
representative te6ts H the te6t ,an +e written or spo"en, usually stored in a ,omputer data+ase
and used in linguisti, analysis /!,2arthy, 344<F LRdeling and OytS, 34457% The ,orpus of this
study is made up three 05 ,entury novels%
2orpus linguisti,s is useful to +oth students /learners7 and tea,hers of English as it aids
them in ma"ing +etter informed de,isions and improve tea,hing material as a result of use of real
life situation use of language rather invented onesF provides and reveals what native spea"ers
typi,ally write or say in natural dis,ourse as to le6i,al ,oo,,urren,e patterns /,ollo,ation,
,olligation, semanti, prosody7F provide the most ,ommon meaning if a word has several senses
and items that are freEuent in or a,ross different te6t types /http-JJwww%englishlinguisti,s%uni
mainz%deJ3G3%php7%
5
Linguisti, analysis in ,orpus linguisti,s entails sear,hing for words and phrases
/e6pressions7 in a ,orpus, and displaying the results in useful ways% 9efore the advent of the
,omputer, linguisti, e6pressions were manually sear,hed after ,arefully reading the ,orpus or
,orpora and the results displayed in what is a ,on,ordan,e% #in,e the introdu,tion of ,omputer
into language studies, ,orpus linguisti,s has ta"en advantage of the ,omputer +y using developed
software to sear,h for words and phrases% ) simple ,on,ordan,e is a list of the o,,urren,es of a
word, presented one per line along with its immediate ,onte6t /LRdeling and OytS7% One of su,h
software is Lawren,e )nthony8s )nt2on,®% It is a free software and relatively easy to install and
use% This study employs )nt2on,® 2on,ordan,e Tool to sear,h for the >Es in the three novels%
The e+oo" editions of the novels were downloaded from the internet +efore +een su+*e,ted to
the "ey word in ,onte6t sear,h of the software%
Analysis o% general extenders in 18th century novels
E6amples of general e6tenders from the novels in,lude-
0% %%% I thin" it was a (ear and Half, I rais8d Pafters from it leaning to the Po,", and that,h8d
or ,over8d it with 9ows of Trees, and su,h things as I ,ould get to "eep out the Pain %%%
/Defoe, 344=, p%;07%
3% Towwouse, who e6pe,ted a wat,h, or ring, or something of dou+le the value, answered%%%
/Dielding, 344<, p% 547
G% %%% +ut they suppose truth, *usti,e, temperan,e, and the li"e, to +e in every manAs power %%%
#wift, 344=, p% ==7
<% I was soon a+le to ,all for +read and drin", or whatever else I wanted /#wift, p% 0;=7%
=% %%% we rather praise the +uilder, the wor"man, the painter, the la,ema"er, the taylor, and
the rest %%% /Dielding, p% 3357
;% T and waited the ne6t morning with the +oat washed ,lean, her an,ient and pendants out,
and everything to a,,ommodate his guestsT /Defoe, p% 057
:% .lato and )ristotle, or some+ody else, hath said /Dielding, p% 0:07
5% %%% o+liging all the villages, nine hundred yards round the ,ity, to deliver in every
morning si6 +eeves, forty sheep, and other vi,tuals %%% /#wift, p% 3=7
1% I was soon a+le to ,all for +read and drin", or whatever else I wanted /#wift, p% 0;=7%
04% %%% no other reason for it than su,h a pressure or su,h a hint hung %%% /Defoe, p% 0;07
00% Chether they were always so free from avari,e, partialities, or want, that a +ri+e, or
some other sinister view%%% /#wift, p% 0317
03% A an naturall! "ants clothes no ore than a horse or an! other
anial %%% /Dielding, p% 3;=7
0G% T to see the whole island, and that I had travelled up the +roo", and so on to where I
+uilt my +ower T /Defoe, p% 117
0<% %%% neither was the ,overing I sometimes wore on them of the same shape, or so strong as
that on my feet +ehind %%% /#wift, p% 3<:7
0=% $ot the great Pi,h, who turns men into mon"eys, wheel+arrows, and whatever else +est
humours his fan,y %%% /Dielding, p%<;7
0;% )nd the +usiness of this offi,er is, when two, three, or more persons are in ,ompany %%%
/#wift, p% 0;<7
0:% How they had ,oo"ed it I "new not, or what it was /Defoe, p% 05=7
#
The general e6tenders and how they o,,ur in the three 05
th
,entury novels are presented
+elow for our understanding-
Table 1: General extenders in three 18th century novels
Ty(es o% xtenders !e%oe #wi%t )ielding T*TA& +R,$T
and all /thisJthatJ"ind su,hJother7 <G 0G 0; 72 1%4:
and everything 4 4 < - 4%=4
/and7 "ind of <1 3: 3< 1.. 03%=1
and many /other 7 < ; 0G 2/ 3%14
and other 0; 35 03 01 :%4=
and so on 0 0 4 2 4%3=
/and7 sort of = 3; 00 -2 =%31
and su,h 0< < ; 2- G%43
and that 0;: 31 =1 200 G3%03
and the li"e 03 03 G 27 G%<4
and things 0 4 0 2 4%3=
and the rest < ; < 1- 0%:;
and this <3 03 0= 12 5%;1
and whatever 3 4 0 / 4%G5
et,% 0 3 4 / 4%G5
or any /other7 3 3 5 12 0%=0
or anything 4 4 3 2 4%3=
or nothing < 4 0 0 4%;G
or other 01 5 04 /7 <%;;
or more 1 3 0 12 0%=0
or so = 0 4 1 4%:;
or some other /thing7 0 0 = 7 4%55
or some+ody /li"e that7 4 4 0 1 4%0G
or something /very li"e it7 0 4 0 2 4%3=
or su,h 0 4 3 / 4%G5
or what : 4 G 1. 0%3;
or whatever 4 0 4 1 4%0G
T*TA& -1. 181 2./ 72- 1..3..
#ource: present study
)ll the three novels used the >Es, in different proportions, 72- times% Robinson Crusoe used
the linguisti, elements the most with -1. to"ens and 3G different e6tenders% In the usage, the
ad*un,tive >Es were the more used% The novel used 0< ad*un,tive and 1 dis*un,tive e6tenders% Of the
ad*un,tive >Es used in the novel, @and thatB was the most used as the novel used it in 0;: instan,es
whi,h gives it a per,entage value of <4%:GU while the least used elements were @and so on, and
$
things, et,%, or some other /thing7, or something /very li"e it7 and or su,hB used only on one o,,asion
in the novel whi,h translates to 4%3<U% Though we need to add that there are instan,es where the
items were used in the preliminary se,tions of the novels +ut we dis,ountenan,ed them as those
se,tions of the novels were not written along with the novels in the 05
th
,entury% The use of the
e6tenders +y the novel is illustrated with the ,hart +elow-
#ee Digure 0, +elow
The same trend is noti,ed in Gulliver’s Travels as the novel used @and thatB most with 31
instan,es out of 050 instan,es in whi,h the novel used the >Es whi,h gives it 0;U of the total
use +y the novel% @/and7 "ind ofB and @/and7 sort ofB were ne6t in line with 3: /0<%13U7 and 3;
/0<%G;U7 respe,tively% Li"e in Po+ison 2rusoe there are instan,es of la," of representation in the
use of some of the items while others are with one instan,e of use% The use of the e6tenders +y the
novel is illustrated with the ,hart +elow-
#ee Digure 3, +elow
Joseph Andrews used the linguisti, elements on 34G o,,urren,es% Li"e in Robinson
Crusoe and Gulliver’s Travels, the highest of the >Es used in the novel is the ad*un,tive
e6tenders @and thatB with =1 o,,urren,es whi,h gives it 31%4;U usage of the items% @/and7 "ind
of, and thisB ,ome ne6t with 3< and 0= to"ens respe,tively with a per,entage value of 00%53U,
and :%G1Urespe,tively% In the same vein as with Robinson Crusoe and Gulliver’s Travels, some
items did not have representations as they where not used at all in the novelF while some items
were use on,e and the rest were moderate% This is illustrated with the pie ,hart +elow-
#ee Digure G, +elow
On the overall, the usage of the >Es is represented in the following graph-
#ee Digure <, +elow
Relevance o% vagueness to nglish &anguage4&iterature Teaching Today
Over the years, tea,hers of English language and literature have ,omplained of their
students8 writing as +eing vague, @woollyB or un,lear% They have penalised their students with
lower mar"s s,ore and defamed them in the pro,ess% This study has shown that the tea,hers8
*udgements have +een erroneously given as the students are merely +een true to type with
language% Humans ,an, a,tually, ,hoose not to ,ommuni,ation mu,h or withhold information
deli+erately through language% This pra,ti,e has +een in e6isten,e sin,e man started using
language and should not +e viewed as a re,ent o,,urren,e or a faulty thin"ing pro,ess on the part
of those who engage in it% Chat is important is that language and literature tea,hers should +e
aware of this fa,t and ta"e into ,ognisan,e that +eing vague is a natural tenden,y of human
+eings and the human language% !ore so, tea,hers should not lose sight of the fa,t that literature
as a means of e6pression thrives in ine6pli,itness in meaning% Tea,hers should ma"e efforts to
ma"e their students realise the importan,e of nonspe,ifi,ity and the pla,e of ,onte6t in
,ommuni,ation% Pather than defaming vagueness and their students, they should tea,h them to
"now- when, how and in what ,onte6t to use it% Vagueness is part of the human ,apa+ility to use
language to ,ommuni,ate% It serves useful purposes when used appropriately% Its use is found in
%
every language ,onte6t or situation- in a spo"en narrative, in a newspaper editorial, in
parliamentary de+ate, songs, radioJtelevision tal" show, news radio, prose narrative, in an
emergen,y et,% )t the same, +eing vague shows the short,omings of the human language as
there are instan,es where the more spe,ifi, the ,ommuni,ator intended the more vague the
,ommuni,ation intent +e,omes% )lso, tea,hers of language and literature should understand that
language, literature and vagueness are no strangers to themselves and as su,h tea,hers should not
+e @dogmati,, narrowminded and fundamentalistB a+out vagueness% Vague e6pressions and their
meanings are important to the ,ommuni,ation situation% They help in +ounding the writers
@so,iallyB with the readers%They also e6press the users8 attitude towards the ,ommuni,ation
situation, the addressee et,% )+ove all if learners of English /our students7 failed to master the
use and meaning of vague e6pressions their ,ommuni,ative ,ompeten,e would +e drasti,ally
impaired /Cierz+i,"a, 0110, p% G<07%
,onclusion
In all, Po+inson 2rusoe used the elements the most while >ulliver8s Travels used them
the least% The papers a,hieved the o+*e,tive it sets out to investigating the use of the English
general e6tenders in the three 05
th
,entury novel ,orpus% That the linguisti, elements are found in
the novel esta+lishes the fa,t that the >Es have +een part of the English language8s development
and have +een preserved through writing% The study also esta+lishes the fa,t that the >Es in
English are not spo"en dis,ourse spe,ifi, alone as they are part of the repertoire of the English
language whi,h ,an and are used in +oth spo"en and written dis,ourse and are used in any
language situation%
Re%erences
9loom, H% /344G7% Introdu,tion% In H% 9loom /Ed%7, The eighteenth%century &nglish novel% United
#tates of )meri,a- 2helsea House%
2arroll, P% /34457% Histori,al English phraseology and the e6tender tag% Journal o the 'panish
'ociety or (ediaeval &nglish )anguage and )iterature% $W 0=% Petrieved )ugust G4, 3404
from- http-JJwww%uniovi%esJ#ELI!%
Defoe, D% /344=7% Robinson Crusoe (Ce+sterAs #panish Thesaurus Edition ed*"* #an Diego- I2O$
>roup%
Downie, ?%)% /011:7% The !a"ing of the English $ovel% Eighteenth2entury Di,tion- Vol% 1- Issue% G,
)rti,le 0% Petrieved 35 )ugust, 340G from-
http-JJdigital,ommons%m,master%,aJe,fJvol1JissGJ0
Dielding% H% /344<7% Joseph Andrews /#aints+ury, >% Ed%7% .ennsylvania #tate University, Ele,troni,
2lassi,s #eries% Petrieved )ugust G4, 340G from- http-JJdl%lu6%+oo"fi%org%
Dlaherty, L% /3403"* )ie in +,th century &ngland% )ustralia- .earson%
Lam+ert, T% /n%d%7% ) History Of 05th 2entury England% Petrieved #eptem+er 04, 340G from-
http-JJwww%lo,alhistories%orgJ05th,enteng%html%
!oretti, D% /3445, p% 00G7% The novel- history and theory% -ew )et Review =3 ?uly )ugust% Petrieved
35 )ugust, 340G from-
$ovels, so,iety and history /34417% Petrieved )ugust G0, 340G from- www%e6,ellup%,om
Overstreet, !% /01117% .hales! candlelight! and stu li$e that/ General extenders in &nglish
discourse% $ew (or"JO6ford- O6ford University .ress%
#purgin, T% /344;7% The English $ovel /.art I7% Petrieved )ugust G4, 340G from-
#wift, ?% /344=7% Gulliver0s Travels into several re#ote regions o the world (Ce+sterAs #panish
Thesaurus Edition ed*"* #an Diego- I2O$ >roup%%
&
!,2arthy% !% /344<7% Using a ,orpus in language tea,hing% 2enter for )dvan,ed Language
.rofi,ien,y Edu,ation and Pesear,hF The .ennsylvania #tate University
LRdeling, )% & OytS, !% /Eds%7% /34457% 2orpus Linguisti,s- )n International Hand+oo" vol 0%
9erlin- Calter de >ruyter%
?>U /340G7% English language ,orpora in the foreign language ,lassroom% Petrieved $ovem+er, 340<
from- http-JJwww%englishlinguisti,s%unimainz%deJ3G3%php%
Cierz+i,"a, )% 0110% Cross%cultural prag#atics/ The se#antics o hu#an interaction% 2ited in
)i*mer, O% /34437% &nglish discourse particles/ &vidence ro# a corpus% )msterdam J
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A((endixes
)igure 1: >eneral e6tenders used in Po+inson 2rusoe /#ource: .resent #tudy5
)igure 2: >eneral e6tenders in >ulliverAs Travels /#ource: .resent #tudy5
11
Figure 3: ()s in Joseph Andrews /#ource: .resent #tudy5
Figure 4: >eneral E6tenders in the three 05
th
,entury novels /#ource: .resent #tudy5